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Food Production and Bakery II (Theory)

Unit 1

Unit 1
Structure: 1.1 Introduction Objectives 1.2 1.3 Definitions Spanish Cookery Characteristics Regional Influence Sample Menu 1.4 Mexican Cookery Characteristics Regional Influence Sample Menu 1.5 Japanese Cookery Characteristics Regional Influence Sample Menu 1.6 Thai Cookery Characteristics Regional Influence Sample Menu 1.7 American Cookery Characteristics Regional Influence Sample Menu 1.8 1.9 1.10 Summary Terminal Question Answers

International Cuisine

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1.1 Introduction
People worldwide share a love for food. But the ingredients, flavorings, seasonings and cooking methods they use are not the same. Whether defined by geography, history, ethnicity, politics or religion, various societies eat with distinctive manners. These differences shape and define their particular cuisine. In this unit, we shall give the difference between national, regional and ethnic cuisine. We shall state the characteristics, regional influences and menu of Spain, Mexico, Thailand, Japan and America. Objectives: After studying this unit, you should be able to; define the differences between national, regional and ethnic cuisine. discuss the characteristic features of Spanish, Mexican, Thai, Japanese and American cooking. state the various ingredients used in each cuisine.

1.2 Definitions
Culinary development initially was tied to developments within an individual country or region; however as each region came into contact with people from other areas, ideas were exchanged. Cooking got directed towards making the food easily eaten and digested. The art, practice or work of cooking is called as cookery. Professional cooking is defined as a system of cooking based upon knowledge of ingredients and procedures. The ingredients, seasonings, cooking procedures, styles and eating habits, attributable to a particular group of people and the group defined by geography, history, ethnicity, politics, culture or religion is called cuisine.

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The characteristic cuisine of a nation is called national cuisine. A set of recipes based upon local ingredients, traditions and practices within a larger geographical, political, cultural or social unit is called regional cuisine. Regional cuisines are often variations of each other that blend together to create a national cuisine. Ethnic cuisine is defined as a group of people having a common cultural heritage as opposed to the cuisine of a group of people bound together by geographical or political factors. Self Assessment Question 1. Define cuisine

1.3 Spanish Cookery


Spanish cooking is rich and varied much like the country itself. First-grade ingredients, excellences of which are renowned, wise old popular traditions and the promotion of fine new culinary professionals have boosted Spains gastronomic prestige to the top of the list in Europe over the past few years. Each region of Spain has its own specialties and all regions have excellent sea food dishes. There are fish soups, main dishes and famous snacks known as TAPAS which are served throughout the day. Meal times in Spain are much later than in other countries. The two main meals are lunch which can be served any time from 1:30 pm to 3:30 pm and supper which is rarely served before 9:30 pm to 10 pm. There are six major gastronomic zones in mainland Spain. 1.3.1 Characteristics 1. A significant portion of Spanish cuisine is derived from Jewish and Moorish traditions. 2. Moors had a strong influence in Spain for many centuries and some of their food is still eaten in Spain today.
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Several native foods of Americans were introduced to Europe through Spain. Modern Spanish chefs cannot cook without potatoes, tomatoes, peppers, and beans.

4.

5.

Sofrito (a Spanish word for a well cooked and fragrant sauce, contains garlic, onions, and tomatoes cooked in olive oil) is used to start the preparation of many dishes.

6. 7. 8. 9.

Garlic and onions are used as seasonings. Drinking of wine during meals is a custom. Bread is served with meals. Olive oil is an essential ingredient in Spanish cooking. Spain produces 44% of the worlds olives.

10. 11. 12.

Butter and lard are also important especially in northern Spain. Meat is fried in south, roasted in central and cooked in northern Spain. Spanish cuisine is so unique that in many areas it is made traditionally with hand, from fresh ingredients bought daily from local market.

13.

Urbanization & mushrooming of ready made foods and supermarkets do not have much influence on food habits of people as they still relish food prepared fresh and from local markets.

14.

Spanish cuisine comprises many food habits like churros dipped in hot chocolate.

1.3.2 Regional Influences I. North Northern region of Spain is a wet and rainy region which makes for a cuisine that is not only very tasty but varied as both meat and fish are staple ingredients used. The fertile valleys across this belt of Spain are a paradise for fruit and vegetables, and the locally-grown asparagus, peppers, borage, cardoons (cardoon is a celery like vegetable), peaches and pears enjoy well-deserved fame for their superb quality.
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Potatoes, cabbage, pochas (haricot beans allowed to ripen and swell in the pod) are used for starters or as garnishing for dishes featuring trout, meat etc. Marinades and conserves (confits) are commonly used. Desserts like milk puddings, fresh fruits or coated with chocolate or preserved in syrup, and fine breads, put the finishing touches to a highly-regarded cuisine. The Basque country leans towards seasonal home type cooking, with local specialties like Marmitako Tuna Stew, Txipirones en su Tinta Squid in their own Ink, Idiazabal Ewe's Milk Cheese Cantabria offers diversity in a cuisine that blends sea and mountain, with top quality ingredients, especially seafood and dairy products which are considered the pillars of cooking in this region. II. Coastal The coastal region is associated with Holy Trinity of wheat, olive oil and the vine. With other important ingredients being rice, legumes, garlic, greens, fish, meat, eggs, cheese, yoghurt and fruits. Coastal regions are embraced with an array of fish. Typical dishes such as escudella (a meaty broth with pasta, usually followed by carne dolla, a hearty stew) and roasts. III. Central Coastal Region: Valencian and Murcia regions combines typically coastal dishes with those of upland plateau, such as potages and game stews, and which assigns rice, served dry, moist or in paella, renowned delicacy of Spain. Sweetmeats, nougats and ice creams keep the Arabic influence very much alive. IV. Central Cuisine: The Castile-La Mancha region produces a range of fine foods and drink including Spains best ewes milk cheese (Manchego), excellent table wines
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(Valdepenas), honey, asparagus, strawberries and saffron. Toledo is renowned for its yemas (egg yolk sweets) and marzipans, Madrid for its chocolate con churros, orejuelas (honey fritters), and Ciudad Real for its bizcochos, borrachos or wine-soaked cakes V. Southern Region Southern or Andalusian cooking takes its inspiration from the crucible of cultures that together forged its culinary heritage. This regions fine line is confectionery and pastry, a variety of dishes of pork and ham are major contributions to Spanish cuisine. Self Assessment Question 2. Name three commonly used vegetables in Spanish cuisine? 1.3.3 Sample Menu Guacamole Sopa De Ajos (Garlic Soup) Potatoes Tortilla Cordero Al Chilindron Swirled Mango And Papaya Cream

