A report on

Process Optimization of Monitoring Activities at NSDC

Submitted as a part of summer internship

UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF DR. ANAND TELTUMBDE PROFESSOR , VGSOM IIT KHARAGPUR
BY

KABRA ARUN HARIPRASAD 11BM60046 VINOD GUPTA SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT IIT KHARAGPUR

Summer Internship Report

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
“Too often we are so preoccupied with the destination, we forget the guiding light.” – Anonymous

I take this opportunity to extend my sincere thanks to National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC) and VGSoM - IIT Kharagpur for offering a unique platform to earn exposure and garner knowledge in the field of Operations and Systems Management. First of all, I extend my heartfelt gratitude to my project guide Mr. Jaykant Singh, Head, MIS and Monitoring at NSDC for having made my summer training a great learning experience by his giving me his guidance, insights and encouragement which acted as a continuous source of support for me during this entire period. I am deeply indebted by Mr. Prashant Jha, Ms. Garima Singh and Mr. Neelabh Sanghal for their invaluable inputs for my questions, queries, doubts, etc. which, the success of this project wouldn’t had been possible. I would also like to express my profound gratitude to my faculty guide Dr. Anand Teltumbde for his constructive support during the summer internship period which lead to successful completion of my internship at NSDC. and

constructive criticism from time to time during my summer internship period, without

Kabra Arun Hariprasad 11BM60046 MBA class of 2013 VGSoM, IIT Kharagpur

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Table of Contents
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ............................................................................................................................. 2 1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ........................................................................................................................ 6 2. PROJECT OBJECTIVES .......................................................................................................................... 7 3. LITERATURE SURVEY ........................................................................................................................... 8 3.1 Analysis of Monitoring and MIS process at NSDC ......................................................................... 8 3.2 Requirement Elicitation .............................................................................................................. 10 4. NSDC BACKGROUND ......................................................................................................................... 15 5. MONITORING AT NSDC ..................................................................................................................... 20 5.1 Data Collection Objectives .......................................................................................................... 20 6. ANALYSIS OF MIS & MONITORING ACTIVITIES ................................................................................. 24 6.1 Information Needs of Monitoring Team ..................................................................................... 24 6.1.1 Revised Annual Plans ........................................................................................................... 24 6.1.2 Monthly Dashboards ............................................................................................................ 25 6.1.3 Skill Development Management System (SDMS) ................................................................ 25 6.1.4 Quarterly Funds Utilization Certificates (UC) ....................................................................... 27 6.2 Gap Analysis ................................................................................................................................ 28 6.2.1 Revised Annual Plans ........................................................................................................... 28 6.2.2 Monthly Dashboards ............................................................................................................ 29 6.2.3 Skill Development Management System (SDMS) ................................................................ 30 6.3 Propositions Made & Current Status .......................................................................................... 32 6.3.1 Revised Annual Plans ........................................................................................................... 32 6.3.2 Monthly Dashboards ............................................................................................................ 32 6.3.3 Skill Development Management System ............................................................................. 34 7. ANALYSIS OF BUSINESS MODELS AT PARTNER LEVEL....................................................................... 37 7.1 Social parameters ....................................................................................................................... 38 7.2 Financial parameters................................................................................................................... 40 7.3 Computing the final score for partner ........................................................................................ 42 7.4 Current Status ............................................................................................................................. 42 8. SKILLPEDIA WEB PORTAL .................................................................................................................. 44 8.1 Skillpedia stakeholders ............................................................................................................... 45 8.2 Skillpedia features ....................................................................................................................... 46 8.3 Recommendations for data format to be uploaded on Skillpedia web portal ........................... 47 4 Process Optimization of Monitoring Activities at NSDC

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8.3.1 Job Seeker data: ................................................................................................................... 47 8.3.2 Skill Provider/training partner data: .................................................................................... 48 8.3.3 Finalized Data tables for Skillpedia web portal .................................................................... 48 8.4 Recommendations for User Interface of Skillpedia web portal.................................................. 50 8.5 Current Status of Skillpedia website ........................................................................................... 51 9. REFERENCES ...................................................................................................................................... 53

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1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
As a part of my summer training at National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC), I worked with the MIS and monitoring team with research and analysis at partner level. During the course of two months my focus area was the ongoing monitoring & MIS consolidation activities. The objective of the project was to understand the monitoring process at NSDC, analyze the data shared by partners to evaluate the best business model based on performance and identify the gaps & issues to streamline the ongoing monitoring process & activities. It was observed that the since most of the partners were in their growth stage with some being in introduction phase, the training numbers received from the partners were low. Considering the growth shown by big partners who had been operational for over a year, the numbers had increased substantially. The other important projects in which I was involved were related to the development of SDMS portal and skillpedia website. The SDMS project involved me analysing the SOW of Talisma Corporation as against the RFP for building SDMS and finding the gaps in proposed details in SOW versus requirements specified in RFP. For the Skillpedia project I had to coordinate with the Sify team during the transition of Skillpedia website from existing #.NET frame work to the new Drupal framework. The website was rebuilt from scratch and the user interface was redesigned and made more user friendly. Changes to the data format to be uploaded on the skillpedia website were also recommended.

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2. PROJECT OBJECTIVES
On the day of induction at NSDC, the HR manager had explained the objectives that I was expected to meet, my role and responsibilities during the tenure and deliverables to be shared at the end. This included: Objectives: 1. Analyse the ongoing MIS & monitoring activities for spotting trends and exceptions in data received from partners to identify gaps and risks. 2. Evaluate the performance of partners based on the monthly monitoring data shared by them. 3. Analysis of the business proposals, contracts and data to identify the best business model.

