Learn Macrame

To learn Macrame, you must be able to tie a variety of knots. You can use scrap pieces of cord and practice each of the decorative knots individually. You can also choose a project from the many free patterns in this site, and learn Macrame while you are making something. As you become more and more familiar with how the knots are combined to form artistic designs, you can create your own unique projects, without relying on patterns. The Basic knots found in most Macrame patterns are listed below. Just click on the images of the decorative knots you want to learn. The step-by-step process, with photos, will show up. As you learn Macrame, practice tying ALL the basic knots listed, so you understand the patterns in the other sections. To learn Macrame properly, I recommend that ALL beginners practice each of the knots, patterns, or designs at least twice, before making any project. I've listed some unusual knots as well. Vintage Macrame, as I like to call it, is a real interest of mine. When I first began to learn Macrame, I didn't know about some of these decorative knots. Those featured in the early days of this craft are truly unique, and you don't find them in more modern Macrame books. These decorative knots are indicated by a + symbol.

Chinese Macrame uses a variety of symbolic knots. Some have been around for over 2000 years. Entire families would work on a variety of combinations to form new combination knots. These techniques are quite challenging to master. But if you follow the step-by-step process for each of the individual Chinese knots, you will progress in skill and be able to combine them into your own works of art. In addition, there are instructions for Celtic Knots. These highly artistic, interwoven designs are not very well known. They are beautiful and perfect for making handcrafted jewelry and fashion acessories.

Several of the knots I have listed here in Learn Macrame are to be found in "Decorative Fusion Knots" , written by JD Lenzen. These knots can be used in Macrame, and are actually combination knots using different techniques. They can be used for jewelry, key chains, purse straps, and a variety of other projects. Click on the image to visit his website, which has a knot library containing video tutorials.

Here's the key for the terms above the images:
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UPDATED = New information, images, or knots added to existing page = Recently added CHALLENGING = Requires experience and plenty of patience!

Macrame Supplies

I recommend you obtain the following Macrame supplies and crafting tools. It’s a good idea to have them readily available when you start any Macrame craft project. Many supermarkets and hardware stores carry arts and crafts supplies, if you don’t already have these items at home.

You will need a table or other work surface. If you plan to work on your project away from home, a clipboard works well. Keep in mind that you may not complete your project in one day. Try to put all your supplies in some kind of organizer, if you can. (The handcrafted organizer shown above can be made to order. If you would like to purchase one, Contact Me.)

Safety Tip: Make sure your work surface is clean and uncluttered. Keep food, drinks, and cigarettes away from the cords. Keep in mind the fact that the cords used in Macrame can injure pets and young children if they get tangled in them.

I highly recommend a Project Board of some type. You can either purchase one, or make one yourself. You can use cardboard, Styrofoam, clipboards and bulletin boards. Ceiling tiles also work, as do firm pillows. The board is primarily used to hold pins. Whichever you choose to use, I recommend it be able to hold tape, as well.

T-Pins as well as long sewing pins are used to secure your work to the board. They’re also used to help control cords while tying certain knots. Binder clips as well as paper clips are useful, too.

Cellophane and/or Masking Tape are essential Macrame Supplies. Pins easily damage leather cord, so I recommend you use tape when working with leather. The Cross-Pin Technique is another option for you to try, if you prefer not to use tape.

You willl need a pair of small, sharp Scissors. I also recommend you get Needle nose Pliers, especially if you are using beads or small diameter cords. You may also need a pair of Tweezers if you are using fine cords for your projects.

A ruler or measuring tape is necessary. If you have a desk or table dedicated to crafting, attach a measuring tape to the edge of it. That way it’s readily available, and you can’t misplace it.

Glue is used for both preparing cords and finishing your projects. There are different kinds of crafting glue available, some specifically made for jewelry and fabric. If you don’t have access to a store carrying craft or Macrame supplies, try regular household glue that dries clear. Dilute it with 1 part water to 2 parts glue, so it spreads better.

A jar candle is another necessity, if you are waxing the ends of the cords to prevent unraveling, rather than using glue. See Cord Preparation for details Safety Tip: Jar candles get hot, so use a potholder. Don’t try to dip the ends of the cords in the melted wax with the candle burning. Blow out the flame first.

If you are using beads, you will need a piece of wire to thread the cords through the holes. Most places that carry beads also carry wire suitable for threading. You can also use fine nylon cord to thread beads, if you don't have any wire available.

Cord, beads, fasteners, rings, and handles are other essential Macrame supplies you may need for the project. They should be carefully selected and near your work area.

Macrame Cord

Macrame cord materials have specific qualities you need to become familiar with. It is vitally important that you choose the right type for your project. For example, making a hammock requires strong, sturdy materials. Clothing, on the other hand, needs a softer type of cord. Nowadays, there are many kinds of materials available, including yarn, ribbon, and lace.

Click on the images, and larger images will come up in a new window, so you can see details better.

General Concepts to Consider when Choosing Cord

The Stiffness refers to how flexible the material is. Leather, for example, can be very stiff, depending on the thickness. I like to use thin strands (0.5mm) of round leather to make bracelets, since it is flexible. As you can see in this Celtic Circle Earring, leather maintains the shape of the knots very well. If it's over 3mm thick, it's hard to tie the knots, though.

On the other hand, Cotton cord is usually very soft and flexible. It's great for Macrame projects, especially clothing. It’s also inexpensive and easy to obtain. You can often find it sold as Crochet Cord. This Flower Bracelet was made with 2mm Cotton material.

The term Composition tells you what fibers the cord materials are made from. Certain plants, for example, result in such materials as Hemp, Jute, and Flax Linen. They are what is called "Natural Fibers". Leather is made from animal hide, and nylon is a very popular synthetic fiber (man-made). Further down on this page is more information about specific types of

cord that can be used in Macrame.

Strength is especially important if making furniture or something that will hold weight. This is Jute, a very rough textured cord, and is particularly good for outdoor furniture because of how strong it is. Leather, Flax, and Polypropylene cord are also very strong materials.

The Twist, or style, refers to whether the individual strands that make up the cord were twisted or braided in the manufacturing process. Braided Macrame cord will unravel less easily than twisted cord. The image shows a closeup of both types.

Note: You should ALWAYS treat the ends of the cords, prior to beginning a Macrame project, so they don't unravel easily. For more information for this important issue, see Cord Preparation.

The Texture is a description of how the material feels. Obviously, you would not want to use rough Macrame cord for a necklace or clothing. Gone are the days when everything was made with Hemp, a slightly rough textured fiber. This image show a Leather Bracelet, which is soft against the skin. Nylon Macrame cord is soft and flexible and comes in a variety of colors, so has become quite popular. Silk and Satin cord materials are also great for Jewelry items that rest close to the skin. Further down is specific information about the types of cord materials

used in Macrame.

The Diameter (Width) is the thickness of the Macrame cord; usually indicated in millimeters. Silk, Nylon, and even round Leather can be found less than 2mm thick. Keep in mind that the wider materials (>4mm) require larger beads, buttons, or other decorations. This image shows a Constrictor knot made with 6mm diameter Polypropylene cord.
Trivia: The term Micro-Macrame is used when a handcrafted item is made using cord material less

than 2mm diameter.

The Amount refers to how much Macrame cord you need for the entire project. Some materials come in large rolls of 100 yards or more. This Opelon Floss comes on cards, which usually contain less than 10 yards of material. Total Amount = Length x Number of Strands.

If you were making furniture with Macrame cord, you would need a whole lot more than if you were creating a necklace. The following information will help you determine the amount of cord needed: Step 1: Determining the Length to Cut the Cords

Most Macrame patterns will tell you the exact lengths you need to cut each of the cords. But it's always a good idea to check the math to make sure the pattern is accurate. If you are creating your own designs without a written pattern, the following information will help you. Here is a simple way to determine how long each Macrame cord should be:

Step 1: If the pattern is loosely knotted, with more than 1-inch of space between the rows of knots, multiply the finished length of the item by four (4). If there is very little space between the rows, you should mulitiply the finished length by Five (5) instead, since you will be tying more knots.

Step 2: You also need to consider the initial mounting knots, which often require you to fold the Macrame cords in half. For example: You’re using Lark’s Head knots like this one to mount the cords, so you will need to double the length of each one, when you cut them. If no folding is necessary, you won’t need this additional step.
For example: A 12-inch bracelet using Figure 8 knots, which are loosely tied, will require at least 48 inches for each cord. If the cords were folded in any manner, you would need to double the length to 120 inches.

Step 3: Before you cut the cords, make sure you are aware of whether there are button knots or picots present. These decorations requre more Macrame cord. I usually cut the cords 6 times the finished length if I am making Picots or Buttons, just to be safe.

It's far better to cut too much Macrame cord, than to run out, as you are making your project!

Step 2: Determining the Number of Cords to Cut

Most Macrame patterns will tell you how many cords you need. If you are creating your own designs, here's a formula you can used to figure out how many cords to cut. Use this formula if the design is flat, as in this Tree Ornament:

First figure out the size, in inches, of the widest point. For the ornament shown above, that would be the area at the bottom. Next, determine the size cord you are using. Now decide if the cords are to be folded during any point in the pattern. Use this formula:
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6mm Material = Cut 2 cords/inch (Folded) or 4 cords/inch (Unfolded) 4mm Material = Cut 3 cords/inch (Folded) or 6 cords/inch (Unfolded) 2mm Material = Cut 6 cords/inch (Folded) or 12 cords/inch (Unfolded)

Designs that ask you to cover a ring will usually require the cords to be folded, and the width is based on the size of the ring. So use this formula instead:

Diameter of Ring (from edge to edge) x 3.14 = Area to be covered (in inches)
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6mm Material: Area x 2 = number of cords 4mm Material: Area x 3 = number of cords 2mm Material: Area x 6 = number of cords

Step 3: Determining Total Amount Needed

To figure out what you need for the entire project, follow this formula: Length of cords (in inches) multiplied by number of cords cut

divided by 36 = Total yards Make sure you do this for each of the different sizes you cut. Add them all up, and you will have the total necessary for the entire project.

Cord Preparation

Cord preparation is a vital topic you need to know, since you will use these techniques often. Before I learned how to treat the strands so they didn’t unravel, messy frayed ends frustrated me. Twisted cord, in particular, came apart every time I used it. Then I learned a few simple techniques that taught me how to prevent the problem. After you cut all your cords to the proper length, use any of the following techniques.

Wax Preparation

My personal favorite is using wax to coat the ends of the cords. Obtain a jar candle, preferably white or the same color as the cords. Light the candle and let the wax melt for a while. Blow the candle out. Dip the ends of the Macrame cords in the liquid wax. Tip: I usually bundle a group of cords, then dip them all together. Hold them above the jar to let the excess wax drip off. Allow the cords to cool. If they stick together, pull them apart gently.

Beeswax is also a good product to use for cord preparation, especially with slender cord for jewelry. You just rub the end with the block of wax. It helps if you warm it in your hands first.

Glue Preparation

Another way to prepare cords is to apply glue to the ends. You can use liquid puzzle glue, or household glue diluted with water. Put some in a bowl, and dip the ends. Glue doesn’t dry as fast as wax, so you need to hang the cords over something while they dry. Someone told me they prefer to use nail polish for cord preparation. I’ve never tried this myself, but I bet it works just as well as glue. You can dip the ends, or lay the cords on a work surface and paint the nail polish on them.

Tape Preparation

You can apply cellophane or masking tape to the ends as a temporary measure to prevent unraveling. This technique is especially useful if using twisted cord rather than braided. When you are at the end of the project and tying the finishing knots, just cut off the portion with the tape.

Knot Preparation

Another easy method to prepare cords is to tie a knot at the end. I do this often, since I can simply cut off the knot in the final steps. The best knots to use are the ones easy to tie, like this Barrel knot.

Another option is the Overhand knot, which works well at the tips of the cords. It's hard to untie, so you may need to cut it off at the end of the project.

The Figure 8 Knot is also easy to tie, but has a tendency to slip. So make sure you pull it firmly.

This Chinese Step knot is a really nice knot to use for preparing the ends prior to starting any Macrame project.

Finishing Techniques

In Finishing Techniques you will learn specific decorative knots and procedures used to produce a neat appearance in the final steps of Macrame projects. The techniques described are also used to prevent the ends of cords from unraveling. I refer to them in the free patterns in this site, and you’ll find them in most Macrame books, as well.

Finishing Knots

Overhand knots are often used in the last few steps of Macrame patterns, particularly to prevent the ends from unraveling.

This is a Barrel knot, which is similar to the Overhand Knot, but has a tighter hold. It's the decorative knot most commonly used for finishing off the ends of cords. Both these knots require glue to be applied, to prevent them from untying.

Tip: The glue I prefer to use is the regular household type that dries clear. Dilute it with water and apply it to the final knots with a small paintbrush. You can also use clear nail polish and fabric glue.

The Wrapped Knot is unique in that it secures the cords without the need to use glue. Whenthe knot is tightened, the ends are pulled inside the knot and are held securely. Then you can just cut off the excess.

The Linen Stitch is a similar technique. You see it mostly in vintage Macrame designs, under the name Collecting Knot. I recommend you learn both of these decorative knots

Another interesting knot, the Monkey Fist, makes a ball at the end of a cord, and has a neatly finished appearance. This image shows how it can be used to make a key chain.

This is a Matthew Walker Knot, and it also produces a nicely finished look when placed at the end of a cord.

This is the Chinese Button Knot. I use them regularly as Finishing Techniques for my own Macrame projects. I recommend you take the time to learn ALL of these very useful finishing techniques.

Weaving Technique

The most frequently used Finishing techniques is weaving. Direct the ends through the back of knots in the area. You need to apply glue and allow it to dry before trimming.

You can also weave the ends into the body of the design. This only works if the knots are lying close together. If the ends are long, or if they are frayed or unraveling, you need to trim them first. Then apply glue to the ends and let it dry. Next, use needle nose pliers to weave each end between the knots that make up the body of the Macrame pattern.

Finishing with Fringe

To create Fringe, you can simply leave the leftover cords dangling. You will need to coat the ends somehow, or the strands will unravel. Some patterns will have you tie Finishing Knots at the tips. Here are some important tips for successfully making appealing Fringe: Tip 1: Always trim the cords so the ends are even. If the pattern does not require you to unravel the cords, you will need to apply glue or knots to the ends.

Tip 2: Some Macrame patterns will suggest that you unravel the cords and brush the ends so they are fluffy. This works with cord made of cotton, nylon and polypropylene, but not as well with silk, hemp, or satin cord.
Tip 3: For Beaded Fringe, apply a small bead to each end. Then tie an Overhand or Barrel knot. You can direct the end back through the bead, or just apply glue to the knot and cut off the excess. For more details about using this technique in your Macrame projects, see Making Fringe.

Other Finishing Techniques

There are other options you can use to finish your projects. For example, you can tie small bows if the item is very feminine, like this Ribbon Handbag. Adding Novelty Buttons, charms, or other embellishments are also good ways to end a special Macrame design. Usually you will need to secure these items with finishing knots.

Decorative Fasteners

Decorative fasteners are essential if you are planning to make Micro-Macrame Jewelry, or things like belts and purses. A bracelet, for example, needs some type of closure, as does a belt. Some fasteners can be purchased in craft supply stores, and are sometimes called findings. Or you can use buttons, beads, and specific knots to form clasps. Purse handles, belt buckles and fasteners for larger items can be purchased. But if you prefer, you can make many types of decorative fasteners yourself. You can click on the images and a large picture will come up in a new window.

Button Fasteners

Buttons and loops are a great type of fastener for jewelry, belts and other similar designs. On one end is a shank style button, and the other end can have a simple loop.

The Buttonhole Clasp is a vintage Macrame knot, and is often used instead of a loop. It's very sturdy, so can be used as a belt buckle as well.

Decorative Knot Fasteners

Specific decorative knots can form closures as well. The Wrapped Knot clasp is designed so the cords slide through the knot. So it's referred to as a Sliding Clasp.

Chinese Cloverleaf Clasps can be used to make beautiful decorative fasteners for jewelry and handbags. The design is a combination of the Cloverleaf knot and a Chinese Button knot. You make two of them, and the button knots are passed through the spaces.

Button KNOTS are often used instead of regular buttons or beads, to make fasteners.
Any type of large round knot will do, but the Celtic Button Knot and the Chinese Button are the best.

The key to making decorative fasteners is that a loop needs to be formed at one end, like at the top of this Handbasket Knot. The Learn Macrame section of this site contains many decorative knots with loops, so look through them as you create your own designs.

Earring Fasteners

You will need to purchase the hooks for earrings. I know of no handmade alternatives. Most stores that carry beads will carry earring hooks and hoops, and they are usually not all that expensive.

Purse Handles

Purse handles can be purchased, or you can make them by hand. Certain types of Macrame Knots are ideal for handbags. Here are several decorative knots you might want to try:

Half Hitch patterns are often used to make decorative fasteners and handbag handles. You need a holding cord running through the center, and two working cords to make the knots. Otherwise the sennit will twist and that's not desirable for a handle.

Alternating Larks Head Sennits are used in a similar fashion, with a holding cord to prevent twisting.

The Ladder Strap is a unique decorative knot that can be used for a purse handle. Here it was used as a key ring, but you could use the loop at one end, and combine it with a button or decorative knot at the other end.

Belt Buckles

A Belt fastener can be made with a large button, and a loop.

If you want the loop to be stronger, try the Buttonhole Clasp instead.

Macrame Beads

Macrame beads come in all shapes and sizes, and are very common, particularly in jewelry. But many are not suitable, due to the fact they have small openings in them. In some patterns, the holes in the beads need to be large enough for at least two strands to pass through. For example, if the cord is 4mm thick, the opening would need to be 8mm in diameter, which is a pretty large bead.

Types of Beads
I will now discuss the various types of Beads in terms of suitability for Macrame projects.

Beads for Macrame are specifically designed with larger holes to accommodate the thicker cords (6mm – 12mm). They are usually made from wood or ceramic materials, and come in a variety of shapes and sizes. But they are hard to find

nowadays, and usually cost more than small beads. Metal Beads sometimes have large holes suitable for Macrame projects using 2mm to 4mm cord. They come in a wide variety of shapes and sizes. You can obtain gold plated, silver plated, and brass metal beads at any store that carries beading supplies. Precious metal beads are more expensive. The one shown is made from brass, and has a filigree design.

Cloisonne Beads are metal, and usually have a colorful design. They are very popular, and well known for their quality. They have an "Oriental" feel and come in a variety of shapes and sizes. The holes are usually small, but can be enlarged somewhat.

Glass Beads are very attractive, and on occasion you can find them with holes large enough for 2mm cords to pass through. You might be better off choosing metal or wood for your Macrame beads, since glass beads with holes large enough for 4mm or

6mm cords are very hard to find. Pandora Style Glass Beads have become very popular. They have a silver or gold lining inside the hole. They usually have 4mm to 5mm size holes, so are a great choice to use as Macrame Beads.

Plastic Beads are likely to have big enough holes for 2mm to 4mm cords. They are easy to obtain, and are inexpensive compared to other beads. Metallized Beads are plastic, but have a metal coating, and are often quite unique.

Clay Beads have great details and many are shaped like threedimensional objects, like this flower. The holes are usually small, but can be enlarged if

necessary. Cord Beads are very interesting.. They are made from loops of cords wrapped around a base, usually plastic. They have fairly large openings. Crochet beads are also a type of cord bead, and they are definitely unique and attractive.

They are usually wood beads covered by the crochet design. Gemstone Beads usually have small holes, so are more suited to Micro-Macrame. They are

often more expensive than beads made from other materials. Rubber Beads are intriguing, and made of recycled car tires. Surprisingly, they are soft, and comfortable against the skin. They would be popular with teens and children. They have small

holes, so are suitable for Micro-Macrame jewelry. Lampwork Beads are also unique because they have raised areas. These handmade beads are easy to find,

and often have holes large enough for 2mm cords. Ceramic Beads are very sophisticated and highly detailed. These Macrame beads come in many unique shapes and designs, and are great for jewelry and clothing projects requiring the use of 2mm

to 4mm cord. Mood Beads are very unique in that they are made of a material that changes color. Your body heat will cause these interesting beads to change between several colors. They come in a variety of shapes and sizes, but most have

holes suitable for 2mm or finer cords.

Shell and Bone Beads

usually have small holes, and are made from natural materials. They come in few colors, however. Shell beads are also easily damaged. I’ve tried to enlarge the holes in them with

very little success. Seeds come from a variety of plants, and are often used to make beads. This is a Rudraksha seed, and like wood Macrame beads, the hole

can be enlarged if necessary. Wood Beads are very suited to Macrame, and many designs have large holes. They come in several colors and shapes. Some are carved, and quite interesting. Wood beads are among the best Macrame Beads available, because the holes can be enlarged if necessary.

Buttons can be used instead of Macrame beads. Beaded buttons, in particular, are a favorite of mine. I use them for clasps, as pendants, and as a substitute for beads. Ask your mother or grandmother if she has a stash of them somewhere. You’ll be amazed at what you will find in her "button box".

Basic & Vintage Macrame Knots

SQUARE KNOT DESIGNS
UPDATED

Square Knot

Picot Designs +

Alternating Square Knots

Alternating V Patterns

Snowflake Design

Spiral Stitch

Square Knot Button

Square Knot Sennits

Square Knot Frame

HALF HITCH DESIGNS

Alternating Half Hitch UPDATED

Half Hitch Spiral UPDATED

Basket Stitch + UPDATED

Half Hitch Patterns UPDATED

Vertical Half Hitch +

Double Half Hitch +

Cockscomb Knot

Double Half Hitch Patterns

Shell Knot +

Spiral Design

Guitar Bar

Empty Diamond

Unique Diamonds

Vintage Diamonds

LARKS HEAD DESIGNS
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Larks Head Knot

Vertical Larks Head

Larks Head Designs

Larks Head Sennits

UPDATED

UPDATED

UPDATED

UPATED

Double Buttonhole +

Buttonhole Scallops +

Buttonhole Clasp

Barnacle Knot

MOUNTING & FINISHING KNOTS
UPDATED UPDATED

Wrapped Knot UPDATED

Linked OH Knots UPDATED

Overhand Knot UPDATED

Barrel Knot UPDATED

Double Half Hitch Mount

Chain Picot Mount +

Unique Mount Designs + UPDATED

Venetian Picot Mount +

Matthew Walker Knot UPDATED

Linen Stitch +

Oysterman Knot UPDATED

Stevedore Knot UPDATED

Clove Hitch

Spanish Hitching

Slipknot

Cats Paw Hitch

Unique Decorative Knots
UPDATED UPDATED

Monkey Fist

Lanyard Knots

Link Weave

Sailors Knot +

Interlocking Weave

Triangle Knot + UPDATED

Portuguese Sennit + UPDATED

Masthead Mat Technique UPDATED

Pitcher Knot +

Round Braid

Chain Sennit

Clew Knot

Knife Knot

Ladder Strap

Panel Knot

Wishbone Design

Bug Belly Bar UPDATED

Trilobite Knot

Clasped Hands Knot UPDATED

Wrapped Ring

Bush Bar

Rattlesnake Bar

Eternity Knot

Square Knot

Description: The Square Knot (SK) is the most commonly used decorative knot in Macrame. It is heavily used in fishing, boating, and other activities as well. In Macrame patterns, however, you usually tie them with more than two cords. They are used primarily in the body of patterns, but can be used in the mounting or finishing process as well. Variations: The Right Facing, Mirror knot is also described below. I've also included instructions for a pattern called the Switch Knot.

Step 1: To practice this important basic knot, mount 2 cords to a ring or dowel so you end up with 4 strands. The blue strands in the images are the working cords, and the purple ones are fillers. Mentally number the cords 1 - 4, moving left to right.

Step 2: Use the left strand (#1) and curve it over both filler cords, which are cords 2 and 3. Pass it under the right working cord (#4).

Step 3: Direct the right strand (#4) towards the left. Go under the fillers, and out through the space on the left hand side of the knot. The space is between cords 1 and 2. Step 4: You just completed the first half of the Square Knot, which is sometimes called a "Half Knot". Now you need to tie the second half, which is opposite of the instructions above. Note how the two working cords have switched places. So #4 is on the left, and #1 is on the right.

Step 5: Curve cord 1, passing over both fillers, heading left. Bring cord 4 over it, under the fillers, and through the space on the right. Tighten the knot by pulling on both ends. The "head" of the knot will face left.

Mirror Square Knot (MSK)
I use my own term to describe this technique, which is the mirror image of the knot described above. Other names I've seen used are Right SK and Reverse SK. Reversing the direction is important when you want both edges of a design to be symmetrical. Just remember that the head of the Square Knot will face the direction of the first working cord you use. In this case, you start with the cord on the far right, and the head will therefore face

right when you are finished. Step 1: Using 4 strands of material, curve the right working cord over both fillers. Bring the left strand over it, under the fillers,

and through the space on the right side. Step 2: Bring the left strand over the right one, under the fillers, and through the space on the right side.

Step 3: To make the second half of the Mirror Square Knot, curve the left working cord over the fillers, heading right.

Step 4: Bring the right working cord over the left one, under the fillers, and through the space on the left side. Tighten the knot by pulling on the ends. The head of the knot will face right.

Switch Knot
This interesting Square Knot pattern is made by switching the fillers and working cords each time you make a new knot. It's important to leave enough space between the knots so you can see the crisscrossed cords clearly.

Step 1: Secure four cords to your board. If you wish, you can fold two cords in half. Mentally number them 1 - 4. The fillers are cords 2 and 3 for this knot. Tie the first half of a Square Knot (left facing).

Step 2: Complete the second half of the knot, and tighten it firmly. Make sure you can clearly identify the working cords and the fillers.

Step 3: Bring cords 1 and 4 down, passing over the other two strands. They will now be used as the fillers for the next knot. Cords 2 and 3 will be used to tie the SK.

Step 4: When you tighten the second knot, leave a little space, so you can see the switched cords.

Step 5: Switch the cords again, so 1 and 4 are the working cords for the third knot. Repeat this process over and over to make the rest of this Square Knot design.

You can tie all the SK so they face the same direction. Or you can make Mirror SK every other knot, so half of the knots face left, and the others right. Left Facing Knots Only Left and Right Facing Knots

Picot Designs

Description: Several Picot Designs can be made by Square Knots and the Spiral Stitch. Picots are simply loops along the edges of sennits. They can be small or large, depending on the technique.

On this page are three variations that you will come across, particularly in patterns written in the 1970's. To see an actual pattern where picots are used, go to the Macrame Christmas Tree.