1.3.3.1 Guacamole (Avacado Dips with Tortilla Chips) Ingredients Ripened avocados Lemon juice Garlic cloves Spring onions Chopped jalapenos Coriander Salt and black pepper Tomatoes 2 no 3 tbsp 2 no 40 g 2-3 tbsp 2 tbsp to taste 125gm

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For The Totopos (tortilla chips) 8 corn or wheat tortillas Oil for deep frying Method: 1. Cut the avocados into half and carefully remove the peel and stones, scoop out the flesh and sprinkle a little of lemon juice to prevent discolouring. 2. Put the avocado flesh in the mixing bowl with the remaining lemon juice and mash coarsely, add garlic, spring onions, chillies, coriander and some seasoning to taste, mix in the chopped tomatoes, and cover the bowl and place in the refrigerator for at least one hour. 3. Meanwhile make the totopos (tortilla chips) to serve with the guacamole. Cut each tortilla into 8 equal sized pieces. 4. Deep fry the tortillas in the hot oil until they are crisp and golden. Drain on an absorbent kitchen paper and sprinkle with little sea salt and serve with guacamole. 1.3.3.2 Sopa de Ajos (Garlic Soup) Ingredients: Bread Olive oil Garlic Paprika Chilli powder Salt Meat Stock Eggs 3 slices 15ml 2 cloves 1 tsp 1 tsp to taste 500 ml 2no

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Method: 1. Cut the bread into cubes. 2. Heat the olive oil in a saucepan and fry the bread cubes in it until golden brown. 3. Add the garlic and let it colour a little. 4. Season with paprika and pour the meat stock. Cover and leave to simmer for about 15 minutes. 5. Fill two earthenware bowls with soup. Carefully slip 1 egg into each bowl and leave to cook in a preheated oven at about 190deg C for around 10 minutes. Serve the soup very hot. 1.3.3.3 Potatoes Tortilla Ingredients Potato Onion Oil Eggs Salt Ground pepper Parsley Method: 1. 2. Cut potatoes into thin slices and onions into rings. Heat oil in a frying pan, add the potatoes and onion and cook over a low heat for about 10 minutes until the potatoes are tender. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Remove from heat. In a large bowl beat together the eggs, salt and pepper. Stir in the sliced potatoes and onion. Heat the remaining oil in the frying pan and pour in the potato mixture. Cook very gently for 5 to 8 minutes until mixture is almost set.
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250 gm 50 gm 25 ml 2 no to taste to taste to garnish

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8. 9. 10.

Place a large plate upside down over the pan. Invert the tortilla into the pan and then slide it into the pan. Cook for 2 or 3 minutes more until the underside of the tortilla is golden brown.

11.

Cut into wedges and garnish with parsley.

1.3.3.4 Cordero Al Chilindron (Lamb Hotpot with Paprika) Ingredients: Red bell pepper Lamb Olive oil Onion Garlic Salt Pepper Paprika Tomato Green bell pepper White wine Parsley Method: 1. Dice the bell pepper. 2. Cut the lamb into bite size pieces & brown on all sides in hot oil. 3. Add onion & garlic & cook until slightly brown. Season with salt, pepper, paprika. Add water and simmer for 20 minutes. 4. Add tomatoes, red & green peppers & wine. 5. Cook for another 40 minutes, stirring from time to time, add some more water if necessary to prevent the meat from drying out. 6. Season with salt & pepper & garnish with chopped parsley. 50 g 250 g 25 ml 50 g 1 clove to taste to taste 1g 50 g 50 g 25 ml 5g

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1.3.3.5 Helado De Mabgo E Papaya (Swirled Mango and Papaya Cream) Ingredients: Milk Egg yolks Sugar Salt Fresh mango puree Lime juice Double cream Papaya puree White rum Icing sugar Method: 1. Boil the milk in a heavy sauce pan. Lightly beat the egg yolk with sugar and the salt until the mixture is pale. Gradually stir in the hot milk and return to the sauce pan and cook over low heat, stir until the custard thickens. Don't allow the custard to boil or the custard will curdle. 2. Pour the custard into a bowl and cool, stir in the mango puree and lime juice. Whip the cream until thick and beat lightly into the mango mixture, pour into a container, cover and freeze until just firm. 3. Mix together papaya puree and rum and then sweeten to taste with some icing sugar. 4. Put alternative spoonful of mango ice cream and the papaya mixture into a freeze proof container and stir gently with a spoon to make a swirl effect. Cover and return to the freezer until firm. Soften at room temperature before serving. 250 ml. 2 no 125 gm to taste 250 ml. 2-3 tsp 250 ml 150 ml 2 tbsp to taste

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Self Assessment Questions 3. What is tortilla? 4. What is Gazpacho? 5. What is Antojitos?

1.4 Mexican Cookery


The history of Mexican cuisine dates back to thousands of years ago with the taming of the wild corn. On this basic food, the great civilizations like the Aztecs founded their culinary world. Mexican cuisine is a temperamental mix of indigenous Indian ingredients and the influence of Spanish invasion in the early sixteenth century. In the course of preparing their daily fare, the Indian and Spanish borrowed from each other, traded recipes across enemy lines, and exchanged ingredients, styles and methods of cooking. Slowly the warring cultures coalesced and a new cuisine emerged. Food and eating are and will remain the tempering link between the old and the new in Mexico. Cooks of the old world embraced the culinary treasures they found tomatoes, potatoes, peppers, chocolate, vanilla, pecan nuts, squashes, sugar cane and a rainbow of beans. Cooks of the new world were undoubtedly happy in turn to have oranges, limes, melons, wheat, beef, and a treasure chest of new spices. In the middle of the 19th century, a French dimension was added as witnessed by many pastries and breads that are still popular today. Corn, hot and mild Chilli peppers, nuts and seeds, citrus fruit, chocolate and fragrant herbs make up the tastes of the food. Its flavours are piquant, limey, sweet, fruity, earthy, soul satisfying and inspiring to any food lover.

