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ASHRAE Fundamentals Handbook has a methodology for calculating the friction loss in ducts and fittings. Based on these formulas, Dryer-Ells can be measured the same as straight pipe. This permits use of the maximum allowed run length. • A ten inch radius smooth interior ninety degree bend will only have an equivalent vent length of 1-1/2 feet (the same length as model LT90). • A ten inch radius smooth interior forty-five degree bend will only have an equivalent vent length of 3/4 feet (the same length as model LT45). ASHRAE Formula as Confirmed JB Engineering and Code Consulting, P.C.:

Calculation Detail (Using Model LT90 As an Example) The pressure loss due to friction in a round duct is calculated using the following equation: Where:PL = Pressure Loss in Duct in Inches of Water Column L = Length of Duct in Feet FL = Friction Loss per 100 feet of Duct at Specified Velocity of Flow

The pressure loss through a duct fitting is calculated using the following equation:

Where:TP = Total Pressure Loss in Inches of WC C = Fitting Coefficient Vp = Velocity Pressure at Upstream Connection in Inches of WC

The pressure loss through a fitting is often calculated by establishing the equivalent length of duct for each fitting. By using this method of calculating duct pressure loss, the equivalent length of each fitting is added to the total duct length to establish the pressure loss through the duct system. To establish the equivalent length for a given fitting, the fitting equation is set as being equal to the duct length equation. Solving for “L” establishes the equivalent duct length for a specific fitting with a given velocity of flow through the duct. The equation becomes:

A standard three section, 4 inch dryer exhaust duct 90° elbow with a 4 inch radius has been established as having an equivalent length of 5 feet in Section 504.6.1 of the 2003 ICC International Mechanical Code and Section M1501.3 of the ICC International Residential Code. The coefficient for a three section elbow in SMACNA Duct Design Handbook is 0.42. The coefficient for a 4 inch smooth 90° elbow with a 10 inch radius is 0.12. To establish the equivalent length of dryer exhaust duct for the 4 inch smooth 90° elbow with a 10 inch radius, you cancel out the equivalent factors and are left with the following equation:

Where:L10 = Equivalent length for the 10 inch radius smooth elbow L4 = Equivalent length for the 4 inch radius, three section elbow C10 = Coefficient for the 10 inch radius smooth elbow C4 = Coefficient for the 4 inch radius, three section elbow

Solving the equation results in: Rounding up, the 4 inch smooth 90° elbow with a 10 inch radius would have an equivalent length of dryer vent of 1-1/2 feet.

**Equal Friction Method
**

The equal friction method of sizing ducts is easy and straightforward to use

Sponsored Links The equal friction method of sizing ducts is often preferred because it is quite easy to use. The method can be summarized to 1. Compute the necessary air flow volume (m3/h, cfm) in every room and branch of the system 2. Use 1) to compute the total air volume (m3/h, cfm) in the main system 3. Determine the maximum acceptable airflow velocity in the main duct 4. Determine the major pressure drop in the main duct 5. Use the major pressure drop for the main duct as a constant to determine the duct sizes throughout the distribution system 6. Determine the total resistance in the duct system by multiplying the static resistance with the equivalent length of the longest run 7. Compute balancing dampers

**1. Compute the air volume in every room and branch
**

Use the actual heat, cooling or air quality requirements for the rooms and calculate the required air volume - q.

**2. Compute the total volume in the system
**

Make a simplified diagram of the system like the one above. Use 1) to summarize and accumulate the total volume - qtotal - in the system. Note! Be aware that maximum load conditions almost never occurs in all of the rooms at the same time. Avoid over-sizing the main system by multiplying the accumulated

volume with a factor less than one (This is probably the hard part - and for larger systems sophisticated computer-assisted indoor climate calculations are often required).

**3. Determine the maximum acceptable airflow velocity in the main ducts
**

Select the maximum velocity in the main duct on basis of the application environment. To avoid disturbing noise levels - keep maximum velocities within experienced limits:

• • •

comfort systems - air velocity 4 to 7 m/s (13 to 23 ft/s) industrial systems - air velocity 8 to 12 m/s (26 to 40 ft/s) high speed systems - air velocity 10 to 18 m/s (33 to 60 ft/s)

Use the maximum velocity limits when selecting the size of the main duct.

**4. Determine the static pressure drop in main duct
**

Use a pressure drop table or similar to determine the static pressure drop in the main duct.

**5. Determine the duct sizes throughout the system
**

Use the static pressure drop determined in 4) as a constant to determine the ducts sizes throughout the system. Use the air volumes calculated in 1) for the calculation. Select the duct sizes with the pressure drop for the actual ducts as close to the main duct pressure drop as possible.

**6. Determine the total resistance in the system
**

Use the static pressure from 4) to calculate the pressure drop through the longest part of the duct system. Use the equivalent length which is

•

the actual length + additional lengths for bends, T's, inlets and outlets

**7. Calculate balancing dampers
**

Use the total resistance in 6) and the volume flow throughout the system to calculate necessary dampers and the theoretical pressure loss through the dampers.