Basic Picot Design

Tying a series of Square Knots with space between them will cause picots to form. The more space, the larger the loops. These Square Knots were all tied in the same way, so the heads of the knots face the same direction.

Here's another image showing the space between knots. The lower knot slides upwards to rest beside the first one, forming the picot loops. Click on the icon to see a large image, showing the details.

Alternating Sennit with Picots
Sometimes it's desirable to have the Square Knots alternate directions as you make the sennit. You'll still be adding space between the knots, sliding the newest knot up to rest beside the one tied before it.

Here's an image showing how the knots look before they slide up. The first is a regular Square knot, and the second one is a Mirror SK, which faces right. Click on the icon to see a larger image.

Spiral Stitch with Picots

The biggest difference with this Picot Design is that you are making Half Knots instead. The old term is Spiral Stitch, which I prefer to use. This design results in loops that do not lie flat. They spiral around in a very attractive sennit.

Fold 2 cords in half, and secure the folded portion onto a project board. Tie the first half of a Square Knot with the strands on the outside as the working cords (purple). The inner 2 strands are the fillers (green).

Tie the first half of the SK again, just below the first one. These are called Half Knots. Leave a 1/2 to 1-inch space, and tie 2 more Half Knots.

Slide the lower knots up to rest beside the first ones, forming the picots. To continue, leave the space and tie 2 more Half Knots. The more space, the larger the picots will become. The entire design will spiral as the Half Knots are tied, with the picots all the way around the sennit. This Vintage technique is great for Christmas Trees, Bracelets, and Plant Hangers.

Alternating Square Knots

Description: Alternating Square Knots (ASK) create a net-like pattern commonly seen in Macrame. All you are essentially doing is tying horizontal rows of Square knots. In every other row you alternate the cords used to tie the knots. This is one of the most important techniques you will need to progress in Macrame, so practice this several times. Be sure you know how to tie single Square Knots before you get started.

Step 1: To practice, obtain 4 cords, and either mount them to another cord or just fold them in half. Secure them to your work surface. Mentally number the strands 1 thru 8, moving left to right.

Row 1: Tie a Square Knot (SK) with cords 1 thru 4. Strands 2 and 3 will act as fillers, and the working cords are 1 and 4. Tie another SK, using strands 5 thru 8. The fillers are cords 6 and 7. Row 2: Tie one Square knot, using cords 3 thru 6 only. The fillers are cords 4 and 5. This is what the term "alternating" means. Another way to look at it is to tie the new knot using two cords from each of the two knots above it. Cords 1, 2, 7, and 8 are not used, so are called "free cords". In many Macrame patterns, they are used to hold new strands being added. Row 3: Tie two Square Knots, using cords 1 - 4 for the first one, and 5 - 8 for the second. This is the same as in row 1.

To continue, simply repeat steps 2 and 3 over and over. In an actual Macrame pattern, Alternating Square Knots are tied in rows, and usually require you to tie more knots than what is shown above. But the process is the same: Alternate the strands used to make the knots in ever other row.

Creating Symmetry
Note that in the image at the top of the page, all the knots are tied in the same direction, so the edges are slightly different. Many Macrame patterns require you to form an identical design on both edges, which is called "symmetry". You simply reverse the process of making half of the Square knots. I call these reversed ones Mirror Square Knots. Some books name them Right SK, or Reverse SK. To form the design you simply tie regular, left facing SK on one half, and the Mirror SK on the other half. Click on the icons to see larger images.

The left facing SK are on the left, and the right facing MSK are on the right. In other words, the "heads" of the knots point towards the outside edges. You can also tie the ASK so the heads face towards each other.

Symmetrical Loops form along the edges, between the rows, when the Alternating Square knots are tied in this manner. This produces an even appearance, which is often important in Macrame patterns.

Alternating Square Knot Patterns
Below are 2 very common patterns seen in both vintage and modern Macrame designs.

Double ASK
Mount 8 cords to a holding cord or dowel, folding them in half. Number the strands 1 thru 12. Rows 1, 3, 5, etc. consist of Double SK using all the cords. In other words, instead of tying 1 knot, tie 2. Rows 2, 4, 6, etc. are made using cords 3 thru 10 only. So there will be two free cords at each end.

This pattern creates more space within the overall design. If you want both edges to be the same, the knots on the left should be tied so the heads face left. The knots on the right should be reversed, so they face right.

ASK Netting

Sometimes you want a large amount of space between the rows to make "netting". The process for making the Alternating Square Knots is no different, you are simply adding more space.

Alternating V Patterns

Description: Alternating V Patterns are frequently used in Macrame, especially in Vintage patterns. You will come across them in wall hangings, plant hangers, and clothing projects. There are six different designs, each using Alternating Square Knots. In general, dropping two or more cords, as you tie each new row of knots, will create a V Pattern. But there are times when a Macrame project requires that Square knots surround the V shape, or that the V design stands alone. Some projects call for the V pattern to be inverted. The six charts below will help you master this important Macrame technique. All the Square Knots in the four patterns below are made with 2 fillers, and 2 working cords. It’s a good idea to mount the cords to something first. If you prefer, fold the cut cords in half and secure them to a table with tape. Click on the small images to see larger pictures that will come up in a new window.

Standard ASK V Pattern
Cut 8 cords, folding them in half, so you have a total of 16 strands to work with. This is the most common of the four variations.

ROW 1 2 3 4

# of KNOTS 4 3 2 1

CORDS USED 1-4, 5-8, 9-12, 13-16 3-6, 7-10, 11-14 5-8, 9-12 7-10

Row 1

Row 2

Row 3

Inverted ASK V Pattern
You’ll need 8 cords folded in half or mounted, as above. This pattern will create a V Pattern that is inverted, or upside down.

ROW 1 2 3 4

# of KNOTS 1 2 3 4

CORDS USED 7-10 5-8, 9-12 3-6, 7-10, 11-14 1-4, 5-8, 9-12, 13-16

Row 1

Row 2

Row 3

ASK Wing V Pattern
This Alternating V Pattern resembles a pair of wings. You’ll need 10 cords folded or mounted, so you have 20 strands to work with. Organize the cords into 5 groups of 4 strands.

ROW 1 2 3 4 5

# of KNOTS 2 2 4 4 5

CORDS USED 1-4, 17-20 3-6, 15-18 1-4, 5-8, 13-16, 17-20 3-6, 7-10, 11-14, 15-18 1-4, 5-8, 9-12, 13-16, 17-20

Rows 1 and 2

Row 3

Row 4

Inverted Wing V Pattern
This Alternating V Pattern is an inverted variation of the previous "wing" design. You will need 20 strands to work with (10 folded cords).

ROW 1 2 3 4 5

# of KNOTS 5 4 4 2 2

CORDS USED 1-4, 5-8, 9-12, 13-16, 17-20 3-6, 7-10, 11-14, 15-18 1-4, 5-8, 13-16, 17-20 3-6, 15-18 1-4, 17-20

Row 1

Row 2

Row 3

Row 4

Isolated V Pattern
On occasion you will come across a pattern that requires a V design stand alone without other knots around it. This is called an Isolated V pattern, and is slightly different from the others listed above.

To practice, obtain 10 cords and fold them in half or mount them to something, so you end up with 20 strands to work with.

ROW 1 2 3 4 5

# of KNOTS 2 2 2 2 1

CORDS USED 1 - 4 and 17 - 20 3 - 6 and 15 - 18 5 - 8 and 13 - 16 7 - 10 and 11 - 14 9 - 12

Row 1

Row 2

Row 3

Row 4

Inverted Isolated V Pattern
This Alternating V Pattern is the inverted variation of the one above. It could also be called an Empty V Pattern because there are no other knots within or around the V shape.

Row 1 2 3 4 5

# of Knots 1 2 2 2 2

Cords Used 9 - 12 7 - 10 and 11 - 14 5 - 8 and 13 - 16 3 - 6 and 15 - 18 1 - 4 and 17 - 20

Row 1

Row 2

Row 3

Row 4

Snowflake Design

Description: The Snowflake Design is made with Square knots that form a circular shape. So it is sometimes referred to as the Circle knot. It's considered a vintage technique, and is rarely seen in modern Macrame patterns. The best time to use it is when you need a decoration that stands alone. For this reason, it's used in plant hangers as well as items like guitar straps and belts. Click on the icons to see larger images, which will come up in a new window. Step 1: To begin practing this unique knot design, cut 6 cords, each at least 40 inches long. Fold them in half and pin them to your project board. Mentally number the strands 1 thru 12.

Step 2: Use cords 3 thru 6 to make a Square Knot. Do the same with cords 7 thru 10. These SK should be made with 2 working cords and 2 fillers.

Step 3: The next two SK should be tied with cords 1 thru 4 as well as 9 thru 12.

Step 4: Move cord 1 - 3 and 10 - 12 slightly off to the side. Tie one SK using cords 4 and 9 as the working cords, and 5 thru 8 as the fillers.

Step 5: Use cords 1 thru 4 as well as 9 thru 12 to tie the next pair of Alternating Square Knots.

Step 6: Repeat step 2, using cords 3 thru 6 as well as 7 thru 10 to make the ASK. This completes the Snowflake design.

Spiral Stitch

Description: Note that I used the term Spiral Stitch rather than “knot”. This is the name often used in Vintage Macrame patterns. It's also referred to as the Half Knot Spiral. That’s a pretty accurate term, since it’s half of a Square Knot tied in a chain. Variations: Spiral with Direction Change

Step 1: To practice this decorative knot, mount 2 cords to a ring or holding cord. This will give you four strands to work with. Using the two outside cords as your working cords, tie the first half of a Square Knot (Half Knot).

Step 2: Repeat the Half Knot over and over. Make sure you tie each of the knots exactly the same way. The cords will twist to form an attractive spiral chain. Tip: As the knots progress, you may need to help them along by twisting the entire design a half turn.

Spiral with Direction Change
This is a very interesting variation of the Spiral Stitch. I found it in a book of Vintage patterns, written in the early 1900's, but not in more modern books, so I don't think it is very

well known. Step 1: You will need 4 strands of cord material. Tie the first half of the Square Knot (Half Knot). You can click on these icons and larger images will come up in a new window.

Step 2: Tie 7 to 10 more Half Knots just below the first. The

design should spiral at least once.

Step 3: Tie the second half of the Square Knot. This will form a complete SK. Continue on, and tie the same number of knots you made in step 2, making sure they are the second half of the SK, not the first. This section will spiral the opposite direction. To continue the design, simply repeat steps 1 thru 3 as many times as you wish.

Square Knot Button

Description: The Square Knot Button is most definitely a Vintage knot. I’ve never seen it in any modern Macrame patterns. These decorative knots were very popular in designs created in the 1970’s. This particular type of button knot is easy to make, compared to other similar

techniques. Step 1: To practice this interesting knotting technique, obtain 2 cords. Fold them in half and pin them to your board, so you end up with 4 strands to work with. Tie a short chain of Square Knots (5 or 6).

Step 2: Leave approximately ¼ inches of space, and tie 3 more Square Knots. If you want the button to be larger, make one or two additional knots.

Step 3: Direct the ends up and into the space you left in the last step. Two strands should go to the right of the fillers cords, and the others on the left. Be careful not to cross the strands. Pull the ends down to form the rolled button.

Step 4: Tie another Square Knot below to secure the Button knot. Note: Some instructions tell you to bring only the filler cords into the space to make the knot. You can tie it that way, certainly, but the button will be more stable if you use all four ends.

Square Knot Sennits

Description: Square Knot Sennits can be made in a variety of ways, forming interesting designs. Many Macrame Patterns use these techniques, so it is a good idea to practice those I have listed. You can even invent a few of your own unique patterns, once you understand the concepts. A sennit is simply a chain of knots, tied one after the next. How you combine the sennits to form a design, depends on what you are making. Most patterns will tell you what to do, but if you want to make your own special projects, spend some time practicing different combinations. Click on any of the small icons on this page to see larger images, which show the details better.

Alternating Sennit
Alternating Square Knot sennits are popular designs for jewelry. There are 2 sets of working cords instead of one, which is where the term "alternating" comes from. Step 1: Fold three cords in half and secure them to your board. If you wish, you can mount them to a dowel or ring instead. You need 6 strands to practice this design.

Step 2: Mentally number the strands 1 thru 6. The filler cords are 3 and 4 throughout the entire design. Tie a Square Knot using cords 2 and 5 as the working cords. Tie the next SK with cords 1 and 6 as the working cords. Be sure to pass them UNDER the working cords used to tie the previous knot, which are labeled "tails" in this image.

Alternating Sennit with Direction Change

Square Knot sennits can be changed simply by adding special features. This one is similar to the design described above. The main difference is that the knots alternate directions. Make sure you know how to tie Mirror Square Knots, which face right instead of left.

Step 1: You need 6 strands for this variation, too. Fold three cords in half and secure them to your project board. Mentally number the strands 1 thru 6. Step 2: The filler cords are 3 and 4 for all the knots. Tie a left facing regular Square Knot using 2 and 5 as the working cords. Step 3: Tie a Mirror Square knot (right facing) using strands 1 and 6 as the working cords. Be sure to pass them under cords 2 and 5. Repeat steps 2 and 3 over and over, to make the rest of the sennit.

Color Variations
The next three designs show you what can be done using different colors. Sometimes the best way to form interesting Square knot sennits is to use two or more colors. In this one, I used a unique mounting technique, so the colors would not mix when I tied the Square Knots.

Step 1: Mount 2 strands of material to a holding cord with Larks Head knots. Add 2 additional strands, that are a different color, with the Nestle Mount variation.. This is the purpose of it, to arrange the cords so that one color is inside the other.

Step 2: Make 2 short sennits of Square Knots, consisting of two knots. Be sure to use 4 cords per knot. The blue strands are the working cords. Step 3: Alternate cords, and tie one sennit of Square knots. The rust strands are the working cords for this area. Step 4: Alternate cords again, and make 2 sennits just like you did in step 2, using all the strands. The working cords are the blue ones again.

Crossed Pattern
There are otherl ways to alternate colors when making Square Knot sennits. This Crossed Pattern creates an interesting pattern simply by crisscrossing certain strands. Some of the knots will be a mixture of two colors.

Step 1: Mount 2 cords of two different colors to a holding cord with Larks Head Knots. If you wish, you can simply fold them in half and pin them to your board. Step 2: Tie 2 Square Knots with each set of four cords. Mentally number the strands in each set. Step 3: Cords 3 and 4 from the left sennit (blue) need to cross over cords 1 and 2 of the right sennit (rust). When you are done, cords 1 and 2 from each sennit will lie next to one another, and the same goes for cords 3 and 4.

Step 4: Tie the next set of 2 Square Knots with the cords as they lie. Simply combine the strands closest to one another. These knots are made from both colors, so they will look different than the others.

Step 5: If you were to continue this sennit, you would cross the cords again. The knots would look like they did in step 2, with each sennit being a different color.

Crossed Bar
Square Knot sennits are sometimes called "Bars" because they are flat. This one has crossed areas like the pattern above, but the colors don't change as you progress. Instead, the knots face opposite directions. So make sure you know how to tie both regular SK (left facing) and Mirror SK (right facing).

Step 1: Mount three cords to a ring with Larks Head Knots. If you prefer, you can fold the cords in half and pin them to your board. Use three different colors to practice this pattern.

Step 2: Mentally number the cords 1 - 6. Locate cords 4 - 6, and tie the first half of a Right Facing Square Knot. There is only one filler, which is cord 5.

Step 3: Tie the second half of the SK, and tighten it completely.

Step 4: Tie the second SK with cords 1 - 3. There is only one filler, which is cord 2. Make sure the head faces left.

Step 5: Take cord 4 and cross it over cord 3. Then tie the next set of SK. The one on the left is made with cords 1, 2, and 4, and faces left. The SK on the right is tied using cords 3, 5, and 6, and faces right. Repeat this process several times to create the rest of the SK Sennit.

Square Knot Frame
Description: A simple Square Knot frame can be made for photos, artwork, and even jewelry designs, depending on the size material you use. All you need to know is how to tie the Square Knot to make the sennits, which is a basic Macrame knot. The photo or item you are framing attached to the back of the design with glue or small nails. Make sure you understand the difference between a working cord and a filler, before you get started. You will need a project board, pins, and pliers or tweezers to create this design.

Cutting Instructions

Since the Square Knot Frame can have many uses, these cutting instructions are very flexible. First you need to determine the size you need, by measuring each side of the photo or piece of art. If making a pendant, add the length and the width and multiply that by 2. Make sure you write down the measurements, since you will be using them throughout the pattern. Example: A 12 x 12 inch frame, which measures 48 inches all the way around, needs 6 cords cut to at least 240 inches.

Size of Frame Pendant 2 – 6 inch Frame 6 – 10 inch Frame Over 10 inches

Cord Size 2mm 4mm 6mm 6mm

Number of Cords 4 cords 4 cords 4 cords 6 cords

Length 4 x size of pendant 4 x size of frame 4 x size of frame 5 x size of frame

You can click on the small images below, and larger ones will come up in a new window, so you can see the details more clearly. Step 1: Lay the cords on your project board vertically, so you have access to the middle of them. The strands on the outside of the group are the working cords, and the rest are fillers. If you were to mentally number the strands, the working cords would be 1 and 4, for a frame using four strands. If you are using six, the working cords should be strands 1 and 6.

Begin the first Square Knot sennit in the center of the cords, and work towards one end.

Step 2: Stop when the sennit measures the same as one side of the photo or artwork you are framing. This segment of the Square Knot Frame will be on the bottom.

Step 3: Lay the sennit on your board horizontally. The place you stopped should be on your left.

Take the working cord that is currently at the top, and bring it straight down.

The filler cord next to it will now become a working cord. Use it and the working cord on the bottom to tie a Square knot around the other strands, which should also be directed downward. This forms the first corner.

Here's a close-up of how the first Square Knot is tied as you make the corner.

Tie enough knots in the sennit so that it measures the same as the second side of the artwork or photo (same for pendant). This segment will be on one side.

Step 4: Rotate the Square Knot frame to make another corner, as you did in the last step. It's always best to work on each segment with the cords resting vertically (up and down).

After the corner is made, tie the Square knots again, but stop when the sennit measures HALF the size you need. This segment will be on the top of the Square Knot Frame.

Step 5: Locate the center where you started, and repeat steps 2 - 4 to make the second half of the frame.

Step 6: Lay the frame on your board, arranging it in the desired shape. The ends should all come together in the middle of one side. Rotate the frame, so the ends are at the top, which is where the loop will be placed.

Use your needle nose pliers, and feed two of the filler cords from the left end through the knots in the back of the sennit on the right. You need to pass under at least 2 SK. Then repeat this process, but take the fillers from the right and direct them through the left sennit.

Step 7: The remaining cords will be used to make the loop. The best type is a Wrapped Loop. If you prefer, you can simply add a metal or plastic ring for hanging. Here are the instructions to make the Wrapped Loop:

Take half of the remaining strands and cross them over the other half, forming a loop. Don’t make it too large. One to two inches is usually enough. The two groups of cords work together as if they were 2 single strands.

Wrap the right ends around the right half of the loop several times. Repeat this with the left ends, wrapping around the opposite side of the loop. Make sure the wraps don’t overlap and are close together.

When you are finished wrapping, tie a very tight Square Knot with the ends, in the back of the frame, where it cannot be seen. Apply glue and when it’s dry, cut off the excess. If you prefer, you can weave the ends into the back of the knots in that area, instead of cutting them off. Attach the photo or artwork to the back of the Square Knot Frame with glue or small nails.

HALF HITCH DESINGS
Alternating Half Hitch

Description: The Alternating Half Hitch (AHH) is usually tied to form a chain, also called a sennit. In the example shown here, one cord holds the knot and the other one creates it. This produces a chain-like effect. So in some Vintage patterns, the name of this knot is the Chain Stitch. It can be used to make a simple bracelet or necklace, as well as a handbag handle. Belts can also be made with this decorative knot. There are other similar techniques listed under Half Hitch Patterns. Each of the designs on that page feature the use of a separate holding cord. The Double Hitch Bracelet features this knot, if you want to practice it by actually creating something.

Step 1: To practice, take two lengths of cord fold them in half. Secure them to your work surface. Use one strand to make a half hitch around the other .To

do this, bring the working cord (Blue) over, then under the holding cord (Purple), and

through the space between the strands, on the right. Step 2: To form the alternating pattern, switch the cords. If you started tying with the strand on the right, you will now use the left to tie the next Half Hitch, or vice-versa. Be sure to make the Half Hitch the opposite direction, so you pass into the space between the cords on the left.

Step 3: Continue to alternate back and forth between the two strands as you tie additional knots to form the rest of the sennit.

Half Hitch Spiral

Description: The Half Hitch Spiral design is used often in Macrame patterns, and is particularly nice for Micro-Macrame jewelry. The process is simple, and the design is quite artistic. Spirals of any type are used in plant hangers, belts, wall decorations, and anywhere you need a long, uniform chain of decorative knots. This spiral design is a bit easier than other similar patterns. Two variations are also described here: One is a HH Spiral with Picots, and the other is called the Shell Spiral. Both are Vintage techniques, popular in the late 1800's.

Step 1: Obtain 2 lengths of whatever material you are using to practice. Secure them to your working surface. Step 2: Choose 1 strand to hold the knots (holding cord). In the images, that's the blue strand. The other strand will be the working cord. It doesn’t matter which strand you use in this practice, but the actual pattern may specify. Also, the working cord will usually be longer than the one holding the knots.

Step 3: Direct the working cord over the filler cord. Then bring it under and through the space between the holding cord and the one you are working with, on the right. Pull firmly to tighten. This knot is called a Half Hitch.

Step 4: Repeat this same process over and over. The resulting chain of knots will spiral naturally, but you can help it along by giving the design a twist now and then. To see another common type of Spiral design, go to the page for the Spiral Stitch.

Half Hitch Spiral w/Picots
This interesting Vintage technique adds a unique touch to the standard spiral design. You will need 3 cords to practice this variation. You can click on the icons to see larger images.

Step 1: Mentally number the cords 1 - 3, moving left to right. Use the cord furthest to the right (#3) to tie a Half Hitch around the other strands (1 and 2).

Step 2: After tying several more Half Hitches the same way, make an Overhand knot in the working cord. Step 3: Continue the sennit by making additional Half Hitches, removing the slack from around the Overhand Knot so it rests tight against the fillers. Step 4: Repeat steps 1 thru 3 until the sennit is as long as you want it to be.

Shell Spiral
This unusual Half Hitch Spiral technique was found in a book written in the late 1800's. I've never seen it in more modern books. It forms a beautiful rippling chain of knots that are suitable for purse handles, bracelets, and more. You'll need 3 cords to make this unique Spiral design. Mounting them to something is helpful. Make sure they are at least 36 inches long. It helps if the cords are different colors when you are practicing. Click on the icons to see larger images.

Step 1: Mentally number the cords 1 thru 3, moving left to right. Use cord 3 to tie a total of five Half Hitches around the other strands (1 and 2).

Step 2: Make sure the working cord is resting on the left. Use cord 1 as the working cord, tying 5 Half Hitches around both the other cords (2 and 3). Step 3: To complete the sennit, repeat steps 1 and 2 several more times.

Basket Stitch

Description: I found the Basket Stitch in a book written in the early 1900's. So I consider this a Vintage Knot. In another source, this same technique was listed as a variation of the Alternating Half Hitch. What makes this knot unique is that you use many filler cords to widen the alternating pattern. You could use this decorative knot in any project that needs a flat chain of knots, such as a belt. Click on the icons and larger pictures will come up in a new window.

Step 1: To practice, cut four cords. Mount them to a ring, holding cord, or dowel. If you prefer, you can fold them in half and pin them to a board. The outside strands are your working cords (1 and 8), and the remainder are the holding cords.

Step 2: Use cord 8, which is furthest to the right. Go over, then under ALL the fillers, and over the segment of cord 8 that's on the right. Tighten gently, and leave the knot loose and flat, so the holding cords don't bunch up.

Step 3: Next, use cord 1, and tie the next Half Hitch directly below the first. Finish by bringing the end out over the segment on the left. Step 4: Alternate back and forth between the two working cords as you continue the chain. When finished, press and adjust the knots as needed to further flatten the Basket Stitch design.

PROGRESSIVE BASKET STITCH

This interesting technique is made by tying Half Hitches around first one, then 2, 3, and 4 holding cords. The result is a very attractive Vintage design rarely seen in modern Macrame patterns.

Step 1: Start by mounting 4 cords to a holding cord with Larks Head Knots. Mentally number the strands 1 - 8. Cords 1 and 8 will be the working cords throughout the design.

Step 2: Make the first Half Hitch using cord 1, directing it around cord 2, which is a holding cord. Repeat the process with cord 8, using cord 7 to hold the Half Hitch.

Step 3: The next set of Half Hitches are tied with the working cords (1 and 8), by passing around 2 holding cords. So on the left, the knot will be tied around cords 2 and 3. On the right, it will be around 6 and 7. Step 4: The third row of Half Hitches are tied around 3 holding cords each. On the right, the knot is tied with cord 8 onto 5, 6, and 7. On the left, use cord 1, tying the knot onto 2, 3, and 4.

Step 5: Use the working cord 8 to make a Half Hitch around a total of 4 holding cords (4 - 7).

Step 6: Use the left working cord (#1) to tie the final Half Hitch around holding cords 2 - 5. Tighten the Progressive Basket Stitch, taking care to keep the sennit as flat as possible.

Waved Basket Stitch

Description: The Waved Basket Stitch is another Vintage knot you don’t see used very often. It is sometimes referred to as the Alternating Basket Stitch. The wavy pattern is the result of alternating the working cords.

Step 1: Begin by obtaining three or more cords. Fold them in half and secure them to your board, so you end up with at least 6 strands to work with. Mentally number the cords 1 - 6. The working cords are 1 and 6 throughout the design, and the others are the fillers.

Step 2: Make seveal half hitches with the right working cord (#6), going around all the filler cords. Tie a total of four to six knots. Tighten the knots and flatten the sennit so the filler cords don't overlap one another.

Step 3: Now use the left working cord (#1) to make the same number of knots, just below the first set.

Step 4: Repeat steps 2 and 3 several more times. As you continue the pattern, the knots will twist slightly to form the wavy appearance.

Half Hitch Patterns

There are several different Half Hitch Patterns used in Macrame, to make various types of decorative chains. You should review the process of making standard Alternating Half Hitches, and Double Half Hitches, before trying the different patterns described below. These particular designs all use holding cords, also called knot bearers. Holding cords are not used to tie the knots at all. When practicing, it helps to use a different color for these holding cords.