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1.4.1 Characteristics Features of Mexican Cuisine 1. 2. Mexican cuisine starts and ends with tacos and refried beans. A typical Mexican meal may start with a hearty soup, followed by a meat-and-sauce dish served with beans, rice and tortillas, a dessert, finally with a beverage. 3. The most characteristic feature of Mexican cookery is the widespread use of chillies. There are about 100 varieties, many of which have a hot, piquant taste 4. Fresh chillies can be served raw, stuffed, baked, stewed, and chopped with tomatoes, herbs and oil for salsa. 5. 6. Chillies are minced / dried /ground and used for seasoning. Other seasonings include garlic, cinnamon, cumin, oregano, onion, basil, achiote seeds, cilantro and other fresh herbs. 7. Fresh vegetables salsas accompany many dishes. Fresh salsas are usually categorized as either red or green. Red salsa called rojo is made from chillies, onions and tomatoes. Green salsa called salsa Verde is made from chillies, onions and tomatoes. 8. Corn flour is used to make dough called masa. Smooth masa is traditionally pressed by hand into flat rounds and quickly cooked on griddle to make tortillas 9. Tortillas are eaten like bread filled with savoury mixtures and fried. Tacos are used for turnovers 10. Tamales are made from coarser masa dough that is stuffed with a mixture of beans, meats or poultry encased in corn husks and steamed. 11. Many of masa based dishes are considered snacks foods known as ANTOJITOS, the traditional portable snacks of Mexican market place. 12. In northern Mexico, wheat flour is also used for tortillas and leavened breads.
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Rice although not indigenous, is also a staple of Mexican diets. Beans are used as staple food. They are usually dried and reconstituted in water or mashed and fried in lard or oil to make a smooth paste called frijoles refritos (refried beans).

15.

Chicken is popular throughout the country. Meat is used somewhat sparingly in most Mexican regional cuisines. Beef and dairy products are more widely consumed in the north, while goat and goat cheese are more typically of the countrys central regions. Fish and shell fish are eaten along both coasts.

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The ancient manner of slow cooking is still used for meats, poultry and fish.

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The ancient cooking methods known as PIBIL in which meats (traditionally pork) are wrapped in banana leaves and cooked in a pit lined with hot coal is replaced today by steaming banana leaf wrapped meats.

18.

Vegetables and meats (usually chicken) are also grilled (called al carbon) or seared and roasted.

19.

Popular marinade of meat is adobado combining chillies, garlic, vinegar and herbs used as a seasoning for meats. Sauce making includes a step known as frying the sauce. Most sauces start with dried peppers that are soaked, seeded and ground to a paste and then mixed with herbs, spices and vegetables. The mixture is thickened with pumpkin seeds or nuts, then pureed and fried in oil or lard. The sauce is added to partially cooked and dried meat / poultry and the dish is simmered to blend the flavours.

20.

21.

Moles are the dishes made with a classic cooking method that incorporates this sauce making technique.

22.

Sweets, especially candies, candied fruits and hard cookies or cakes, are popular throughout Mexico.

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The more commonly encountered desserts such as flans and caramels are derived from the Spanish tradition.

1.4.2 Regional Influences I. Central (Mexican City) Blended with tomatoes, the fiery hot GUAJILLOS or smoky CHILPOTLES are the principal chillies used for sauces. Also popular are the common black Chile and the PASILLA. A great variety of beans are used, but the purplish FLOR DE MAYO and the tan BAYO are the most popular. Cooking methods include mole. A typical meat dish would be lamb wrapped in maguey or banana leaves cooked in brick pits and served with a sauce of fermented maguey juice and pasilla. II. West Central (Guadalajara) The defining of sauce is made with the puree of the very hot chile de arbol sometimes thickened with tomatillos. De arbol also come bottled, pickled with vinegar. A great variety of beans are used, but as with central Mexican cuisine, flor de mayo and bayo are most popular. A typical meat dish would be kid (young goat) marinated in chillies and slow-cooked in a sealed container. From the west coast also comes seviche, a dish of finely chopped fish and shellfish marinated in lime juice, cilantro, tomato chunks and herbs. III. Central East Cost (Veracruz) Although still used in abundance, chillies play a less prominent role. Herbs (especially cilantro, basil, bay leaves, parsley and oregano) and spices (peppercorns and cinnamon) are a vital part of the cuisine. The area is known for its fish and shellfish cooked in a chunky broth of olives, herbs and chillies (usually jalapeos). The basic bean is black and usually cooked with a sprig of EPAZOTE(Mexican tea).

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IV. Northern (Sonora, Chihuahua) As in West Central Mexico, the defining sauce is made with a puree of the very hot de arbol chilies, sometimes thickened with tomatillos. This region is known for its wheat and beef, which is sometimes dried and called carne seca. A typical beef dish is the simmered CHILE CON CARNE COLORADO. Popular beans are pintos and the yellowish-tan piruano. V. South Eastern (Yucatan) This regional cuisine is unique, using ACHIOTE seeds as the principal seasoning. Fresh chillies are usually ground with salt and lime or purchased in a bottled form. A variety of orange-red and a green sauce made with local BABANERO CHILIES are especially popular. Seasonings are added to most dishes in the form of a paste that can be brick red (made from achiote seeds ground with oregano, black pepper, cloves, allspice, cinnamon and vinegar), olive amber (a mild blend of garlic, allspice, cinnamon and other spices) or coal black (made from burnt chillies, achiote, spices and garlic). A typical pork dish flavoured with achiote and wrapped in banana leaves, then slowly steamed or roasted is called pibil. The most commonly used bean is black and usually cooked with a sprig of epazote. VI. Southern (Oaxaca) A wide range of dried peppers are used in many different stews and sauces, some of which combine sweeter spices such as cloves and cinnamon with savoury foods. A typical meat or poultry dish would be kid or chicken marinated in chillies, then wrapped in avocado leaves and steamed. Some consider this region to produce the finest chorizo, a pork sausage made with herbs, spices, a touch of vinegar and deep red chillies. The basic black bean is also regularly used throughout the South.