**Note about the Equal Friction Method
**

The equal friction method is straightforward and easy to use and gives an automatic reduction of the air flow velocities throughout the system. The reduced velocities are in general within the noise limits of the application environment.

The method can increase the numbers of reductions compared to other methods, and often a poorer pressure balance in the system require more adjusting dampers. This may increase the system cost compared to other methods.

**Example - Equal Friction Method
**

The equal friction method can be done manual or more or less semi automatic with a spreadsheet as shown in the table below.

The table is based on the diagram above. Air flow and friction loss from a diagram is added. Minor pressure loss coefficients must be summarized for for the actual applications. The pressure loss in each path is summarized on the right and pressure loss is added manually in the dampers to balance the system. The excel template can be downloaded here!

assembly halls. Air Shifts per hour (1/h) Airflow (l/s per m2 floor area) Outdoor Airflow (l/s) 3 per animal 40 per animal 3 per animal 100 per animal 2 per animal 60 per animal 15 per animal 15 per person 10 .10 per person .15 per person Type of Building and Room Sheep Horses Hens Cows Chickens Pigs.10 Banks Baths Barber Shops Bars Beauty Shops Bowling Alleys Cafeterias Cinemas/Theatres 4 5 .15 per person 10 .banks.10 15 10 . hotels and many more The rates of outdoor make up air in the table below can be used as a guideline in design of ventilation systems.Rooms and Rates of Outdoor Make Up Air Recommended rates of outdoor make up air in some common types of rooms . sow Piglet Animals Apartments Assembly halls Auditoriums Bakeries Production Pastry room Service Archive Staff 5-8 8 6 2-3 1 2-3 5 .15 per person 15 .15 per person 10 .15 per person 7 .15 per person 10 .20 per person 10 .

20 per person 3 10 .20 per person 10 .20 10 .15 per person 15 .20 per person 15 .20 per person 10 . Offices Department Stores (cfm/Sq.15 per person 10 .15 per person 10 .Type of Building and Room Sterile room Laboratory Packing room Store Air Shifts per hour (1/h) 15 15 4 1 2 Airflow (l/s per m2 floor area) Outdoor Airflow (l/s) Chemist's shops Churches Clubhouses Cocktail Lounges Computer Rooms Court Houses Dance halls Dental Clinics.3 10 .20 per Hospitals Hotels .15 per person 0.Ft) Dining Halls Drug Shop Engine rooms Exhibition halls Fire Stations Garages General Therapy Operating theatre Autopsy Reception Room Industries Factory 5-6 4 10 per person 15 .15 per person 10 .15 per person >1 15 per person 9 14 9 15 .

15 per person 10 .15 per person 10 .20 15 20 25 .15 per person 10 .80 per car 3-4 12 .15 4-5 10 . Luncheonettes Municipal Buildings Museums Smithies Kitchens Air Shifts per hour (1/h) Airflow (l/s per m2 floor area) 2-5 4 Outdoor Airflow (l/s) person 60 .15 per person 6-7 Small Large < 7 m2 > 7 m2 Industrial in general Gas ovens Electric ovens Grill table Frying pan Boiling pan 100 l 20 .15 per person 10 .Type of Building and Room Carpenter work shop Car repair shop Car repair shop. exhaust outlet Mechanical work shop Welding Assembly Jails Jewelry Shop Libraries Lunch Rooms.40 10 .15 per person 10 .30 550/m2 outside wall 300/m2 outside wall 400/m2 outside wall 300 100 .

3 .Type of Building and Room Boiling pan 200 l Coffee machine Refrigerated cabinet Cooling and freezer room Store Laundries Lavatories Night Clubs Malls Motels Module Landscape Conference room Offices Lecture room Dining hall Staff.25 per person 8 .20 per person 15 .10 3-8 10 15 . changing clothes Dining room Resting room Police Stations Post Offices Precision Manufacturing Restaurants Air Shifts per hour (1/h) Airflow (l/s per m2 floor area) 200 60 7 .15 5 .12 8 .25 per person 10 .10 0.15 per person 15 .20 per person 15 .20 per person 10 .30 per person 10 .15 per person 10 .15 per person 5 .0.15 per person 10 .20 per person 10 .10 10 .15 per person 10 .5 2-4 Outdoor Airflow (l/s) 10 .10 15 per person 10 .

1189 ft3/min (cfm) = 13.15 per person 10 .15 per person 1 dm3(litre)/s = 10-3 m3/s = 3.3 Airflow (l/s per m2 floor area) Outdoor Airflow (l/s) Classroom 4-5 10 .15 per person 10 per person 3-4 5 .15 per person 10 .15 per person 10 . gal (UK)/h .gal (UK)/min = 15.03532 ft3/s = 2.10 10 .6 m3/h = 0.852 gal (US)/min = 792 Imp.200 Imp.Ft) Schools Shops Shopping Centers Sports halls Supermarkets Swimming pools Taverns Town Halls • Air Shifts per hour (1/h) 0.Type of Building and Room Retail Stores (cfm/Sq.