Basic 3-strand Design
Obtain 3 cords to work with, and secure them to your work surface. The center one will be the holding cord for all the knots.

Tie a Half Hitch onto it, using the left strand. Then make another Half Hitch, using the right one. Leave ½ inch of space, and repeat the process. Continue to alternate back and forth between the strands as you continue the chain.

2-By-2
This sennit starts out with 3 cords, the middle one holding all the knots. Use the left strand, and tie 2 Half Hitches onto the holding cord. This is called a Double Half Hitch (DHH). Then do the same with the right one. Repeat the process over and over to form the rest of the chain.

Long AHH Chain
You’ll need 3 cords to work with for this Half Hitch pattern. The center cord will hold all the knots. Step 1: Make 3 or more Half Hitches with the right strand. Then do the same with the left one. Step 2: Alternate back and forth between the two strands to make the sennit longer.

Other Patterns
A very interesting design can be made by tying the Alternating Half Hitches in what is called a progressive pattern.

Progressive Design
You'll need 4 strands to make this interesting design. The 2 strands in the center are the holding cords. Mentally number the cords 1 - 4. Step 1: Make a Half Hitch with cord 4, around holding cord 3. Make the next HH with cord 1, tying it onto cord 2. Step 2: Take cord 4 and make a Half Hitch around both holding cords (2 and 3). Finally, take cord 1 and make a HH around the two holding cords.

Step 3: Repeat steps 2 and 3 over and over, until the sennit is complete.

Alternating Half Hitch with Picots
Picots are a real favorite of mine. So I worked out a way to make an Alternating Half Hitch pattern that features them.

Step 1: Mentally label 4 strands. The strands on the outside (1 and 4) are the working cords. The inner ones (2 and 3) are the holding cords. Step 2: Tie a Half Hitch with working cord 4 around both holding cords. Just below, do the same with cord 1. Tighten the knots so they are firmly wrapped around the holding cords.

Step 3: Move down 1 to 2 inches and repeat the process you just completed. Step 4: Before tightening, slide the knots up so they rest just below the first two. The loops that stick out at the edges are the picots.

Step 5: To secure the picot loops, you MUST tie 2 Alternating Half Hitches just below. Otherwise, the knots are too loose and will slide around. So repeat step 2, without leaving space between the knots.

Step 6: To continue this Half Hitch Pattern, simply repeat steps 3 - 5, at least 1 more time. Step 7: To end the sennit, tie some type of finishing knot, or a Square Knot, to hold the picots in place (not shown in image).

Vertical Half Hitch

Description: The Vertical Half Hitch is constructed somewhat differently than the other variations of the DHH. So I've devoted a whole page to helping you learn this important Macrame technique. It's also called the Vertical Double Half Hitch, and can be used to make wide belts, Friendship Bracelets, and even webbed feet for frogs. Here are two projects that feature this decorative knot:
 

Far Away Frog Friendship Bracelet

You can click on the small images to see larger ones, which show the details more clearly.

To practice this decorative knot, secure 4 or more strands to a project board. The first cord on the left is the working cord.

Some Macrame patterns will have you use an EXTRA cord to make the knots. In which case, you would secure it to the left of the vertical strands, which are ALL holding cords. The pattern will also specify which direction you will be tying the knots.

Step 2: Pass the working cord under the strand next to it on the right (holding cord). Bring the end over the holding cord lower down, under it, and over the segment of the working cord on the right. This is the first Half Hitch. The end should be heading towards the right, and you should tighten it firmly.

Step 3: Direct the working end over the holding cord, under it, and over the segment on the right. It's the same as the first knot, only you don't need to pass the end under before you tie the knot. Both steps equal one Vertical Half Hitch.

Step 4: Direct the end of the working cord under the next holding cord (on the right). Tie the Half Hitch the same way you did in Step 2.

Step 5: Tighten the first Half Hitch as much as you can, so the two knots will rest close together. Tie the second HH just below the first, like you did in Step 3. Design Tip: Any time you make a Vertical Half Hitch, try to tighten the first part so that the entire knot is as tight as possible.

Step 6: The next Vertical HH is tied onto the next holding cord.

This is what the Vertical Half Hitch looks like in a diagonal row. You can also make them horizontally, like in the next set of images.

To reverse the direction, take the same working cord and bring it under the holding cord next to it. Tie the Half Hitch the same way, over - under - over, but make sure the end is heading left.

Tighten the first half so it rests under the VHH just above it. The second Half Hitch is tied over - under - over, just like the others you have practiced.

Make sure both rows are close together. Progress left to right as you make the other knots.

The back of the Vertical Half Hitch design has an interesting crossed pattern, which you can take advantage of. You can make a reversible belt with this technique.

Making Webbed Feet
Ever wonder how Webbed Feet for Frogs and Birds are made? They use the Vertical Half Hitch, of course! Now aren't you glad you are learning this Macrame design?

Webbing is made by widening the holding cords as you progress through the rows of knots. Like all DHH designs, the shape depends on the arrangement of the holding cords. To practice Webbed Feet, use a separate piece of material as the working cord. Secure four holding cords to your board, and secured the working cord to the left of them.

Step 1: Make the Vertical DHH for 1 row, as described above. The knots should be close together, as you progress from left to right.

Step 2: Tie the second row of DHH so that the holding cords are spread a little further apart, and you move right to left.

Step 3: As yout tie each new row, separate the holding cords further and further apart, to form the webbed feet. Design Tip: You will need to tie an Overhand knot with each holding cord, placing them just below the final row of VHH. Otherwise, the knots could slip off.

Adding Picots
The Vertical Half Hitch pattern can be decorated by applying PICOTS, which are small loops. Step 1: Make the first row of Vertical DHH as described above. You can use one of the vertical cords to tie the knots, as I did, or use a separate working cord. Step 2: When you want a picot to form, simply tie the first DHH in the row so it sits lower down on the holding cord. Using leaving 1-inch of space is plenty.

Push the knot up next to the others to form the picot. Complete the row by tying the remaining Vertical HH close to the row above (no space).

Double Picot Design
This interesting variation is called a Double Picot design, which is a Vintage technique. I found it in several of my oldest books, written in 1903. Using 2 colors will give the design a striped appearance. You will need 4 holding cords to practice this Vertical Half Hitch pattern. Cut two working cords as well, preferably a different color. Step 1: Tie one row of Vertical HH with each of the working cords. Start with the one closest to the holding cords. Make sure you progress from left to right.

Step 2: The second working cord is used next, to tie a row of Vertical HH moving right to left. In this image, that's the blue cord, row 3. Make a picot loop with the first knot, following the instructions above.

Step 3: Use the working cord you started with in the first row (tan), to make the fourth row. The picot loop should be larger and needs to fit around the first one (on the right).

Design Tip: When making the larger picots on the outside, you just fit the cord around the first one. Hold it steady while you tie the knot onto the holding cord. This way you don't need to add space and push the knot into place, which is awkward.

Step 4: The ends should now be at the left. The 5th Vertical Half Hitch row is made with the working cord you just used (tan). The 6th row is made with the remaining working cord (blue). Step 5: Repeat steps 2 - 4 over and over to lengthen the design.

Double Half Hitch

Description: The Double Half Hitch (DHH) is vital to the craft of Macrame. Most of the Macrame patterns in existence use this decorative knot in one form or another. So this is a very important decorative knot, and you MUST know how to tie it, or many patterns won't make sense to you. If you tie a series of knots, one right next to the other, a raised bar will form. You can construct the bars in any direction, and even form elaborate shapes. Variations: The Horizontal, Diagonal and Reverse DHH are shown below. You will find vintage Macrame projects where the direction of the bar varies to form a particular design, such as diamonds, leaves and angles. See Double Half Hitch Patterns to learn more variations.

TERMINOLOGY: Double Half Hitches need to be attached to another strand of material, which is called a holding cord. You can also attach them to rings and dowels. The strands attached to the holding cord are called Working Cords. Make sure you know the difference between the two. Step 1: To practice, secure least 3 cords to your project board with pins, after folding them in half. They should be vertical.

Place a separate piece of material on top of the vertical strands. This holding cord should be horizontal. It should have plenty of tension an be as straight as possible. Make sure you secure it well.

Step 2: Take the first working cord on the left, and direct it over the front of the holding cord. Bring it to the back (under) and over the segment at the bottom (working cord). This is a single Half Hitch, and you need to pull it tight before you make the next one. As you do so, pull the end slightly to the left.

Step 3: Make a second Half Hitch just like the first one, placing it to the right. Both steps equal one Double Half Hitch.

To make this knot in the opposite direction (right to left), make the Half Hitches the same way. But be sure to pull the end slightly to the right when you tie the first one.

When you tie the second Half Hitch, it should be placed to the left of the first. You'll need to know how to tie this knot in both directions, so practice it several times.

Step 4: After you tighten the first DHH, use the next cord (2) and tie another one.

Step 5: Repeat the process with the other working cords. A raised bar will form, which is exactly what you are aiming for. DHH Patterns are NOT flat like Square Knots, which is why they are often used to outline other knot patterns.

For the first row, I used a separate cord to hold the knots. But some Macrame patterns want you to use one of the vertical strands as the holding cord. To practice, curve cord 1 horizontally to the right, across the others. Attach cords 2 - 7 to it with DHH (left to right).

Design Tip: When you use one of the vertical strands to hold the knots, you need to attach the working cords in a specific direction: Start with the working cord that rests closest to the holding cord. In the example above, the holding cord is the strand furthest to the left (1). The first working cord you attach is the next one over (cord 2).

In this example, the holding cord is 7, which is at the far right. So you would start with working cord 6, since it's the first working cord on the right.

This is the second Half Hitch. Notice the first one is tightened. Tightening is an important part of making Double Half Hitches. If you don't tighten the first one, the second knot will be too loose.

Attach the remaining working cords to the holding cord, moving right to left.

Diagonal DHH
The Diagonal Double Half Hitch can be used to form a variety of designs. It's used frequently to make diamond shapes and V designs. See Vintage Diamonds for more information. It's very IMPORTANT that you know how to tie this knot diagonally, since you will see it often in Macrame patterns. Step 1: To practice this variation of the Double Half Hitch, you will need at least 4 cords secured to your board. They should be arranged vertically.

Mentally number the cords from left to right. Use the strand furthest to the left (1) as the holding cord. Secure it diagonally, placing a pin at both the top and bottom. Make sure it's taut.

Step 2: Tie the first Half Hitch with cord 2. They are made just like the others you have been practicing. To review, bring the end over in front of the holding cord, under it, and over the segment at the bottom.

Step 3: Pull the first Half Hitch tightly, and tie another one to complete the Double Half Hitch.

Step 4: Now use Cord 3 to make the next DHH, which will be slightly lower on the holding cord. Progress from left to right, attaching each cord. When you tighten the first Half Hitch, make sure the upper portion of the cord has plenty of tension, so that area is straight.

Design Tip: When tying this decorative knot diagonally, you should always start with the working cord that's closest to the holding cord. Another way to look at it is to progress in the same direction you moved the holding cord. In this example, you moved the holding cord left to right. So the first working cord is the furthest one to the left (cord 2). You then progress towards the strand on the far right (cord 7).

This is what the diagonal Double Half Hitch looks like when it's finished.

Now you can take the same holding cord and direct it back to the left. You should start with cord 7, and attach the working cords to it with DHH (progress right to left).

You also need to make the Half Hitches from right to left. When you tie the first one, pull the end towards the right as you tighten it. The second Half Hitch is placed to the left of the first one, and you pull the end straight down.

Reminder: Start the row of DHH with the strand closest to the holding cord (7). Since you moved the holding cord from right to left, that's how you should progress as you attach each knot.

This is what the two rows of Diagonal DHH look like when completed. Remember this rule: The direction and angle of the HOLDING cords determine the shape of the bar.

Reverse Double Half Hitch

This image shows a standard DHH. Usually you place the dowel on top of the cords, so that the knot starts out from under the dowel. Then it passes over and under the dowel, and over the segment at the bottom. Then repeat the process to make the second Half Hitch. A Reverse Half Hitch is starts out by passing the working end over the dowel. Bring the end under the back of the dowel, over in front, and under the segment of cord at the bottom. So it's the opposite of the regular DHH.

Make the second Half Hitch the same way, after you tighten the first one. Bring the end under the back of the dowel, over in front, and under the cord at the bottom.

If you look closely at the two Double Half Hitch designs, the reverse variation has an X shape. That's what the back of a normal DHH looks like. So all you did is construct it backwards. Design Tip: The knots are often tied in this manner in Macrame Table patterns. By reversing the knot as you attach the DHH onto rings, the glass can rest on inside of the knots. The Honey Pot Table features the use of the Reverse Double Half Hitch, if you want to see it

in a real project.

Cockscomb Knot

Description: The Cockscomb knot, also know as Ringbolt Hitching, is an interesting decorative knot seldom used in Macrame. Since it has to be tied to something, you could use it to decorate bottles, to cover a handle, or to wrap a thick bundle of cords together. I've seen this technique used to cover portions of chairs and other furniture. The item you are covering is wrapped with Half Hitches, but they are arranged in a manner that causes the front of the knot to stand up above the surface of the dowel. By alternating the direction of the Half Hitches, a type of braid is formed, which adds character. Variations: The Cockscomb knot is often made with loops rather than braiding. So I have included the instructions for the Loop Ringbolt Hitch, and ZigZag Ringbolt. You can click on the images and a large picture will come up in a new window.

Step 1: You need 3 cords, each at least 36 inches long. You will also need a dowel to practice this unique decorative knot. Secure the cords at the top of the dowel, so they rest side-by-side. You can use another piece of cord or tape. Label the opposite end of each cord (1, 2, 3), which makes it easier to keep them organized. Make sure you move left to right as you number them.

Step 2: Take cord 1 and wrap it around the dowel, going counter-clockwise, to make the first Half Hitch. Make sure the end goes under the segment of the cord on the left, and that the end rests on the LEFT when you are through. Tighten the knot firmly.

Step 3: Use cord 2 next, and bring it down below cord 1. Make a Half Hitch in a clockwise direction, so the end is on the RIGHT when you are finished. Arrange the knot so it is next to the first one, and is completely tightened.

Step 4: Make the next Half Hitch with cord 3, so that the Half Hitch is made in a counterclockwise direction, just like the first one. The end should rest on the LEFT. Slide it up next to the others, and tighten it firmly.

Step 5: Now you use cord 1 again. Pull it towards the right, crossing the front of the dowel on an angle. Make the Half Hitch in a clockwise direction, so the end is to the right.

Step 6: Cord 2 is next, so pull it to the left. Make the Half Hitch so the end is on the left (counter-clockwise). The crisscrossing as you alternate the direction of the Half hitches is necessary to make the woven design of the Cockscomb knot.

Step 7: Bring Cord 3 to the right, and make the Half Hitch in a clockwise direction. To continue, repeat steps 5 - 7, but alternate the directions of the Half Hitches each time.

Loop Ringbolt Hitch
This type of Cockscomb knot is made with one cord. The raised area is made with a series of loops, rather than a crisscrossing weave. Except for the first one, all the Half Hitches (and the loops) are made in the same direction. Step 1: Secure one end of a 60-inch cord to the back of the dowel or item you are covering. Make a counter-clockwise Half Hitch, so the working end is on the left when you are finished.

Step 2: Bring the working end down slightly and make a clockwise loop. Cross the end under to make the crossing point, as you bring it to the right.

Step 3: Bring the working end around the dowel from right to left. Pass it through the loop from below, in the front of the dowel. Tighten the knot firmly.

Step 4: Make the next clockwise loop, as you did in step 2. As you tighten it, make sure it rests just below the other loop. Repeat step 3. To continue, just repeat steps 2 and 3 over and over, until the design is the size you need.

ZigZag Ringbolt
This type of Cockscomb knot is similar to the Loop Ringbolt above, but the loops are made in alternate directions. This creates a ZigZag appearance to the knots. You'll need one 60-inch cord to practice.

Step 1: Make a counter-clockwise Half Hitch to secure the cord to the dowel. The working end should be on the left when you are finished.

Step 2: Make a counter-clockwise loop, passing the end under to make the crossing point on the left.

Step 3: Bring the end around the back of the dowel, moving left to right. Pass it through the loop from below, in front of the dowel.

Step 4: The next loop is made in a clockwise direction. Make sure the end passes under to create the crossing point on the right. Bring the end under the dowel (right to left), and through the loop from below. To continue, repeat steps 3 and 4 over and over, alternating the direction of the loops each time. This is what the ZigZag Ringbolt looks like with the knots separated. The loops change direction each time. When creating this type of Cockscomb knot, make sure you place the loops next to each other as you tighten them. I only separate them to show the details.

Double Half Hitch Patterns

These Double Half Hitch Patterns are used in many Macrame projects. From angles to flowers, the possible variations are endless, once you understand this basic concept:
The direction and angle of the HOLDING cord will determine the overall shape of the design.

I have listed several common techniques to show you some examples of how this versatile knot can be used to make different shapes. Be sure you know how to make the Double Half Hitch before you get started. Click on any of the small icons and large pictures will show up in a new window.

Making Angles
Double Half Hitch Patterns are frequently used to make designs featuring angles. Start by mounting 3 strands of material to a dowel or holding cord with Larks Head Knots. You need 6 ends to make this Macrame design.

Step 1: Mentally number the cords 1 - 6. For this row, the strand holding the DHH will be Cord 6. Direct it to the left, so it rests on top of the other strands. Secure it so it's taut.

Step 2: Take cord 5 and attach it to the holding cord with a Double Half Hitch. This image shows a single Half Hitch, so you will need to make a second one.

Step 3: Attach all the remaining strands to the holding cord with DHH. Bring the first holding cord down so it rests to the left of the other strands. The next cord to hold the DHH is Cord 5. Direct it to the left, and attach the remaining cords to it. Be sure to include the first holding cord (6).

Step 4: Continue this process until you have 5 or 6 horizontal rows. Always use the cord furthest to the right as the new holding cord. Then attach the remainder, including the ones previously used. I labeled the image so you can see where the holding cords start and end.

Design Tip: If you wanted only one angle, stop at Step 4. To make your Double Half Hitch patterns with two angles, continue on to the next steps.

Step 5: Use the same holding cord you ended with, in this case, Cord 2. Direct it to the right, resting on top of the other strands. Attach the other cords to it with DHH.

Step 6: The remainder of the process is the same as in steps 1 thru 5, except for the direction. Double Half Hitch patterns like this one look great in belt designs.

Zig Zag Design
Double Half Hitch patterns can form Zig Zag designs, which look great for purse straps. It demonstrates just how DHH designs depend on the direction and angle of the holding cord.

You will need at least 3 cords folded in half and secured to a board. If you prefer, you can mount them to a dowel or another cord.

Step 1: The strand furthest to the right will be the holding cord for the entire design (cord 6). Direct it to the left, on a diagonal slant, which can be any angle you want.

Step 2: Start with Cord 5, attaching it to the holding cord with a DHH. Securing the holding cord at the right corner will help to create the zig zag shape.

Step 3: Attach the rest of the cords (4 - 1), to the holding cord with DHH. Pull each knot tightly to form a straight, firm bar.

Step 4: Direct the holding cord (6) to the right, after securing the last DHH on the left corner. The gap between the two rows can be any size you wish, simply by changing the slant of the holding cord.

Double Half Hitch patterns can be adjusted so that the rows are close together. The holding cord has a slightly different slant than the design shown above, so there is only a small gap between the rows.

Step 5: Direct the holding cord back to the left, and attach the other cords to it once again. Securing the corner each time you change directions will really help keep things taut.

To continue, just bring the holding cord right again and repeat the process.

X Shape
Double Half Hitch Patterns can form diamond and X shapes, too. This is a very common design seen in vintage Macrame patterns. Using 2 colors is not necessary, but adds an interesting touch.

Step 1: Fold 6 strands of material in half, and mount them to a holding cord with Larks Head Knots. If you prefer, you can simply secure them to your project board with pins.

Mentally number the ends 1 thru 12. The first holding cord is the one furthest to the right (12). Direct it diagonally, towards the left, and secure it so it's taut.

Design Tip: Remember that the angle or slant of the holding cords will determine the overall shape of your Double Half Hitch patterns.

Step 2: Attach cords 11 thru 7 to the first holding cord, with DHH. Direct cord 1 towards the right, since it will be used as the next holding cord.

Design Tip: You should always start the row of DHH with the strand closest to the holding cord.

Attach cords 2 thru 6 to holding cord 1 with DHH. This forms the top of the X design, which is really a V shape. That's one of the most commonly used Double Half Hitch Patterns, so be sure to practice V shapes until you are comfortable.

Step 4: To close the V shape, attach holding cord 1 to holding cord 12, with a DHH. This will cause the cords to crisscross, which is important for this design.

Step 5: Use the same holding cords, and try to direct them on the same angle. Cord 12 should head left, and cord 1 should go right. Secure them so they are taut.

Step 6: Attach cords 6 - 2 to the left holding cord (12), in that order. On the right, attach cords 7 - 11 to holding cord 1.

Design Tip: Double Half Hitch patterns can seem a bit complicated. Just remember that because the holding cords are coming from the center, the rows of DHH need to start near the center, moving outward.

Leaf Shaped Design
Double Half Hitch designs can include patterns like this one, which forms leaves. I found this design in a vintage Macrame book written in 1899.

Step 1: You will need 8 strands of material secured to your board. Mentally number the cords 1 thru 16. The first two holding cords will be 1 and 16. They should curve slightly as you direct them towards the center of the design.

Step 2: Attach cords 2 thru 8 to holding cord 1, and 15 thru 9 to holding cord 16. As you tie the DHH, tighten them so the bar still curves upward slightly.

Design Tip: Remember that all Double Half Hitch patterns are determined by the curve and angle of the holding cords. To change the shape, just adjust the positon of the holding cord as you attach the cords to it.

Step 3: The next holding cord, for the bottom of the left leave, is cord 2. Curve it towards the center, so it has a gentle downward curve as shown. Attach cords 3 thru 8 to it with DHH. Try to maintain the curve as you progress.

Step 4: Attach holding cord 1, which formed the upper portion of the leaf, to holding cord 2. This closes the leaf shape, so pull the knot tight.

Step 5: Use cord 15 as the new holding cord on the right, and attach 14 thru 9 to it with DHH. Close the leaf design by attaching the first holding cord (16) to the one you are currently using (15).

Step 6: Mentally re-number the cords. The two strands closest to the center (8 and 9) are the next set of holding cords. Cross the right one over the left. Note: These are the same holding cords used for the bottom of the first set of leaves (2 and 15).

Step 7: Direct holding cord 9 to the left, and cord 8 to the right. Secure them so they curve slightly. Attach cords 1 - 6 to holding cord 9 on the left. Attach cords 11 - 16 to holding cord 8 on the right.

Step 8: Direct cord 7 to the left, to be used as the next holding cord. Do the same with cord 10, directing it right. Attach cords 1 - 6 to holding cord 7 with DHH. Do the same with cords 11 - 16, attaching them to holding cord 10.

Step 9: Attach the upper set of holding cords (8 and 9) to the ones you just used for the lower portion (7 and 10). This closes the leaf shape, so make sure you don't forget this important step.

This is what the completed design looks like. You can do more than 2 rows of leaves by repeating steps 6 through 9.

Shell Knot

Description: The Shell Knot is a type of button knot that is formed using the Double Half Hitch. I've seen it referred to as a Berry Knot as well. It's rare to find this Macrame technique in actual patterns, but it is so pretty I felt it deserved a page all to itself. You could use this decoration on handbags, plant hangers, on wall hangings, or on curtain patterns. Start by mounting 5 strands of material to a holding cord with Larks Head Knots. They should each be at least 40 inches long. Step 1: Mentally number the strands 1 thru 10. The holding cords are strands 5 and 6. Direct them to the right and left diagonally, curving them slightly. Secure them to your project board. Tip: The outer portion of the knot is basically a curved diamond. So if you need help in understanding how Diamonds are made, click on the link to go to that page now. Step 2: Attach cords 4 thru 1 to the left holding cord (5), in that order, with Double Half Hitches (DHH). Next, attach cords 7 thru 10 to the right holding cord (6), in the same manner. This forms the top edge of the diamond. You can either secure the holding cords out of the way for now, or just move them. They will not be used again until step 8. Step 3: Tie a Square Knot with cords 1 thru 4. Tie another one with cords 7 thru 10, but make it a Mirror SK (facing right). Both knots should rest against the bars forming the upper portion of the design.

Step 4: Direct cord 7 to the left, across the other strands. It should rest just below the Square Knot on the left. Attach cords 4 thru 1 to it with DHH, in that order.

Step 5: Repeat step 4, directing cord 8 to the left, to be used as a new holding cord. Attach cords 4 thru 1 to it with DHH.

Step 6: Do 2 more rows the same way, using cords 9 and 10 as the new holding cords. Note how the cords have changed places.

Step 7: Tie a very tight Mirror Square Knot with cords 1 thru 4. Tie a regular left-facing SK with cords 7 - 10. This causes the DHH design to pop upward, making the Shell Knot button.

Step 8: Direct the holding cord 5 towards the center of the shell. Attach cords 7 thru 10 to it with DHH.

Step 9: Direct holding cord 6 towards the center. Attach cords 4 thru 1 to it with DHH, in that order. Step 10: Attach holding cord 5 to holding cord 6 with a DHH. This will close the diamond shape, and complete the Shell Knot.

Spiral Design

Description: The Spiral Design is a very unique way of using Double Half Hitches. I have only seen it in one pattern out of the hundreds I have looked at, so this Vitage design is very rarely used. Like all DHH Patterns, the holding cord determines the shape. I used different colors in the examples below to help with these instructions. In an actual pattern, you will use only 1 color. You can click on the icons to see larger images, which come up in a new window. Step 1: Start by obtaining some 4mm to 6mm cord material, to practice this interesting technique. You will need several strands, each at least 60 inches long. The actual pattern will specify what lengths you need to cut. You will need a project board and pins as well. Step 2: The holding cord (Rust) should be secured horizontally, near the left end. Two working cords (blue) should be mounted 20 inches from the left end with Reverse Larks Head knots. One should head downward, and the other should head upward. Mentally number them A & B. Step 3: The right portion of the holding cord should be directed to the left, passing over the working cords labeled B. Leave the left portion of the holding cord secured to your project board.