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Tex-Mex It is a blended flavour of Northern Mexico and the Southern US where Native Americans, cowboys and Mexicans inter-mingled cultures. Many traditional dishes have been altered by one side or the other to create the cuisine style that most Americans consider Mexican. Tex-Mex also encompasses the Americanized dishes such as Mexican ingredients used in a casserole instead of serving with a tortilla. Mexican Cuisine is incomplete without mentioning the famous chillies and tortillas Chillies Anaheim Ancho Chile de arbol Chipotle Guajillo Jalapeno Serrano Pasilla

Tortillas Enchiladas: Are filled, rolled or layered with fillings, covered with a sauce and baked. Flautas: It is a variation of tacos that are made with two overlapped corn tortillas that are rolled around a filling, and then fried in hot fat, and garnished with shredded lettuce, cheese and salsa. Gorditas: Translated as little fat ones, these are variations of tostadas. It comes in two types, one is a thick, handmade corn tortilla that is cooked on a griddle, then split and filled. The other is a fried patty of

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masa harina (Mexican corn flour) that is served with various toppings and sauce. Tacos: Tortillas or tacos are either crisp shells or soft wrappers, and they can be rolled or folded with a filling- beans, guacamole, shredded cooked chicken, red or green Chilli con carne, chorizo or carne seca (dry meat). Tacos are topped with shredded iceberg lettuce or cabbage and shredded cheese. Salsas are served on the side. Tortilla: tortillas are cut into eight wedges, and then fried until crisps or wafers called totopos. They are usually served with guacamole or salsa. Nachos: Are fried tortilla chips, topped with hot, melted cheese and chillies. Tostadas: Crisp-fried, flat corn tortillas which serve as bases for refried beans and other toppings that are mounted as garnishes on top. In New Mexico, a tostada is sometimes a small basket formed by a corn tortilla that is fried in a special device until it is crisp and golden brown. Quesadillas: are favourite hors d oeuvres. Cheese and other fillings are added to the flat tortilla in a skillet and the tortilla is folded over or another one placed on the top like a sandwich and briefly pan-grilled until the cheese melts. It is served, cut in to triangle, rather like a pizza. Burritos: Is a flour tortilla folded like an envelope around a filling.

1.4.4 Sample Menu Sopa De Arroz Pescado Veracruz Chicken Fajitas Stuffed Bell Pepper Sopaipillas

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1.4.4.1 Sopa De Arroz 1. Rice 2. Olive oil 3. Onion 4. Garlic cloves 5. Chicken stock 6. Salt & pepper Method: Fry the rice in the oil, stirring frequently until it is lightly golden, for about 10 minutes Then add the onion, garlic and stock, season to taste and cook on a slow fire for an hour. 1.4.4.2 Pescado in Escabeche 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Olive oil Onion Red chillies Tomato Stuffed green olive Stoned black olive Caper Dried Oregano White Fish Plain Flour Coriander 60 ml 2 nos. 2 nos. 4 large nos. 8 nos. 4 nos. 1 tbsp a pinch 250 gms 40 gms 2 tbsp 25 gm 2 tbsp 1 no 2-4 no 4 cup to taste

Method: Heat the oil in frying pan, add onion and garlic and fry gently until soft and golden. Stir in the chilly, chopped tomatoes, olives, capers, and

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oregano. Bring to boil, reduce heat, and simmer the mixture gently for 20 minutes. Wash the fish and pat dry on absorbent kitchen paper. Mix the flour with little salt to season in a dish and then coat the fish fillet, shaking off any excess flour. Melt the butter in a large frying pan. Add the fish fillets and fry gently for about 5 minutes on each side until cooked and golden. Transfer the fish fillets to a serving dish and pour the tomato sauce over the top. Sprinkle with chopped coriander and serve with warm tortillas, salad and rice. 1.4.4.3 Chicken Fajitas 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Chicken Large onion Red pepper Green pepper Olive oil Tortillas Guacamole Sour cream Sesame seeds Coriander leaves 3 nos. 2 nos. 1 no 1 no 2 tbsp 6 nos 150 gms 150 ml 2 tbsp 1 tbsp

Marination: 11. 12. 13. 14. Lime juice Olive oil Dried oregano Dried coriander 2 nos 3 tbsp 1 tsp 1 tsp

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Method: Make the marinade; combine the lime juice with oil, dried oregano and coriander in a bowl. Add chicken strips, stir well, cover and leave in the refrigerator for 2 hours. Put the chicken strips and marinade in a roasting pan, cover with foil and bake in a pre-heated oven at 200 deg. C for 30 minutes. Bake, uncovered for the last 10 minutes. Meanwhile saut the onions and peppers in the oil until they are soft and melting. It does not matter if they become little brown and caramelized. Place a little of the sauted onions and peppers on each warmed tortilla and top with chicken. Add a little guacamole, some sour cream and sesame seed, sprinkle with coriander and roll it up. Serve with salsa if wished. 1.4.4.4 Stuffed Bell Pepper 1. Bacon rashes 2. Olive oil 3. Small onion 4. Minced beef / mutton 5. Cooked rice 6. Large peppers Method: Fry the bacon in little oil in the bacon fat. Fry the onion and beef. When the beef is cooked, add the rice warmed thoroughly. Cut the top of the peppers, remove the seeds and vein, Stuff the beef, bacon rice mixture in to the peppers. Bake it in the oven for 200 deg. C for 30 to 40 minutes. 3 nos. 1 tbsp 1 no. 250 gms 75 gms 4 nos.

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1.4.4.5 Sopaipillas Ingredients 1. Flour 2. Baking powder 3. Salt 4. Lard 5. Lukewarm water 6. Oil 7. Warm honey 8. Cinnamon 9. Pomegranate seeds Method: Sift the flour, baking powder and salt into a bowl. Rub the fat into the flour and bind with enough lukewarm water to form dough. Knead the dough briefly until it is really smooth. Cover and then leave to stand in room temperature for about 20 minutes. Roll out the dough on a lightly floured surface to 5mm or Cut the dough into 7.5cms or 3 inch squares. Heat the oil for deep frying to 200c and deep fry the pieces of dough, 2 or 3 at a time until they are puffed up and golden. Turn once so that they are evenly coloured on both side, drain on absorbent kitchen paper. To serve, tear off a corner of each sopaipilla and pour in some honey, flavoured with cinnamon. Serve with sprinkled pomegranate seeds. Self Assessment Question 3. What are tortilla chips?
Th

250 gms 1 tsp tsp 1 tbsp 150 ml Deep frying 50 ml a pinch 5 gm

inch thick.

