8.

Market Analysis
Bangladesh experiences unmanageable gap between supply and demand of electricity especially in summer. As a major consumer of electricity, Urban Households can use solar energy as an alternative source not only to get rid of everyday load shedding miseries but also to reduce the power shortage. But the use of solar energy in urban area is yet not very popular. Solar energy is best known for lighting rural households of Bangladesh where electricity has not yet reached In Bangladesh, the serious demand-supply gap of electricity is one of the largest bottlenecks for economic growth. As the capacity of power supply facilities is only around 4,000 MW compared to the peak electricity demand of 6,100 MW, they have no choice but to have scheduled load-shedding of electricity supply during the peak time (JICA, 2010). Bangladesh is losing at least 3.5% of Gross Domestic product (GDP) due to the shortage of Power supply according to a research report of Centre for Policy Dialogue (CPD) (Ahmed, R., 2010)S

A Possible Strategy for Reducing Urban Power Crisis of Bangladesh
According to PDB “The Rural Electrification Board (REB) needs 2500 MW, but is given less than half of that. Dhaka Electricity Supply Authority (DESA) and Dhaka Electric Supply Company (DESCO) need more than 2000 MW power and the PDB needs another 2000 MW” (Saifullah, K., 2009). From the above statistics, we can see Dhaka and other urban areas need around 4000 MW of electricity. So the urban areas are the major consumer of electricity. Use of alternative sources of power supply in urban areas will definitely reduce the demand and the gap between demand and supply.

Solar Energy: The Most Feasible form of Renewable energy for Urban Bangladesh
Solar Energy is the best renewable energy source other than the primary non renewable sources in urban area. Other form of renewable energies generated from wind, bio gas, ocean tide, hydro etc have very little feasibility in urban areas of Bangladesh. Most of the cities are few meters up from the sea level. So there is not that much feasibility for hydropower except Chittagong Hill Tracts and few other places. Bangladesh has very few potential locations for hydro electric project. Wind and Ocean tide energy can be the sources, but the exact potential is not clearly known due to lack of study and relevant information. So the solar energy is the ultimate suitable form of renewable energy for urban region because of availability of plenty of sunshine.

Potential of Solar Energy in Bangladesh
Bangladesh is located between 200 30’ and 260 45’ north latitude and the climate is tropical, the very location makes Bangladesh good recipient of solar energy (Zaman M., Islam M.A., and Sarkar M.A.R, 2006). Bangladesh has a total area of 1.49E+ 11 m2 and an average of 5 kWh / m2 solar radiation falls on this land over 300 days per annum (Huque, S. and Mazumder, R. K., 2006). Figure 1 (Loster, M., 2010) clearly shows that Bangladesh got on average around 200-250 W/m² of sunlight. Maximum amount of

radiation is available on the month of March-April and minimum on December-January (Mondal M.

Like other countries. In Bangladesh by using Solar PV Panels solar energy is harvested as solar home system. 2009). centralized (AC) market electrification. community places etc. Striving to remove this demand and supply gap. Infrastructure Development Company Ltd.. There are many solar power driven products available in the world market. telecommunications. solar hot water. refrigeration.A. Among those partner organizations Grameen Shakti is in the leading position. and high temperature process heat for industrial purposes. (REEIN. So it is clear that majority of solar power utilization is done in rural areas. Solar energy is also used to charge IPS batteries as single or dual source. water pumping. Moreover. Grameen Shakti that has installed about 125. Grameen Shakti has sold a whopping 230.000 solar systems all in the heart of rural Bangladesh (Rahman N. Bangladesh has made significant progress in the renewable energy sector by introducing solar energy systems. centralized (AC) system. ICT training centers. A. a Bangladesh-Government-owned financing company. p. 2010b). under Rural Electrification and Renewable Energy Development Project (REREDP) through 15 partner organizations (POs). Bangladesh also may not find immediate and easy solution to the energy problem. H. From the past experience it appears that there is prevalence of huge gap between demand and supply. 2005. rural clinic.. Present Scenario of Solar Energy in Bangladesh The applications of small-scale photovoltaic systems have been a very recent phenomenon in rural areas of Bangladesh.27). Its potential in the urban area is less addressed issue. 2010b). (IDCOL).000 Solar Home Systems at rural level has opened our eyes. Most of the small applications in rural areas are in the households to meet the basic purposes of lighting and entertainment by operating TV and Radio (Mondal M.. Infrastructure Development Company Limited (IDCOL). and Sarkar M. 2010).. By the 2012 one million households will be powered form solar PV panel and targeted to produce50MW power (REEIN. with the passage of time the demand for energy in Bangladesh will increase further. cyclone shelters etc. 2010b). Grameen Bank. Islam M. railway signaling. solar cooking. 2005. Solar Energy can be used in diverse ways: Uses of solar energy are limited only by human ingenuity. The total solar energy reaching Bangladesh is 180×109 Mwhr/year which is 105 times the energy generated as electricity (Zaman M. Staring its operation in 1996.R.. potable water via distillation and disinfection. roof top PV mini-grid system. Submersible water solar pump can collect 310 litres of water per hour from 230 .35). 2009) being produced form Solar PV panels (REEIN. BRAC and few other NGOs have taken remarkable steps forward in this regard. 2006).A. To harvest the solar energy. A partial list of solar applications includes space heating and cooling through solar architecture. Market Situation Energy issue has become a global concern. p. So far in Bangladesh approximately 25 MW power (until July. This energy technology might change the life style of the poor people. H.A. Some of these are important for us. the most common way is to use solar panels (Wikipedia. day lighting.