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3. LITERATURE SURVEY
3.1 Analysis of Monitoring and MIS process at NSDC
Process innovation means performing business activities in a new way. Process innovation is generally a discrete initiative and it also implies the use of specific change tools and technology for enterprise engineering and transformation of business processes (Davenport, 1993). Process benchmarking and business process re-engineering (BPR) have become two main methodologies used to implement business process improvement and have attracted much attention in a current fast-changing environment. Leveraging best practice has become the important factor of process benchmarking and BPR. Accurate knowledge of the gaps between best practice processes and a company's business processes is essential for the redesign of business processes (Juan & Yang 2004). In the existing BPR methodologies there exists a big division in business analysis techniques due to the black and white approach used in most cases. In some of them, cost is the central issue, in others generic management or the successful use of IT. As a result business analysis techniques are directed towards this central issue ignoring any other means of analysis. For process benchmarking, most of the participating companies use self-developed methods rather than established methodologies to capture and compare process data (Poulson 1996). By comparing and analysing the core processes in detail, process benchmarking could provide an insider’s view of another company’s operation in a way that identifies distinctions between the practices of the two companies (Watson 1992). Since there is no standard for business process model comparison, one possible approach is first to clarify the semantic relationship between model objects and then to analyse the gaps in processed data and process logic for compared process models. Considering the wide variety of objects provided by the framework and the different use and meaning of object names used by different project teams, the semantic relationship between model objects of compared process models must be studied closely. To this end, related semantic analysis methods for various model objects should be developed (Juan & Yang 2004).
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Summer Internship Report In BPR, tacit knowledge plays a very important role. In considering its implication for BPR, three attributes of tacit knowledge merit particular emphasis. First, tacit knowledge, by definition, is highly personal. It is created by and sourced within single individuals. Thus, individuals can be expected to have highly personal perspectives on BPR. Second, tacit knowledge doesn't happen accidentally: it emanates from and evolves out of each individual's background, experiences and context. Third, although it is essentially a personal phenomenon, substantial consistency and concurrence is typically evident across the tacit knowledge of individuals who have shared similar backgrounds, experiences and contexts. It is for this reason that it is possible to talk of an organization's tacit knowledge, that is, a group of individuals who share a broadly similar perspective on the world around them including the merits and limitations of BPR. (Fahey 1998) IT and Processes (Olalla, 2000) Processes may be classified according to two dimensions: degree of mediation and degree of collaboration (Teng, 1994). The degree of mediation refers to the sequential flow of input and output among the participants' functions in a business process. A process at a high degree of mediation involves a large number of intermediate steps, performed in various functions that contribute indirectly to the process outcome. A process at a low degree of mediation has several functions that contribute directly to the process outcome without the mediation of sequential steps. The degree of collaboration dimension is related to the degree of collaboration between functions through information exchange. The frequency and intensity of information exchange can range from none (process at the low degree of collaboration) to extensive (process at the high degree of collaboration). Today's environment is demanding firms to quickly develop and offer products that will satisfy customers' needs. Companies may not be able to do this if they use processes with many steps and scarce collaboration. Consequently, this environment forces a change in business processes to feature reduced mediation and increased collaboration.

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Summer Internship Report The following architecture for business process redesign wherein Information system acts as a facilitator (Kettinger, Teng & Guha. 1996):

3.2 Requirement Elicitation
Effective requirements elicitation is essential to the success of software development projects. Requirements elicitation (RE) is a critical phase in information systems development (ISD), having significant impacts on software quality and costs. While it has remained a key topic of interest for IS researchers, a review of the existing literature suggests that there are very few studies examining how the social process
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Summer Internship Report associated with RE unfolds. Prior literature acknowledges that this process involves collaboration between RE participants (e.g., user-reps and systems analysts) where knowledge regarding the system requirements is shared, absorbed, and coconstructed, such that shared mental models of the requirements can form. However, collaboration and knowledge sharing within the RE process has been characterized as tenuous in the literature, given that the groups of RE participants bring very different kinds of knowledge into this activity, and trust among the two parties cannot be guaranteed at any point. (Chakraborty, Sarker 2010) Information system success is dependent upon the effectiveness of requirements elicitation. Information requirements determination (IRD) is commonly considered the most important activity in information systems development. Requirements elicitation is subject to numerous challenges, however, including cognitive limitations of analysts. Improving requirements determination is a critical goal in information systems development. It is generally accepted that poor requirements determination is a primary cause of system development failures. Elicitation of requirements from key stakeholders is vital to system success, but unfortunately is a major stumbling block in the systems development process. Users and other stakeholders often are unsure about their needs and/or are unable to articulate them clearly, requirements typically change during the course of a project, and analysts are often poorly trained in information gathering techniques. (Pitts, Browne, 2007) Cognitive challenges of requirements elicitation (Pitts, Browne, 2007) Requirements elicitation is subject to three fundamental cognitive challenges: (1) limitations of humans as information processors; (2) the complex nature of requirements; and (3) the obstacles encountered in user and analyst interaction

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Cognitive challenge
Working memory Capacity People have limited capacity in working memory. Bounded rationality Because of cognitive limitations, people construct simplified models of problems. Long-term memory Difficulty in recall People are unable to accurately recall everything from memory.

Effect on IRD

Analysts may only consider a subset of all possible alternatives.

Analysts may utilize poorly constructed or faulty models of the problem.

Analysts may rely too much on existing processes rather than alternative incidents in memory.

Reconstructive nature People reconstruct events from portions of memory. Analysts may reconstruct an inaccurate representation of the situation. Availability Recency People are influenced more by recent events than by events of the past. Analysts will be biased by more recent IS development experiences.

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Summer Internship Report Ease of recall People are more likely to remember events that are vivid. Analysts may base the IRD task on a vivid or highly successful IS development project. Anchor and adjustment Insufficient adjustment People often make judgements by establishing an anchor and adjusting from that point; the adjustments are usually insufficient. Analysts will tend to anchor on currently available information and may be unable to conceive of any alternatives that would improve the current situation. Overconfidence People consistently exhibit overconfidence in their knowledge, even when their level of knowledge is poor. Even with little substantive knowledge of a domain, overconfidence may cause an analyst to exhibit a false understanding of the problem. As a result, he is likely to overlook alternative or contradictory information

Representativeness Insensitivity to sample size People do not consider the effects of sample size and draw faulty conclusions based on small samples. Analysts may build or modify their models of the requirements based on low occurrences of information.