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1.5 Japanese Cuisine


Rice is a fundamental part of Japanese food. Rice was in fact used as a form of currency, to collect tax, and to measure ones wealth. There are two basic types of rice in the world - Japonica and Indica. Seafood is also a fundamental food of Japan. Japan has few natural resources but sea food is abundant. 1.5.1 Characteristics Japan strives for a cuisine that reflects clarity, lightness, simplicity and order. Small portions of subtly combined ingredients, flavours and textures beautifully presented on dishes that compliment the food are its hallmark. Rice, both sweet and savoury is the staple of Japanese diet. Gohan, a Japanese word for rice also refers to a meal. Rice is served steamed, pressed into cakes or made into noodles. Other staples are soya bean products including bean curd (Tofu) bean paste (miso), sprouts, seeds and sauce. Japanese cuisine also relies on a variety of noodles, including one made from wheat (the thin ramen, the thicker somen and the very thick udon) buck wheat (soba) and Mungbeans. Fish and shellfish play important roles in Japanese cuisine. Typical seasonings which are used judiciously include rice wine vinegar, wasabi (a piquant green root called green horseradish) pepper, sesame oil and seeds, ginger, soy sauce, rice wine (mirin, which is light and sweet used only for cooking, and sake, a finer product used for cooking and drinking), tamari sauce (wheat fermented soy sauce made with cultured soy beans, water and sea salt), sea weed and presses algae products.
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Yakitori: Yakitori is grilled chicken speared on sticks. All different parts of the chicken, thighs, skin, liver, etc. can be used for yakitori Obento is a Japanese style box lunch which consists of white rice and an assortment of tiny bite sized pieces of meat, fish, vegetables, egg, fruit and an umeboshi (pickled plum) arranged in a rectangular box.

Meat plays a lesser role in traditional Japanese cuisine. The most famous Japanese meat is Kobe beef. Most of the Japanese preparations are seasonal. Sashimi- a delicacy of Japanese cuisine is made of small slices of fresh fish and served with soy sauce spiked with mustard and wasabi. Sushi was originally, developed in Japan, long before the invention of the refrigerator, as a means of preserving food from spoiling. Vinegar and seasoning were mixed into freshly cooked rice, which was then formed into different forms and pressed or rolled together with vegetable, seafood, or fresh fish. Many variations of sushi (nigiri zushi, norimaki zushi, fukusa zushi, inari zushi, chirashi zushi) are very famous in its culinary books.

1.5.2 Regional Influences Japanese cuisine is one of simplicity bordering on the austere. It has evolved from a singular and original ideology, which borrowed little from its neighbours and still less from the outside world. Hokkaido, Honshu, Kyushu, Okinawa, Shikoku are the regions of Japan. Japanese foods are original and similar culinary traditions are followed without many changes in the tastes and specialties. 1.5.3 Terms Agar-agar: also called Japanese gelatin. Agar-agar is made from dried seaweed and is used for its setting properties, which are five times stronger than regular gelatin.
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Dashi: a Japanese fish stock prepared with dried bonito tuna flakes. It is also available in powdered form. Miso: a salty fermented bean paste that is an important flavoring ingredient in Japanese cooking. The particular colour (pale to dark brown) and flavor (mild to strong) of the miso depends on its production and ageing process. Miso is high in B vitamins and protein.

Nori: thin sheets of toasted seaweed used in Japanese cooking for making sushi, etc. Sushi: a Japanese specialty consisting of seasoned cooked rice topped with sliced raw fish or rolled in sheets of nori (seaweed) with fish, vegetables, wasabi, etc.

Tempura: a Japanese specialty consisting of vegetables, shrimp, fish, etc. coated in a light batter (flour, baking powder or beaten egg whites and ice water) and deep-fried.

Teriyaki: It's a Japanese way of cooking. The word, teriyaki is a combination of two Japanese words "teri" and "yaki." Teri means luster and yaki means grill or broil. To make a teriyaki dish, ingredients are broiled, roasted, or grilled after being marinated in or basted by teriyaki sauce. It's the teriyaki sauce that brings the shiny look (teri) to the ingredients.

Wasabi: A pungent Japanese horseradish, which in its powdered form is used to make a condiment served with sushi and sashimi. Edamane: Boiled green soy beans that are used extensively in Japanese cuisine Bonito: Together with dried kelp (a type of seaweed), this is an essential component of Japanese stock or dashi. Rock hard dried bonito fish was traditionally shaved just before use, but today, shaved bonito available in plastic packs, are most commonly used both for dashi and as a garnish.

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1.5.4 Sample Menu Tamago Suimono Tempura Suki Yaki Terriyaki Vegetables Matcha Aisukurimu

1.5.4.1 Tamago Suimono Ingredients 1. Egg 2. Dry fish 3. Water 4. Soy sauce 5. Salt 6. Aji no moto Method: Grind fish fine and add to boiling water. Gradually stir in beaten egg and just before serving add salt and soy sauce. Serve hot. 4 nos. 150 gm 1.8 ltr tsp to taste tsp

Tempura Ingredients 1. Chicken 2. Refined flour 3. Eggs 4. Seasoning 500 gms 225 gms 3 nos. to taste

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Sauce: 5. Chicken Stock 6. Soy 7. Sugar 8. Aji no moto Method: Joint the chicken and make a thick batter with flour, egg, seasoning and water. Dip fish in batter and deep fry. Serve hot with sauce. Mix chicken stock, with sugar, soy sauce and aji no moto, stir well and serve with fried tempura. 1.5.4.2 Sukiyaki Ingredients: 1. Beef 2. Onion 3. Spring onion 4. Bamboo shoots 5. Soy sauce 6. Fat 7. Water-cress 8. Sugar 9. Stock Method: Cut beef into thin slices and beat with meat mallet Chop spring onion, bamboo shoots, water cress and brown them in fat along with meat. 500 gm 1 no 3 no 1 tbsp 1 tbsp 1 tbsp little a pinch 300 ml 4 tbsp 1tbsp tsp

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Add just enough stock to moisten. Sprinkle with sugar and soy. Simmer on slow fire for 15- 20 min.

1.5.4.3 Teriyaki Vegetables Ingredients: 1. Broccoli 2. Carrot 3. Beans 4. Tofu 5. Dark soy sauce 6. Mirin 7. Sugar 8. Sake 9. Salt 10. Spring onion 1 tbsp Method: Cut the vegetables into 1 inch pieces. Par boil them Mix the soya sauce and sake and other ingredients to boil over medium heat, simmer to one cup. Heat a pan with butter and fry the vegetables and serve with sauce. 200 gms 200 gms 150 gms 100 gms 300 ml 300 ml 2 tsp 200 ml to taste

1.5.4.4 Matcha Aisukurimu Ingredients 1. Green tea powder 2. Brandy 3. Fresh Milk 4. Fresh cream 5. Skimmed milk powder 6. Sugar
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50 gm 100 ml 5 cups 1 cup 10 gm 350 gm


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Method: Put green tea powder in a bowl. Add brandy and mix well Add the milk, cream, sugar, skimmed milk powder into another bowl and mix well. Transfer to a saucepan and bring to boil over a moderate heat. Remove from heat; allow cooling to lukewarm temperature, add green tea paste and mix well. Chill immediately and deep freeze. Put mixture into a blender, blend, return to fridge, set and serve.