Step 4: Attach working cords B to the holding cord with DHH. They should rest near the first knots tied, right at the bend in the holding cord.

Step 5: Attach the right portion of the holding cord to the left end of it (tail), with a DHH. The knot should rest right next to the others.This completes the first coil of the Spiral Design.

This shows the path that the right portion of the holding cord will take for the second row. The space between the working cords is where new cords will be added.

Step 6: Attach the working cords A to the holding cord with DHH. Next, add a new strand with a Reverse LH knot. Mentally label it "C".

Step 7: Attach working cords B to the holding cord with DHH. Then add another new cord, also facing upward, with Reverse LH. Mentally label it "D".

Step 8: To complete the second row, attach the right portion of the holding cord to the left, as you did in step 5.

This shows the path the holding cord will take for the third row. If you lay the cord like this before each row is tied, you can visualize where new strands may need to be added. It generally takes 2 or 3 extra strands to cover the coiled holding cord completely. The most important thing to remember as you progress, is to attach the right half of the holding cord to the left, to complete each row. The Spiral Design will not work out if you neglect that step.

Guitar Bar

Description: The Guitar Bar is an interesting way to use Half Hitches. They are arranged horizontally, and are attached to vertical strands. By flipping the sennit over every other row, raised areas form, which resemble the frets of a guitar. This unique Macrame design can be used for bracelets, belts, key chains, and other similar projects where you need a thick sturdy band of decorative knots.

I found the Guitar Bar design on the website called "Fusion Knots", by JD Lenzen. Be sure to check out his site by clicking on this image, which shows his new book "Decorative Fusion Knots". If you are looking for new and exciting knots to experiment with, I highly recommend this book!

Determine the length you want the Guitar Bar to end up. Multiply that by 2 and add 4 inches. Cut one cord to that size. For the second cord, muliply the size of the bar x 8, and add 4 inches. If making a bracelet or belt, make the cords longer, since you will need a clasp.

Step 1: Mount the short cord to a ring by folding it in half and tying a Larks Head Knot. The long cord should be mounted the same way, resting to the left of the first cord. Make sure the right portion is the same size as the two halves of the first cord you mounted.

Another way to look at this is to make sure the left portion is at least 6 times the length of the finished bar. That half will be used to tie all the knots, so it has to be much longer. If you are making a bracelet or a belt, no mounting is necessary. Just make some type of clasp instead. You still need to make sure the cord furthest to the left is longer than the others.

Step 2: Mentally number the cords 1 - 4, moving left to right. Take the long portion, which is on the far left, and tie a Half Hitch around cord 2.

Step 3: Next, tie a Half Hitch onto cord 3. Then tie the following Half Hitch onto cord 4.

Step 4: Flip the entire design over, so the long cord is on the far left again.

Step 5: Repeat steps 2 - 4 over and over. Make sure you flip the sennit after every row. Raised areas will form, resembling the frets of a guitar.

Step 6: When the Guitar Bar is the size you need, trim the ends to 2 inches, and weave them through the back of some of the Half Hitches to hold them in place. Apply glue as needed.

Empty Diamond

Description: The Empty Diamond is such a unique diamond design, that I decided it needed a page of it's own. I found this vintage decorative knot in a book written in the late 1800's. It's not seen all that often in modern Macrame projects. The reason this is called an EMPTY diamond is due to the fact that the ends do not come through the center in any way. They are isolated to the top and bottom of the diamond, creating an open space in the center. The key to successfully making this knot is to pull all the Double Half Hitches tightly. This way the edges are of uniform thickness, all the way around the design. Make sure you know the difference between HOLDING and WORKING cords. See the Dictionary for more details. You can click on the small images below to see larger ones.

Start by mounting 5 strands of material to a holding cord with Larks Head Knots. If you wish, you can also secure the folded cords directly to your board with pins. Each of the cords should be at least 45 inches in length. Any type of material can be used to make the Empty diamond, but for practicing, I found that 4mm cord material was the best. Step 1: Mentally number the strands 1 thru 10, moving left to right. The first holding cords will be strands 5 and 6. Direct them diagonally, so that cord 6 goes to the left, and cord 5 is to the right. This crisscrossing is important, so the diamond has a point at the top. Secure them to your project board so they are taut.

Mentally re-number the cords 1 - 10. This way the numbering makes more sense, with 5 on the left and 6 on the right. The first working cord is #4. Tie a DHH with it, onto the left holding cord (5).

Step 2: The next working cord is #7. Tie a DHH with it, onto holding cord 6 (right). Push both knots up so they rest just below the crossed area of the two holding cords.

Step 3: Cord 4 now becomes a holding cord, and is combined with Cord 5. Take cord 3 and tie a DHH onto BOTH cords. Pull it tightly.

Step 4: On the right, combine Cord 7 and Cord 6. These are the new holding cords. Working cord 8 should be tied to both cords, on the right.

Step 5: The holding cords on the left will now be strands 3, 4, and 5. Use working cord 2 to tie a DHH onto all three of them.

Step 6: The new holding cords on the right are strands 6, 7, and 8. Use cord 9 to tie a DHH onto all three of them.

Step 7: For the final step, use working cord 1 on the left. It should be attached to four holding cords, which are numbered 2 - 5. Use working cord 10 on the right, attaching it to holding cords 6 - 9. The top half of the Empty Diamond is complete. To make the bottom half, you will need to reverse the process, dropping holding cords with each new knot. Before you get started, make sure the DHH are close together.

Step 8: Use cord 1 on the left and 10 on the right, tying a DHH around all the others. These were the same cords used in step 5.

Cords 1 and 10 will now be dropped, and no longer used. So push them out of the way, off to the sides. Design Tip: Securing Diamonds at the corners, on the right and left, helps to create the proper shape.

Step 9: Take one strand from the left bundle of cords, and tie it around the others, with a DHH. Do the same at the right side of the diamond. There's no point in mentally numbering. Just make sure there are three holding cords in this step. Drop the working cords you were just working with, and do not use them again. Step 10: Take one cord from the bundle, and tie the DHH around the two holding cords. Do this on both sides of the diamond. Remember to drop the working cords, so you finish with just two strands. Step 11: The next set of knots will have one working cord and one holding cord. Step 12: Tie one cord around the other, with a DHH. It doesn't matter which one ties the knot. Make this knot tight, pulling the sides to a point at the bottom.

This is what the Empty Diamond looks like when completed.

The ends are now used to make other knots.

Unique Diamonds

Description: Unique Diamonds can be made with Double Half Hitches combined with other decorative knots. The designs described on this page are rarely seen in Macrame books and patterns. I even came up with a few of my own designs to show you some of the possibilities.

The basic concept for each diamond is the same: You start by creating diagonal rows of Double Half Hitches (DHH), to make the top of the design. Then you focus on the center, tying other types of decorative knots. You need to choose knots that are small and compact, or that you can tie to make short sennits. Finally, you complete the bottom with two more rows of DHH. Make sure you know how to tie Half Hitches, along with the other knots described below. Also, you should know the difference between HOLDING cords and WORKING cords. See the Dictionary for more details.

You can click on the images and larger pictures will come up so you can see the details better.

Here are the instructions for making the TOP of the Unique Diamonds described below:

Step 1: To practice, you will need 5 strands of material, folded in half. Secure them directly to your board with pins. Mentally number the ends 1 - 10, moving left to right.

Step 2: Cross cords 5 and 6, and direct them to the right and left. Secure them to your project board. They should be taut, since they are the holding cords. Design Tip: In Double Half Hitch designs, the holding cords determine the shape of what you are making. So in this case, when using them to make these unique diamonds, keep them as straight as possible. Step 3: On the left, attach working cords 4 thru 1, to holding cord 6, with DHH (in that order). At the right, attach cords 7 thru 10 to holding cord 5.

Step 4: The vertical working cords are now used to make a variety of designs, forming the center section (cords 1 - 4 and 7 - 10). Design Tip: Keep the holding cords secured to your board (5 and 6). They are not used again until you are ready to make the bottom portion of the diamond. Once the center design is complete, the holding cords are directed towards the center, and the working cords are attached again. To close the diamond, one holding cord is attached to the other.

Below are several decorative knots you can use for the CENTER:

Alternating Square Knot Design

Description: Since Square Knots are the primary basic knot used in Macrame, they are commonly used to decorate unique diamonds. This design is made by tying 3 Alternating Square Knots (ASK), rather than just one. If you want to see what the single knot looks like, go to Vintage Diamonds.

Step 1: Make the top of the diamond as described above (steps 1 - 3). Remember that you do not use holding cords 5 and 6 to tie the knots in the center, so keep them secured.

Tie the first Square Knot with working cords 1 - 4. Tie the second knot with cords 7 - 10. Just below, alternate the cords, so the third knot is tied with cords 3, 4, 7 and 8. Design Tip: Sometimes you can fit a third row of ASK into the center of the diamond, depending on the material you are using. If you think you can, tie the 4th and 5th knots the same as the first two. Step 2: Complete the bottom of the diamond by directing the holding cords (5 and 6) to the center. Attach cords 10 - 7 to the right one, with DHH. Attach cords 1 - 4 to the left one. Close the diamond by tying a DHH with one holding cord to the other.

Spiral Stitch Design

Description: The center of Unique Diamonds can be made using sennits, which is a series of knots. This one features the Spiral Stitch, which is also called the Half Knot Spiral. A Half Knot is simply the first half of a Square knot. When you tie several of them, the sennit twists.

Step 1: Begin my making the top half of the diamond, as described above. Keep the holding cords (5 and 6) secured to your board. Also secure the right and left corners of the diamond, by placing pins right where the top rows of DHH end.

Use working cords 3 and 8 to tie the Spiral Stitch. The other two are fillers. Cords 1, 2, 9 and 10 are not used. Design Tip: Tighten the knots firmly and make sure they are close together. The Spiral Stitch needs to rotate at least once, so you'll need at least 5 - 6 Half Knots. Step 2: Complete the bottom by directing the holding cords to the center. Attach cords 1 and 2, to the left holding cord. Attach two cords from the sennit as well. Attach the remainder to the right holding cord. Tie one holding cord to the other with a DHH.

Half Hitch Designs
Alternating Half Hitch Alternating Half Hitch With Fillers Two Alternating Half Hitch Sennits

#1

#2

#3

Description: The center of Unique Diamonds can be made using Alternating Half Hitch sennits. The three designs shown above are all made using two working cords on the right and left, rather than just one. As in all diamonds, you start by making the top first. Keep the holding cords secured (5 and 6), and also secure the right and left corners of the diamond.

Design 1: Alternating Half Hitch Sennit The four cords closest to the center of the diamond are combined, so you are using cords 3 and 4 on the left, with cords 7 and 8 on the right. The remaining four strands should be moved out of your way for now. Step A: Use cords 3 and 4 to make one Half Hitch onto cords 7 and 8. Step B: Next, use cords 7 and 8 to tie one Half Hitch onto cords 3 and 4. Step C: Repeat Step A. By doubling the cords like this, the sennit stands out a little more. You should only need 3 Half Hitches, but if you think you can fit more, give it a try. When you are finished, direct the holding cords to the center and attach four working cords to each one. Attach the ones that were not used first (1, 2, 9, 10), so you don't forget them. Close the diamond by tying a DHH with one holding cord to the other.

Design 2: Alternating Half Hitch with Fillers For these unique Diamonds, the working cords on the left are combined (1 and 2). The right working cords are also combined (9 and 10).

Tie one Alternating Half Hitch with each set of cords, onto cords 3, 4, 7, and 8. So instead of tying the cords onto each other, you use the four strands to hold the knots. Complete the bottom by directing the original holding cords (5 and 6) to the center. Attach 4 cords to each one with DHH. Finish by tying the two holding cords together.

Design 3: Two Alternating Half Hitch Sennits Unique Diamonds can also be made with more than one sennit. In this design, I combined working cords 1 and 2, tying the Half Hitch onto cords 3 and 4. Then I reversed that, tying the knot with cords 3 and 4 onto cords 1 and 2. Then I made a second sennit, combining cords 7 and 8 on the left, with 9 and 10 on the right. Complete the bottom by directing the holding cords (5 and 6) to the center. Attach 4 cords to each one with DHH. Finish by tying the two holding cords together.

Other Unique Diamonds
Twist Design Triangle Design Braid Design

Description: The final three unique diamonds I will describe here are my own creations. I'm sure I'm not the only one to think of them, though. There are so many ways to form the center part of diamonds that I encourage you to be creative. Try using different decorative knots singly or in sennits. Or just twist and curve the cords to come up with your own unique designs. Like the other unique diamonds on this page, you need to create the top portion of the diamond first. Secure the holding cords and the corners.

Twist Design

Take all the working cords running through the center, and give them a twist. Another option is to divide them into two groups of four and twist the two groups around each other. Complete the bottom by directing the holding cords to the center and attach the working cords with DHH. Don't forget to tie one holding cord to the other.

Braid Design You can divide the cords into 3 to 4 groups, and tie an Interlaced Plait, also called a braid. It doesn't really matter if the groups have the same amount of cords, since you can't tell the difference in such a small space. After the braiding is done, complete the bottom.

Triangle Knot Design Unique diamonds can have large single knots inside them. Triangle Knots are normally tied using two cords, but in this case you need to combine the cords into two groups instead (four strands each).

Step 1: Cords 1 - 4 are used to make the first bight, which tilts to the right. Try to keep the cords neatly arranged so they don't overlap.

Bring Cords 7 - 10 over cords 1 - 4, at the top of the diamond. Bring them down to the area near the bight, and pass them under cords 1 - 4.

Step 3: Pass cords 7 - 10 under cords 1 - 4, as you bring them to the top of the knot. You should be moving them in a clockwise direction. Direct them over 7 -10 as you bring them right.

Step 4: Direct the ends of cords 7 - 10 into the bight on the lower right area of the Triangle knot. Make sure they go into it from the top.

Step 5: Tighten the Triangle Knot so it's neat. It will be bulky, and will stand up somewhat. Direct the holding cords to the center and attach the cords to them as you did in all the other unique diamonds described.

Design Tip: If you don't want the knot to be so bulky, you can make two Triangle knots instead. Each knot is made with four strands, following the same directions above.

Vintage Diamonds

Window Design

Square Knot Design

Weave Design

Description: These Vintage Diamonds are made with Double Half Hitches, and are the most commonly seen decorative knot patterns in existence. Most Macrame books will have instructions and projects that use them in one form or another. These three designs were popular in the late 1800's, but they are rarely used anymore. The basic concept for each of the three diamonds is the same: You will be creating diagonal rows of Double Half Hitches (DHH), at both the top and bottom of the diamonds. It's the middle area that is changed to produce each of the three designs shown. So make sure you know how to tie Half Hitches. Also, be sure you know the difference between HOLDING cords and WORKING cords. See the Dictionary for more details. You can click on the small images and larger pictures will come up so you can see the details better.

Here are the instructions for making the TOP of each Vintage Diamond described on this page:

Step 1: Secure 5 strands of material to a project board with pins. Make sure you fold them in half, so you have 10 strands to work with. Mentally number the cords 1 - 10, moving left to right.

Step 2: Cross cords 5 and 6, and direct them to the right and left. Secure them to your project board. They should be taut, since they are the holding cords. Design Tip: In Double Half Hitch designs, the holding cords determine the shape of what you are making. When making your Vintage Diamonds, make sure the holding cords are straight in both the top and bottom areas.

Step 3: On the left, attach working cords 4 thru 1, to holding cord 6, with DHH (in that order). At the right, attach cords 7 thru 10 to holding cord 5.

Step 4: The vertical working cords can now be used to make a variety of designs, forming the center section (cords 1 - 4 and 7 - 10). The 2 holding cords should remain secured to your board (5 and 6). They are not used again until you are ready to make the bottom portion of the diamond. Once the center design is complete, the same holding cords are directed towards the center, and the working cords are attached again. To close the bottom of the vintage diamond, one holding cord is attached to the other, with a DHH.

Here are the 3 designs you can use for the CENTER portion of your Vintage Diamonds:

Window Design
Description: The Window Design is a vintage technique that was often used in Macrame projects in the late 1800's. The working cords are folded in such a way that a space is formed in the center, surrounded by folded cords. The design actually looks a little like a window with a curtain. Step 1: Make the top of the diamond as described above (steps 1 - 3).

Direct the holding cords towards each other, meeting in the center of the diamond. On the right half of the design, attach cord 7 to holding cord 5 with a DHH, folding it across the others.

Step 2: Attach cords 8 thru 10 to the right holding cord with DHH (in that order).

Design Tip: In other designs you would attach cords 10 - 7, since cord 10 is closest to the right point. But in this design, they need to fold, so it's reversed.

Step 3: On the left, attach cord 4 to holding cord 6, then do the same with 3 thru 1. These will fold the same as the cords on the right.

Step 4: To complete the design, attach one holding cord to the other. It doesn't matter which one is the working cord.

Square Knot Design
Description: The center of Vintage Diamonds are frequently decorated with a single Square Knot. Like all diamonds, the top is made first. Then you tie the SK in the center. The bottom is then completed. Make sure you know how to tie Square Knots.

Step 1: Secure 5 folded cords to your board. Mentally number them from left to right (1 - 10). The holding cords are 5 and 6. Make the top half of the diamond following the steps described above. Keep the holding cords secured, since they are not used to make the Square Knot.

Combine working cords 1 and 2 together as if they were one strand. Do the same with cords 9 and 10. Tie the first half of the Square Knot. The fillers are the remaining cords (3, 4, 7, 8).

Step 2: Tie the second half of the Square knot to complete it. When you tighten it, try to arrange it so the top of the knot lines up with the right and left corners of the diamond (black line in image) The SK in this image is lower than it should be, so I could show the details better. Design Tip: Another Vintage Diamond can be made using working cords 1 and 10 only. You use them to tie the Square Knot around the others, which are the fillers. It's a smaller knot, but it still stands out really well. Step 3: Direct the holding cords towards the center (5 and 6). On the left, attach cords 1 - 4 to holding cord 6, with DHH. On the right, attach cords 10 - 7 to holding cord 5.

Step 4: Close the bottom of the diamond by attaching one holding cord to the other.

Weave Design

Description: The center of Vintage Diamonds can be decorated with a simple weaving pattern. I found this design in a Macrame book written in 1905. Step 1: Make the top of the diamond following the instructions previously described. Leave both holding cords attached to the board when you are finished.

Direct cords 1 - 4 to the right, and secure them so they're taut. It's a good idea to move cords 7 - 10 aside while you position the others.

Step 2: Start with cord 7 (on the right), and weave it through cords 1 - 4, as you bring it to the left. Weave over - under - over - under. Do the same with Cord 8, but weave the opposite (under - over - under - over).

Step 3: Weave Cord 9 with the same over-under sequence as Cord 7. Weave Cord 10 with the same sequence as Cord 8.

Step 4: Direct the holding cords to the center. Be careful not to disturb the weaving. Attach cords 7 - 10 to the left holding cord. (They are on the left now). Attach cords 4 - 1 to the right holding cord. Design Tip: Pull the knots tight so the weaving is pulled as well. It looks better if the center is taut.

LARKS HEAD DESIGNS
Larks Head Knot

Description: The Larks Head Knot is one of the most frequently used Macrame knots in existence. The vertical variation was called the Buttonhole Stitch in the early days of Macramé. That’s because it is often used to make clothing or jewelry designs using buttons. Another name for this decorative knot is the Cow Hitch. Most of the time, this technique is used in the mounting process; to attach one cord to another, or to a ring, dowel or purse handle. However, you can use it at any point in a pattern. Variations: The Reverse Larks Head is described below. I've also added instructions for tying the Nestled Mount. On a separate page, Larks Head Sennits, you will learn how to use this technique to form decorative chains. The Vertical Larks Head is also described separately. Make sure you visit those pages, so you learn how to use these knots well.

Step 1: To practice, obtain a holding cord or ring. Larks Head Knots need to be attached to something. Then cut one working cord to tie the knots. Fold the working cord in half. Place it under the holding cord or support piece. The loop should be at the bottom and the ends at the top.

Step 2: Take both ends and bring them over the holding cord or the edge of the ring. Then feed them down and through the space near the crook of the fold. Pull the ends to tighten the knot snugly.

Reverse Larks Head
This variation is often used when there are Double Half Hitches present, so the knots look the same. It takes advantage of the back of the Larks Head knot, rather than the front. This is an important variation, frequently seen in Macrame patterns, so be sure to practice it, too.

Place the folded working cord on top of the holding cord, ring, or dowel. Pass the ends under it, and through the space from below. Click on the icon to see a larger image.

Nestled Mount

Here's a variation that is not very well known. It is used when different colors are required to form an alternating design.

One strand is mounted to a holding cord with a regular Larks Head Knot. The second one (blue), is mounted the same way, but surrounds the head of the first one. Click on the icon to see a larger image.

In other words, the first knot nestles inside the second one. To see a pattern where this technique is used to create color changes, see the Square Knot Sennits.

Vertical Larks Head

Description: The Vertical Larks Head knot is usually used to form a sennit (chain). In some Vintage Macrame patterns, it is called the Buttonhole Stitch, because this technique is used to make decorative clasps in projects that call for buttons. See Jewelry Clasps for more details. Any time you use a Larks Head Knot (LH) within in a pattern, other than as a mounting knot, you are likely to tie them in two parts. So this is a very important decorative knot, and you should practice it several times. Many Macrame patterns require you to tie these knots to cover items such as rings and dowels. Plant Hanger projects are particulary noted for this. So I've included the instructions for making the Vertical Larks Head knot on a ring.

Part 1: Secure one cord to your board to be used as a holding cord. Secure another one to tie the knot. Take the working cord and pass it over the holding cord, under it, and over itself on the left.

Part 2: Take the working end and pass it under the holding cord, over it, and under itself on the left.

Covering Rings

Step 1: Obtain one strand of material, at least 60 inches long. You will also need a ring or dowel. Tie the first Larks Head knot by folding the cord in half, and placing it under the bottom portion of the ring. Bring both ends up and over the ring, then down through the space, coming out from beneath the folded portion.

Step 2: Take the right end and bring it over the ring, under it and over the cord.

Step 3: Use the right end again, and bring it under the ring, over it and under the cord. Both steps equal one Larks Head. Even though the knots are not truly vertical in this example, this is how you tie all Vertical Larks Head knots - in two parts.

To continue, you would simply use the right end to repeat steps 2 and 3, until the right half of the ring is covered. Then you need to use the left end and do the same, to cover the other side of the ring. Most patterns will have you tie a knot to secure the ends when they meet up again, at the top.

Variations
Sometimes a pattern calls for a Vertical Larks Head that is facing a specific direction. So these first 2 variations feature this knot first facing towards each other, then away from one another. You can click on the small images to see larger photos.

Inward Facing Larks Heads
Obtain 2 cords and fold them in half. You can mount them to a dowel or holding cord to make it easier to work with them. Mentally number the strands 1 thru 4.

The working cords are 2 and 3. The strands holding the knots are 1 and 4. Tie the Vertical Larks Heads as described above.

Tighten the knots by pulling on the ends. The heads will face towards each other. Continue making the sennit by tying additional knots.

Outward Facing Larks Heads
Mount 2 cords to a dowel or holding cord, folding them in half so you have 4 strands to work with. Mentally number the cords 1 thru 4.

The working cords are strands 1 and 4 this time. The holding cords are 2 and 3. Tie the Vertical Larks Heads as described above.

When tightened, the knots will face away from each other. Continue making the sennit by tying several more knots.

Alternating Larks Head Sennits
There are several ways to use the Vertical Larks Head to make alternating sennits. The three most popular are shown below.

DESIGN 1

This sennit is made using a common holding cord, which means the knots made with both cords are attached to it. This was a very popular design in the early 1900's. Step 1: You will need 3 cords to practice. In the image, I attached each one to a holding cord to make them easier to work with. But can pin or tape them to your work surface. Step 2: The holding cord is the center strand, and the other two are the working cords. Start by tying a Vertical Larks Head with the right working cord. Then tie one just below with the left one. The knots will face outward, in opposite directions.

Step 3: Repeat step 2 several times, to make the sennit longer. The loops along the edges are often use to attach other cords, especially in items like purses.

Design 2

This sennit also has the knots facing in opposite directions, but is tied differently then the variation above. This is a vintage pattern, and it makes a very nice casual bracelet. You could even use this technique to make a belt or purse strap. Step 1: Secure 3 cords to your work surface. Make a Vertical Larks Head using the cord furthest to the right. Both of the other strands should act as holding cords, which means the knot is attached to them.

Step 3: The second Larks Head knot is made with the cord furthest to the left. The other 2 cords will hold the knot. Step 4: Continue alternating between steps 1 and 2 to complete this sennit.

Design 3

This Larks Head sennit does not require a separate holding cord, like the ones above. This makes a great design for purse handles, bracelets, and anywhere you need a slender chain of knots.

Step 1: Secure two cords to your work surface. Take the left cord and tie a Vertical LH onto the right cord.

Step 2: Take the right cord, and tie a Vertical LH onto the left.

Step 3: Repeat steps 1 and 2 over and over, until the sennit is the size you need.

This sennit is tied just like the one above, only you tie 2 knots instead of one. By switching working cords, the knots face opposite directions. Alternating sennits without a holding cord will usually twist and curve somewhat.

Larks Head Designs

Description: Several Larks Head Designs can be made that result in unique Macrame decorations. For example, the Larks Head Button shown above is an interesting way to use this versatile knot. Picot designs can also be made with Larks Head knots, so two variations are described for you below.

Larks Head Button

Start the Button Knot by mounting 2 strands of material to a holding cord with standard Larks Head knots, after folding them in half. Mentally number the strands 1 - 4, moving left to right.

Step 1: Tie the first half of a Square Knot, using strands 1 and 4 as the working cords. The fillers are cords 2 and 3. Note how the working cords have changed places after tying the knot.

Step 2: Use cord 3 to tie a Vertical Larks Head knot onto cord 2, which is the knot bearer (holding cord).

Step 3: Now switch the strands, so that cord 2 is the working cord. Tie a Vertical LH onto the knot bearer, which is cord 3. The head of this knot will face the other direction.

Step 4: Tie the second half of the Square Knot, using cords 1 and 4. Cords 2 and 3 are the fillers again. This will cause the Larks Head knots to pop up into a button.