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Summer Internship Report Other Confirmation bias People tend to seek only confirmatory evidence and fail to consider alternative hypotheses. Once the analyst has developed a model of the requirements determination task, he may no longer look for other alternative models.

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4. NSDC BACKGROUND
The National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC) has been instituted to address the compelling need to strategize and operationalise a world-class skill development solution pertinent to the Indian context, to effectively drive the speedy development of skills essential to sustain the country’s growing economy. NSDC is a first-of-its-kind Public-Private Partnership (PPP) model in India with a focus toward skill development. It aims to promote skill development by catalyzing creation of large, quality, for-profit vocational institutions. It provides funding to build scalable, for-profit vocational training initiatives. Its mandate is also to enable support systems such as quality assurance, information systems and train the trainer academies either directly or through partnerships. The objective of NSDC is to contribute significantly (about 30 per cent) to the overall target of skilling / up-skilling 500 million people in India by 2022, mainly by fostering private sector initiatives in skill development programmes and providing funding. NSDC acts as a catalyst in skill development by providing funding to enterprises, companies and organisations that provide skill training. It will also develop appropriate models to enhance, support and coordinate private sector initiatives. NSDC was set up as part of a national skill development mission to fulfil the growing need in India for skilled manpower across sectors and narrow the existing gap between the demand and supply of skills. A large part of its efforts are directed at skill development programmes in the unorganised sector across India. Organizational Overview NSDC acts as a catalyst, enabling skill development initiatives to scale, by providing viability gap funding to enterprises, companies and organisations that provide skill training. NSDC may also develop appropriate PPP models to enhance, support and coordinate private sector initiatives to achieve its objectives. NSDC’s understanding of the need for skill development has spurred varied approaches towards each of the 21 skill sectors under its purview, making each and every sector attractive for privazte investment.

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Summer Internship Report NSDC Structure NSDC is a not-for-profit company set up by the Ministry of Finance, under Section 25 of the Companies Act. It has an equity base of 10 Crore, of which the Government of India accounts for 49%, while the private sector has the balance 51%. To ensure superior decision-making, NSDC requires a structure and governance model that provides it with autonomy, stature and continuity. Thus, the organisation has a tiered decision-making structure comprising:

The Board of Directors

Board Sub Committees

Decision Making

Executive Council

National Skill Development Fund (NSDF)

Each has a clear-cut role in the NSDC’s operations, activities and strategy to facilitate the organisation’s mandate of coordinating and stimulating private sector skill development programmes with enhanced flexibility and effectiveness. The 12member board has four government nominees, one of whom is the chairman of the corporation (from the private sector) and eight are private sector members. The NSDF is a 100% government-owned trust that invests in the NSDC, and is run by professional fund managers.

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Summer Internship Report NSDC’s Role The role of NSDC is to facilitate or catalyse initiatives which would have a multiplier effect. In doing so, it will strive to involve the industry in all aspects of skill development. The approach will be to develop partnerships with multiple stakeholders and build on current efforts, rather than undertake too many initiatives, directly or by duplicating efforts that are currently underway. Objectives of NSDC To scale up efforts that are necessary to achieve the objective of skilling and or up skilling 150 million people, NSDC will strive to: I. II. III. Develop ultra low cost, high-quality, innovative business models Attract significant private investment Ensure that its funds are largely “re-circulating”; i.e. loan or equity rather than grant IV. V. VI. Create leverage for itself Build a strong corpus Develop Labour Market Information System

Skill Development Funding Till date Ministry of finance has sanctioned Rs.2500 Crore for NSDC funding. The NSDC provides skill development funding either as loans or equity, and supports financial incentives to select private sector initiatives to improve financial viability through tax breaks etc. NSDC’s financing initiatives provide viability gap funding through:
I. II. III.

Loans Equity Grants

NSDC has committed for funding in tune of Rs.1205 Crore through combination of above three.

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Summer Internship Report Process of Funding NSDC facilitates initiatives that can potentially have a multiplier effect as opposed to being an actual operator in the skill space. In doing so, it strives to involve the industry in all aspects of skill development. The approach is to develop partnerships with multiple stakeholders and build on current efforts, rather than undertaking too many initiatives directly or duplicating efforts currently underway. Keeping this in mind, the NSDC plays three key roles: I. Funding and incentivising: This involves providing financing either as loans or equity, providing grants and supporting financial incentives to select private sector initiatives to improve financial viability through tax breaks etc. The exact nature of funding (equity, loan, and grant) depends on the viability or attractiveness of the segment and, to some extent, the type of player (forprofit private, non-profit industry association or non-profit NGO). Over time, the NSDC aspires to create strong viable business models and reduce its grant-making role. II. Quality Assurance by enabling support services: A skills development institute requires a number of inputs or support services such as curriculum, faculty and their training, standards and quality assurance, technology platforms, student placement mechanisms and so on. NSDC plays a significant enabling role in some of these support services, most importantly and in the near term, setting up standards and accreditation systems in partnership with industry associations. NSDC has provided Quality guidelines to its partners for centres, facilitators guide, trainers guide, coursework, assessment, feedback and certificates. III. Setting up Sector Skill Councils (SSC’s): NSDC has the mandate from Govt of India to setup the Sector Skills Council for 20 identified Industry Sector, who would be looking after the industry related skilling concept, processes, certification, accreditation and quality framework a. Conducting research develop competency standards, skill inventory database, international trends, technology trends etc

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Summer Internship Report b. Improving the delivery mechanism developing and improving modules, developing training delivery mechanisms, training the trainers, apprenticeship etc c. Building quality assurance - certification and accreditation process, other pedagogy. The proposal evaluation, funding, tracking the operations of NSDC partners and developing standards for NSDC are taken care by following teams: I. II. III. IV. Program Development (PD) Investing and Incentivizing (I&I) Standards and Quality Assurance (QA) MIS & Monitoring

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5. MONITORING AT NSDC
Monitoring team comprises of Mr. Jaikant Singh who heads the Monitoring team at NSDC and Mr. Neelabh Singhal who is the Monitoring Co-ordinator. NSDC has outsourced team of consultants from Accenture for technical and financial monitoring of all NSDC sponsored projects.