1.6 Thai Cookery


Thailand is neither a very big nor a very rich country but it has a way of life that mixes ancient rituals with the ways of the modern world. Thailand is most fortunate, with both the land and surrounding seas yielding rich harvests. The staple, rice is grown in abundance, as do the numerous varieties of vegetables, fruits, herbs and spices that enliven the Thai palate. The Thais word summation of Thai food would not be heat but harmony a harmony of tastes, colours and textures designed to appeal to both the eye and palate. Besides the qualities of pleasant appearance and excellent taste, Thai food is recognized as one of the most outstanding culinary creations in the world. Thus the word Thai means Free. History: Thai cuisine traces its history back into the far past and has undergone numerous changes and adaptations. It nevertheless retains its distinctiveness which makes Thai food highly popular among connoisseurs of fine dining the world over. Thai food will certainly bring an even wider appreciation of its many delights.

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1.6.1 Characteristic Features Thai cooks are never rigid in their approach. Thai food is famous for its lightness and balance. Thai food combines the best of several eastern cuisines. Oriental bite of Szechwan Chinese, the tropical flavours of Malaysian, creamy coconut sauces of southern Indian and the aromatic spices of Arabian food. Thai preparations have a great deal of herbs and sauces for the sweet flavours and tastes. They are sweet basil, lemon grass, kaffir lime leaf or lemon, galangal, nampla (fish sauce), oyster sauce and soya sauce. Thai eat everything together or rather everything is served together with the possible exception of sweet. Soup may be eaten at the beginning or at the end of the meal and salad likewise. Thai food is associated with coconut milk, curries and spicy soups. Thai food is delicious, nutritional and easy to cook. The national style of cooking is winning a well deserved place in global culinary culture due to its unique combined partly spicy-partly sweet & sour taste. The ideal Thai meal aims at being a harmonious blend of the spicy, the sweet and the sour and is meant to be satisfying to the eye, nose and palate. Thai food is basically chilli hot blend with subtle additions of locally grown roots, grasses and aromatic herbs to lessen the bite. The use of spices and aromatic plants such as sweet basil, mint and galangal enhances the flavour of Thai dishes. Thai food appeals to more than taste alone, thus a dish should appeal equally well to the eye and taste buds as well. Thai food is a rich amalgam of evocative aromas, subtle blends of herbs and spices and contrast in textures and tastes.

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The Thai use forks and spoons for eating food. Each spoonful should be moderately filled to conform to accepted customs. Thus eating by stuffing the mouth is considered impolite. There should neither be any sound of scraping the utensils on the plate nor grains of rice on the lips. The Thai do not scoop portions onto their plates. They share from a common dish and this ensures that everyone has an ample share of each dish.

1.6.2 Regional Influences Northern: North of Thailand revolves around glutinous rice, noodles, chicken, beef and pork in thin curries with plenty of spice. Salads like Som Tam a raw papaya salad and larb (spicy minced pork or chicken) are favorites on restaurant menus. Central: Central Thailand has fruit orchards and rice fields. This region has sublime combination of unique flavor and presentations. A soup like Tom Yum Goong (spicy shrimp and lemon grass) is famous. South: Thailand consists of lush jungle and coconut plantations and has good coastal area where seafood is plenty. Hence this region is known for its coconut curries and spicy shrimp paste. 1.6.3 Methods of Cooking Stir Frying/ Deep frying (phad): It is simple and fast. It requires constant attention. The ingredients are stirred while being cooked. It is heat achieved with long handled wok over high flame. Se-iew / Stewing: It is done on a closed tin with a water boiler beneath the tin itself. MOKTU is the common steaming equipment used. Steamed dishes are wrapped in banana leaves. Vegetable preparation: Vegetables are cut finely, cooked quickly and thus the maximum amount of their essential goodness is retained.
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Garlic, shallots, ginger, and chillies are used finely sliced, slivered or chopped. 1.6.4 Terms Galangal: Delicately flavoured yellow root with pink fibrous knobs called Siamese ginger or galangal root. Kaffir lime: Citrus fruit with bumpy dark green rind and concentrated aromatic oils. Historically, medicinal oil, leaves and zest are used in cooking in Malaysia and Sri Lanka. Lemon grass: Common herb in Southeast Asia. Especially in Lao, Thai and Malaysian food. It has long grass like leaves. Stem and leaves are fibrous and end near the root in a bulbous base, the most fragrant part normally used in cooking. It has a lemony scent and imparts a delicious flavour to food cooked in chilli or curry. Long beans: Known as snake beans or yard long beans. Used in many sea food recipes. Black dried mushrooms (Shiitake): Greyish black, fragrant when cooked. Best if thick and firm. Pale cream on the underside. Soak for about 30 minutes to soften and remove the stem before use. Rice Noodles: Thin noodles produced from rice flour which expands when deep fried to become light and crisp. Shallots: Small red onions most commonly used in Asian cookery. Pawpaw: The ripe fruit is eaten fresh. The unripe fruit is used as a meat tenderizer and to impart its flavour. Particularly in Southeast Asia. Fish sauce: It is also known as Nam pla in Thai cuisine which is a bottled flavouring sauce made by steeping fish in wine. Rich In Vitamin-B

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1.6.4.1 Green Curry Paste Ingredients 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Dried green chillies Spring onion chopped Garlic chopped Powdered lemon grass Shrimp paste Ground galangal Caraway seeds Coriander seeds Lemon rind Salt 6 nos. 3 tbsp 1 tbsp 1 tbsp 1 tbsp 1 tsp 1 tsp 2 tsp 1 tsp 1 tsp

Method: Wash chillies under running cold water. Remove the stems and brush out any seeds. Put the chillies in a blender along with other ingredients and blend for 20-30 sec Store in a small screw-top jar in the refrigerator for upto 3 weeks.

1.6.4.2 Red Curry Paste Ingredients: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Dried red chillies Lemon grass Coriander roots Chopped shallots Chopped garlic Chopped galangal Cumin seeds Pepper corns 6 nos. 2 tbsp 1 tbsp 1 tbsp 1 tbsp 1 tsp 1 tsp 6nos.
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9. 10.