Designs Featuring Picots

Picots are simply loops formed along the edges of sennits. I found 2 designs that were really interesting, so I decided to share them with you. You can click on the icons and larger images will show up. Obtain 3 cords and mount them to a holding cord, or simply pin them to your project board. If you wish, you can use 2 cords, but the design won't be as stable. Picots require extra material, so be sure the cords are at least 45 inches long. Step 1: Tie a Vertical Larks Head Knot with the right strand onto the other 2 cords. The picots will be on the right. To place them on the left, use the left strand as the working cord.

Step 2: Move down 1 to 2 inches, and make a second Larks Head knot. Slide it up so it rests next to the first knot. This will form the folded loop, or picot.

Step 3: Repeat step 2 over and over, to form the rest of the sennit.

Alternating Larks Head with Picots

This interesting Larks Head Design was found in a book written in the early 1900's. So it is definitely a Vintage technique. You will need 4 cords mounted to a holding cord, or pinned to a project board. If you wish, you can fold two cords in half instead. Mentally number them 1 - 4. Step 1: Tie 2 Vertical Larks Head knots with the cord furthest to the right (#4), onto the holding cords (2 and 3). They should have 1-inch of space between them.

Step 2: Push both knots up to the top of the design.

Step 3: Use the cord furthest to the left (#1), and repeat steps 1 and 2. Cord 4 will not be used for this step, and these knots will face the opposite direction. Step 4: Alternate back and forth between the working cords (1 and 4) to complete the Larks Head Design.

Double Buttonhole Stitch

Description: The Double Buttonhole Stitch is a variation of the Vertical Larks Head Knot. In the early days of Macrame, the Larks Head was called the Buttonhole Knot. It was named that because it was frequently used in patterns that call for buttons, such as vests. This vintage

decorative knot can be used as a clasp for necklaces, bracelets, and handbags, as well as for clothing. Buttonhole Scallops and the Buttonhole Clasp are related techniques because they also feature the Vertical Larks Head knot. They are often used together in the same Macrame pattern. You can click on the images and a large picture will come up in a new window.

You need four strands of material to practice this knotting technique. Secure them to your project board or work surface. Mentally number them 1 - 4, moving left to right. Using two colors really helps as you are learning.

Step 1: The working cords are 1 and 4. The fillers are cords 2 and 3. Tie a Square Knot using the working cords.

Step 2: Use working cord 4 to tie the first half of the Larks Head knot, onto filler cord 3. This is actually a Half Hitch, so you pass the end over cord 3, under it, and over the segment of the working cord on the right.

Step 3: To make the second half of the Larks Head knot, pass the working end under cord 3, over it, and under the segment of the working cord on the right. Both steps equal one Larks Head knot.

Step 4: Tighten the first knot so it rests just below the Square Knot. Start the second Larks Head by repeating Step 2. Then repeat step 3.

Step 5: Repeat steps 2 and 3 until you have tied 4 to 6 Vertical Larks Head knots for the right half of the Double Buttonhole Stitch. Most Macrame patterns will tell you exactly how many knots to tie, or the size of the sennit.

Step 6: Repeat Steps 2 - 5 to create another Vertical LH sennit on the left. The working cord is 1, and you will tie the LH knots onto filler cord 2.

Step 7: To close the Double Buttonhole Stitch, you need to tie another Square Knot. Use working cords 1 and 4, and tie it around filler cords 2 and 3, as you did in step 1.

Buttonhole Scallops

Description: Using Buttonhole Scallops as part of the mounting process was very common in the early 1900’s. So this knot is considered a Vintage technique. Scallops form a very attractive, finished edge. Buttonhole Scallops are used in combination with other mounting knots, such as the Double Half Hitch used in the directions here. The primary decorative knot used to make these unique scallops is the Vertical Larks Head. You can click on the images below to see larger photos, which will open in a new window.

Step 1: Obtain 3 cords to practice making Buttonhole Scallops. One should be at least 12 inches longer than the others. In an actual pattern, the length will be specified, and it's usually much longer compared to the others. Secure one of the short cords to your work surface horizontally. This will be a holding cord, which the knots will be attached to. It's the orange one in the images. Lay the other short cord down vertically, under the holding cord. This one is called the "core", and it's the yellow one in the images. Place the longest cord to the left of the first one, also underneath the holding cord. It's the working cord, and will be used to make the Larks Head knots. The top portion of it can be secured temporarily. Note: In an actual pattern, the working cord and the core will usually be off-center, so more is above the holding cord than below.

Tie the first Half Hitch with the bottom portion of the working cord (green). To make the knot, pass it over the holding cord, under it, and over itself as you bring it to the left. Pull it tight before moving on to the next step.

Step 2: Tie another Half Hitch beside the first one. Both knots together are considered a Double Half Hitch (DHH).

Step 3: Use the bottom portion of the cord used as the core, to make two Half Hitches, just like the other one. After it's tightened, slide it over so the knots rest side by side.

Step 4: You will now use the upper portion of the two vertical cords. Take the working cord (left) and direct it over the core, under it, and over itself as you bring it back to the left. It's just like making a Half Hitch, only upright.

Step 5: For the second half of the knot, pass under the core first, over it, and then under itself on the left. Both steps equal one Vertical Larks Head Knot.

Step 6: Repeat steps 4 and 5, tying 4 to 6 knots. If you wish the scallops to be larger, tie additional knots.

Form a curved loop, also called a scallop, with the knots you just tied.

Step 7: Form a curved loop, also called a scallop, with the sennit of knots you just tied. Next, pass the two cords under the horizontal holding cord. Attach both of them with Double Half Hitches, as you did in steps 2 and 3.

In an actual pattern using Buttonhole Scallops, the four vertical strands would now be used to tie other Macrame knots.

Buttonhole Clasp

Description: This Buttonhole Clasp is made using the Vertical Larks Head knot. It's also listed in the Micro-Macrame section, on the page called Jewelry Clasps. You can use this design to make bracelet and necklace clasps, using fine cord. To make a very nice belt buckle using a large fancy button, all you need is thicker cord.

Step 1: Cut 2 cords, each at least 45 inches long. In an actual pattern, the working cord should be cut longer than the holding cord. Secure both cords to your project board, vertically.

In these images, the yellow strand is the holding cord, also called the "core". The green one is the working cord. You can click on them to see a larger image, which comes up in a new window.

Step 2: Tie the first half of a Vertical Larks Head knot with the working cord, onto the holding cord. To do so, pass the working cord over, then under the holding cord. It should end up going over itself on the far left. The first knot should be at the center of the cords.

Step 3: Tie the second half of the Vertical Larks Head knot by directing the working cord under the holding cord. Pass over it, and under itself on the far left. Both steps equal one knot.

Step 4: Tie 3 or more knots, depending on the size you need. For example: If you need a 2-inch clasp, tie enough knots in the first half, to make it 1-inch in size.

Step 5: Turn the first half of the design around, and tie the same number of knots for the second half. This way the Larks Heads are balanced on either side of the center point.

Step 6: Secure the center of the Buttonhole Clasp design to your board. Bend it to create a circle. Use the same working cords to tie a tight Square Knot around the two holding cords. On the other end of the item, attach a button, bead or tie a decorative knot to form the clasp.

Barnacle Knot

Description: The Barnacle Knot is a great way to make ring-shaped designs for Macrame. This circular knot can be used for pendants and earrings. You can also use it instead of metal rings at the top of plant hangers. It's a variation of the Ashoka Chakra Knot, which uses the Slipknot instead of the Larks Head knots that this one features.

A Video tutorial of this beautiful decorative knot can be found in J.D. Lenzen's website, "Fusion Knots". He has recently published this great book, so click on the image or link to visit his website for more information.

Step 1: Cut one cord, at least 36 inches long. Secure one end to your board. Three inches from one end, make a counter-clockwise loop. The working cord should pass over the secured end to make the crossing point.

Step 2: Make a bight with the working end and push it through the first loop from below. This creates a slipknot. Pull on the bight to tighten the knot.

Step 3: Adjust the size of the loop by pulling on the working end. The size of the loop determines the overall size of the Barnacle knot.

Here's how to determine the size you need:
  

3-inch Loop = Earring Size (1.5-inch diameter) 5-inch Loop = Pendant Szie (2.5-inch diameter) 7-inch Loop = Ring for Plant Hangers (3.5-inch diameter).

In other words, multiply the size you need by 2, then add an 1/2 to 1-inch for the loop at the top, if you need it.

Step 4: Take the working cord and bring it over the loop, behind it, and over the segment at the bottom. This creates the first half of the Larks Head knot.

Step 5: To make the second half, pass the working cord under the loop first, then over the front of it, and under the segment at the bottom. Both steps equal one Larks Head Knot.

Design Tip: If you wish, you can make Half Hitches instead of Larks Head knots, to change the design. Just repeat step 4 over and over.

Step 6: Repeat steps 4 and 5 over and over, until the sennit is the size you want. Stop when the last knot is 1/2-inch from the crook of the loop.

Step 7: Pass the SECURED end through the remaining portion of the loop. Turn the Barnacle knot so the loop and ends are at the bottom, like the image below.

Step 8: Use the working end to tie the first half of the Larks head around both the loop and the short end. That's over in the front, under to the back, and over at the bottom. Make sure you pull this knot as tight as you can.

Step 9: Tie the second half by bringing the working end under the loop and short end first. Bring it to the front (over) and under the segment at the bottom. Pull on the short end to close the circle, and tighten the Larks Head knot as much as possible.

Step 10: Straighten the loop at the top of the Barnacle knot. Notice that it's sideways, which makes it perfect to be used as a pendant. Finish off the ends by directing them behind the knot, passing them through the spaces. Apply glue to hold them in place.

MOUNTING & FINISHING KNOTS

Wrapped Knot

Description: The Wrapped Knot is sometimes referred to as the Gathering Wrap, in vintage Macrame patterns. It serves the same purpose as that of the Linen Stitch, which is to make a bundle of several strands. This Macrame technique is found in many projects, so be sure to practice it several times. This type of decorative knot is often used in Macrame patterns as a finishing knot, but it can be used anywhere. In the images, the knot was used at the top of the hanger, to bundle the strands. It can also be used as a sliding necklace or bracelet clasp as well. See Sliding Clasps for more information.

You need at least 3 cords to practice this decorative knot. In the images below, I tied the knot around 32 strands of Nylon Paracord. The working cord will be a separate strand, and the knot will be tied around the other strands, which are usually longer.

Most Macrame patterns will specify how long the Wrapped knot should be. If not, usually 1 2 inches is a good length. You can click on the images below to see larger ones with clearer details.

Step 1: Lay the cords being wrapped on your work surface horizontally. The working cord should be placed below, and secured at one end, on your left. Fold it about 2 inches beyond the area you want to wrap. The crook of the fold should be on your right, and I recommend that you secure it.

Step 2: Take the working end and bring it up and over the other cords being wrapped, including the secured end. Bring it behind and down, passing under the secured end.

Step 3: Wrap the working end around several more times, progressing towards the fold (left to right). Make the wraps snug, so they hold onto the bundle of cords firmly. When the knot is the right size, pass the working end through the loop (folded portion).

Step 4: Pull on the SECURED end (on the left). The loop and working end will be pulled inside the knot, which secures it. The loop should come to rest in the middle portion of the knot.

Step 5: It's a good idea to apply glue to the wrapped area, and then cut off both ends of the working cord. You don't need to do this if you are making a clasp.

Linked Overhand Knots

Description: Linked Overhand Knots can be used for a variety of purposes in Macrame. The 6 decorative knots described here are very useful, and are definitely worth the time to learn. They all have a bead-like appearance and are seometimes used to decorate cords. These interesting knots are very strong and sturdy, and I have seen them used in nets, hammocks, and other items that hold weight. But they can also be used in Jewelry designs and just about any type of Macrame pattern.

You can click on the small images and a larger picture will come up in a new window.

The Shake Hands Bend
Linked Overhand knots like this one often have interesting names. When you shake hands, you make a connection. So the name is very appropriate for this type of Macrame knot. Step 1: You need 2 cords to practice this knot, preferably 2 different colors. Secure one end of both cords to your board. Make a counter-clockwise loop with cord on the left, so the working end crosses over the secured end at the top.

Step 2: Make a clockwise loop with the right cord, passing the working end through loop 1, from below (under - over). Pass it under the secured end to form the crossing point at the top. Move the loops slightly so there is a small space between them (indicated by the X).

Step 3: Finish the right Overhand knot by directing the SECURED end down and into the space between the two loops, from below (under - over). As you do so, make sure you pass through Loop 1 as well.

Step 4: Complete the left Overhand knot by directing the SECURED end over the working end, as well as the next two segments below. Bring it down and into the space from the top (over - under). Design Tip: Tightening Linked Overhand Knots is an important step, and should be done gradually. Try to keep the knots flat on your board as you tighten them.

Shamrock Knot
There are usually interesting names for the Linked Overhand knots. This one is called the Shamrock Knot, or the True Love Knot. I often use this technique when tying Lanyard Knots, so I have a sturdy base to start with. It's easy to tie and makes an interesting crisscross design. Step 1: You need 2 strands of material, each at least 12 inches long to practice this unique

decorative knot. Make an Overhand Knot in the middle of one cord. The crossing point needs to be at the top.

Don't tighten the knot just yet.

Step 2: Pass the second cord through the first Overhand Knot. It should pass over at the bottom and under the crossed area at the top.

Step 3: Complete the second Overhand knot by bringing the upper segment downward (over) the crossed area of the first knot. The crossing point for the second knot needs to be at the bottom, and rest inside the first knot. Design Tip: Linked Overhand Knots have to be constructed carefully, or they don't work out. So pay close attention to the over and under details, as well as the direction of the ends.

Step 4: Turn the second Overhand knot sideways, so the ends are heading vertically (north and south). The ends of the first knot should be horizontal (east and west). Tighten the linked Overhand knots gradually, making sure to keep the ends in the proper direction. You can move them after the knot is tightened, if you want them to head in the same direction.

Rosendahl's Bend
This decorative knot, also called the Zeppelin Bend, is a unique way to tie linked Overhand knots. It’s very useful if you want the cords to end up heading in 4 different directions, similar to the Shamrock knot above.

Step 1: You need 2 cords, each at least 12 inches long, to practice this technique. Step 2: Take the first cord (blue) and secure the end to your left. Make a clockwise loop, bringing the working end over the secured one to form the crossing point. The end should be heading upward when you are through.

Secure the end of the other cord (purple), to the right. Make a counter-clockwise loop, so the working end passes over the secured end. This end should be heading upward, too.

Step 3: Carefully move the left loop on top of the right one. The crook of the right loop should be near the crossing point of the left loop, and vice-versa. Make sure the secured ends are horizontal and the working ends are vertical, as shown.

Step 4: To complete the left Overhand knot (blue), pass the working end into BOTH loops from below. It should go under the 2 segments at the top. At the bottom, the working end will pass over the two segments.

Step 5: To complete the right Overhand knot (purple), direct the SECURED end through the two loops, from the top. That's the end heading downward on the right. It should pass over the segments at the bottom and under the two at the top. Step 6: Gradually work out the slack by pulling on all 4 ends of these Linked Overhand knots. When finished, the ends should be heading in 4 different directions.

Fisherman's Knot
This knot is related to the Shamrock knot, but is constructed a bit differently. Linked Overhand knots often look very much alike, and all provide strong holds. Step 1: Make an Overhand Knot in one cord, so the crossing point is at the top. Don't tighten it yet. That's the red cord in the images. Slide a second cord through the center of it. Step 2: Tie an Overhand Knot with the second cord (blue), to the right of the first, so the crossing point is at the bottom. Direct the right end of the first cord through the center of it. Step 3: Tighten the knots as they lie, taking care not to twist or rotate them. If you used two colors, you can clearly see the two Linked Overhand knots resting side by side when you are finished.

Overhand Bend
Like all of the Linked Overhand knots, this variation is a simple way to connect two cords. If you were to run out of material as you are making something, you can add more length by using this knot. Step 1: Take two cords and tie the first half of a Square Knot (SK). To do this, direct the left cord to the right. Pass the right cord over - under - over the left cord as you bring it to the left. The SK should rest at the bottom, and the ends should be secured. Bring the upper portion of the right cord (red) over the left (blue), forming a circle. It should rest above the square knot. Secure the crossed area to your board. Step 2: The two working ends have now switched positions. Use the working end that's on the left (red). Bring it under the secured portion of the same cord, and through the center of the circle from the top (over- under). Step 3: Rotate the working end on the right (Blue), passing it over the working end of the other cord (top right). Make sure you move it clockwise, going over the secured end of the same strand you are using (bottom right). Bring the end through the center of the knots, by first passing under the crossed area at the bottom. The end shold come to rest over both segments at the top. Step 4: Tighten the linked Overhand knots gradually, so you can clearly see the crossed design.

Sheet Bend
I consider the Sheet Bend to be one of the most unique of the Linked Overhand knots. This technique produces a flatter profile than the others, and I use it whenever I need to add more length to a cord that was cut too short. Step 1: Fold one cord in half, so it is horizontal, with the crook on your right. That's the red cord in the image. Place the second cord (blue) through the first one near the crook, so it passes over the top portion of the first cord, and under the bottom portion. Secure the lowerend of the second cord. Step 2: Make a counter-clockwise circle with the working end of the second cord (blue). On the right, it should pass under both portions of the first cord. Next, direct the end over the first cord close the crook. Pass it under the segment of the cord you are working with and over the first cord again, at the upper right area of the knot.

Step 3: Take the same working end (blue) and rotate it clockwise, creating a loop that nestles inside the first one. The crooks of both loops will match up. Pass the end through the circle that was made by the same cord, in the previous step, moving right to left.

Design Tip: There should be three ends on the left and one on the right when you are finished. Tighten the two Linked Overhand knots slowly, without twisting or turning the loops. I like to hold it steady on a surface as I tighten it, so it remains flat.

Alpine Bend
Linked Overhand Knots are often used in other crafts. The Alpine Bend has been in existence a long time, but you rarely see it in Macrame projects. It's one of the easiest to tie, and provides a good strong hold. Step 1: You need 2 cords at least 12 inches long to practice this decorative knot. Secure the left end of one cord over to your left. Make a clockwise loop, directly in front of you. (Blue Cord) Step 2: Secure one end of the other cord, to your right. Make the second loop in a counter-clockwise direction. Step 2: Pass it through the first loop from below, which is under - over. It should rest to the right of the other loop. Separate them slightly, creating three spaces, which should be mentally labeled left, right, middle. Design Tip: When making the loops, notice that the crossing points are made by passing the working ends over the secured ends. Also, the working ends are at the top, with the secured end to the right and left. Step 3: Pick up both working ends and direct them under the secured portions , and through the

middle space from below. So the ends pass under the segment s at the top, and over the ones at the bottom.

Barrel Knot

Description: The Barrel Knot is similar to the Overhand Knot, and is used frequently in Macrame projects. I learned it when I was young, and was instructed to use it when sewing on buttons. In Vintage patterns it is sometimes called the Coil Knot. It’s used as a finishing knot at the ends of cords, to prevent them from unraveling, and to secure items such as Macrame beads. Variations: There are several other similar designs listed below, including the Long Barrel, the Strangle Knot, the Barrel Bead, and the Knuckle knot.

Regular Barrel Knot
Step 1: To practice, cut a single cord, at least 12 inches long. Hold it in both hands and make an Overhand Knot, so the crossing point is at the top. Using the right end, wrap the cord around the loop 2 or 3 more times. Keep the tension the same with each wrap, and make sure the end is on the inside of the circle when

you are finished.

Step 1: To practice, cut a single cord, at least 12 inches long. Hold it in both hands and make an Overhand Knot, so the crossing point is at the top.

Step 2: Using the right end, wrap the cord around the upper part of the loop 2 or 3 times. Keep the tension the same with each wrap, and make sure the end is on the inside of the circle when you are finished. Step 3: Pull both ends gently to tighten the knot. If you pull too hard, the knot will bunch up.

Long Barrel Knot
To make the long version of the Barrel knot, follow these steps: Step 1: Obtain a cord that is at least 20 inches long. Make the Overhand knot in the center of the cord. Wrap both ends around the loop, in opposite directions. Make sure one end finishes by passing under the loop at the bottom, and one end finishes by passing over. Click on the icon to see a larger image. Step 2: Tighten the knot slowly and gradually, so the coils end up close together, as in the larger image above.

Strangle Knot
This variation of the Barrel Knot is very interesting, and provides a strong grip that can hold weight. It's round enough to pass as a button knot, too. You can click on the icons to see larger images.

Step 1: Obtain a piece of cord material to practice, at least 24 inches long. Create the knot as described in the general instructions. Make sure the right end comes out of the circle passing over the bottom, and the left comes out from under it.

Step 2: Flip the bottom part of the circle over the top portion, forming a figure 8. Hold it in place as you tighten the knot by pulling on the ends.

The Barrel Bead
I found this type of Barrel Knot in a book called "Decorative Fusion Knots" by J.D. Lenzen, and I have seen it in other books as well. Click on the link or image to see his website, which has a knot gallery. I call this knot the the Barrel Bead, since it looks like one. In fact, you can use it as decoration, instead of beads. It's a firm, tight knot that holds very well, so it works as a finishing knot, too.

Step 1: Wrap a 45-inch cord around your index and second finger 4 or 5 times. The left end should be in front, and the right end behind your fingers.

Step 2: Direct the right end through the center of the wrapped portions, moving right to left.

Step 3: Direct the left end through the center, moving left to right.

Step 4: Pull on both ends slowly and gradually to tighten the Barrel knot. If the material is not smooth, you may need to help the loops along a little by pushing them towards each other.

Knuckle Knot
I found this variation in "Decorative Fusion Knots" by J. D. Lenzen. He named it a Bloody Knuckle knot, and describes it as a fusion of Half Hitches with the Blood Knot. That's another name for the Barrel Knot, by the way. It's a very attractive knot, and can be used as a small pendant. The loops along the lower edge can be used to hang charms or pendants.

Step 1: Make a counter-clockwise loop in the center of a 60-inch cord. The right segment should pass over the left. Secure it at the crossing point. In JD's book, he has you holding the loops instead of placing them on a surface, which you can do if you prefer. Step 2: Make another loop, in a counter-clockwise direction, to the right of the first loop. Slide it under Loop 1 as shown. If you were holding the loops, the back of loop 1 would be touching the front of loop 2.

Step 3: Make a third counter-clockwise loop, and slide it under the second one.

Step 4: Make two more counter-clockwise loops. The fourth one should be under loop 3, and the fifth one should be under loop 4.

Notice in the image above that I put red X's on the right half of each loop. When you get to the next step, you will need to pass under those segments, so make sure you can locate them. If you chose to hold the loops, they should be all lined up, with the first one on the left and the fifth one on the right. You would direct the ends through the middle of them.

Step 5: Direct the right end through the loops, moving right to left. Make sure you are passing the end under the right half of each one.

Step 6: Pass the left end through the loops, moving in the opposite direction (left to right). Follow the same path as the right end, passing under the right half of the loops.

Step 7: I found it easier to tighten the Knuckle knot if I worked the slack out of each loop before pulling on the ends.

Double Half Hitch Mount

Description: A Double Half Hitch Mount is often used to attach cords to a dowel, ring or holding cord. A mounting knot like this one is usually one of the first knots tied in a Macrame project. You will usually start out with one cord, adding more strands one at a time. This vintage decorative knot is also used to add cords into an area when you need more strands to form a special design, or to make the area wider. Click on any of the icons, and a larger image will show up in a new window.

Secure a holding cord, horizontally, to your work surface, with pins or tape. You can also use a dowel to practice this important technique. The length of the item or cord used to hold the mounted cords is usually specified in the pattern. Cut 5 or more working cords that will be attached to the holding cord or dowel.

Step 1: Place the first working cord on your work surface vertically. Place the dowel or holding cord on top of it, horizontally. Secure the top half of the cord. Direct the bottom half over the front of the dowel or holding cord. Bring it under, to the back, and pass it over the segment of cord at the bottom.

Step 2: Tie a second Half Hitch right beside the first one. Make sure you use the same end, passing it over the front of the dowel or holding cord. Bring it to the back and over the segment of cord at the bottom.

Step 3: Use the top half next, and form a picot loop or another type of knot. Make sure you secure it. Pass the end under the dowel before you make the next DHH. Most of the time, the Double Half Hitch Mount will be combined with other knots like this. On occasion, a Macrame pattern will have you leave the upper portion secured and then use the lower portion to make the next knot.

Step 4: Slide the two DHH knots together. Now you are ready to repeat the process, using another working cord.

See Unique Mounting Designs for other variations that use the Double Half Hitch Mount technique.

Chain Picot Mount

Description: A Chain Picot Mount is a unique way to start a Macrame pattern, or to add more cords into a design. A chain of knots, also called a sennit, is made at the center of the cord. It's curved into a circlular shape, also called a picot or scallop. Since a "mount" means to be attached to a holding cord, dowel, or ring, the Double Half Hitch is usually part of the overall design. Three different designs are on this page. In the first example, the decorative knot used is called the Alternating Half Hitch. In the second example, the Spiral Stitch is featured. The final design uses the Chain Sennit to make the picot loop. These designs are considered Vintage techniques, because they were often used

in the early 1900's. You can click on the images and a larger picture will show up in a new window. To practice the most common type of Chain Picot Mount, you will need 3 cords. One will be used as a holding cord, and should be secured horizontally to

your work surface, so it's taut. Step 1: Arrange two cords on your work surface vertically, and secure them. Tie a Half Hitch with the left cord onto the right. This first knot should be tightened at the center of the cords.

Step 2: Tie the next Half Hitch with the right cord onto the left. Alternate back and forth between the two cords to make a series of 4 - 6 knots. To keep everything balanced, move from the center towards one end. Then turn the sennit around and repeat the process on the opposite side of the center point.

Step 3: Once the chain is the size you want, attach two of the ends to a holding cord with DHH. Make sure you direct the ends under the holding cord first, prior to tying the DHH.

Step 5: Curve the sennit into a picot, and attach the other two ends to the holding cord with DHH.

The second type of Chain Picot Mount uses the Spiral Stitch, also called the Half Knot Spiral.

Step 1: Secure 3 cords to your board vertically. Two will be working cords, and there will be one filler. Direct the left working cord towards the right, curving it over the filler.

Step 2: Use the right working cord and direct it over the left cord, under the filler, and over the left one again. You will be moving right to left. Both steps equal one Half knot.

Step 3: Tighten the first knot so it rests in the center of the cord. Then tie another one in the exact same way.

Step 4: Tie several more Half knots, until the first half of the design measures 1 inch. You'll be moving from the center towards the ends.

Step 5: Turn the sennit around to make the second half. Tie more Half Knots for another inch, so that the overall size is 2 inches. A Chain Picot Mount is supposed to be small, usually around an inch in size.