5.1 Data Collection Objectives
The key objectives of data collection by the monitoring team in line with NSDC objective of skilling 150 million people are listed below: I. II. Keep track of performance of partners against NSDC’s overall training goals. Provide early view of risks (financial, operational, social) from the partners end to enable early mitigation. III. Use the knowledge gained to ensure informed decision-making for further funding of training initiatives. IV. Identify any course corrections needed, at the: a. Partner/ Sector Skill Councils (SSCs) level (to improve business and social performance) b. Overall NSDC level (to inform future strategy and partner choices) In order to achieve its objectives, the monitoring team of NSDC is working in tandem with the skill development partners and Sector Skill Councils (SSC’s). The key activities performed by the NSDC’s monitoring team are shown below:

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Contract Monitoring

Reporting

Disbursment Process

Monitoring Activities

Data Analysis

Data Collection & Consolidation

Quality Compliance

Monitoring Activities Currently the monitoring team is trying to build a robust and effective evaluation framework in order to ensure that the partners meet their projected targets and appropriate utilization of funds is achieved. Monitoring and Evaluation of partners/SSCs is done on a periodic basis using following information:

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Monthly Dashboard

Skill Development Management System Quarterly Funds Utilization Certificate (UC)

Revised annual plans
Consolidation of Data

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6. ANALYSIS OF MIS & MONITORING ACTIVITIES
6.1 Information Needs of Monitoring Team
The information needed by the monitoring team is collected from the partners in the form of: 6.1.1 Revised Annual Plans Before the start of every financial year latest by Feb 10, all the active and operational NSDC partners i.e. all the partners who had training programs going in the previous financial year are required to submit their month wise annual plans for the upcoming year. These annuals plans are than discussed with the respective partners to outline the problems faced by partners and detail out the reasons for deviations in training numbers along with the corrective actions that the partner needs to undertake. This revised plan is used to monitor the performance of the partners on a monthly basis. This also helps the monitoring team to review its partnership if a substantial deviation is observed and help the partners with intervention and appropriate interventions. Template for annual plans is available on the NSDC website and captures following main parameters:

Annual Plan
Number Number Number Number Number of of of new of new of new people people districts states to sectors to be to be to be be to be trained placed covered covered covered New Centres to be started Annual Number Number Capacity of of at Batches courses centres planned offered Staffing details

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Summer Internship Report 6.1.2 Monthly Dashboards All the active and operational partners of NSDC need to report their operational, financial and social details with the monitoring team. The key parameter of these details includes:

Monthly Dashboards
Number of people trained Number of trainees placed

Revenue generated Number Quality of by the Fund of centres courses partner utilization open and imparted by detailed courses to at the partner offered trainees centre level

6.1.3 Skill Development Management System (SDMS) The Skill development management system (SDMS) will cater to the requirements of National skill council and NSDC. The National skill council will primarily use SDMS for monitoring and viewing the reports and dashboards from NSDC and other entities involved in skill development. NSDC will use SDMS to receive and track proposals from potential partners, store and retrieve agreements with partners, funding management, tracking repayments from the partners, monitoring and viewing reports and dashboards. The key functions of the SDMS tool are as listed below

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Summer Internship Report 6.1.3.1 Business Functions I. Proposal Management – The proposals submitted by various organizations for funding would be required to be updated in this module and will be operated by NSDC to track the status of the proposals. II. Agreement/Contract Management – All the organisations/entities funded by NSDC and their agreement/contracts would be required to be updated in this module and this module will be operated by NSDC to track deliverables of the contracts it enters into with its funded organisations/entities. III. Dashboard and Reporting – This function will primarily be used for performance monitoring by National Skill Council and NSDC. 6.1.3.2 Support Functions I. Administration Module – This function will take care of the activities like setting up of users, roles, system data, workflow configuration and audit control. II. Infrastructure & Systems Management – This function will take care of administration of infrastructure elements. III. Document Management – This function will enable search & retrieval of documents. IV. Data Integration with external entities – a. Partner Integration – Each NSDC Partner will upload the performance data into SDMS. b. All the entities involved in Skill Development initiatives in India will be mandated to upload performance data into SDMS. The process to build and develop SDMS was started in January 2012. An RFP was floated and bid proposals were invited. Out of all the proposals received, based on technical and financial evaluation done by an expert committee from industry, academia and ministry, final contract to build, maintain and develop the SDMS was

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Summer Internship Report awarded to Talisma Corporation. Talisma Corporation has committed to work with NSDC on a zero cost model.

6.1.4 Quarterly Funds Utilization Certificates (UC) With respect to monitoring financial data, each partner is expected to submit a quarterly fund utilization certificate. A utilization certificate details out proposed versus actual fund utilization status for the partner for previous quarter as on date and hence includes details about the CAPEX (infrastructure, land, marketing etc) and OPEX (rent, salaries, R&D etc) expenditures of partners. A partner is expected to get his funds utilized verified by an authorized Chartered Accountant and submit a copy of utilization certificate to NSDC duly signed by the Chartered Accountant. Recently based on the feedback that was received from the partners over the last one year, an improved an error free UC sheet was shared with partners and data was received from the partners in the expected format with precise details.