Salt Shrimp Paste

1 tsp 1 tsp

Method: Remove the seeds from chillies and soak them in cold water for 10 minutes. Drain well and chop roughly, put in blender along with remaining ingredients and blend it till soft. 1.6.4.3 Yellow Curry Paste Ingredients: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Sliced Lemon Grass Yellow chillies Shallots Galangal Coriander powder Garlic cloves Mustard seeds Nutmeg (freshly ground) Fish sauce Turmeric Brown sugar Kaffir lime leaves Lime juice Coconut milk stalk 1-2 nos. 2nos. 1 inch piece 1 tsp 3 no 1 tsp tsp 3 tbsp tsp 1 tbsp 2 nos. 1 tbsp 1/3 cup

Method: Place all the ingredients in a blender and blend to paste. If the mixture is too strong, adding coconut milk will dilute it.

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1.6.5 Sample Menu Chicken Satay Papaya Salad Stir Fried Thai Noodles Massaman Fish Curry Squash in coconut sauce

1.6.5.1 Chicken Satay (Satay Gai) Ingredients: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Chicken breast Coconut milk Coriander leaves Sugar Yellow curry paste Nampla Oil 450 gm 90 ml 2 tbsp 3 tbsp 1 tbsp 10 ml 1 tbsp

Peanut Sauce 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. Roasted peanuts Cashew nuts Dried Chillies Sugar Shallots Garlic Lemon grass Salt Tamarind Peanut oil Water Pandan leaves 100 gm 40 gm 20 gm 40 gm 30 gm 12 gm 1 stalk 4 gm 40 gm 40 ml 300 ml 1 leaf
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Method: Make a marinade with coconut milk, yellow curry paste, coriander, sugar, oil and nampla. Dip chicken in marinade and cover and set in refrigerator for 15 minutes. Marinated chicken pieces should be cooked for at least 10 minutes

Peanut sauce: Grind all ingredients together.

1.6.5.2 Papaya Salad Ingredient 1. Green Papaya 2. Garlic cloves 3. Green Chillies 4. Tomatoes 5. Beans boiled 6. Nampla 7. Salt 8. Lime Juice Method: Shred papaya, tomato wedges, and chopped beans to dices and mince garlic cloves and green chillies and combine the mixture with grated papaya. Season with nampla, lime juice. If necessary add salt. Arrange tomato and beans arranged on a salad and serve. 1 no 4 nos. 2 nos. 2 nos. 100 gms 30 ml 3 gm 15 ml

1.6.5.3 Stir Fried Thai Noodles Ingredients 1. 2. 3. Rice noodles Oil Garlic cloves 250 gm 3 tbsp 3 no
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4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

Dried shrimp Fish sauce Sugar Tamarind juice Paprika Tofu (fried) Egg Chives Roasted peanut Bean Sprouts Turnips

cup cup 2 tbsp 2 tbsp 1 tbsp cup 1 no cup cup 1 cup 2 tbsp

Garlic Sauce: 1. Chives 2. Banana blossom 3. Lime 4. Sprouts Method: Soak rice noodles in cold water for 30 minute Heat oil in a large skillet, stir fry garlic, dry shrimps, add noodles and stir fry. If noodles stick to the pan, add sugar, tamarind juice, paprika and stir fry. Add turnips and tofu (bean curd). Stir in egg, increase heat until egg sets. Add chives, peanuts, bean sprouts. Serve garnished with fried banana blossoms. cup cup cup cup

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1.6.5.4 Massaman Fish Curry Ingredients: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Chicken cube Coconut milk Salt Oil Peeled Peanuts Sliced onions Minced Garlic Dried red chillies Massaman curry paste Nampla Sugar 500 gm 800 gm 5 gm 2 tbsp 60 gm cup cup 6 no 3 tbsp 60 ml 3 tbsp

Method: Take a thick bottomed sauce pan. Add chicken and half the coconut milk. Simmer for 45 minutes Heat the skillet, add oil and fry peanuts till golden brown. Remove and set aside. Using the same oil fry the onions, garlic and pepper. Place fried onion, garlic, chilli, pepper in a blender and process till a smooth paste is formed. Combine in a large saucepan the remaining coconut milk, massaman curry paste, nampla and sugar. Add chicken mixture, blended mixture and fried peanuts. Heat to boiling point and cook for 5 minutes.

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1.6.5.5 Squash in Coconut Sauce Ingredient: 1. Coconut milk 2. Sugar 3. Squash / pumpkin Method: Heat coconut milk to boiling, add sugar and bring to boil and slightly thicken. Add the slices of squash and simmer for 15 minutes or till soft. Serve cold. 500ml 60 gm 150 gm

1. 7 American Cookery
The food of the United States is as rich and diverse as its people. The culinary traditions of the European pioneers have been enhanced and enriched by the contributions of myriad Italian, Chinese, African and Jewish immigrants, but there are still a few basic ingredients that have remained firmly anchored in American traditions. 1.7.2 Characteristics of American Cuisine The cuisine of Native Americans was of course the first American cooking style, and it lent a great deal not only to subsequent American cooking but also to culinary styles. Many dishes considered American are in fact based upon the cooking traditions of other countries. E.g.: Apple pies, pizza, chowder and hamburgers are derived from European dishes. Similarly burritos and tacos have their origin in Mexico. Another factor that makes defining American cuisine difficult is that most of it developed as home cooking rather than haute cuisine.

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American food culture includes baked beans, barbeque, clam chowder as well as American style candy bars and fast foods items popular in the world.

One of the important characteristic features of American cookery is the fusion of multiple ethnic or regional approaches into completely new cooking styles.

Frying pans were used for frying eggs and bacon, but also for frying cod balls, fanny dodies (clams) and hang-town fry (fried oysters and eggs). The rituals of the barbecue and planked meat (meat or fish cooked in the oven on a plank of oak or hickory on which the food is then served) reflect the American fondness for simple but hearty country dishes.

Traditional home cooking is popular. Boston baked beans (baked beans with bacon), chilli con carne from Texas, Philadelphia pepper pot, burgoo from Kentucky (porridge with meat and vegetables), creole gumbo (meat and shell fish stew) and last but not least the soups, especially fish-based (chowders) or fruit-based which can be eaten hot or cold. All these dishes are cooked slowly in a saucepan.