) q = air flow rate (cfm) v= air speed (fpm) A proper velocity will depend on the application and the environment. The table below indicate commonly used velocity limits: Type of Duct Comfort Systems m/s ftm Industrial Systems m/s ftm High Speed Systems m/s ftm (1b) (1) .or the Static Pressure Recovery Methods The Velocity Method Proper air flow velocities for the application considering the environment are selected.Sizing Ducts The ductwork of ventilation systems are often sized with either the Velocity. Sizes of ducts are then given by the continuity equation like: A=q/v where A = duct cross sectional area (m2) q = air flow rate (m3/s) v= air speed (m/s) Alternatively in Imperial units Ai = 144 qi / vi where A = duct cross sectional area (sq.in. the Constant Pressure Loss (or Equal Friction Loss) .

12 590 . .Type of Duct Comfort Systems m/s ftm Industrial Systems m/s ftm Main ducts 4 .2360 985 .1380 8 .18 3540 985 .2360 10 .985 5-8 1180 .590 5-8 3-5 High Speed Systems m/s ftm 1670 1575 .1575 Be aware that high velocities close to outlets and inlets may generate unacceptable noise.7 Main branch ducts Branch ducts 3-5 1-3 780 .12 590 .1575 6 .985 200 .

.

Unfortunate the method is complicated to use and therefore seldom used. The pressure (or friction) loss is kept at a constant level throughout the system. The Static Pressure Recovery Method With the static pressure recovery method the secondary and branch ducts are selected to achieve more or less the same static pressure in front of all outlets or inlets. . The pressure loss in the main duct are then used as a template for the rest of the system.The Constant Pressure Loss Method (or Equal Friction Loss Method) A proper speed is selected in the main duct close to the fan. The major advantage of the method are more common conditions for outlets and inlets. The method gives an automatic velocity reduction through the system. The method may add more duct cross sectional changes and can increase the number of components in the system compared to other methods.

000 cfm Sponsored Links The table below can be used to compare equivalent diameters for rectangular and round circular ducts.19) 500 (0.9 5.air flows between 100 . The table is based on the ducts friction loss formula.3 Velocity -v(ft/min) (m/s) 1527 (7.1) 2166 (11) Friction Loss (Inches water gauge per 100 ft duct) 0.14) 400 (0.Equivalent Diameter Equivalent diameters for rectangular and circular ducts .4 8.8 inches water gauge per 100 ft duct (6.77 0.8) 1819 (9.88 0. Air flow -qRectangular (Cubic Feet per Duct Sizes Minute.6 Pa/m) is used.3) 1736 (8.47) 3x7 4x5 4x7 5x6 4x9 5x7 6x6 6x7 5 x 12 6 x 10 7x8 7 x 10 8x9 Equivalent Diameter Round Duct Sizes .1 9. cfm) (Inches) 3 (m /s) 200 (0.de (Inches) 4.82 0.80 0.4 6. The rectangular dimensions and the air flow volume are adapted to the equal friction loss method of sizing ventilation duct systems.09) 300 (0.2) 1996 (10.3 8.2 9.9 4.0 6.4 6.7 6.24) 750 (0.35) 1000 (0.1 8. An approximate friction loss of 0.78 0.50.8) 1635 (8.79 .6 7.Rectangular and Circular HVAC Ducts .

9) 2469 (12.1) 5000 (2.9 16.8 12.0 19.8 10.1) 3010 (15.7 23.2) 2712 (13.1) 3482 (17.8 0.94) 2500 (1.9) 4500 (2.78 0.1) 2358 (11.0 21.3) 2938 (14.8 0.82 0.8 9.8) 9000 (4.1 14.2 17.1 23.8 16.5 20.9 19.9 11.2 21.4 16.3) 3671 (18.3) 8000 (3.2 20.8 0.4) 6000 (2.76 0.84 0.8 0.83 0.7) 3595 (18.81 0.8 .6) 3858 (19.9 Velocity -v(ft/min) (m/s) 2386 (12.9) 3068 (15.8) 2767 (14.Air flow Rectangular -q(Cubic Feet per Duct Sizes (Inches) Minute.de (Inches) 9.5) 3358 (17.7) 12500 (5.7 21.1 14.5 11.4) Friction Loss (Inches water gauge per 100 ft duct) 0.2) 3000 (1. cfm) (m3/s) 1250 (0.71) 1750 (0.9 13.77 0.9 24.75 0.5) 2589 (13.4) 3500 (1.4 16.0 12.4 21.5 11.8 16.9) 8 x 10 9x9 8 x 12 10 x 10 8 x 14 9 x 12 10 x 11 8 x 15 10 x 12 10 x 14 12 x 12 12 x 14 12 x 15 10 x 22 14 x 15 12 x 19 14 x 16 10 x 25 12 x 20 15 x 16 14 x 20 15 x 18 12 x 26 16 x 20 12 x 30 14 x 25 12 x 34 15 x 25 12 x 36 16 x 25 20 x 20 12 x 45 16 x 30 20 x 24 Equivalent Diameter Round Duct Sizes .7 10.88 0.8) 7000 (3.9 21.7) 4000 (1.78 0.9 15.6) 4012 (20.3 11.59) 1500 (0.6 15.3) 10000 (4.83) 2000 (0.6) 3248 (16.73 0.9 18.