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6.2 Gap Analysis
6.2.1 Revised Annual Plans Based on the annual plan sheets shared by active partners for the financial year 2012-13, it is observed that most of the partners have shared variation only in training and placement data. The number of centres, states covered and district covered remaining same for the year as mentioned in contract. While computing the placement data, it is assumed that the most of the partners have committed for placement of at least 70% of the trained candidates in their contracts. As the committed placements numbers are percentage of the trained candidates, the variation in two would remain same. The following table displays details captured from the partner contracts and their respective annual plans:
Training and Placement Details as per annual plans` Geographical Details Center Details Trainings to Trainings to be Placement to be Placement to be States to Districts to Number of be done for done for FY Deviation as % Deviation done for FY 2012- done for FY 2012be be covered centers FY 2012-13 2012-13 (as per the new from 13 as per 13 as revised by covered till March projected till (as per revised by plan agreement agreement (70% partners (70% of till March 2013 March 2013 agreement) partners) of total trained) total trained) 2013 20,000 18,150 -1,850 -9% 14000 12705 Pan India Pan India 155 1,700 438 -1,262 -74% 1190 307 1 1 1 4,200 4,428 228 5% 2940 3100 2 7 13 28,603 10,500 -18,103 -63% 20022 7350 8 55 80 1,45,000 15,500 -1,29,500 -89% 101500 10850 NA NA 80 75,500 12,000 -63,500 -84% 52850 8400 7 35 40 3,975 2,000 -1,975 -50% 2783 1400 2 8 10 16,000 7,050 -8,950 -56% 11200 4935 4 60 60 62,800 58,796 -4,004 -6% 43960 41157 10 25 92 90,000 90,000 0 0% 63000 63000 10 110 110 4,554 5,660 1,106 24% 3188 3962 5 11 11 28,822 23,858 -4,964 -17% 20175 16701 NA NA 11 2,800 2,800 0 0% 1960 1960 1 1 5 55,991 33,221 -22,770 -41% 39194 23255 21 34 28 19,800 10,214 -9,586 -48% 13860 7150 1 5 5 5,35,320 2,25,883 -3,09,437 -58% 374724 158118 12 42 285 17,802 7,975 -9,827 -55% 12461 5583 9 29 6 7,200 7,000 -200 -3% 5040 4900 1 NA 20 16,814 10,100 -6,714 -40% 11770 7070 5 37 35 29,610 14,005 -15,605 -53% 20727 9804 20 48 67 29,027 29,027 0 0% 20319 20319 Pan India Pan India 172 6,000 6,000 0 0% 4200 4200 1 10 10 10,750 12,184 1,434 13% 7525 8529 4 44 44 2,340 1,380 -960 -41% 1638 966 1 13 16 25,000 15,800 -9,200 -37% 17500 11060 12 97 100 5 0% 1428 1432 2 2,040 2,045 1 2 10,000 10,150 150 2% 7000 7105 4 13 10 5,009 5,009 0 0% 3506 3506 8 21 10 0 30,000 30,000 0% 0 21000 NA NA 1,450 12,56,657 6,71,173 -5,85,484 -47% 8,79,660 4,69,821 2,928 Course Details No. of Courses being rolled out till date 54 28 19 10 15 18 3 5 5 4 9 8 8 38 11 37 5 6 6 45 24 7 8 2 2 1 3 3 0 384

S. No.

Active Partners

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29

B-ABLE IIGJ Gram Trang I-Skill Pratham Institute GRAS iSTAR Edubridge Empower Centum WSI IISD TMI e2E TalentSprint ISDC Globsyn Everonn SDI JobSkills CREDAI Laqsh Laurus IIJT GTVE (GOLS) NIIT Yuva Jyoti Ltd. Britti Prosikshan Future Sharp Providers Ants Consulting ASTM Pratham EFE Total

We see major deviation (-47% overall) in the number of training data as committed in agreement and in annual plans. This is seen mainly for partners who had earlier

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Summer Internship Report committed big numbers. The main reasons as suggested by partners in annual plans are: I. Slower ramping up seen at new centres i.e. it’s taking more than anticipated time for the partners to attract students for training programs. II. Smaller than expected batch sizes enrolled for courses

Out of active 29 partners only 12 have shared details about upcoming planned centres and course details. So it is difficult for monitoring team to track the performance of remaining 17 partners for number of centres and courses.

6.2.2 Monthly Dashboards A macro enabled excel based dashboard template has been designed by Accenture to capture all the above detail parameters. This template has been shared with all the partners and needs to be filled on monthly basis and shared back with NSDC. During the last partners meet it was decided that the dashboard template needs to be shared back by 5th of every month. In case of exigency or urgency the snapshot of data could be asked prior to this date. Once the dashboards are received, data from all the partners is consolidated to prepare a summary of the above mentioned parameters. Health of partner is determined based on the % targets achieved through a robust validation method. If a partner’s number are not good enough and well below targets he is asked to explain the reasons for the same along with corrective actions that would be taken by him to meet the numbers in next month. During the process of consolidating the data following data issues were observed: I. MIS template was not thoroughly tested. Several errors were seen and reported by the partners, which have been communicated to the Accenture team. II. Macros were removed by several partners in the sheet while entering the data.

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Summer Internship Report III. Some partners added/removed data columns as per their convenience without giving any justification. IV. Several partners opted to do a copy paste of data from some other excel sheets. This removed several security checks, duplication checks present in the dashboard template. Making the purpose of macro enabled dashboard template redundant. V. Several partners changed the data types in which the data was requested. This included the data mainly about caste, gender, religion district and state. Using such type of data is very difficult to analyse. Data cleaning needs to be done each time before compiling data for all partners. VI. The biggest concern with using the data from the partners was having incomplete data. Several fields in the dashboard sheet were left blank.

6.2.3 Skill Development Management System (SDMS) The general practice followed by NSDC is that the training certificates needs to issued and managed by the training partner itself. But there is no provision with NSDC of verifying how many certificates are actually issued. Along with the ongoing SDMS development, Pitney Bowes has approached NSDC to provide a unique secured solution for certificates issued by its partners. This solution would involve using the pbSecure system developed by Pitney Bowes by partners in generating certificates. The key features of the solution offerings are: I. II. Securing data at the point of origination in both Online / Offline environment. Enable setting up of a central registration pool capturing important elements of the student and the course enrolled. III. Updating student records pertaining to new course enrolled / higher level certification achieved etc. IV. Creation of single student records from Registrations , Certifications & up-to employment that can be updated throughout the student’s journey through NSDC affiliates V. Secured Out-Put Format , covering issuance of certificates / mark sheets at the end of the Skill development

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Summer Internship Report VI. Provide options of Offline / Online Verification processes independent of the Issuer VII. Secured reliable & Authentic MIS system