Step 6: Curve the design into a picot loop, and secure it to your work surface. Place the ring, dowel, or holding cord on top of the ends.

Step 7: Attach each end with DHH. No matter which knot you use, a Chain Picot Mount will stand above the item it's attached to.

The third Chain Picot Mount is made using the Chain Sennit, which is sometimes called the Caterpillar Sennit. The instructions are a little different from the two you just learned. Step 1: Arrange one cord to your work surface horizontally. It's a holding cord, so make sure it's taut. Slide one working cord underneath, and arrange it vertically. The center of the working cord should be 1 inch above the level of the holding cord. Since you are starting the design by attaching the working cord to the holding cord FIRST, it has to be arranged off center to be balanced. Take the bottom portion of the working cord, and use it to tie a DHH onto the holding cord.

Step 2: Make a clockwise loop with the upper portion of the cord, which is the working end.

Step 3: Form a bight by folding the cord, and push it through the loop, from BELOW. To tighten it, pull on the bight. To adjust the size of the bight, pull on the end.

Step 4: Make another bight, passing it through the one previously made. Repeat this over and over to complete the sennit. Stop when it measures 2 inches, which works out to 1-inch on either side of the center point. Pass the END through the last bight to complete the sennit.

Step 5: Attach the working end to the holding cord, with a DHH. It should rest to the right of the first one, forming a circular design.

Unique Mounting Designs

These Unique Mounting Designs are usually used in the beginning stages of Macrame projects. They are created by making some type of picot loop at the center of a cord. You can use a decorative knot, or just fold the cord to form the loop. Then the ends are attached to a holding cord, dowel or ring. The ones shown are only a few of the many possible designs you can make. Once you understand the basic concept, you can create your own custom mounts for your Macrame projects. For further details on how to make other mounting designs with the Double Half Hitch (DHH), see the Double Half Hitch Mount.

First, the picot design is made in the center, which is the portion of the working cord that rests above the holding cord. The bottom portion of the working cords are used to tie the DHH onto the holding cord, dowel, or ring.

The first of the unique mounting designs shown here is frequently seen in vintage Macrame books, and is called the Loop Picot Mount. It consists of three loops of different sizes nestled together to form a picot.

Step 1: You will need four cords to practice this mounting technique. Take one cord and arrange it horizontally on your work surface (holding cord).

Step 2: Fold another cord in half to form a loop. Attach each end to the holding cord with DHH. Be sure to make the first loop small, since picots are usually around one inch in size.

Step 3: Fold another cord in half, and arrange it around the first picot. Attach both ends to the holding cord with DHH. They should rest on either side of the first two.

Step 4: Repeat the process with a third cord, placing it around the first and second picots.

This design is one of the most common of the unique mounting designs shown here. I've seen it in Macrame books written in the early 1900's as well as in the 1970's. You will need four cords to practice this technique. Step 1: Fold three cords and place them on your working surface side by side. Secure them with pins or tape. The two segments furthest to the left and right are the working cords.

Step 2: Take the two working cords and tie a Square Knot around the other four strands, which are the fillers.

Step 3: Tighten the Square Knot, adjusting the size of the loops as you do so. Attach all the ends to a holding cord, ring or dowel, with DHH. The Square Knot should rest just above the row of DHH.

Since unique mounting designs can be made with a variety of knots, I chose the Slipknot to make this one. You will need a holding cord, and one working cord to make the Slipknot.

Step 1: Fold one cord in half. Make a loop, crossing the right portion over the left. The working end is now on the left. Secure the other end, as well as the crook of the loop, to your board or work surface

Step 2: Form a bight with the working end, directing it into the loop from below. This forms a Slipknot. Tighten it by pulling on the ends. BIGHT = Narrow Fold

Step 3: Arrange the holding cord horizontally. Place the Slipknot right above it, and adjust the size of the loop. Attach both ends to the holding cord with DHH.

Here is a Figure Eight design I came up with, just to show you how you can be creative and come up with your own unique mounting designs.

Step 1: Make a loop in the center of a working cord. Make sure the left end crosses over the right.

Step 2: Take the end that's now on the left, and bring it over the right end as you move it counter-clockwise. Bring the end up and through the loop, from below. Tighten the Figure Eight knot so it's small, but make sure you can still see the shape.

Step 3: Arrange a holding cord on your work surface horizontally. Place the Figure Eight knot just above it, turned SIDEWAYS. Attach both ends to the holding cord with DHH.

Venetian Picot Mount

Description: The Venetian Picot Mount is a vintage design that was very popular in the early 1900's. A PICOT is a loop or knot that stands out above a holding cord, dowel or ring. In this case, it's a small knot called the Overhand Knot. A HITCH is simply a knot used to attach the design to a holding cord, dowel, or ring. Most of the time the Double Half Hitch is used, since that was the knot of choice in the past.

More pages you might want to review are Unique Mounting Designs, and the Chain Picot Mount. Many of the mounts on those pages are vintage designs, too.

Cut one holding cord and secure it horizontally to your work surface. You could also use a ring or dowel if you wish. Cut a second cord to make the picot.

Step 1: Tie an Overhand Knot in the center of one cord. Place the other cord on top of the ends horizontally, and secure it to your work surface. It's a holding cord, so make sure it's taut.

Step 2: Attach the left portion of the knotted cord to the holding cord with a Double Half Hitch (DHH). Pull it tightly so the Overhand Knot rests just above the holding cord.

Step 3: Attach the right portion to the holding cord, with a DHH. In a Macrame pattern using Venetian Picot Mount, you would repeat steps 1 - 3 to add more working cords to the holding cord. They are then used to make the item you're working on.

You can make this picot design larger by tying two or more knots, arranged side-by-side. In this case, I tied five Overhand knots, then curved it to form a wider picot loop.

You can also make linked Overhand knots, or combine both types. For more ideas, see Linked Overhand Knots.
Linked Overhand Knots Completed Design

Matthew Walker Knot

Description: The Matthew Walker knot is a unique decorative knot that can be used to prevent a twisted style cord from unraveling. So it's considered a finishing knot. It can even be used to link multiple cords together. An interesting variation, the Matthew Twist, is the form most often used for placement along the length of two cords. The first set of instructions if for placement of this Macrame knot on the ends of one or more cords. Click on the images below, and larger pictures will come up in a new window.
To practice the Matthew Walker Knot, obtain a 12-inch piece of twisted style cord,

which is made up of at least 3 strands. Step 1: Unravel the end for several inches, separating the strands. They should lie next to each other

without crossing.

Step 2: Use the strand furthest to the left. Make an Overhand knot, moving in a counter-clockwise direction. Pass the end under the upper portion of the same strand, so the crossing point is at the top. The knot should be large enough to pass over the portion of the cord that remains twisted. Do not tighten it yet.

Step 3: Do the same with the second strand. Make sure you pass the end through both loops as you cross under to complete the Overhand knot. The crooks (curved portion) of both knots should match, as well as the crossing

points. Step 4: Repeat the process with the third strand. If there are more strands making up the cord you are using, repeat as many times as necessary. Make sure the end passes into the loops from below all three strands. Step 5: Tighten the design slowly, making sure the coils lie flat and the knot is symmetrical. Apply a light coating of glue to the entire knot, and cut off any remaining material (at the top). The Matthew Walker Knot can also be tied with three or more individual cords. The finished knot will be thick and sturdy. It can be placed anywhere along the strands or at the tips, as described above.

Matthew Twist Knot The Twist variation of the Matthew Walker Knot is tied differently than the usual form. It's primarily used along the length of a cord, rather than at the end. Also, it's made with four strands rather than three. Using 2 colors will help you to practice this important variation.

Step 1: Fold two 36-inch cords in half and secure them at the crook of the fold. In an actual pattern, you may be required to position them off center, so the outside portions are longer. Mentally number the ends 1 thru 4, heading left to right.

Step 2: Take the cord #1 and wrap it around 2 and 3, making a large, counter-clockwise loop on the right. Start low, working towards the top of the design. Wrap three times. Direct the end over cords 2 and 3, at the top, and under cord 4, as you make your way to the right.

Step 3: Take cord 4 and wrap it around 2 and 3, making a clockwise loop on the right. Start low and move up, just as you did before. At the top, pass under all three cords in the center, and over cord 1 as you make your way to the left.

Step 4: Tighten the knot GENTLY and slowly, helping the coils along so they don't bunch up. You're aiming for a long, uniform knot with two ends coming out at each end.

Linen Stitch
Description: The Linen Stitch is a very simple way to collect a group of cords together in one bundle. In Vintage patterns, it is sometimes called a Collecting Knot. Let’s say, for example, you are making a plant hanger that uses several cords. You need some way to keep the cords all bundled together at the bottom. A knot like this one can be used. A similar decorative knot you might want to take a look at is the Wrapped Knot.

Step 1: To practice the Linen Stitch, secure 4 cords to your work surface or project board. Mentally number them, moving left to right.

Step 2: The working cord is #4. Wrap it counterclockwise around all the others. Strands 1 - 3 are called the "core". Continue to wrap 5 or 6 times. Try to keep the coils close together if you can.

Step 3: Pull out the working cord to form a loop. Hold it in your right hand. Direct the end around the bundle one final time, passing over the core, under it, and through the loop. Pull firmly to tighten the knot.

Step 4: Take one of the cords within the bundle and repeat step 3. Make sure you wrap the cord around ALL the others, including the previous working cord.

Progressive Linen Stitch
This variation of the Linen Stitch is made by progressing through the cords used to hold the wraps. It produces a very interesting design, which can be used as a strap for a purse, or even a simple bracelet. Click on any of the icons and larger images will come up.

You will need 4 strands mounted to a holding cord to practice this knot. I used the DHH Mount in the image. If you wish, you can simply pin them to a project board. Mentally number the cords 1 thru 4.

Step 1: Wrap the working cord (4) around the middle two strands (2 and 3). You should pass under them first, ending up with the tail heading right.

Step 2: Pass th working cord under the other 3 cords. Bring the end over cords 1 and 2, and under cord 3, as you make your way back to the right.

Step 3: Take the working end and wrap it under, then over, cords 2 and 3 again.

Do you understand how this works yet? You simply wrap around 2 and 3, then switch to 1 and 2. The most important thing to remember is to wrap by passing under the cords first. The more you practice, the easier it will be to tie this unique variation.

Oysterman Knot

Description: The Oysterman Knot, also called the Ashley Stopper Knot, forms an attractive button anywhere on a cord. Developed in the early 1900s by Clifford W. Ashley, it is a relatively easy decorative knot to make. Most button knots are easy to tie, but complicated to tighten. Not so with this one, which makes it very useful in many types of Macrame projects. To view a Micro-Macrame pattern where this knot is featured in a jewelry project, see the Oysterman Bracelet. Click on the small images below to see a larger view.

Step 1: You need one cord, at least 12 inches in length, to practice this decorative knot.

Step 2: Fold the cord in half and secure it at the crook.

Step 3: Bring the right end to the left, and pass it over the left end.

Moving clockwise, direct it under both segments, close to the crook, as you bring it back to the right.

Step 4: To complete the Slipknot, direct it over and under the right segment of the cord, on the right side of the knot. The end will be heading downward when you are through.

Step 5: Tighten the Slipknot slightly, by pulling the LEFT end. Bring the right end under the left, and up towards the top.

Step 6: Direct the working end (right) through the folded area at the top, near the crook. It should pass over at the left, and under at the right.

Tighten the Oysterman knot slowly by pulling on both ends. The knot is supposed to be round and shaped like a button.

Stevedore Knot

Description: The Stevedore Knot is similar to the single Figure 8 Knot, in the way it’s designed. That’s why it is sometimes called a Double Figure Eight. It’s primary purpose as a Macramé knot is to finish off a project. So it is usually tied near the end of a cord. But you could use it wherever a tight, sturdy knot is needed, since it doesn’t untie easily. Step 1: Obtain one strand of cord, at least 12 inches long to practice this decorative knot. Secure one end to your work surface, on your left.

Step 2: Make a counter-clockwise loop approximately 4 inches from the secured end of the cord. Cross the working end over the secured portion, so the crook of the loop is on the right.

Step 3: Wrap the working end around the secured end, near the crossing point.

Step 4: Wrap the working end around a second time, then pass it through the loop. Make sure you head into it from above, coming out beneath the crook of the fold. Step 5: Tighten the knot by pulling on the working cord. You may have to help it along a bit, by pushing the loops, especially if the cord is rough in texture.

Clove Hitch

Description: The Clove Hitch has several variations which can be used in Macrame projects. They are particularly useful as mounting knots; to attach cords to rings or dowels. These decorative knots are used in other crafts, as well as boating and fishing. In books devoted to decorative knotting, they are usually listed together, and are called "constriction knots". That's because they hold on very tight, and have snake-like twists and coils. Variations: Constrictor Knot, Clove Loop, Boa Knot, The Python You can Click on the small images below, and larger ones will come up.

To practice the basic Clove Hitch, you need one cord, at least 12 inches long. You will also need a ring, handle, or any other object to attach the knot to (base).

Step 1: Secure one end of the cord to your work surface or project board. Direct the working end over the base, then bring it under, heading

slightly towards the right. Step 2: Cross the working end of the cord over in the front of the base, as you bring it to the upper left.

Step 3: Direct the working end around the base, on the left, to create another loop. Next, pass the end under the segment of cord that rests to the left of the crossed area from the last step.
Pull both ends of the cord to tighten the Clove Hitch. If tied correctly, the ends will head in opposite directions.

Constrictor Knot

The Constrictor Knot is another type of Clove Hitch, but is constructed differently. This one is designed specifically for dowels and tubes, where the ends are free. You need one cord to practice, at least 18 inches long.

Step 1: Secure one end of the cord to your board. Bring the cord up and over the front of the dowel or tube, and down behind it. The working end should rest to the right of the secured end.

Step 2: Make a bight (fold) with the working end, and pull it towards the left, over the standing end. Next, bring the working end up to the segment in front of the dowel. Pass under it to make the crossing point, heading towards the upper left.

Step 3: Make the bight larger and slip it over the left end of the dowel or tube. Make sure the top of it remains up, and you don't twist the loop. In other words, the back of the cord will touch the dowel. Tighten the knot by pulling on the ends.

Clove Loop

This interesting variation of the Clove Hitch provides you with a sturdy loop attached to a dowel, ring, or other item. The loop can slide out, so this knot is best used in combination with other decorative knots. You need one strand of material, at least 18 inches long.

Step 1: Secure one end to your work surface, to your right. Bring it all the way around the base, front to back. The loop should be to the left of the secured end. Bring the working end to the upper right, crossing over the other segment.

Step 2: Bring the working end around the base, to the right of the cross. As you bring it to the front, pass it over the secured end. Bring the working end up to the segments in front of the dowel. Pass under both segments, to the left of the cross. The end will come to rest at the top of the Clove Hitch.

Step 3: Direct the working end down to the bottom of the base. Pass under the first cross, as well as the other segments. Leave a loop at the top. Tighten the knot by pulling on the ends as well as the loop.

Boa Knot

This interesting variation of the Clove Hitch provides a very sturdy knot around thick dowels and items like curtain rods. It will support heavy items like plant hangers, particularly those that use dowels in the design.

Step 1: Secure one end of a cord to the board. Bring it down over the front of the dowel. Rotate it around to the back, slightly to the right. Cross the working end over the segment in front of the dowel, heading towards the left.

Step 2: Rotate the working end around the dowel, to the left of the first crossed area (back to front).

Step 3: Bring the working end over the secured end, as you bring it towards the right. Pass under the segment above and to the right of Cross 1. Bring the end down below the cross, and pass it under the right segment there, too. This way the end comes out directly below Cross 1.

Step 4: Now it's time to double this Clove Hitch design. Wrap the working end around the base on the right, going under - over. Direct the end to the left, and wrap it around again the same way.

Step 5: Roll the base away from you slightly, so you can see the area below the crossed portions. Note that there are four segments. Direct the working end under the two segments on the left.
Step 6: Tighten the knot gradually, removing the slack from the loops.The two ends should be lined up, heading in opposite directions.

The Python

This variation of the Clove Hitch is very thick and provides a sturdy hold. Use it in projects where the design will be heavy, such as a hammock or plant hanger design. This decorative knot is made differently than the others, since it's constructed on a surface. The dowel is added once the knot is made.

Step 1: Secure one end of a 60-inch cord to your board, on the left. Make 2 counter-clockwise loops, moving left to right. Make sure you pass the end under the bottom part of the loops, so the crossing points are at the bottom.

Step 2: Slide the left loop on top of the right one. Then turn both of them sideways, so the crossing areas are on the left. Be very careful not to distort the loops as you move them. The working end should now be at the bottom.

Step 3: Remove the tape or pins from the secured end. Take the bottom half of both loops,and flip them over the top half. This will form a figure 8. Adjust the ends so they come out of each circle from the inside.

Step 4: Take the dowel, and pass it through the loops formed by the Figure 8. On the right, pass under both loops. The dowel should then pass over the central section, and under the loops on the left.

Step 5: Move the coils together and tighten the knot gradually, by pulling on the ends.

Spanish Hitching

Description: Spanish Hitching is a unique Macrame design that uses the Clove Hitch. I devoted an entire page to it because it's such a useful decorative knot to know. You can use it to cover dowels and other tube-like objects, such as wine bottles, and drinking glasses. It can also be tied in horizontal rows, similar to Double Half Hitches. Since it is a HITCH, that means it needs to be attached to something. In this case, the knots are tied onto a holding cord, which wraps around the item that is being covered. I've included instructions for tying the Clove Hitch in two different directions, in case you need a refresher. You can click on the icons and larger images will come up, so you can see the details better.

Right Clove Hitch

Step 1: Secure a holding cord horizontally to your board, so it's taut. In the images, that's the tan one. To make a right Clove Hitch, secure the tail of the working cord to your left. Curve it to the right, first passing over, then under, the holding cord.

Step 2: Cross the working end over the tail, heading towards the left. This creates the first counterclockwise loop, which should rest on your right. Pass the end under the holding cord, from the front, heading away from you.

Step 3: Direct the end over the holding cord, forming the second loop, which is made clockwise. Pass over the holding cord and under the working cord, in the area between the two loops.

Left Clove Hitch

Step 1: Secure the tail above the horizontal holding cord. Pass the working end over it, then under it. As you rotate the end to the right, pass over the secured portion.

Step 2: Direct the working end under the holding cord, to the right of the first loop. Make a counter-clockwise circle, bringing the end under the holding cord, and over it in the area between the two loops. It should pass under the working cord in that area.

Now it's time to work on the actual Spanish Hitching design. First, obtain enough working cords that will fit all the way around the dowel, if that is what you are covering. They will be arranged lengthwise on the dowel, and the number of cords will depend on how thick the dowel is, as well as the size of the material. The length of these working cords needs to be 4 times whatever distance you are covering. For example: You are covering a section on the dowel measuring 10 inches. So each working cord needs to be at least 40 inches long.
I used a 1-inch dowel to create the Spanish Hitching in the images, and only wanted the design in the front. Therefore, I have 5 working cords, and 1 holding cord. I would probably use a total of 10 working cords to cover the entire dowel. Step 1: Secure the working cords near one edge of the dowel with tape. Make sure they can't slide out. Secure the holding cord to the back of the dowel.

Step 2: Bring the holding cord around to the front of the dowel, heading left to right. Secure it so it's taut. Tie a row of left Clove Hitches onto the holding cord, using each of the working cords. Move left to right as you tie the knots. When you are finished, wrap the holding cord around the dowel again.

Step 3: Now you have a decision to make. You can either continue on, making every row with left Clove Hitches, or you can alternate and use right Hitches every other row. You can also form other patterns with Spanish Hitching, such as 3 left, 2 right, etc. The holding cord is wrapped around the dowel in the same direction (left to right), but you can reverse the knots themselves at any point. That's why it's important you know how to make the Clove Hitch both ways, in case the pattern you are creating requires it. Look closely at the image of the Spanish Hitching I made, at the top of the page. The first row was made with right facing knots, and the remainder

with left Clove Hitches. Make sure you keep the holding cord under the working cords at all times, as you progress. Try to arrange each knot so that the crossed area shows up well. When you are finished with the design, tuck the ends and tails under the knots, so they can't be seen. To make a flat Spanish Hitching design, you will need several working cords, arranged side by side. The number of working cords you use will determine the width of the Spanish Hitching design. The best way to determine the number you need is to arrange them on your board until you have the width you want. You will also need several holding cords, one for each row. So it takes a lot more material to make a flat panel of knots than it does to cover a tube shaped item.

Slipknot

Slipknot

Alpine Butterfly

Ashoka Chakra

Description: The Slipknot is sometimes called the Overhand Noose. It’s been used for many centuries, but for practical purposes rather than as a decorative knot. It’s one of several "connection knots" used in Macrame, and can be used in the mounting process as well. Variations: Below are instructions for a similar technique, called the Alpine Butterfly Knot. The knot produces a stable loop, rather than an adjustable one. I've also included instructions for a very unique application of this decorative knot. It's called the Ashoka Chakra knot, and it forms a decorative ring.

Click on the icons to see larger images, which come up in a new window.

Step 1: Make a clockwise loop with a piece of cord material. The working end should be on the left when you are finished. Secure the end on the right. Some patterns will tell you precisely where to place the loop along the cord, and which end is the working portion.

Step 2: Make a bight with the working end. Push it through the center of the first loop, from below (under-over). Tighten the loop by pulling on the bight. To adjust the size of the bight, pull on the working end.

Design Tip: In this Unique Mounting Design, I used a Slipknot as a picot loop. It's attached to a holding cord, and can be mounted to a dowel or ring as well.

Alpine Butterfly Knot

The Alpine Butterfly knot is related to the Slipknot, but is constructed differently. The knot below the loop is triangular in shape. This is a good technique to produce a stable loop, rather than a loose one. This variation can be used for plant hangers, bell pulls, or even curtains. It can also be used to mount cords to a ring, dowel, or similar item.

Step 1: Obtain one strand of material, at least 36 inches in length. Secure one end to your work surface. Tie an Overhand knot near one end, and secure it to your board. This is Loop 1. The crossing point needs to be on the left, with the working end at the top as shown. Do Not tighten the knot.

Step 2: Use the working end of the cord, and bring it down, passing through the Overhand Knot from above (over - under). The working end should rest to the right of the secured end. This is Loop 2.

Step 3: Direct the working end in a clockwise direction, to make the third loop. Pass over the secured end of the cord, at the bottom of the Slipknot. Next, bring the end up to the top, and under the second loop.

Step 4: Bring the working end down and into Loop 1. Make sure it rests to the right of the segment of Loop 2 that runs through it.

Step 5: To tighten this variation of the Slipknot, first pull on Loop 2 to adjust Loop 1, which is the center of the knot.

Step 6: Adjust the size of Loop 2, by pulling on the third loop, which is on the left. Loop 2 is supposed to be left a little loose. The other two loops are tightened completely.

Step 6: Tighten Loop 3 by pulling on the working end, which is on the right. Now you can see the triangular shape of the knot below the the loop.

Ashoka Chakra Knot

Description: The Ashoka Chakra knot is made using only the Slipknot. It's great for making earrings, pendants, and frames for stones, buttons and beads.

I found this unique decorative knot in J.D. Lenzen's website, called Fusion Knots. Be sure to visit his website, by clicking on the link or image. His knot library contains video tutorials for a variety of very interesting knotting techniques. He also has this book available, if you want one for your own reference.

Step 1: Make a counter-clockwise loop approximately 3 inches from one end of a 36 inch cord. Make sure the working end passes over the tail to form the crossing point.

Step 2: Make a bight with the working end. Push it through the loop, from below, heading left to right. Tighten the knot by pulling on the bight.

Step 3: Adjust the size of this first knot by pulling on the ends. The length of this loop determines the size of the Ashoka Chakra Knot (see below).

Here's how to figure out the size you need to make Loop 2: Multiply the size you need by 2, then add an inch for the loop at the top, if you need it.
  

3-inch Loop = Earring Size (1.5-inch diameter) 5-inch Loop = Pendant Szie (2.5-inch diameter) 7-inch Loop = Ring for Plant Hangers (3.5-inch diameter)

Step 4: Make a counter-clockwise loop with the working end to make a second slipknot. Pass the end under to make the crossing point on the left.

Step 5: Make a bight with the working end, passing it into the loop from the top. Keep the working end at the bottom as you tighten the knot by pulling on the bight. There should be a small amount of space between the two knots.

Design Tip By adding more space between the knots, picot loops will form.

Step 6: Take the first Slipknot, which is the long one, and direct it through the second one from the top (over - under). Keep the working end to your left. Tighten the second knot by pulling on the end.

Step 7: Make the next Slipknot, just as you did in step 4 - 5. Direct the first knot through the new one, as in step 6.

Step 8: When you have made enough knots to cover most of Loop 1, turn the Ashoka Chakra knot so the tail is at the top. Tie the last Slipknot with the working end, around Loop 1, as you normally would. But don't tighten it yet.

Step 9: Pass the TAIL through both loops, to create the circular design. Pull on the working end to tighten the last slipknot.

The remaining portion of Loop 1 can be used to hang the design from a necklace. If you prefer, you can direct it into the spaces in the back, as you would do the ends to finish them off. Applying glue to the last Slipknot will ensure that the design remains circular.

Cats Paw Hitch

Description: The Cats Paw Hitch has the same purpose as the Larks Head Knot, which is to mount cords to an object or holding cord. This decorative knot can be used to attach cords to rings, dowels, and other cords. It's particularly useful in the initial mounting process. But it can be used anywhere in a Macrame pattern, wherever a standard Larks Head Knot is called for. You can also change the design described below, by making more than 3 wraps. Variations: Mini Cats Paw Hitch (described below)

Step 1: You'll need one strand of cord material that is at least 12 inches long, to practice this mounting technique. Also, obtain a ring, holding cord, or dowel, to hold the Cat's Paw Hitch. In the images below, I used a holding cord (black), which was secured so it was taut.

Step 2: Fold the cord in half, and lay it down under the holding cord, ring or dowel. The folded area (crook) needs to rest at least 1 to 2 inches below the item the knot is being attached to.

Step 3: Bring the right end down, and begin the wrapping process by going under the right half of the cord.

Step 4: Wrap the end in a clockwise direction. Wrap at least three times, so that you end near the crook of the fold.

Step 5: Tighten the coils so that the wrapped area is snug. This will help when it's time to tighten the Cats Paw Hitch.