5) 40000 (18.9 31.3 40.0 27.3) 20000 (9.5) Friction Loss (Inches water gauge per 100 ft duct) 0.Air flow Rectangular -q(Cubic Feet per Duct Sizes (Inches) Minute.79 0.2 27.77 0.8) 30000 (14.0 31.6 28.8 39.2) 50000 (23.74 0.9) 45000 (21.4 37.81 0.66 .8) 4709 (23. cfm) (m3/s) 15000 (7.1) 17500 (8.4) 25000 (11.2 35.3) 5243 (26.7 33.79 0.9 Velocity -v(ft/min) (m/s) 4331 (22) 4337 (22) 4483 (22.87 0.5) 5179 (26.5 33.1 41.9) 4815 (24.7 25.3 28.6) 5397 (27.77 0.2 26.5 27.de (Inches) 24.9 35.2) 35000 (16.6) 16 x 36 18 x 30 23 x 25 16 x 40 20 x 32 25 x 25 20 x 35 25 x 28 16 x 55 20 x 43 25 x 38 20 x 50 30 x 32 20 x 55 30 x 35 25 x 48 30 x 40 32 x 40 32 x 45 35 x 40 Equivalent Diameter Round Duct Sizes .4) 5222 (26.5 33.4 37.78 0.

(inches) Length side .ai .q .bi .Units . 1000 Air volume .d .Duct Velocity Calculate velocities in circular and rectangular ducts .(inches) SI .di .and diameter . Add air volume .online calculator Sponsored Links Imperial Units The velocity of air in a ventilation duct can be expressed in imperial units like vi = qi / Ai = 576 qi / (π di2) = 144 qi / (ai bi) where vi = air velocity (ft/min) qi = air flow (cfm) Ai = area of duct (square feet) di = diameter of duct (inches) ai = width of duct (inches) bi = width of duct (inches) (1) Imperial Units Air Flow Velocity Calculator Air velocity can be calculated with the calculator below.imperial and SI-units .qi .(inches) 12 or alternatively Length side .(cfm) Diameter .(or length a and b).

qm .(or length a and b).q .Air velocity in a duct can alternatively be expressed in SI units like vm = qm / Am = 4 qm / (π dm2) = qm / (am bm) where vm = air velocity (m/s) qm = air flow (m3/s) Am = area of duct (m2) dm = diameter of duct (m) am = width of duct (m) bm = width of duct (m) (2) SI Units Air Flow Velocity Calculator Air velocity can be calculated with the calculator below.dm . 1 Air volume .(m) 0.(m) Length side .(m) or alternatively 0. Add air volume .and diameter .bm .(m3/s) Diameter .am .5 Length side .d .5 .

08 200 1467 1019 573 10 0.imperial units Sponsored Links The major loss.(cfm) Equivalent duct diameter .32 0.02 where Δp = friction (head or pressure loss) (inches water gauge/100 ft of duct) de = equivalent duct diameter (inches) q = air volume flow .109136 q1.Friction Loss in Ducts Friction loss or major loss in ducts .01 255 . in a circular duct in galvanized steel with turbulent flow can for imperial units be expressed Δp = (0.de .09 0.cubic feet per minute) For rectangular ducts the equivalent diameter must be calculated. (1) Air Ducts Friction Loss Calculator The friction loss calculator below is based on formula (1): 800 Air Volume Flow .(cfm .02 100 1146 733 509 286 0.equations and online calculator for rectangular and circular ducts .9) / de5.q .02 367 12 16 0. or friction loss.21 0.01 183 0.8 0.(inches) velocities in rectangular ducts 10 • Pressure loss and air flow velocity for some common duct sizes and air flow volumes can be taken from the table below: Pressure Loss (inches water gauge per 100 feet duct) Air velocity (ft/min) Duct Size (inches) Air Volume (cfm) 4 5 6 8 0.65 0.

04 509 0.Pressure Loss (inches water gauge per 100 feet duct) Air velocity (ft/min) Duct Size (inches) Air Volume (cfm) 4 5 6 8 10 1.34 800 1467 1600 12 0.12 1146 The air velocity should not exceed certain limits to avoid unacceptable noise generation.19 0.14 1019 16 0.09 400 2037 1146 733 0.01 286 0. .28 0.03 573 0.

can be expressed as hminor_loss = ξ v2/ 2 g where hminor_loss = minor head loss (m. with vanes 90o bend.coefficients for air duct distribution systems components Sponsored Links Minor Loss .5 0. tapered Minor Loss Coefficient -ξ1. rounded radius/diameter duct >1 T.Head or Pressure Loss in Air Duct Components . sharp 90o bend. rounded radius/diameter duct <1 45o bend. flow to branch (applied to velocity in branch) Flow from duct to room Flow from room to duct Reduction. Minor loss coefficients for different components common in air duct distribution systems Component or Fitting 90o bend.5 0. rounded radius/diameter duct <1 90o bend. ft) ξ = minor loss coefficient v = flow velocity (m/s. ft/s) g = acceleration of gravity (m/s2. rounded radius/diameter duct >1 45o bend.Minor Loss Coefficients for Air Duct Components Minor loss .25 0.3 0.35 0 (1) .pressure or head loss .3 1. ft/s2) Minor loss can also be expressed as pressure loss instead of head loss. sharp 45o bend.7 0.0 0.05 0.2 0.

