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the architecture of ancient Egypt, one of the most influential civilizations throughout history, which developed a vast array of diverse structures and great architectural monuments along the Nile, among the largest and most famous of which are the Great Pyramid of Giza and the Great Sphinx of Giza.
The well preserved Temple of Horus at Edfu is an example of Egyptian architecture and architectural sculpture.
The architecture of Mesopotamia is the ancient architecture of the region of the Tigris– Euphrates river system (also known as Mesopotamia), encompassing several distinct cultures and spanning a period from the 10th millennium BC, when the first permanent structures were built, to the 6th century BC. Among the Mesopotamian architectural accomplishments are the development of urban planning, the courtyard house, and ziggurats. No architectural profession existed in Mesopotamia; however, scribes drafted and managed construction for the government, nobility, or royalty. The Mesopotamians regarded 'the craft of building' as a divine gift taught to men by the gods as listed in me 28.
A ziggurat in Iraq.
Ancient Roman architecture
adopted certain aspects of Ancient Greek architecture, creating a new architectural style. The Romans were indebted to their Etruscan neighbours and forefathers who supplied them with a wealth of knowledge essential for future architectural solutions, such as hydraulics and in the construction of arches. Later they absorbed Greek and Phoenician influence, apparent in many aspects closely related to architecture. Roman architecture flourished throughout the Empire during the Pax Romana.
The Coliseum in Rome, Italy
Ancient Greek architecture is best
known from its temples, many of which
It developed in the 12th century into the Gothic style. There is no consensus for the beginning date of the Romanesque architecture. the monumental tomb (mausoleum) and the stadium.are found throughout the region. Other architectural forms that are still in evidence are the processional gateway (propylon). The second important type of building that survives all over the Hellenic world is the open-air theatre. Romanesque architecture is an architectural style of Medieval Europe characterized by semi-circular arches. The Parthenon under restoration in 2008 Byzantine architecture is the architecture of the Byzantine or Later Roman Empire. Hagia Sophia Church. and becoming the the primary progenitor of the Renaissance and Ottoman architectural traditions that followed its collapse. Prior to 100 there is no surviving art that can be called Christian with absolute certainty. Bulgaria Early Christian art and architecture is the art produced by Christians or under Christian patronage from about the year 100 to about the year 500. the public monument. This terminology is used by modern historians to designate the medieval Roman Empire as it evolved as a distinct artistic and cultural entity centered on the new capitol of Constantinople rather than the city of Rome and environs. After about 500. with the earliest dating from around 350 BC. the public square (agora) surrounded by storied colonnade (stoa). mostly as ruins but many substantially intact. making it the first pan-European architectural style since Imperial Roman . characterised by pointed arches. Sofia. with proposals ranging from the 6th to the 10th century. Christian art shows the beginnings of Byzantine artistic style. dramatically influencing Medieval architecture throughout Europe and the Near East. the town council building (bouleuterion). Examples of Romanesque architecture can be found across the continent. The empire endured for more than a millennium. The Good Shepherd: Early Christian catacomb art.
The style was carried to France. that took the Roman vocabulary of Renaissance architecture and used it in a new rhetorical and theatrical fashion. the Renaissance style quickly spread to other Italian cities. Maria Lach Abbey. often to express the triumph of the Catholic Church and the absolutist state. Stylistically. Façade of the Church of the Gesù. with Filippo Brunelleschi as one of its innovators. England. light and shadow and dramatic intensity. Germany Renaissance architecture is the architecture of the period between the early 15th and early 17th centuries in different regions of Europe. Germany. Renaissance architecture followed Gothic architecture and was succeeded by Baroque architecture. Baroque architecture is a term used to describe the building style of the Baroque era. It was characterized by new explorations of form. This small temple marks the place where St Peter was put to death. Developed first in Florence. 1502. Tempietto di San Pietro in Montorio. by Bramante. Rome. begun in late sixteenth century Italy. demonstrating a conscious revival and development of certain elements of ancient Greek and Roman thought and material culture. The Romanesque style in England is traditionally referred to as Norman architecture. the first truly baroque façade . Russia and other parts of Europe at different dates and with varying degrees of impact.Architecture.
and is today a leader in cutting-edge architectural design and technology. chairs and high tables were not widely used until the 19th century. Kinkaku-ji. Hindu. During this period. some in tension with one another. originally built in 1397 (Muromachi period) . and post-modern architecture into construction and design. Kyoto. Intramuros. elevated slightly off the ground. the walled city of Manila. Philippine architecture is a reflection of the history and heritage of the country. traditionally. IBM Plaza (right). allowing the internal configuration of a space to be customized to different occasions. as shown by adjacent high-rises in Chicago. with tiled or thatched roofs. reflects a more sculptural Mid-Century Modern aesthetic. Malay. The front entrance of Fuerza de Santiago towering 40 metres high. The Augustinian friars built a large number of grand churches all over the Philippine Islands. It would take the form of numerous movements. (left). Contrasts in modern architecture.Modern architecture is generally characterized by simplification of form and creation of ornament from the structure and theme of the building. was built with its walls. and American cultures. is a later example of the clean rectilinear lines and glass of the International Style. Japanese. by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe. modern. the Philippine architecture was dominated by the Spanish influences. houses. schools of design. and often equally defying such classification. People usually sat on cushions or otherwise on the floor. and architectural styles. Since the 19th century. Japan has incorporated much of Western. with its exact definition and scope varying widely. churches and fortress. Sliding doors (fusuma) were used in place of walls. In a broader sense. early modern architecture began at the turn of the 20th century with efforts to reconcile the principles underlying architectural design with rapid technological advancement and the modernization of society. by his student Bertrand Goldberg. It is a term applied to an overarching movement. Illinois. Japanese architecture (日本建築 Nihon kenchiku?) has traditionally been typified by wooden structures. Chinese. however. whereas Marina City. The most prominent historic constructions in the archipelago are from the Spanish.
Medel .Humanity 1 Architectural Design By : Keenvin N.
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