which have a role in approving architectural and structural plans may have a good opportunity to recommend solar energy systems. and solar mobile charger. Moreover. 80. mini poultry farm owners. A solar hot water tank can serve for 80 gallon storage. micro-oven. Customised Technical education courses will build local capacity and help generate rural employment. CDA. Pool pumps and heaters that are run by solar power. At present. Research is going with a team of companies like General Motors and Ford to improve the solar car. 2. bill boards and commercial sign boards. too. RAJUK. parking lots etc. RUK. 490 Upazilla Teachers' Resource Centres. Portable power generator. In Bangladesh. The system like solar area lighting is perfect for park areas. solar power mobile and solar balloon are interesting products.000 primary schools. These can however be expanded to include the solar lantern. city corporations. The life of the people of Char areas may change dramatically change through solar power. boat docks. solar thermal heater. gates and furnish security lights and water heating systems. UK is a pioneer of this system. 54 Primary Training Institutes (PTI) 3150 colleges. 5000 Union Parishad Buildings. 18700 high schools and 9300 madrashahs under the solar power system. solar power oven. If growth centers are lighted with solar applications by LGED it will have a tremendous effect in our agriculture. The remote off grid system of solar power has tremendous potential. Houses in California have installed solar panels on their roofs. country boat operators. Small shop owners at rural growth centers. Rickshaw puller may have the opportunity to use products like solar lantern in their rickshaws and other products for their households. boundary wall. 465 Upazilla Chairman's houses. and police and ansar-VDP forces. Solar power security camera provides sustainable services from a distance. solar radio. There are many islands in coastal areas and remote char areas in Bangladesh. a few islands are using Solar Home Systems in households. In urban areas slum people may use these solar products to improve their living condition.feet depth. Solar garden light. beaches. There are about 3000 growth centers in the country. Solar Home Systems have mainly targeted the rural areas of Bangladesh so the range of products is limited. solar torch light. pathways. KDA. Recreational vehicles like boats could run on customised solar power systems. Coastal areas will have similar opportunity.00 lakh mosques and few thousands rural health centres may have the opportunity to use this energy. Union Parishad Chowkidars could be potential users of solar systems. computer and office equipment. laptop charger. and it will save money. . ground light. post light are usable everywhere and also in rainy conditions. building and houses located in all metropolitan areas could at least use some of the solar products in lightning their garden. A portable solar power system of 1500 watt capacity is also available which is capable of running a standard refrigerator. solar power watch. A solar Home System can feed the national power grid with the excess electricity it produces. Maintenance of solar system could be another opportunity of employment. The government can also bring thousands of flood shelters cum schools. trade and commerce and thus economic growth. Sign lighting systems lights roads. makes people feel good to be making a difference in the condition of the environment. open areas.

. Despite the limitations. solar industry needs government patronage and help to create the right momentum in solar market. The private sector in Bangladesh may not be attracted enough to establish solar manufacturing plants. of course. Research & development is not very significant. Public Private Partnership might provide a solution. in the economic sense. researchers and development agencies are working hard to face the challenges. and Germany are taking a lot of initiatives for solar energy. These are expensive and susceptible to frequent change of technology. in a market dominated by fossil fuels. and government grants are needed for research in solar technology. planning and initiatives. Remarkable research and development (R&D) activities are taking places in many countries. Scientists. All we need are appropriate policy. We may also think about accessing funds from carbon trading etc. Nano technologies are coming up to meet the technical needs for sustainable solar power.A lot of initiatives are taken around the world for using solar power. European Community and country like U. Initial investment in solar systems is quite high. Solar energy however will not be very competitive.K. the objective conditions are favourable and ready for expansion of solar energy in Bangladesh. together with Public Private Leadership. Unlike others. Venture capitalists are investing money in solar technology and business. California's Governor has taken a billion dollar solar roof programme to produce 3000 megawatt solar electricity by 2017. Japan and India are not very far from its expeditious implementation. China. Despite market factors. Moreover there is no complete manufacturing plant yet of solar systems in Bangladesh. limitations in expanding these solar programmes in Bangladesh. there are. Many countries in the world have provided incentives to encourage people to use solar power.

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