Component or Fitting Enlargement. tapered angle < 8o (due to speed before reduction) (v1= velocity before enlargement and v2 = velocity after enlargement) Enlargement. 0. 0. 0.7 ratio free area to total surface Grilles. 0.15 (1 .5 ratio free area to total surface Grilles.v2 / v1)2 0.v2 / v1)2 (1 .3 ratio free area to total surface Grilles. abrupt (due to speed before reduction) (v1= velocity before enlargement and v2 = velocity after enlargement) Enlargement.4 ratio free area to total surface Grilles. 0.v2 / v1)2 3 4 6 10 20 50 .6 ratio free area to total surface Grilles.2 ratio free area to total surface Minor Loss Coefficient -ξ(1 . tapered angle > 8o (due to speed before reduction) (v1= velocity before enlargement and v2 = velocity after enlargement) Grilles. 0.

Air Ducts Minor Loss Coefficient Diagrams Minor loss coefficient diagrams for air ductwork.336x10-3 ft water = 0. expansions.4504x10-4 lb/in2 = 1x10-5 bar = 4. inlets and outlets .55x10-3 mm mercury = 0.SI units Sponsored Links Minor loss in air ducts based on a summarized minor loss coefficient and air flow velocity can be estimated with the diagram below: • 1 Pa = 1 N/m2 = 1.1024 kg/m2 = 0. bends.1024 mm water = 0.295x10-3 in mercury = 7.03x10-3 in water = 0.993x10-5 atm .

Minor Loss Coefficients . (1) Minor Loss Coefficients . expansions.0.Bends The minor loss coefficients in 90o bends can be estimated with the diagram below.Expansions .180o can be estimated with the equation ξ0-180 = ξ90 α / 90 where ξ0-180 = minor loss coefficient for the bend with the actual angle ξ90 = minor loss coefficient for the 90o bend according the diagram above α = angle of the actual bend The minor loss coefficient in a 90o bend like the one below is 1. inlets and outlets can be estimated with the diagrams below. The minor loss in bends 0 .Minor loss for some common ductwork components like bends.

Minor Loss Coefficients .Outlets .Inlets Minor Loss Coefficients .

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gal (UK)/min = 15852 gal (US)/min 1 mm H2O = 9.81 Pa = 9.807x10-6 N/mm2 = 0.09678 10-3 atm = 1.Air Duct and Friction Loss .9 ft3/min = 13200 Imp.SI units Sponsored Links Friction loss in standard air ducts are indicated in the diagram below. • • • 1 m/s = 196.32 ft3/s = 2118.85 ft/min 1 m3/s = 3600 m3/h = 1000 dm3(liter)/s = 35.422 10-3 psi (lbf/in2) Example .0987 10-3 bar = 1 kp/m2 = 0.Air Ducts Friction Loss Diagram Major loss diagram air ducts .

The air velocity in the duct is 5 m/s.05 mm H2O/m (~ 0. .5 Pa/m).The friction loss in a 500 mm main duct in comfort system with air flow 1 m3/s can be estimated as indicated below to 0.

Temperature If the actual temperature condition is otherwise the friction loss can be compensated like Δp = kt ΔpNTP where Δp = actual friction loss (pressure or head) kt = temperature compensating coefficient ΔpNTP = friction loss at NTP conditions (pressure or head) The temperature compensating coefficient can be estimated with the diagram below: (1) .conditions (20oC and 1 bar).Friction Loss .NTP .Temperature and Pressure Friction loss in air ducts depends on actual temperature and air pressure Sponsored Links Most of the friction loss diagrams and tables available for air ducts are estimated for air at Normal Temperature and Pressure .

Pressure If the actual pressure is otherwise the friction loss can be compensated like Δp = kp ΔpNTP where Δp = actual friction loss (pressure or head) kp = pressure compensating coefficient ΔpNTP = friction loss at NTP conditions (pressure or head) The pressure compensating coefficient can be estimated with the diagram below: (2) .

• 1000 mbar = 1 bar = 105 Pa (N/m2) = 0.9869 atm = 14.1 N/mm2 = 10.197 kp/m2 = 10.50 psi (lbf/in2) = 106 dyn/cm2 = 750 mmHg .20 m H2O = 0.