6.2.3.1 Advantages as compared to SDMS system

Parameters Issuing Certificates Tracking Issued Certificates In Centre Certificate Verification Offline/Non Verification Certificate Tracking Centre Certificate

Pitney Bowes     

Talisma SDMS     

6.2.3.2 Disadvantages as compared to SDMS system

Parameters Additional Maintenance cost Additional Hardware requirement Additional Software requirement Additional cost for printing certificates

Pitney Bowes    

Talisma SDMS    

Analysis of the proposal for using this solution suggests that implementation of secured certificate system through pbSecure would be helpful in avoiding: I. II. III. Duplication of data Certificate Tampering Internal and External Data breach

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6.3 Propositions Made & Current Status
6.3.1 Revised Annual Plans In line with the objective of keeping track of performance of partners as against NSDC goals, the annual plans act as the benchmark data to compare with the actual performance of partners on a monthly basis. Following propositions were made based on the observations of the annual plan sheets shared by the partners: I. Upcoming proposals must be analysed for realistic and achievable target numbers which would consider the factors of ramping up and batch size. This is necessary in order to avoid the high deviation as seen by most partners this year. II. All the partners must be mandated to fill in centre details and share the course list along with annual plans. This would help the monitoring team to track the performance of partner more effectively. Roadblocks ahead: I. The annual plans would be asked only by next February. So it won’t be possible to get the accurate and complete information from all the partners till then. II. The monitoring team has limited say in Proposal Evaluation Committee as it is headed by Investing and Incentivizing team. A very strong case has to be presented before the committee to get their approval. Current Status: a) The partners are asked to fill in term sheets and get it approved from the PEC to be utilized for current financial year with the updated targets. 6.3.2 Monthly Dashboards In order to meet the objectives of predicting risk, take informed decisions and track performance of the partners, it is necessary that the monitoring data received is accurate, complete and in expected format. While analysing the data sheet to find out gaps, it was observed that following changes could be incorporated to improve the quality of data received from partners through MIS template:
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Summer Internship Report I. The MIS template can incorporate following details to make it more effective: a. Date of employment in candidate details sheet can be changed to date of joining. b. Field to enter Staff strength is missing. Can include this field in centre details sheet. c. Centre contact person's name is missing against centre contact number. Can include this field in centre details sheet. d. Centre start date is missing in new template. Can include this field in centre details sheet. II. Through testing of the MIS template needs to be done to overcome the errors and issues observed during consolidation. III. Since all the partners share the consolidated data for the current financial year, they append the data for current month after the data from previous month. Several partners do not take the effort to update the details of candidates who were undergoing training in previous month and have completed training in this month or have got jobs this month. This results in duplication of data and gives incorrect training and enrolment numbers. To avoid this it can be recommended to use separate sheets for undergoing training candidates, trained candidates and placed candidates in the same dashboard template. IV. For catering the issues with incomplete data from partners, dashboard templates shared by partners should be rejected and sent back if it has more than 8% incomplete data records. This would mandate the partners to fill in details completely. The percentage of blank data can be reviewed based on degree of compliance expected from the partner. V. Several follow up calls needs to be made to partners for sharing the data. Also the data shared is of poor quality. This results in monitoring team requesting for snapshot of numbers from the partners. There is no way to verify the numbers reported in snapshot against the poor data. Need to identify a mechanism to avoid this. VI. A lot of dependency is made on a single person who collects data and consolidates it for reporting purpose. Need to remove this dependency by making SDMS available as soon as possible.

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Summer Internship Report Roadblocks ahead: I. Partners are not comfortable with using the new template which was prepared to capture all the details in same sheet as they were familar with the old template and reluctant to transit to the new and improved sheet. II. The developer who had developed the sheet is not available for accommodating the necessary changes in the new sheet found while testing the sheet as he is busy with other projects. III. The new sheet was shared only at end of March and partners had reluctantly accepted to share data in new sheet, it would not be good on face for NSDC to ask the partners again accommodate to error free sheet. IV. The entire monitoring activity is outsourced to Accenture based on fixed bid, the dependency on the single person for collecting the data can’t be eliminated or reduced till the time SDMS comes in place. Current Status: I. NSDC, after a thorough discussion, would be hiring three data operators to correct the errors in the data received till date. II. A new developer is being searched to make the suggested changes in the MIS template. III. On call training is being given to all the partners to enter details in the new MIS template. IV. Till the time MIS template is made error free, a snapshot of numbers along with the data is asked from all the partners for building the master dashboard of all the partner data together.

6.3.3 Skill Development Management System Current Status: I. Detailed discussions with Talisma in progress to fine tune the SOW and MSA in order to avoid any additional future costs due to change requests. II. Cognizant team has accepted to assist NSDC with project management on Pro-Bono basis in SDMS development.
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Summer Internship Report III. Cognizant team is currently reviewing the draft SOW and MSA shared by Talisma for finding gaps between requirements from RFP and details covered in SOW. IV. SOW and MSA were expected to be finalized and signed by June end but it has been postponed till mid July.

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7. ANALYSIS OF BUSINESS MODELS AT PARTNER LEVEL
To analyze the business model of the partners a triangulation method was recommended to NSDC. This project was jointly done with Accenture This method involves:

Field based validation

Desktop based validation

Document based validation

Partner Performance Rating

I.

Desktop based validation: Validation of data provided by selected partners with respect to actual training and placement numbers as against targets. Done by contacting the training centre or employer with whom the candidate is placed. This validation helps in verifying the correctness of data and avoiding duplication of numbers if any.

II.

Field based validation: Validation of data provided by selected partners with respect to geographic, sector and social segment coverage. Field visits to partner centres are used to understand ground realities and difficulties faced by partners. This validation helps in understanding reasons behind good or poor performance by the partners.

III.

Document based validation: Validation of the documents like annual reports, P&L statements, Balance sheets and auditors reports for the selected partners. This type of validation helps in identifying risks and issues

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Summer Internship Report associated with the operational model, training costs and revenues of selected partners. Based on this approach, a comprehensive scorecard is developed which would evaluate the partners based on set of social and financial parameters. Through a series of discussions, for the purpose of partner evaluation, it was finalized that the social parameters would be given 60% weightage while the financial parameters would carry remaining 40%. Parameters would be measured with the actual numbers delivered as against the committed numbers in contracts and annual term sheets.