Step 6: Repeat steps 3- 5 using the left end. Wrap it around the left portion of the cord, heading counterclockwise. Be sure you direct the cord under as you begin the wraps (see Step 3).

Step 7: Tighten the Cats Paw Hitch slowly and gradually, by pulling on the ends. There should be no gap between the crook of the cord and the bottom of the wrapped areas. Depending on the type of material you use, you may need to slide the wraps upwards with your fingers.

Mini Cats Paw This decorative knot is closely related to the Cats Paw Hitch. The main difference is that no wrapping occurs. Since I have yet to find out the name of this design, I refer to it

as the Mini Cats Paw.

Step 1: You need 2 cords, one to hold the knot and the other to tie it. Secure the holding cord so it is taut, and resting horizontally. Fold the working cord in half and place it on top of the holding cord, with the crook at the bottom.

Step 2: Bring both ends down, passing under the holding cord.

Step 3: Direct both ends into the center of the knot, passing over the right and left portions of the cord (from the top). The ends should rest under the crook when you are finished. Pull on the ends to tighten the knot.

Unique Decorative Knots

Monkey Fist

Description: The Monkey Fist is a decorative knot seldom used in Macrame. It is excellent way to finish off the end of a cord. You could use it with a buttonhole clasp rather than using a plastic button, or to collect a group of cords to make tassels. Try making a small version to use as a pendant for a child's necklace. To see a Macrame pattern where this knot is used, see the Monkey Key Chain. You can click on the images and a larger picture will come up in a new window.

To practice this interesting knot, obtain a single cord at least 36 inches long. The left end is considered the "tail".

Step 1: Use the index and middle finger of one hand, pointing sideways and slightly spread open, for the first part of the knot. Wrap the right end of the cord three full turns around your fingers. The left end should be moved to the back of your hand. You can secure it with tape temporarily if you need to.

Step 2: Pass the right end through the middle of the cords by directing it throug the space between your fingers. That's the area shown by the arrows in this image.

Step 3: Take the coils off your fingers carefully, and do not let go of the knot. The right end should head downward. Wrap the end three times around the coils you just made in step 1 (front to back).

Step 4: Pass the end through the opening right beside where you ended the wraps. Bring it across to the second opening, and through. Wrap it two additional times the same way, for a total of three wraps.

Step 5: When you are finished, make an Overhand knot at the left end (tail), and trim the excess material. Tuck this knot into the center of the Monkey Fist. Tighten each loop gradually until you have a neatly finished knot. It helps if you start near the left end.

Tip: Like other button knots, tightening can be challenging. The first few times you make it, don’t expect the finished product to be neat. Nylon cord slides a little better than other materials, so try it with that material the first few times. Also, it’s easier to make this knot with cord that is 4mm or 6mm.

Lanyard Knots
Description: Lanyard Knots are often seen in Macramé patterns, particularly plant hangers. They're considered Vintage Knots, since they were very popular in

the early 1900's. These decorative knots are sometimes referred to as Crown Knots. They make beautiful patterns, and are fairly easy to tie. Kids will often learn this knot at camp, and they can make bracelets and necklaces with it, since it's easy to tie. Try making a chain of these decorative knots to use as a purse handle, or as a jump rope for your kids. To see a pattern where the spiral design is featured, see the Cross Necklace. Variations: The Single Knot, Multiple Strands, Spiral Sennit, Striped Sennit, and the Star Pattern are all described below.

Single Knot

Step 1: To practice a single Lanyard Knot, you need two cords at least 36 inches long. In the images below, I tied a Linked Overhand Knot to start off with. But you can just lay the cords on your board and cross them to form an X shape. Make sure you secure each end after you use it. The images are labeled as follows:
   

LU= Left Upper LL = Left Lower RU= Right Upper RL = Right Lower

Step 2: Direct the left lower segment to the right, passing over the right lower segment. Make sure you leave a space for the fourth end to pass through.
Many Macrame Patterns require you to form Lanyard knots from strands that have already been in use. In that case, you wouldn't need to worry about forming the X shape at all. Just follow same steps, moving in a counter-clockwise direction.

Step 3: Take the right lower segment and fold the end so it’s vertical, heading upward. It should automatically pass over the right lower segment as you bring it up and over the right upper segment.

Step 4: Direct the right upper segment to the left. It will pass over the right lower segment when you bring it over the left upper segment.

Step 5: Locate the left upper segment and bring it down to the space formed in step 2. Bring it through the space from the top, which is over - under.

Step 6: Tighten the Lanyard knot by removing the slack gradually, pulling on each end. This decorative knot has a square shape and is usually tightened completely in Macrame designs.

Multiple Strands

You can make Lanyard Knots using more than two strands. Be sure you start out with 2 groups of cords having the same number of strands. Move the ends progressing in the same direction you did the single knot, but curve the ends instead of folding them. To see what I mean by curve, look at the images for the star pattern below. The individual strands work together as a group. Make sure you arrange the ends so they are side-by side. It's important that these Multi-Strand Lanyard Knots look neat.

Spiral Sennit

To make a Spiral Chain of these knots, tie a number of them, which will stack on top of one another. After you tie the first two knots, move the pin and secure the design on an angle, near the bottom. Be sure to tie each knot progressing the same direction (counter-clockwise), as described in the instructions for the single knot. It doesn't matter if the sennit twists as you work.

Striped Sennit

To make a Striped Chain, alternate the direction you tie the Lanyard knots. So every other knot is tied progressing clockwise. In the directions for the single knot, you folded the cords one by one, moving in a counter-clockwise direction. You started with the left lower segment. If you tie the second, fourth, sixth, etc. starting with the right lower segment, the sennit will look like the image above. Make sure you do not twist the sennit, and that it's secured well. Otherwise the alternating pattern won't be even.

Star Pattern
Lanyard Knots can be made with many strands, rather than just two. I call this one the Star pattern. You can use as many cords as you like to create this interesting design. Obtain 4 cords to practice. It helps to use different colors, like I did in the images below.

Locate the centers of all of them.

Step 1: Lay the strands in front of you, so the centers meet, as follows: One vertical, the next horizontal, and the third and fourth diagonal, forming an “X”.

Mentally number the strands 1 through 8, in a clockwise direction. Secure the centers of all the cords to your work surface.

Step 2: Curve each strand rather then making sharp folds. To begin, pass cord #1 over #2. Don't forget to leave a space for the last cord. For each of the cords 2 through 7, make sure the one you work with passes over the strand previously folded, as well as the one next in line to be used.
Design Tip: The star pattern is constructed just like the other Lanyard knots on this page, only you have more cords to work with. Securing each end after you work with it,

will help you keep them organized.

Step 3: Direct cord #8 so it goes over #7 and into the space formed by #1. Tighten the knot by pulling on each end, in order, until snug.

Link Weave

Description: The Link Weave features large woven "links" that are arranged so that one color is above another. Since it's a wide band, it can be used as a Macrame belt or a purse handle. Other items like dog collars and paracord bracelets can be made using this unique design. This decorative knot looks best if made with two colors. I used vibrant green and black Paracord in the example shown.

I found this interesting knot in J.D. Lenzen's great website, Fusion Knots. A video tutorial of this decorative knot is available through his knot gallery, under the name "KBK Bar".

You need two cords, each at least 60 inches long. If you were actually making something with the Link Weave, multiply the length you need by 6, and cut the cords to that length. First, you need to make a Sailor's Knot, to connect the two cords and give you four ends to work with. Here are the instructions:

Sailor's Knot

Step 1: Secure one cord to your board, on the left. Bring the working end counter-clockwise to make the first loop (Black). Make sure it passes under the secured end to make the crossing point.
Design Tip: Try to make sure the secured end of both cords are longer than the part you will be working with. When I made the Link Weave for the first time, I placed the Sailor's knot 45 inches from the secured end.

Step 2: Secure the second cord on the right, near the crook of the first loop (Green). Direct it over the loop, and under the working end of the first cord. Bring it over the secured end, as you rotate it clockwise.

Step 3: Weave the working end of the second cord through the first loop, by passing it under - over - under the three segments.

Step 4: Tighten the Sailors Knot by pulling on the ends. Adjust the knot so that the secured ends, which are coming from the top, are longer than the ones on the bottom.

Link Weave

Step 1: Secure the Sailor's Knot to your project board, so that the ends coming from the bottom are vertical. Design Tip: The space in the center can be used as part of a clasp, if you are making a bracelet with this design.

The previous working ends (lower) will now become the core. They need to be the size of the design you are aiming for, plus 6 inches. Secure them so they are taut. The ends that were secured now become the working cords, and should be longer. Mentally number the ends 1 - 4, moving right to left.

Step 2: Direct Cord 1 (far right) to the left, horizontally. Pass it under Cords 2 and 3, and over Cord 4. Secure it on the left.

Step 3: Direct Cord 4 (left) over Cord 3. Bring it under the horizontal segment of Cord 4 that runs between Cords 2 and 3. It should be diagonal. Pass it over Cord 2, and under the segment of Cord 1 on the far right.

Step 4: Tighten the first Knot by pulling on all four ends. Then re-secure Cords 2 and 3, making them taut. Note that the working ends (1 and 4) are now switched. Direct Cord 4 to the left, passing over Cords 2 and 3. Bring it under Cord 1 on the left, and secure it.

Step 5: Direct Cord 1 (left) under Cord 3. Bring it over the horizontal segment of Cord 4 that runs between Cords 2 and 3. It should be diagonal. Pass it under Cord 2, and over the segment of Cord 4 on the far right.

Step 6: Now the working ends are back in their original positions. Repeat Steps 2 and 3.

Step 7: Repeat steps 4 - 6 over and over, until the Link Weave design is the size you need. Adjust the size of the loops as needed. Use the working cords (1 and 4) to tie a Square Knot around Cords 2 and 3, which are the fillers. The four ends can now be used to tie other knots to form a clasp, or you can add buttons or beads.

Sailors Knot

Description: The Sailors Knot is also called the Carrick Bend. Similar to a Josephine knot, it’s a good technique to use in jewelry designs. You can even use it to link 2 cords together, or as a mounting knot. I’ve used this decorative knot to make bracelets, necklaces, and within the body of some Macrame plant hanger patterns. They hold their shape better if you use the stiffer materials, such as leather or waxed cord. Click on any of the images and larger photos will show up so you can see the details.

You need 2 cords to practice with, each at least 36 inches long. Using two colors really helps.

Step 1: Secure one cord to your board, on the left. Bring the working end counter-clockwise to make the first loop (Black). Make sure it passes under the secured end to make the crossing point. Step 2: Secure the second cord on the right, near the crook of the first loop (Green). Direct it over the loop, and under the working end of the first cord. Bring it over the secured end, as you rotate it clockwise.

Step 3: Weave the working end of the second cord through the first loop, by passing it under - over under the three segments.

Step 4: Tighten the Sailors Knot by pulling on the ends.

Patterns

There are two types of patterns that can be tied with this decorative knot. The first is a sennit, which is tying the knot over and over, in a vertical design. Something like this can be used as a bracelet, a belt, or a strap.

Step 1: Tie the first Sailors Knot following the instructions above, close to one end of the cords. Secure it to your board. The working cords will be the long ends, at the bottom. Make a counter-clockwise loop with the working cord on the left (Black). Make sure the end goes under to make the crossing point.

Step 2: Take the working cord on the right (Green), and bring it across the loop (over). Pass it under the working end of the first cord. It needs to pass over the segment of the first cord coming from the knot above.

Step 3: Weave the end through the three segments of the loop, under - over - under. Tighten the second knot, and repeat the process.

The other way the Sailors Knot can be used is in an Alternating design, similar to Square Knots. Start by securing at least 3 folded cords to your board, or mount them to something. Step 1: Mentally number the cords, moving from left to right. Make the first counter-clockwise loop using cord 1.

Step 2: Tie the second half of the Sailors knot with the second cord, rotating clockwise. It passes over the loop, under the working end of cord 1. Then pass it over the upper segment of cord 1, and weave through the loop.

Step 3: Tie the next knot with cords 3 and 4, and then another with 5 and 6. Try to tighten the knots so they are all the same size and lined up in a neat row. Step 4: For the second row, alternate the cords. So the first knot is made with cords 2 and 3. The following one is tied with cords 4 and 5. Step 5: Repeat steps 2 and 3 for the next row, then repeat step 4 for the following one.

Interlocking Weave

Description: The Interlocking Weave is not really a knot. It's a type of Weaving that is often used to make baskets. This Vintage technique can be used in Macrame, to make items such as hammocks, pot holders and placemats. The Tabby Weave is a similar technique. To practice this type of weaving, you will need either 8 separate strands, or 4 cords folded in half. It really helps if you use two colors.

Step 1: Secure both ends so the 8 strands are running vertically in front of you, and make sure they have plenty of tension. Step 2: Cut 2 more cords, double the length of the others. These are considered the

working cords. Weave the end of one working cord through 4 of the secured vertical cords, moving horizontally from right to left. Begin the weaving process by going under the first strand on the right.

After you pass under the fourth strand, leave a small loop, and weave your way back to the right side. Begin the second row by going under the strand on the left. This way the weaving is alternated.

Step 3: On the left side, weave the second working cord just like you did in step 3, but start by going over the first strand on the left. When you get to the fourth cord, direct the end into the small loop left by the first

working cord. Weave the second working cord back to the left side, starting out by going over the strand closest to the center of the design. Step 4: Repeat steps 2 and 3, using the same working cords to do the rest of the weaving. When you are finished, gradually tighten the design by pulling on each cord.

Triangle Knot

Description: The Triangle Knot is one of the most unique decorative knots used in Macrame. It's a vintage knot, and I found it in a book written in 1899. I have not seen it at all in more modern instruction books. I found it was best to use this knotting technique in patterns that call for cords of 4mm or more. You could use this interesting knot in either an Alternating or V Pattern, instead of Square Knots. So I added a few ideas on this page, that will help you use this knot effectively. To view an actual Macrame project where this knot is used, see the Triangle Bracelet.

Step 1: To practice, you will need two cords mounted onto a ring or another cord. Secure them to your work surface. I found it easer to practice this knot if the cords were lying on a table. Once you get the hang of it, you can tie it with the cords dangling freely.

Step 2: With the left cord, make a “U” shaped bend, also called a "bight", curving it to the right. Place the right cord on top, heading vertically.

Step 3: Direct working end of the right cord under both portions of the left strand, as you make a clockwise loop. Bring the end over the secured portion of itself, at the top right area of the knot.

Step 4: Bring the working end down into the space created by the bight you made in step 2. Pass over the top portion and under the bottom. Tighten gently by pulling on both ends at the same time.

Here's another image for you to see the details. Click on the icon to see a larger view.

Using the Triangle Knot
There are 3 ways to use this unique decorative knot: In a sennit, in an alternating pattern, and as a mount.

Triangle Mount

First, make the Triangle design in the center of a cord, following the steps described above.

Next, attach it to a holding cord with Double Half Hitches.

Triangle Sennit with Picots

Like any sennit, Triangle Knots can be tied one right after the next. First, tie one Triangle, the leave a 1-inch space. Tie the next one, and slide it up to rest beside the first, forming a picot. If you want the picot to be larger, simply add more space between the knots.

Alternating Triangle Pattern

You will need at least 4 cords mounted to a holding cord or dowel to practice this variation. I used 2 different colors so you could make out the design better. Click on the icons below to see larger images.

Row 1: Mentally number the cords 1 thru 8, moving left to right. Tie 4 Triangle Knots with sets of two cords, and tighten them so they line up horizontally.

Row 2: Tie the next row of Triangles using cords 2-3, 4-5, and 6-7 to make three knots.

To continue, repeat rows 1 and 2 as many times as necessary to produce the net-like design.

Portuguese Sennit

Portuguese Sennit

Genoese Sennit

Description: The Portuguese Sennit is also called the Solomon Bar. Essentially, it is a chain of Square knots, tied around a loop. When the sennit is completed, the loop is pulled, so that the ends are secured. This technique could be utilized anywhere you need a strong stable loop, such as in a plant hanger. It also makes a great bracelet or cell phone decoration. Variations: The Genoese Sennit is a related technique, but uses the Alternating Half Hitch instead of Square Knots. You can click on the small images and a larger picture will come up in a new window.

Both of these knotting designs can be found in this great book. Click on the image to visit the author's website, which contains video tutorials for many combination knots.

Step 1: Fold one strand of material, at least 60 inches long. Make a large loop, the size you want the sennit to be when it's finished. You can add an extra inch if you wish. The crossing point should be at the top, and you should secure it with a pin.

Step 2: Use the two ENDS to tie the first Square Knot. The loop acts as the filler cords. Place it approximately 1/2-inch below the crossing point. If you wish, you could use the Spiral Stitch instead of Square Knots.

Step 3: Tie several more knots, until you are close to the fold of the loop. Step 4: Direct the ends through the loop at the bottom of the Portuguese Sennit. One should enter in from below, and the other from above, heading in the opposite direction. Pull on the bottom loop first, to remove one of the loops at the top, unless you need both of them. Then pull the remaining loop at the top, which will secure the ends.

Genoese Sennit

Step 1: To make the Genoese Sennit, fold a cord in half, forming a large loop. The crossing point should be at the top. Make sure the left crosses over the right. The size of the loop determines the overall size of the sennit.

Step 2: Use the right end and make a Half Hitch around the loop, which acts as the fillers. To do this, simply pass the end over the fillers, under them, and through the space on the right.

Step 3: Use the left working end, and make another Half Hitch, just below the first one.

Step 4: Alternate back and forth between the two ends, and make several more Alternating Half Hitches. Stop when you are close to the bottom of the loop.

Step 5: Direct the ends into the bottom loop. One should go into it from below, and the other from the top, in opposite directions.

Step 6: Pull on the loop at the top of the design. The bottom loop will disappear and the ends will be secured.

Masthead Mat Technique

Description: The Masthead Mat Technique produces a beautiful, interlaced circular knot. This decorative knot is fairly easy to make, and can be used to design coasters, pendants, and clothing decorations. You could even make a small rug with this technique. Simply make it larger and fill in the interlaced design with additional cord materials. You can click on the images and a larger picture will come up in a new window. Obtain a single strand of cord at least 36 inches long to practice. Note that the Masthead Mat Technique is similar to a Pitcher Knot. You might want to

practice that decorative knot, too. Step 1: Secure the left end of the cord to your project board. Make 3 counter-clockwise loops starting approx. 18 inches from the secured end. Make sure the working end passes under to form the crossed areas, at the bottom of each loop. Name the

loops A, B, and C, heading left to right.

Step 2: Move the loops so B is slightly over loop A, and loop C is over B. Make sure you can see each loop very clearly, even if you have to make them larger. The arrows show the path of loops A and C as you complete the next two steps.

Step 3: Remove the pins from the secured end. Weave the right portion of loop A to the right, through the other coils as shown. It should pass over loop C and under the right portion of loop B. The cord you are working with is indicated with a red X in the photo above, and with an A

in this photo, on the far right. Step 4: Weave loop C to the left, passing over the left portion of loop B and under loop A. I've indicated both portions of each loop to make it easier to visualize.

Step 5: Weave the right end of the cord through the center of the design, heading right to left. Alternate under and over the loops, starting out by going over the coil on the far right. The end should end up passing under the final coil on the left. Step 6: Adjust the loops if necessary, but don't tighten them completely. Obtain a second cord, and trace the path of the first one exactly, to thicken the design. If you wish, you can repeat this step with additional cord(s), filling in the knot completely.

Pitcher Knot

Description: The Pitcher Knot is an interesting Macrame knot that is not very well known. It is sometimes referred to as the Jury Mast Knot, as well as the Bottle Sling. The name is derived from the days when it was used to make handles for earthen pitchers and bottles. As a decorative knot, you could use it to make a pendant, or as part of a plant hanger.Try using it as it was intended; to hang glass bottles as wall or kitchen decorations. Click on the images and a larger picture will come up in a new window.

Obtain a single strand of cord, at least 36 inches long. Make three counterclockwise loops, moving from left to right. The crossing points should be at the bottom. Label them A, B, and C, as shown in the image below. Note that each loop has two sides, right and left. You need to picture this so you understand the steps.

Step 1: Carefully move loop A so it rests over the left side of loop B. Now move the left side of loop C under the right side of loop

B. Step 2: Direct the right side of loop A towards the right. Weave under the left part of loop C, over the right part of loop B, and under the right part of loop C. This will distort the loop, and the left end at the bottom will shorten slightly.

Step 3: Direct the left portion of Loop C to the left. Weave under the left portion of loop B and over the left portion of loop A. The next time you practice, try to do steps 2 and 3 at the same time.

Step 4: As you begin to tighten this knot, hold onto the top curved portion of loop B while you remove the slack. This gives you the loop at the top of the knot.

If you are using this decorative knot to hang bottles, the neck of the bottle will fit through the center of the knot. Fit the bottle first, then tighten the Pitcher knot.

Round Braid

Description: The Round Braid is very easy to make, and it's a great decorative knot for Paracord Bracelets. If made with fine materials, you can use it to make rings and necklaces as well. In the images below, the yellow cord is Color A, and the blue is Color B. You can click on them, and larger photos will come up in a new window.

I found this knotting technique in the website called " Fusion Knots" , developed by J. D. Lenzen. Be sure to visit his website, by clicking on the link or image. His knot gallery contains video tutorials for a variety of very unique and appealing designs.

Step 1: You need two cords, each at least 60 inches long. Mentally label the first cord, Color A (green). Make a loop in the center, crossing right over left. Pass the other strand (Color B - yellow) through the loop, and line up the center of it with the other cord. It should rest horizontal when you first start out.

Step 2: Move the Color B cord down, so it's near the crossing point of the first loop. Bring the left portion over the front of the cross. Bring the right portion to the back of the cross. Finally, cross the two ends, so that the portion in back goes over the front.

Tip: The Color A cord (green) should always stay on the board, so the ends move side to side. The Color B cord (yellow) is arranged so it moves front to back. If you were to turn the Color B cord sideways, the crossing point is also right to left. But I find it easier to arrange it front to back. Reduce the size of the first loop by pulling on the ends. If you are making a bracelet or necklace, you can leave that loop larger, to form a clasp.

Step 3: The Color B cord is next. Pass the left portion under the Color A cord that is now on the left. The right portion goes over the right end. Cross the ends of the Color B cord, right over left. and pull on the ends to tighten the loop.

Step 4: The Color A cord is next. Remember it goes front to back when you bring it over the crossing point of Color B. Cross the back half over the front to complete the loop. Dont' forget to tighten it.

To continue, repeat steps 3 and 4, until the braid is the size you want.

Step 5: Depending on what you are making with the Round Braid, you may need to finish it with another type of knot. Here I used the Square Knot to secure the braid.

Clew Knot

Description: The Clew Knot is an interesting decoration that is often used in Hammocks and similar Macrame projects. It’s a method of weaving the ends together to gather them into a flat design, then spread them out again. Hammocks that are manufactured frequently contain this decorative knot, usually between the ring and the dowels. Now you will know how to make one should you decide to design your own unique hammock.

Step 1: To practice, fold 6 cords in half and mount them to a ring, dowel or holding cord with Larks Head knots. Secure the design to the table or project board. Mentally number the ends 1 thru 12, moving left to right.

Spread the cords out somewhat, and make sure they are fairly straight. If you can, secure the bottom of them, so they are taut. When you are finished weaving in each row, secure the end of the cord off to the side, since it won’t be used again.

Step 2: This chart provides a general overview of the weaving process for the Clew Knot. Just below are some tips that will help you understand the concept. Refer to the chart and the images often as you learn how to tie this unique knot. You can click on the small images and larger photos of the Clew Knot will come up.

Working Cord

Direction

OVER

UNDER

1
12 2 11 3 10 4 9 5 8 6&7

Left to Right
Right to Left Left to Right Right to Left Left to Right Right to Left Left to Right Right to Left Left to Right Right to Left NO WEAVING

3, 5, 7, 9, 11
10, 8, 6, 4, 2 3, 5, 7, 9, 11 10, 8, 6, 4 5, 7, 9 8, 6, 4 5, 7, 9 8, 6 7 6

2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12
11, 9, 7, 5, 3 4, 6, 8, 10 9, 7, 5, 3 4, 6, 8, 10 9, 7, 5 6, 8 7, 5 6, 8 7

Start with the first cord on the left (#1). Weave through, alternating under and over, as you make your way to the right. Make sure you start off the weaving by passing UNDER cord 2.

Use Cord 12 next, heading right to left. Be sure to pass under Cord 11 as you begin to weave. This way the over - under sequence is the opposite of Cord 1. The first and last cords are labeled, so you can see the sequence is changed.

Weave cord 2 next, passing it over cord 3 as you move left to right. This way the over - under sequence changes again, so it's opposite of the previous row.

Continue on, making sure that the next two cords (3 and 10) begin by passing under the strands next to them. For the following two rows, begin by passing over the strands. You can look at this image to figure out the over - under sequence for the remaining rows. Just remember the weaving has to alternate.

Tip 5: When you get to the last two ends (6 and 7), they don't need to be woven. Just tighten the Clew Knot, by pulling on each end. Since this knot is used in the construction of hammocks, the pattern may require you to attach the cords to dowels. That process begins after the knot is completely woven. You attach them in the reverse order they were woven. In other words, the last two cords woven (6 and 7) will be in the center of the dowel. Next, you would attach cords 8 and 5, followed by 9 and 4. Then attach cord 10 and 3, followed by 11 and 2. The last two cords attached, near the ends of the dowel, would be 12 and 1.

This is an image of the Clew knot in a Hammock design. Notice how it's small and compact, and how the ends spread out from it. Usually the cords are attached to a ring, followed by the knot.

Chain Sennit

Chain Sennit

Zipper Sennit

Bugle Braid

Description: The Chain Sennit is a historic, vintage decorative knot that is sometimes called the Caterpillar Sennit. It's primary purpose is to form linked loops, which end up looking like a braided chain. Variations: I have included instructions for the Zipper Sennit, as well as the Bugle Braid, which are very similar to the Chain Sennit. You can click on the small images and a larger picture will show up in a new window.

These designs can be found in JD Lenzen's new website, Fusion Knots. He also has this great book available, so be sure to visit his website for more information, by clicking on the link or image.

Regular Chain Sennit

Step 1: Secure one end of a 60-inch cord to your board. Make a counter-clockwise loop near the secured end. Make sure you pass the working end under the secured portion to make the crossing point.