3) Not common . 2) Acceptable.Rectangular Duct Sizes Dimensions of common rectangular air ducts used in ventilation systems Sponsored Links Common rectangular duct sizes used in air handling ventilation systems: Width Height (mm) (mm) 100 150 200 250 300 400 500 600 800 1000 1200 1) 1) 2) 3) 3) 3) 3) 3) 3) 3) 3) 200 2) 2) 2) 2) 3) 3) 3) 3) 3) 3) 3) 250 1) 1) 1) 2) 2) 3) 3) 3) 3) 3) 3) 300 1) 1) 1) 2) 1) 2) 3) 3) 3) 3) 3) 400 3) 1) 1) 2) 1) 1) 2) 3) 3) 3) 3) 500 3) 1) 1) 2) 1) 1) 1) 2) 3) 3) 3) 600 3) 3) 1) 2) 1) 1) 1) 1) 2) 3) 3) 800 3) 3) 2) 1) 1) 1) 1) 1) 2) 3) 1000 3) 3) 3) 3) 1) 1) 1) 1) 1) 1) 2) 1200 3) 3) 3) 3) 3) 2) 2) 2) 2) 2) 2) 1400 3) 3) 3) 3) 3) 1) 1) 1) 1) 1) 1) 1600 3) 3) 3) 3) 3) 3) 2) 2) 2) 2) 2) 1800 3) 3) 3) 3) 3) 3) 3) 3) 1) 1) 1) 2000 3) 1) Preferred.

.Rectangular Air Ducts Velocity Diagram Velocity diagram rectangular air ducts Sponsored Links The diagram below can be used to estimate air velocity in rectangular air ducts.

6 .49 66 .4 Ventilation ducts (office buildings) 2.8 .13 6. The values below are common guidelines for some typical applications.66 3.0 .1.9 .5 Air Ducts (ft/s) 40 .8 2.30 Ventilation ducts (hospitals) 1.9.98 5.4.Air Velocities in Ducts Recommended maximum air velocities in ventilation ducts Sponsored Links Air velocities in ducts should not exceed certain limits to avoid high pressure losses and unacceptable noise generation.3 26 .8 . Air Velocity (m/s) Combustion air ducts 12 .15 Compressed air pipe 20 .5 .3 .0 Vacuum cleaning pipe 8 .20 Air inlet to boiler room 1-3 Warm air for house heating 0.15 .3.

Imperial units ranging 10 .100 000 cfm Sponsored Links Friction loss (head loss) in standard air ducts are indicated in the diagram below: .Air Ducts Friction Loss Diagram Major loss diagram air ducts .

08x10-3 m/s 1 inch = 25. • • • • 1 inch water = 248.7 m3/h = 0.075 lb/ft3 in clean round galvanized metal ducts.0739 in mercury 1 ft3/min (cfm) = 1.4 mm = 2.4 kg/m2 = 0.Friction Loss in Air Duct .The diagram is based on standard air 0.8 N/m2 (Pa)= 0.0254 m = 0.47 l/s 1 ft/min = 5.54 cm = 0.0361 lb/in2 (psi) = 25.08333 ft Example .

.The friction loss in a 20 inches duct with air flow 4000 cfm can be estimated to approximately 0. The air velocity can be estimated to approximately 1850 feet per minute.23 inches water per 100 feet duct as shown in the diagram below.

5 73 118 157 101 253 163 .5 4 2 10 6.Sizing Circular Ducts A rough guide to maximum air volume capacity of circular ducts in comfort.00 63 62 45 22 112 73 45 3 0. industrial and high speed ventilation systems.5 4 0. Maximum Air Volume Flow (m3/h) Comfort systems Industrial systems Mai Mai Seconda Connecti n Seconda Connecti Diamet Are n er a duct ry ducts ng ducts duct ry ducts ng ducts s (mm) (m2) s Speed (m/s) 5. The values from the table below can be used to rough sizing of ducts in comfort.00 80 99 72 36 181 118 72 5 High speed systems Mai n Seconda Connecti duct ry ducts ng ducts s 14 9 6. industrial and high speed ventilation systems Sponsored Links Maximum air velocity in the ducts should be kept below certain limits to avoid unacceptable generation of noise.

04 250 971 707 353 1766 1148 707 9 0.5 4 0.22 2428 4415 1250 17663 8831 28702 17663 7 6 6 High speed systems Mai n Seconda Connecti duct ry ducts ng ducts s 14 9 6.03 200 622 452 226 1130 735 452 1 0.02 160 398 289 145 723 470 289 0 0.19 500 3886 2826 1413 7065 4592 2826 6 0.50 1808 800 9948 7235 3617 11756 7235 2 6 0.01 125 243 177 88 442 287 177 2 0.5 4 2 10 6.07 315 1542 1122 561 2804 1823 1122 8 0.12 400 2487 1809 904 4522 2939 1809 6 0.31 1121 630 6169 4487 2243 7291 4487 2 6 0.00 100 155 113 57 283 184 113 8 0.5 184 287 470 735 1148 1823 2939 4592 7291 11756 18369 28702 396 254 618 397 1013 651 1583 1017 2473 1590 3926 2524 6330 4069 9891 6359 1570 3 2532 1 3956 4 6181 9 10095 16278 25434 39741 .Maximum Air Volume Flow (m3/h) Comfort systems Industrial systems Mai Mai Seconda Connecti n Seconda Connecti Diamet Are n er a duct ry ducts ng ducts duct ry ducts ng ducts s (mm) (m2) s Speed (m/s) 5.78 1554 2826 1000 11304 5652 18369 11304 5 3 0 1.