7.1 Social parameters
The parameters included for quarterly scorecard based evaluation of social excellence are:

% Trainees completing training vs. target

Presence of quality manuals for training

Social Parameters for Quarterly Evaluation

% Trainees placed

No. of centers operational vs proposed

Whereas while preparing the annual score card following parameters are considered for social excellence evaluation:
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Presence of quality manuals for training

% trainees completing training vs. target

Broad sectoral alignment with proposed

Geographical spread

Social Parameters for Annual Evaluation

Employer Satisfaction Score

No. of centers operational vs proposed % trainees placed

Trainee Satisfaction Score

To find the scores for evaluating the partner on social excellence, the actual numbers are pulled from the MIS dashboard submitted by the partners on the monthly basis combined together for the quarter under analysis, while the expected numbers are taken from the expected or committed numbers are taken from the contracts and annual plans. The following figure depicts the scoring process for social excellence

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Social Excellence score evaluation

Actual Scores of individual parameter

Color coding based on actual scores

Derived score calculation based on weightage

Total of individual derived score for output and input parameters

Total score of social excellence

Higher the score better for the partner. The score is computed on a scale of 0-100 points.

7.2 Financial parameters
The parameters included for quarterly scorecard based evaluation of financial excellence are:

Earned revenue over target ratio

Financial Parameters for Quarterly Evaluation

Total fund utilization

Whereas while preparing the annual score card following parameters are considered for financial excellence evaluation:
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Earned revenue over target ratio Deviation in fund utilization (for grants) Financial Parameters for Annual Evaluation Total fund utilization (Loan + Equity) Debt to equity ratio Interest service coverage ratio EBITDA over target ratio

To find the scores for evaluating the partner on financial excellence, the actual numbers are pulled from the Utilization certificate and annual report submitted by the partners, while the expected numbers are taken from the committed numbers in the partner contracts. The following figure depicts the scoring process for financial excellence

Financial Excellence score evaluation
Total score for financial excellece based on sum of risk points assigned to individual parameters

Actual Scores of individual parameter

Derived score calculation based on risk point assignment

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Summer Internship Report Lower the score better for the organization. The scores are computed on a scale of 0-110 points.

7.3 Computing the final score for partner
While computing the overall excellence of a partner, the scores are normalized as following: I. For social excellence score, points are converted from range 0-100 to 0-60 by directly multiplying the total by a factor of 0.6 II. For financial excellence score, points are converted from range of 0-110 to 40-0. This being implied from the fact that lower the financial score better it is for the partner. III. Finally the sum of above two normalized score is added together to get the final performance excellence score for the partner.

7.4 Current Status
This evaluation framework was presented to the NSDC CEO and board members for their approval to be used for evaluation of partners and their business models on a regular basis. To demonstrate its usability and benefits, this method was used for evaluation of partners for the recent partners meet to give the awards for the best business model in different categories.

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Summer Internship Report

8. SKILLPEDIA WEB PORTAL
Skillpedia is an one of its kind initiative undertaken by NSDC. It is different from the other job portal or skill websites, as it primarily aims to bridge the gap of demand and supply of skilled personnel. It provides an opportunity for various categories of skill providers, with respect to infrastructure, resources, training and assessment to optimally pool in their resources through a common platform. It provides a simple and easy to use common platform to skilled candidates and recruiting companies. Skillpedia is an effort towards an open to all and free to use online platform for promoting skill development initiatives undertaken by National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC). It’s an inclusive tool for Skill Development in India. It aids entrepreneurs with all possible information on Skill Development by identifying the opportunities and also provides avenues for capability and capacity enhancement of existing professionals in the field of Skill Development by facilitating a common platform for knowledge sharing. At the beginning of my summer internship, the development, maintenance and hosting of skillpedia was handed over to Sify on a Pro-bono basis. So the discussions with sify were mainly focused on requirements for Skillpedia website, new look & feel and the development technique to be adopted for the website.

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8.1 Skillpedia stakeholders

NSDC Training Partners

Instructors

Infrastructure Providers

Employers

Skillpedia

Consultants

Candidates

Certification Agencies

Assessment Agencies

I.

NSDC : To contribute significantly (about 30 percent ) to the overall target of skilling/up skilling 500 million people in India by 2022, mainly by fostering private sector initiatives in skill development programmes and providing viability gap funding. NSDC would use skillpedia portal to bridge the gap between demand and supply of skilled personnel.

II.

Training Partners: To train and certify technical skills of the candidates. Training & Skill Development organizations, Vocational Training Institute like ITI / Polytechnic / NISI, NGO’s, Private organization, etc.

III.

Employers: Organization both public and private requiring skilled manpower in various domains with specific skills would get will get a rich database of skilled resources.
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Process Optimization of Monitoring Activities at NSDC

Summer Internship Report IV. Candidates: Acquire in-demand skills after completing vocational training from the Training institute and get employment opportunities as per skills acquired. V. Assessment Agencies: To evaluate the effectiveness of courses delivered to the candidates at the training institutes, assessment agencies would access skill assessment portal based on assessment tools and assessment modules as defined by NSDC. VI. Certification Agencies: On completion of training program candidate can generate and print certificate by requesting the same to certifying agencies which would validate candidate credentials and generate certificate with a unique ID. VII. Consultants: Consultants as approved by NSDC for different roles like monitoring ongoing projects, marketing, skill gap mapping, competency mapping, etc. would be viewed and contacted on skillpedia portal. VIII. Infrastructure providers: All parties interested in providing their space on lease for training programs approved by NSDC would share their details on the skillpedia portal. IX. Instructors/Trainers: Instructors interested in training candidates for particular skill along with NSDC approved training partner would register and submit their CV on skillpedia portal.

