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# 1.) What do you mean by the Word Statistics?

The word statistics has different meanings for different people. Simply hearing the word, most people think of tables and figures relating to a large number of items of information. In fact, the word "statistics" was first applied to the affairs of the state,to the data that Government find necessary for effective planning, ruling and tax-collecting. The collectors and analyzers of such information were once called 'statists'. Today the term, 'statistics' is applied to nearly any kind of factual information given in terms of numbers known as 'facts and figures'. These days, Radio and Television announcers tell us that they will have the statistics of the game in a few minutes. News papers also give statistics. The application of statistics is so wide spread and influence statistics on our lives in any field is so great that its importance can hardly be overemphasized. Statistics is frequently used by government as well. Data on economics affect policies of Government in the areas of taxation, funds spent for public works etc. Now, statistical techniques are being used to control the quality Products being produced and to evaluate new products before they are marketed. Likewise, Statistics is used in Geology, Biology, Sociology, Psychology, Education, in any area in which decisions "must be made on the basis of incomplete information. Statistics is used in educational testing to improve quality of teaching and learning in classroom situations. Meteorology, the science of weather prediction is also using statistics now. And the list could thus go on and on.

2.) what are the various parts of a statistical table? In general, a statistical table consists of the following eight parts. They are as follows: (i) Table Number: Each table must be given a number. Table number helps in distinguishing one table from other tables. Usually tables are numbered according to the order of their appearance in a chapter. For example, the first table in the first chapter of a book should be given number 1.1 and second table of the same chapter be given 1.2 Table number should be given at its top or towards the left of the table. (ii) Title of the Table: Every table should have a suitable title. It should be short & clear. Title should be such that one can know the nature of the data contained in the table as well as where and when such data were collected. It is either placed just below the table number or at its right. (iii) Caption: Caption refers to the headings of the columns. It consists of one or more column heads. A caption should be brief, concise and self-explanatory, Column heading is written in the middle of a column in small letters. (iv) Stub: Stub refers to the headings of rows. (v) Body This is the most important part of a table. It contains a number of cells. Cells are formed due to the intersection of rows and column. Data are entered in these cells. (vi) Head Note: The head-note (or prefactory note) contains the unit of measurement of data. It is usually placed just below the title or at the right hand top corner of the table. (vii) Foot Note A foot note is given at the bottom of a table. It helps in clarifying the point which is not clear in the table. A foot note may be keyed to the title or to any column or to any row heading. It is identified by symbols such as *,+,@, etc. Source Note: The source note shows the source of the data presented in the table. Reliability and accuracy of data can be tested to some extent from the source note. It shows the name of the author, title, volume, page, publishers name, year and place of publication of the book or journal from which data are complied.