Converting Round Duct Diameter to Area Converting round duct areas to square feet and square meters Sponsored Links Duct Diameter (in) (mm) 8 203 10 254 12 305 14 356 16 406 18 457 20 508 22 559 24 609 26 660 28 711 30 762 32 813 34 864 36 914 Area (ft2) 0.586 0.900 5.3491 0.069 1.099 0.396 1.687 4.276 4.7854 1.069 (m2) 0.519 0.142 3.585 6.051 0.182 2.640 3.657 .397 0.032 0.290 0.767 2.203 0.292 0.073 0.130 0.5454 0.245 0.455 0.342 0.305 7.

4. Velocity .500 Low level supply registers 0.1400 Main supply ducts 5.5 .2.5 700 .1200 Heater connection to fan 3.2 .5 350 .9 900 .v Service Public buildings Industrial plant (m/s) (ft/min) (m/s) (ft/min) Air intake from outside 2.3 250 .5 .Velocities in Ventilation Ducts Recommended velocities in ventilation ducts Sponsored Links The duct velocity in air condition and ventilation systems should not exceed certain limits to avoid unnecessary noise generation and pressure drop in the duct work.12 1200 .600 4.1800 Supply registers and grilles 1.2.5 .5 .450 1.6 1000 .12 1200 .9 900 .0 1000 .2400 Branch supply ducts 2.250 Main extract ducts 4.900 5 .1500 6 .0 900 . Commonly accepted duct velocities can be found in the table below.8.5 .8 .3.1.1800 .2 150 .0 .0 500 . The limits of velocities depends on the actual application. The background noise in an industrial building is significant higher than the noise in a public building and more duct generated noise can be accepted.8.5 .7 1000 .5 .1500 6 .900 5 .5 500 .2400 Branch extract ducts 2.600 4.4.3.0 500 .5 .

/100 ft Velocity 2.350 20 3.18 m/s) Shafts Air Flow Rate (m3/h) (CFM) < 5.000 ft/min (8 .0.4 inches W.000 < 14.350 15 2.500 < 70.900 < 17.000 < 590 < 2.000 < 10.900 > 10.000 < 41.950 17 3.900 30 5.000 Maximum Velocity (m/s) (ft/min) 12 2.000 < 2.5 490 3 590 4 785 5 980 6 1.000 < 25.180 7 1.10 m/s) Maximum Velocity (m/s) (ft/min) 2./100 ft Velocity 1.500 .000 < 1.000 < 23.1 .000 < 5.380 Air Flow Rate (m3/h) (CFM) < 300 < 175 < 1.000 < 100.Recommended Air Velocities in Ducts Ducts and recommended air velocities Sponsored Links Air flow velocity in ducts should be kept within certain limits to avoid noise and unacceptable friction loss and energy consumption.2.000 .200 < 4. .800 It is common to keep main duct velocity above 20 m/s (3940 ft/min).500 ft/min (10 .950 < 10.350 < 10.700 < 40.G.3.G.300 25 4.000 < 5. Low and Medium Pressure Ducts • • Maximum friction rate 0.2 inches W.000 < 59.000 > 5.900 High Pressure Ducts • • Maximum friction rate less than 0.940 22 4.000 < 2.

000 < 5. receptions.000 < 5.750 16 3.350 14 2.350 15 2.950 17 3.350 20 3.Corridors Air Flow Rate (m3/h) (CFM) < 5.000 < 10.000 < 10.000 < 2.950 < 10.940 User Areas • Offices.900 < 17.000 < 14. lounges and similar Maximum Velocity (m/s) (ft/min) 10 2.000 < 25.700 .000 < 14.000 < 23.950 < 10.000 12 2.900 < 17.000 12 2.700 < 40.000 < 25.150 Air Flow Rate (CFM) (m3/h) < 5.000 < 2.500 Maximum Velocity (m/s) (ft/min) 10 2.

Natural Draft Head The natural draft is caused by the difference in outside and inside air density. If outside temperature is higher than inside air temperature . The natural draft head can therefore be expressed as dpmmH2O = (ρo .volume and velocity . and inside air will flow up and out of the upper parts of the building.the air flow will be in the opposite direction.Air Flow and Velocities due to Natural Draft Air flow . inside air density is less than outside air density.ρr) h (1) . The direction of the flow depends on the temperatures. Cold outside air will flow into the lower parts of the building. If inside temperature is higher than outside temperature.due to stack or flue effect caused by indoor hot and outdoor cold temperature difference Sponsored Links A temperature difference between the outside and inside air will create a "natural draft" forcing air to flow through the building.