Fish, shellfish and meat (spareribs, hamburgers and t-bone steaks) are grilled in the open and eaten with the minimum of ceremony. The classic dishes eaten on special occasions and thanksgiving are also part of the American tradition: turkey garnished with cornbread, served with cranberries and an orange based sauce, clove and whisky flavoured ham, fried chicken and pecan pie.

The trends in contemporary cuisine are reflected in two characteristic types of dishes: the wide range of mixed salads, of which Caesars salad is one of the most famous: cos (romaine) lettuce, hard boiled eggs, croutons, anchovy and parmesan cheese; and the numerous dips, thick sauces (with fromage blanc, clams, tuna, celery, avocado and so on)

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and spreads, thicker sauces, used as fillings for huge and imaginative sandwiches. Cakes and pastries are an important feature of traditional home cooking.

1.7.3 Regional Influences American cuisine has much regional variation. The homogeneity and predictability of American cuisine began to change during World War II with the adaptation of Italian, American and Chinese foods, American variation of Chinese inspired foods were at first far from authentic recipes, included ingredients such as ketchup, Worcestershire sauce and cream of mushroom soup and had a new acceptance of less traditionally American foods. The following are various specialties of American regional cooking: New England retains the tradition for making fabulous soups, roasts and pies, inherited from old country. Fish and sea food (clams, lobster and cod) are very popular. In Pennsylvania and Wisconsin German, traditions are still present, as is reflected in the sweet-and-sour dishes, pickled meats and dairy products, while a strong Scandinavian influence is found in Minnesota (smorgasbord, herring and Danish pastries). In Michigan there is typical Dutch food, such as vegetable and potato stews and wafers. Oklahoma still has a range of Indian specialties such as squaw bread and jerky, which is smoked meat. In the mid-eastern region seaboard fish is an important ingredient in many regional dishes. The south still bears the mark of French colonial occupation of Louisiana, as shown in the range of regional pastry. In Florida turtles, crabs and shrimps play an important part in the regional cuisine.

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While Virginia is famous for its hams and chicken, the main culinary influences in the south-west are Spanish and Mexican (chicken and rice, tamales, picadillo and tacos).

On the west coast, in California, fish and seafood are vital ingredients in a wide range of regional dishes (such as cioppino) and fruit is cultivated everywhere. Game in Oregon is so abundant that it is sufficient to feed the whole country, while the state of Washington is famous for its salmon and crayfish.

1.7.4 Sample Menu Ginger Fruit Cocktail Tuna puffs Fried Chicken Boston baked beans Carrot pudding

1.7.4.1 Ginger Fruit Cocktail Ingredient 1. Peaches 2. Pineapple 3. Orange 4. Strawberries 5. Preserved ginger 6. Lemon juice 7. Castor sugar 8. Ginger ale Method: Mix fruit and sprinkle with a little sugar and lemon juice. Put mixed fruit cocktail in tall glasses. Pour iced ginger ale over it and garnish with chopped ginger.
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2 nos. 60 gm 1 no few 15 gm 2 tsp 15 gm 200 ml

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1.7.4.2 Tuna Puff Ingredients 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Tuna fish Onions Butter Refined flour Milk Salt Pepper Refined flour Water Salt Egg whites 1 can 1 medium 4 tbsp 3 tbsp 1 cup tsp 1/8 tsp cup cup to taste 2

Method: Saut chopped onion in a tbsp of butter. Make a thick cream sauce with butter, flour and milk. Add tuna fish, onion, salt and pepper. Chill for several hours. Make a batter with half cup flour and about 1/3 cup water with consistency of thin pancake batter. Add salt and fold in two stiffly beaten egg white, form balls about the size of large marbles out of tuna mixture and roll balls in batter. Deep fry them and serve.

1.7.4.3 Fried Chicken 1. Chicken 2. Seasoned flour 3. Fat

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Method: Clean and joint the chicken and roll in seasoned flour. Melt fat and brown the chicken turning when necessary. Add little water, cover and cook slowly for half an hour. Serve with brown sauce.

1.7.4.4 Boston Baked Beans 1. Haricot beans 2. Salt pork 3. Salt 4. Mustard 5. Molasses 6. Sugar Method: Wash and soak beans overnight and drain. Cover with cold water and bring to boiling point Cook slowly until tender. Drain and save cooking liquor Fill bean pot half full with cooking liquor and put pork into pan. Cook the pork till well done. Place remaining beans in pot and cover them with mustard and salt and molasses dissolved in water. 1.7.4.5 Carrot Pudding Ingredients 1. Carrots 2. Fat 3. Brown sugar 4. Refined flour 5. Salt
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225 gm 225 gm to taste 1 tbsp 1 tbsp 1 tbsp

200 gm 150 gm 200 gm 150 gm 1 tsp


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6. Cinnamon 7. Apple 8. Raisins 9. All spice 10. Nutmeg 11. Baking powder Method:

1 tsp 1 no 200 gm tsp tsp tsp

Cream fat and sugar. Add grated carrots, chopped apples, and raisins. Add cinnamon, sift all other dry ingredients together, add to fat mixture and mix well.

Pour in mould. Steam for 3 hours.

1.8 Summary
In this unit, we have attempted to trace the history of various cuisines of the world. We have seen the main features of major cuisines such as Spanish, Mexican, Thai, Japanese and American. We have also explained the regional influences on the above said cuisine along with some culinary terms used and a sample menu has been given.

1. 9 Terminal Questions
1. _________ are famous snacks of Spanish cuisine. 2. Cilantro is also known as _________ extensively used in ______ cuisine. 3. ______ is corn dough. 4. Gohan, a Japanese word for ______ also refers to a meal. 5. What is fish sauce also known as in Thai cuisine? 6. Smorgasbord is a famous delicacy of _______ cuisine. 7. Clam chowder is soup from _______________.
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1. 10 Answers
A) Self Assessment Questions 1. Define cuisine Ans. The ingredients, seasonings, cooking procedures, styles and eating habits, attributable to a particular group of people, the group can be defined by geography, history, ethnicity, politics, culture or religion is called cuisine 2. Name three commonly used vegetables in Spanish cuisine? Ans. Potatoes, Pochas (Haricot beans) and peppers 3. What are totopos? Ans. Triangular chips made with maize flour 4. What is Gazpacho Ans. Famous cold soup 5. What are antojits? Ans. Snacks made of masa are known as antojits B) Terminal Questions 1. Tapas 2. Coriander and Mexican 3. Masa 4. Rice 5. Nam pla 6. Scandiavian cuisine 7. American cuisine

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