8.2 Skillpedia features
I. NSDC : a. Create awareness on the importance of skill development & certification with the ability to share information and best practices. b. Roping in recognized assessment agencies for betterment of the employer and the job seeker. c. Provide regional level language support. II. Training Partner : a. Integrated Learning Management Portal which is Tutoring Delivery Platform and Course Delivery Management System. Facilitates the creation of collaborative knowledge.
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Summer Internship Report b. Aid to training partners to fine-tune their course curriculum and introduce new courses as and when required by industry. c. Search facility on the parameters such as employers, infrastructure, consultants etc. III. Employers: a. List of candidates available countrywide with Drill-Down search on category/skill, state, city. b. Single point to access candidate registered and certified by NSDC to tap in training partners for bulk hiring. c. Integrated and advance search capabilities to search right people for right opportunity. IV. Candidate: a. List of agencies with details on different skills provided. b. Details of available training programs on various skills certified by NSDC and conducted by training partners on a pan India basis. c. Complete list of openings for various categories are posted onto the site and the employee in the respective city selects his choice and applies. d. Details of employers open for recruitment. e. Career assessment tool to choose the right career/job that suits the candidates.

8.3 Recommendations for data format to be uploaded on Skillpedia web portal
8.3.1 Job Seeker data: I. The field of competencies is similar to courses undertaken by candidate and current/preferred industry determines the sector. But there is no place to determine the certification/training information. One column to include certification details like ISTQB, Sun certified or NIIT needs to be added in sheet. II. Column for uploading experience details not present in current data format. Need to include field for years of experience.
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Summer Internship Report III. One more column for preferred job location (preference can be given for a specific state or Pan-India) can be included. This would provide a facility to employers to hire trained candidates for an option with preferred job location. 8.3.2 Skill Provider/training partner data: I. Include details about the location where the course would be provided. New column needs to be added II. Column to provide contact details for training providers not present. This would be useful for the candidates to contact the training partner for further information and details. III. Column for fee details is a deterring factor. Several students would refrain from enquiring about or taking up the course after seeing the fee details. Can be removed. 8.3.3 Finalized Data tables for Skillpedia web portal After a thorough discussion with Accenture and Sify, following data tables were finalized for the Skillpedia web portal Employer Table: I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. IX. X. XI. XII. XIII. Employer name Job title Job reference code Job roles & responsibilities Sector Academic qualification required Competencies / certifications required Years of experience required State District Employer address Employer phone number and email Full-time / Part-time

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Summer Internship Report Jobseeker Table: I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. IX. X. XI. XII. XIII. XIV. XV. XVI. Resume title Summary First name Middle name Last name Contact details Current location Gender Academic qualification Competencies / certifications Proficiency level Years of experience Current / preferred industry Function Detailed resume (word doc) Preferred job location

Skills training table: I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. IX. X. XI. XII. XIII. Course/Training Provider Course Name Course Description Course type- Classroom Training/ILT, WBT, Virtual Tutoring, Mobile Learning Sector Eligibility criteria for enrolment Location where the course is conducted Contact details of training provider Duration Accreditation / certifying body Fee structure Financial assistance availability. Collaboration with State/Central government agency

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8.4 Recommendations for User Interface of Skillpedia web portal
Based on the discussions with Sify, it was finalized that the new user interface for the skillpedia website would be developed on Drupal platform. The following images display the changes made in the user interface for the skillpedia site:

Old Website

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New Website

8.5 Current Status of Skillpedia website
I. II. III. IV. Development of Skillpedia website completed on Drupal platform. Performance testing of website in progress. Existing data is being cleaned to be uploaded on the website at the earliest. User guide document for various user types (Candidates, Training providers, and Employers) are under development. User guide document would indicate the necessary details on skills training to be provided by training partners and information on the skill requirements to be provided by employers
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Summer Internship Report V. Partners have been instructed to upload the trained candidate details on the website to upload the data manually till the time SDMS comes in place and feeds the data shared by the partners automatically. VI. Partners have also been instructed to manually upload details from their annual plans about training programs for candidates. VII. Monster is currently being consulted to improve the usage of the job portal on skillpedia website. VIII. Learning Management System (LMS) for skillpedia website under

development. IX. Exploration of the necessary requirements for Voice-web technology and its integration in Skillpedia to enable registration from vocational audience under study.

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9. REFERENCES
[1] Juan, Y. C., & Ou-Yang, C. C. (2004). Systematic approach for the gap analysis of business processes. International Journal Of Production Research, 42(7), 13251364. [2] POULSON, B., (1996), Process benchmarking in retail financial services. Management Services,June, 1996, 12–14. [3] WATSON, G. H., 1992, The Benchmarking Workbook: Adapting Best Practices for Performance Improvement (Oregon: Productivity). [4] Fahey, L. (1998). Business Process Redesign: The Implications of Tacit Knowledge. Knowledge & Process Management, 5(2), 110-117. [5] Abdi, N., Zarei, B., Vaisya, J., & Parvin, B. (2011). Innovation Models and Business Process Redesign. International Business & Management, 3(2), 147-152. [6] Davenport, T.H. (1993). Process Innovation: Reengineering Work Through Information Technology. Boston: Harvard Business School Press. [7] Kettinger, W. J., Teng, J. C., & Guha, S. (1996). Information architectural design in business process reengineering. Journal Of Information Technology (Routledge, Ltd.), 11(1), 27-37. doi:10.1080/026839696345405 [8] Teng, J. T. C.; Grover, V.; Fiedler, K. D. (1994), "Business Process Reengineering: Charting a Strategic Path for the Information Age," California Management Review, 36, 3, pp. 9-31. [9] Olalla, M. (2000). Information Technology in Business Process Reengineering. International Advances In Economic Research, 6(3), 581. [10] Chakraborty, S., Sarker, S., & Sarker, S. (2010). An Exploration into the Process of Requirements Elicitation: A Grounded Approach. Journal Of The Association For Information Systems, 11(4), 212-249. [11] Pitts, M. G., & Browne, G. J. (2007). Improving requirements elicitation: an empirical investigation of procedural prompts. Information Systems Journal, 17(1), 89-110. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2575.2006.00240.x
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