9. N/m2) g = acceleration of gravity . (2) Natural Draft Pressure Calculator The calculator below can be used to calculate the natural draft pressure generated by the inside and outside temperature difference. the air density at any temperature can be expressed as ρ = (1.where dpmmH2O = head in millimeter water column (mm H2O) ρo = density outside air (kg/m3) ρr = density inside air (kg/m3) h = height between outlet and inlet air (m) Natural Draft Pressure Equation (1) can be modified to SI pressure units like dp = g (ρo . .81 (m/s2) (1b) Density and Temperature With air density of 1.ρr) h where dp = pressure (Pa.293 kg/m3) (273 K) / (273 K + t) or ρ = 353 / (273 + t) (2b) where ρ = density of air (kg/m3) t = the actual temperature (oC) Equation (1) above can easily be modified by replacing the densities with equation (2).293 kg/m3 at 0oC.

inlets and outlets. N/m2. . The major and minor loss in the system can be expressed as dp = λ (l / dh) (ρr v2 / 2) + Σξ 1/2 ρr v2 where dp = pressure loss (Pa. ft) dh = hydraulic diameter (m.-20 outside temperature (oC) inside temperature (oC) height (m) 20 10 Major and Minor System Loss The natural draft force will be balanced to the major and minor loss in ducts. ft) Σ ξ = minor loss coefficient (summarized) (3) Air Flow and Air Velocity Equation (1) and (3) can be combined to express the air velocity through the duct v = [ (2 g (ρo .ρr) h ) / ( λ l ρr / dh + Σξ ρr ) ]1/2 (4) Equation (4) can also be modified to express the air flow volume through the duct q = π dh2 /4 [ (2 g (ρo . lbf/ft2) λ = D'Arcy-Weisbach friction coefficient l = length of duct or pipe (m.ρr) h ) / ( λ l ρr / dh + Σξ ρr ) ]1/2 where q = air volume (m3/s) (5) Natural Draft Air Flow and Velocity Calculator The calculator below can be used to calculate the air flow volume and velocity in a duct similar to the drawing above. The friction coefficient used is 0.019 which is appropriate for normal galvanized steel ducts.

019 (3. A duct of diameter 0.205 kg/m3 The velocity through the duct can be calculated like v = [ (2 (9.Natural Draft Calculate the air flow caused by natural draft in a normal family house with two floors.205 kg/m3) ) ]1/2 = 3.5 1 Example .(1.205 kg/m3)) (8 m) ) / ( 0. the inside temperature is 20 oC. floor to the outlet above the roof.293 kg/m3) (273 K) / ((273 K) + (-10 oC)) = 1.342 kg/m3 The density of the inside air can be calculated like ρr = (1.5 m.2 m goes from 1.342 kg/m3) .205 kg/m3)/(0.2 3. The height of the hot air column from ground floor to outlet air duct above roof is approximately 8 m.-10 outside temperature (oC) inside temperature (oC) height (m) duct hydraulic diameter (m) duct length (m) Σξ minor loss coefficient (summarized) 20 8 0.2 m) + 1(1.293 kg/m3) ( 273 K) / ((273 K) + (20 oC)) = 1.5m)(1. The length of the duct is 3. Air leakages through the building are neglected. The minor coefficients are summarized to 1. The density of the outside air can be calculated like ρo = (1.81m/s2) ((1. The outside temperature is -10 oC.7 m/s The air flow can be calculated like .

12 m3/s Note! that these equations can be used for dry air. Natural Draft Chart .14 (0.q = (3.SI and Imperial Units .2 m)2 / 4 = 0.7 m/s) 3. not for mass flow and energy loss calculations where air humidity may have vast effects.

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Sizes and Capacities Sizes and capacities of air return intakes Sponsored Links The diagrams below indicates aproximate capacities of air return intakes: .Air Return Intakes .

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Sizes and Capacities (pdf) Aproximate Capacity (cfm) 100 125 155 215 120 155 190 260 325 145 180 220 305 260 320 390 490 665 795 300 400 485 660 830 1015 1160 1355 Nominal Size (inches x inches) 10 x 4 10 x 5 10 x 6 10 x 8 12 x 4 12 x 5 12 x 6 12 x 8 12 x 10 14 x 4 14 x 5 14 x 6 14 x 8 24 x 4 24 x 5 24 x 6 24 x 8 24 x 10 24 x 12 30 x 4 30 x 5 30 x 6 30 x 8 30 x 10 30 x 12 30 x 14 30 x 16 Screen Efficiency The free intake area will be reduced by an insect or bird screen.• Air Return Intakes . • • • 1/2" mesh screen -> 90% free area 1/4" mesh screen -> 80% free area insect screen -> 50% free area .

. Short cutting intake air with used outlet air must be avoided.15 m (0. Short cuts with intake air. The air velocity through the outlet should not exceed 3 .Air Intakes and Outlets Ventilation systems .15 m/s (~ 500 . firewalls and surrounding buildings must be according the rules of the local authorities. In areas with traffic the intake should be at least 5 m (16 ft) above the terrain.air intakes and outlets and rules of thumbs Sponsored Links Intakes • • • • • Intakes should be at least 0.5 ft) above the terrain. An air intake should be located in a position where the wind influence on the pressure conditions within the system is limited. An air outlet should be located in a position where the wind influence on the pressure conditions within the system is limited. firewalls and surrounding buildings must be according the rules of the local authorities. window openings and residence areas must be avoided. The distance between outlet.3000 ft/min). The distance between intake.5 m/s (~ 500 ft/min) Outlets • • • • • Outlets should go direct out in unrestricted area. Air velocities in the intake openings should not exceed 2.

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