Step 2: Make a narrow fold, which is called a BIGHT, and push it through the first loop, moving left to right. It should enter into the loop from the top. Pull on the bight to tighten the first knot. Make sure the working end is on the left when you are finished.

Step 3: Create the next bight by folding the working end. Push it through the one previously made, from the top. Pull on the bight to tighten the knot firmly. Adjust the size of the new bight by pulling on the end.

Step 4: Repeat step 3 as many times as necessary to complete the Chain Sennit. Always push the newest bight into the one previously made, and keep the working end on your left.

Step 5: To finish, pass the working end through the the final bight, heading into it from the top. Pull on the end to tighten the last knot in the Chain Sennit.

Zipper Sennit

Description: The Zipper Sennit is related to the Chain Sennit. The main difference is that you use both ends to make alternating Bights. The other difference is that you pass each new bight into the previous one from BELOW.

Step 1: Make a loop in the center of a 60-inch cord. Make sure the left portion crosses over the right.

Step 2: Take the end that is now on the right, and fold it to form a BIGHT. Push it into the loop from below. Pull on the bight firmly to tighten the first loop around it.

Step 3: Use the other end (left), and make a new bight (#2), passing it into the first one from below. Pull firmly on the second bight to tighten the first one.

Step 4: Use the right end again, and make the third bight. Pass it into the second one from below. Continue to alternate between the two ends as you make the rest of the Zipper Sennit.

Step 5: Finish like you did with the Chain Sennit, passing the END through the final bight. Make sure you pass into it from below.

Step 6: Adjust the loops as needed to complete the Zipper Sennit.

Bugle Braid

Description: The Bugle Braid is related to the Chain Sennit, but the process for making it is a little different. It's a historical knot used by the military as well as band members to make a leash for musical instruments. So it's sometimes called the Bugler's Braid.

Step 1: You need one cord that measures at least 6 times the length of the braid you want to make. To practice, use a 72-inch cord. Fold it 10 to 12 inches from one end, creating the first loop.

Make another loop with the SHORT end, passing it under the long end, and then over it as you bring it forward.

Step 2: Make a third loop the same way, rotating the short end around the long one. The third loop should rest to the left of the second.

Step 3: Pass the short end through loops 3 and 2, heading left to right. Don't tighten anything just yet.

Step 4: Make a bight with the long end, and pass it through Loop 3, as well as Loop 1, bringing the end out from under the crook. The metal hook shows the path of the bight.

Step 5: This is what it looks like when you pass the bight through loops 3 and 1. Pull on the new bight to tighten the first one. Then adjust the size by pulling on the long end.

Step 6: Repeat steps 4 and 5 over and over, to make the rest of the sennit.

IMPORTANT: The key to making this variation of the Chain sennit is to pass the NEWEST bight through the TWO you made previously. One will be loose and the other will have been tightened.

Step 7: When you have used most of the material, pass the END through the last 2 bights, similar to what you did with the Chain Sennit.

Ladder Strap

Description: The Ladder Strap is a very unique decorative knot, suitable for many uses in Macrame. As shown, it can be used as an interesting key chain, and for a bracelet, belt, or purse strap. It's a strong, sturdy design, so could also be used as part of a plant hanger, hammock, or other heavy items. The material I used in the example is Nylon Paracord, also called Parachute Cord.

I found the Ladder Strap on the website called "Fusion Knots", by JD Lenzen. Be sure to check out his site by clicking on this image, which shows his new book "Decorative Fusion Knots". If you are looking for new and exciting knots to experiment with, I highly recommend this book!

Step 1: Either fold a 2-yard cord in half, or mount it to a ring. For a 2-color Ladder Strap, tie an Overhand knot in two cords, near one end, and secure it to your board.

Step 2: Take the end on the right and bring it under the left, and then over it, as you move it back to the right. Bring it back to the left again, lower down, passing under the left end. Secure the S-Shape to your board.

Step 3: Now you will use the left end. Bring it under all three horizontal portions of the right end, and into the space above the knot. Bring the end back down where you started, going over the three segments.This is considered the first wrap.

Step 4: Wrap the left end at least two more times, as you did in step 3. Make sure the coils are snug and do not overlap. They should progress from left to right. Make sure the end is resting above the coils when you are finished.

Step 5: Bring the left end down and into the loop that is on the right. That's the portion of the right end at the bottom of the S Shape you made back in step 2.

Step 6: Pull on the RIGHT end to tighten the first step of the Ladder Strap. If the loop at the top is too large, tug on the coils made by the left end, to remove the slack.

Step 7: Now you will repeat step 2 - 6. Remember that the right strand makes the horizontal coils. The left end wraps around them, heading vertically. The red path shown represents the left end going up and under the hortizontal coils. The green shows the path of the end coming back down, over the coils.

Step 8: As you make each step of the Ladder Strap, make sure there is not too much space between them. Wrap the coils as snugly as possible while you construct the knot. If there is still too much space, use tweezers to remove the slack gradually.

Step 9: When you are finished, trim the ends so they are even and finish them off with Barrel knots, and/or beads.

Panel Knot

Description: The Panel Knot is a historic decorative knot that resembles many of the Celtic designs. It's easy to tie this woven knot, and makes a great pendant. The ends come out at the top, so they can be used as part of a Macrame necklace. You can click on the small images below to see larger ones.

I found this interesting knotting technique in "Decorative Fusion Knots", written by J. D. Lenzen. To see his website, click on the link or image. There are a large number of unique knots in his gallery, and most of them have video tutorials.

Step 1: You need a long cord, at least 60 inches long to make the Panel Knot. Secure one end to your project board. Make a clockwise loop, so it's about 3 inches in size. Be sure to pass the working end under the secured portion to form the crossing point.
To make this knot larger, start off with a longer loop. You will also need to do additional rows of weaving to fill it in properly.

Step 2: Adjust the loop so it's long and skinny, and resting on an angle. Direct the end in a clockwise direction, down to the area near the crook (curved portion). Pass through the loop from below (under - over), as you bring the end to the left of the first loop.

Step 3: Bring the working end back up to the top area, still moving clockwise. Weave through under - over - under, as you bring the end to the right side of the knot.

Tip: Always start the weaving for each loop of the Panel Knot, by passing under the first segment.

Step 4: Bring the end down towards the bottom again. Weave through under - over - under - over. Tip: Each row of weaving is placed so you progress gradually towards the center of the Panel knot.

Step 5: The next row of weaving takes place near the top again, heading left to right. Go under - over - under - over - under the five segments.

Step 6: Weave through again, moving clockwise. Alternate over and under the six segments as shown.

Step 7: The final row of weaving should take place near the center. Alternate over and under the seven segments, moving left to right.

Step 8: Tighten the knot gradually, removing the slack starting from the secured end. The goal is to end up with a rectangular shape.

Wishbone Design

Description: The Wishbone Design is not truly a Macrame knot, but is a unique form of weaving. I’ve added these instructions so you know how to make this interesting technique if you are making beaded jewelry. If you wish to see an actual pattern where this technique is used, see this Wishbone Necklace.

Step 1: You need four strands of cord material, each 4 times the length you need for the necklace or bracelet. For example: For a 10-inch bracelet, cut the cords so they are at least 40 inches long.

Step 2: Secure the cords to a project board with pins, or use tape to hold them on your table.

Step 3: You will need at least to use beads with holes large enough to fit 2 strands easily. Glass Crow Rollers were used in the example shown. Mentally number the cords 1 thru 4. Pass cords 1 and 4 through a bead. Slide it up as far as you can, close to where the cords were secured.

Step 4: Pass cords 2 and 3 through another bead. When you slide it up, make sure it fits between cords 1 and 4. When you add new beads, make sure you alternate the strands, directing them over the ones previously used. You can click on the icon to see a larger image.

Step 5: Pass cords 1 and 4 through the next bead. It will fit between cords 2 and 3. Step 6: Repeat steps 4 and 5 over and over until the necklace or bracelet is the size you want.

Bug Belly Bar
The Bug Belly Bar is very similar in appearance to the Trilobite Knot. It makes a great key ring design, especially if you make it with brightly colored Paracord material, as I did in the images. This decorative knot can also be used to make bracelets, purse straps, cell phone loops, dog collars and more.

Decorative Fusion Knots I found this unique design in JD Lenzen's website, "Fusion Knots". He has written this great book, and you can visit his website to get more information.

Click on the images below and larger ones will show up in a new window.

Step 1: Determine the size of the bar you wish to make, and cut one cord at least 4 times that length. Make a long loop in the center, so the right crosses over the left at the top. The loop should be the size of the bar + 2 inches.

Step 2: Take the end on the right and bring it over both sides of the loop, as you bring it to the left. Take the left end and pass it under both sides of the loop, making sure it goes over the right end as you bring it to the right.

Step 3: The end that is now on the right should be brought over both sides of the loop. Tip: Always start with the right end as you progress. The left end needs to be directed under both sides of the loop, and over the right end.

Step 4: The most important key to making the Bug Belly Bar is to ALWAYS end up with the left end over the left side of the loop. The right end should be under the right side of it.

Step 5: Repeat steps 3 and 4, pushing the coils close together as you progress.
To make a key ring, stop when you are about 2 inches from the crook (curved portion) of the loop.

Step 6: Flip the Bug Belly Bar over and turn it so the loop is at the top. The right end should be exiting the loop over the right edge.

Step 7: Pull the first loop along the side so there is room for the end to pass through. Direct the right end through it heading downward, towards the starting point.

Step 8: Use needle nose pliers or tweezers to pull on every other loop, feeding the right end through. Stop when you reach the bottom.

Step 9: Repeat steps 7 and 8 on the left side of the Bug Belly Bar, weaving the left end through. To make a key ring, trim the ends so they are the same size, and pass beads over each one. Tie a Barrel Knot near the tips to hold the beads in place. The loop at the top is passed through the ring holding the keys. Fold the bar and ends through the loop, making a Larks Head knot.

Here is a close-up view of the weaving for this appealing design.

Trilobite Knot

Trilobite Knot

Trilobite Fossil

Description: The Trilobite Knot is a very unique decoration you can use in key chains, necklaces, cell phones, and many other Macrame projects. Kids will love this interesting decorative knot, since it is very easy to make, and will definitely attract attention. Trivia: A Trilobite is a fossil of an EXTINCT marine arthropod. Back when they were still in existence, some were scavengers and hunters, while others fed on plankton. The fossils have been found in every ocean and continent, so are well known. The knot has the three ribbed lobes typical of all Trilobites.

I found this cool knot in "Decorative Fusion Knots" , written by J. D. Lenzen. Be sure to visit his website, by clicking on the link. His knot gallery contains video tutorials for a variety of unique designs.

Step 1: Make two bights in a 60-inch cord. The center of the cord should rest between the two ENDS as shown.

Step 2: Place one or two pins on your project board. Put the bight on the right over the pins. Then put the left bight over them. The ENDS should rest to either side of the long loop in the center.

Step 3: Take the two ends and make the first half of a Square Knot around the central loop. It should be placed approximately 1-inch from the fold. Square Knot: Pass the right end over central loop. The left end goes over the right, behind the loop, and out through the space on the right.

Step 4: Take the end that is now on the left, and bring it around in a clockwise direction. Weave it over the segments on the left and right, and under the area in the center.

Step 5: Use the right end next, and bring it towards the left heading counter-clockwise. Weave it under the right and left segments, and over the area in the center.

Step 6: Repeat steps 4 and 5 over and over to form the rest of the Trilobite knot. The weaving pattern is shown in this image in yellow (right) and green (left).

Step 7: The last two rows should be slightly tighter than the others, so the design is curved.
Remove the pins. Pull on the loop at the bottom, so that the loops at the top disappear completely. This will secure the ends.

Step 8: Turn the knot around so the loop is at the top. The loop can be used as a necklace, as part of a key chain, or to attach to your cell phone. If you wish, you can tuck the ends inside after trimming them to 1-inch.

Clasped Hands Knot

Description: The Clasped Hands knot is a unique way of forming a button shaped knot below a loop. It's easy to tie and makes a great clasp. You could also use it anywhere in a Macrame pattern where you need a sturdy loop, such as in a plant hanger.

I found this historical knot in "Decorative Fusion Knots" , written by J. D. Lenzen. Be sure to visit his website, by clicking on the link or image. His knot gallery contains tutorials for a variety of very unique and appealing decorative knots.

Step 1: Start by making a clockwise loop in the area where you want to form the knot. It should look like a "P" shape, with one end heading downward vertically. The upper portion should be curved as shown.

Step 2: Direct the upper portion down and through the first loop, from the top (over - under). This creates a second loop.

Step 3: Bring the same end to the left, and pass it under the opposite end. Next, curve it in a clockwise direction, forming a third loop. Direct it over three segments, and under the lower portion of the first loop, as you head right. It should look similar to a Josephine Knot.

Step 4: Pull on Loop 2 as well as the ends, to tighten this portion of the Clasped Hands Knot. Secure the loop to your board.

Step 5: Tug on the tightened portion on the right, whis was Loop 1 in previous steps. Pull on it until it's around 1/2-inch in size.

Step 6: Use the end that is on the RIGHT, and make a clockwise loop. To do so, bring it under the left end, over it, and down through Loop 1. I marked the path of the right end with red X's so you can understand the photo better.

Step 7: Repeat Step 6 one more time. Tighten the loops slightly, so you can clearly see all three of them, and they don't overlap.

Step 8: Flip the first half of the Clasped Hands Knot over. The end you were just using should now be on the left.

Step 9: You will use the end that is now on the right. Bring it under the left end in a clockwise circle. Pass it through the COILS you made in the previous steps. When you pull the end through, it will rest on the right again.
I've marked the path with red X's again.

Step 10: Repeat step 9 again, bringing the right end under the left, and through the coils in a clockwise direction.

Step 11: Tighten the Clasped Hands Knot by pulling on the ends and/or the loop. Adjust the coils as needed so the knot looks neat.

Wrapped Ring

Description: The Wrapped Ring, also called an O-Ring, is a unique variation of the Barrel Knot. It makes a great clasp for bracelets and necklaces. This strong decorative knot is easy to tie and can be used at the top of items like wind chimes, and light weight plant hangers. It's best to make it first, then you can use the ends for the other knots.

I found it in a book called "Decorative Fusion Knots" by J. D. Lenzen. Be sure to click on the link or image to visit his website, which contains video tutorials for many interesting combination and historical knots.

Step 1: Tie an Overhand Knot in the center of a 60inch cord. Make sure the right portion passes over the left, to create the loop. The crossing point should be at the bottom. Make the loop the size you want the Barrel Ring to be when it is finished.

Step 2: Use the right end to wrap the right half of the loop. Make sure the wraps are snug and close together. End the wrapping at the top of the loop.

Step 3: Use the left end to wrap the left half of the loop.

Step 4: Push the coils close together to tighten and adjust the loop. If necessary, add a few more wraps with each end. Tie a knot to secure the ends. You can use an Overhand knot, or a Square Knot. Note that I flipped the Wrapped Ring so the final knot is at the bottom, since I used it as a clasp.

Bush Bar

Description: The Bush Bar is a very easy Macrame technique to learn. It's a great decorative knot that you can use to make bracelets and chokers. A BAR is a sennit, or chain of knots, that has a flat rectangular shape. So this design can also be used to make belts, straps for purses, and anywhere you need a sturdy band of knots. In the Micro-Macrame section of this site, you will find a bracelet design using this interesting knotting technique.

I found this knot in the website called Fusion Knots.There is a great knot library that contains tutorials for a variety of very unique and appealing designs. The author, JD Lenzen, recently came out with this great book, so be sure to visit his website by clicking on the link or image.

Step 1: Start by folding a 2-yard piece of cord material in half, and position the center of it towards the bottom of your board. Step 2: Move up 8 inches. Cross the right segment over the left, creating a large loop. The size of this loop should be the size you need for a bracelet, key chain, etc.

Step 2: Secure the cord at the center fold, and at the crossing point. Make sure the loop is taut. Direct the LEFT end around to the right, over the large loop, ending on the left. It should be arranged horizontally.

Step 3: Take the RIGHT end and direct it over the right end. Pass it under the left half of the large loop. Pass it over the right end in the center, and under the right half of the large loop. Pass over the portion of the left end that sits at the far right. Another way to look at this important step is to pass over every part of the left end. Pass it under both parts of the large loop.

Step 4: Tighten the first knot by pulling on the ends. To continue, simply repeat steps 2 and 3 until the Bush Bar is the size you need.

Design Tip: In the image at the top of the page, the band at the top is tightened more than the one on the bottom. It's best to leave a little space so the design shows up better. You can also arrange the knots close together, but the cord will need to be longer.

Rattlesnake Bar

Description: The Rattlesnake Bar is a very unique decorative knot that is perfect for key rings. If made with flexible material, it's suitable for bracelets, purse straps, and belts. This knot features three segments, which look remarkably like a rattlesnake's tail. It's a thick, sturdy design that will hold up for a long time, particularly if made with nylon Paracord, as in the images shown.

I found the Rattlesnake Bar on the website called Fusion Knots, by JD Lenzen. Click on this image of his new book, and you will be sent to his website. Take a look through his knot gallery to find a large variety of very unique combination and historical knots.

Determine how long you want the knot to be when it's finished. Cut one cord 8 times that size.

Step 1: Form a loop near the right end, which should cross over the left at the top. Make the loop the size you want the knot to end up. You can add the hook if making a key ring.
The right portion of the cord should be the same size as the loop. It's resting on the left in this image. The left portion needs to be much longer, since it's the working end.

Step 2: Bring the right end down, passing under the left portion of the cord. It should rest to the right of the loop. Mentally number the three areas, with the right end labeled #3.

Step 3: You will use the long end (left) to make the horizontal coils. Start on the right and move towards the left side of the knot. Direct it under the right end (3), and under the right side of the loop (2).

Step 4: Circle the working end completely around segment 2, passing under it as you bring it to the left. Pass over segment 1 on the far left.

Step 5: Now you bring the working end back towards the right. Pass under segments 1 and 2, and over segment 3 (right end). Repeat steps 3 - 5 over and over to complete the sennit. Push the coils close together as you progress.

The top and bottom of the Rattlesnake Bar

Step 6: Trim the ends to 1-inch and use tweezers to work them under the knots. If using Paracord, heat the tips to secure. For other materials, use glue to hold the ends in place.

Eternity Knot

Description: The Eternity Knot is a wonderful decorative knot that can be used on a single cord. It's a great knot to use in Micro-Macrame jewelry designs, especially between beads. In the Micro-Macrame section of this site, you will find an actual jewelry project featuring this knot. It's called the Eternity Knot Necklace.

Click on the images below and larger ones will come up in a new window.

I found this design in "Decorative Fusion Knots" , written by J. D. Lenzen. Be sure to visit his website, by clicking on the link or image. His knot gallery contains tutorials for a variety of very unique and appealing decorative knots.

Step 1: Make a loop in the center of a cord that's at least 24 inches long. Make sure the left passes over the right to make the crossing point at the bottom. Secure the end that is now on the left.

Step 2: Use the working end, which is on the right. Fold the end to make a bight (narrow fold), and push it through the loop from below.

Step 3: Pull on the bight to tighten the first loop. Bring the working end around from right to left (counter-clockwise), and pass the working end through the BIGHT from the top (over - under).

Design Tip: Sometimes it's easier to make the Eternity knot in your hand rather than on a surface. In that case, make sure the bight is facing toward you, with the working end on the right. Pass the end through the bight from front to back.

Step 4: When you finish step 3, a large loop will be present on your right. Tighten the center portion of the knot by pulling on the bottom segment of this loop.

Design Tip: When you are just learning this decorative knot for the first time, the loop should be around 2 to 3 inches in size. Before moving on to the next step, make sure the secured end is the one on the bottom, especially if you made the knot in your hand.

Step 5: Make a figure eight design with the large loop by moving the top portion over the bottom. Secure the figure eight at the crossing point, if you are using a project board. If not, hold the crossed area when you do the next step.

Step 6: Bring the working end around from left to right (clockwise), and pass it through the right portion of the figure eight. Make sure it goes through the space from below (under - over).

Tighten the Eternity Knot gradually, so that the center is wider than the loops on either side.
It should look like this image. If not, practice it again.

Important Techniques and Tips
Making Fringe

When making Fringe, you must first learn how to tie Macrame knots in general. The official definition is: “A decorative border of thread, cord, or the like, usually hanging loosely from a ravelled edge or separate strip.” Well, that’s not quite right, since in Macrame it comes from a finished edge, but you get the point.

This technique was very popular in the early days of this craft. The term Macrame comes from the Arabic word “miqrama” which can be translated to mean “ornamental fringe”. Most of the books I’ve found with Vintage Macrame patterns use the technique often in purses, pillows, scarves, wall hangings, etc.
There are several techniques you can use when making Fringe. Below are a few details to consider. Knotted Fringe Designs

Many Macrame patterns use finishing knots as part of the Fringe design. An Overhand or Barrel knot is tied at the tip of each strand to prevent it from unraveling. You need to treat the strands with glue, to prevent the knots from coming out over time.

Some patterns will have you add the knots along the length of each strand, to make the fringe stand out. No matter how you finish the ends, make sure they are even and neat.

Beaded Fringe

For a more decorated appearance, when you are making Fringe, try adding beads to the dangling ends. Thread a small bead onto each individual cord. Then tie an Overhand knot, and feed the cord back through the hole. This gives you a very neat edge.
This image shows a fringed door curtain. The beads are placed to form a diamond design in the center, rather than at the bottom.

Fluffed Fringe

In the 1960's when Macrame was very popular, the ends of cords were brushed until they became soft and flowing. This plant hanger shows what a neatly brushed fringe looks like. Your goal is to make the fringe as appealing as possible, without tangles.

In this Snow Owl pattern, to make the Fringe for the "feathers" around the face and wings, I simply unraveled each cord, which was the twisted type. There was no need to brush the strands at all, since the waves made it look more like feathers.

Adding Cords

Adding cords in the body of a project is a Macrame technique seldom described in books devoted to this craft. For someone with experience, increasing the number of cords at any point in the pattern is no problem at all. But a beginner might find these important techniques a challenge, which is why I am addressing the topic.

The terms Mount and Hitch mean to attach one cord to another one, or to a ring, dowel, or similar object. So the first step in most Macrame projects is called the Mounting Process. You will start with a certain number of cords to begin knotting. The term Adding Cords means to attach extra strands somewhere in the overall design, after the mounting stage. There are several ways that this is accomplished:
  

Attach New Cords to a Ring or Dowel Attach New Cords to Existing Strands Adding Cords without Knots

These techniques are described on this page, so be sure to read to the end. This is an IMPORTANT part of learning Macrame, so be sure to study and practice these techniques. You can click on the small images and new photos will show up in a new window.

Attach New Cords to a Ring or Dowel

You may be asked to attach the cords to something, such as a ring or a dowel, in the body of the pattern. Adding cords is easy in that case. Mount the extra strands to the object, beside or between the other strands you’ve been working with. Larks Head knots and Double Half Hitches are the most common knots used

for this type of addition.

For example: The pattern calls for mounting one new cord to a dowel, somewhere in the middle of the design. The original cords are attached with Double Half Hitches. The new cord can be attached with the DHH Mount. When you are finished, the tail at the top would be woven into the overall design.

Another very common way to add a new cord is with a REVERSE Larks Head knot. By folding the cord in half, you will have two extra ends to work with. The back of the Larks Head resembles the two loops of a Double Half Hitch.

Attach New Cords to Existing Strands
Many patterns require you to attach more cords by tying them to strands that have been in use. Macrame patterns will usually tell you exactly where to attach the new ones, and which decorative knot to use. The most common is the square knot, which is shown below. Here are some additonal tips: Tip #1: Try to match the knots when adding new strands to the other ones in the area. They need to blend in. This is especially important if you are adding more than 2 cords.

Tip #2: Many Macrame patterns require you to add more than one strand, so the pattern is symmetrical. See how this Collar Choker is the same on both sides? That's called SYMMETRY.

Look carefully at the photo or drawing of the item you are making. More often than not, it will be the same on either the sides, or the upper and lower areas. When adding cords, you must take this into account. Be prepared to add cords in more than one area, even if the pattern is not specific. It's important to remember this concept, so you don't up with lopsided patterns. Once you are finished, it’s usually too late to remedy a mistake.

Adding with Square Knots

The most common decorative knot used for adding cords to existing strands is the Square Knot. You see this technique frequently in Macrame patterns, so be sure you know how to add cords in this manner:

Step 1: Slide the new cord under 2 of the strands already being used, and center it. The instructions will usually tell you which cords will hold the new one. Securing it really helps. In these images, the existing cord is white, and the new one being added is the dark one.

Step 2: Use the new strand to tie the first half of the Square Knot, onto the existing one.

Step 3: Tie the second half of the Square knot.

Tighten the SK so there is no slack at all above or behind the knot.

Another way to use a Square Knot is to fold the new cord in half, and place it beside two existing ones. The knot is then tied with all four cords.

In this image of the Teardrop Purse, the new cord is labeled 3 and 4. It's combined with two other strands to make one SK. This is a great way to add cords to make a gusset.

Adding with Other Knots

Other knots can also be used to connect 2 cords to one another. This is a Linked Overhand knot called the Shake Hands Bend. It's flat appearance helps it to blend in with other knots.

Vertical Larks Head knots are often used to add cords, even in areas where there are other types of knots. It's tied in two parts: Step 1: Pass the new cord over and under the existing one. Bring it down to make the 2nd half. Step 2: Pass the new cord under and over the existing one.

The Triangle Knot is a unique way to combine two cords. For example, if the blue cord in this image was the existing strand, the new one (purple) would be linked with it to make the knot.

Adding Cords without Knots

A very common way to add new cords is to do so without any knots. You simply wrap a new cord around one that has already been in use. As you tie more knots with the original strands, the new one is secured.

In this image, the red cord was placed around one of the working cords used to make a purse strap. When the next Square Knot was tied for the strap, the new one was held in place.

Creating Tassels

When Creating Tassels you must first learn the knots used in Macrame, especially the different types of Button knots. Visit the Learn Macrame section to practice any of the knots on this page that you are not familiar with. A Tassel is simply a pendant ornament consiting of a bunch of threads or slender cords, which hang below a round knot, also called the "head".

The first section provides you with a few tips to consider when creating Tassels. Further down on the page are the instructions for 6 different designs that can be used. You can click on any of the small icons below, and a larger image will come up, showing the details more clearly.

General Information

Tip #1: The most important part of creating Tassels is making the “round knob or head”. That’s the term used to describe the particular Macrame knot that forms the button near the top. You can use several different button knots, including the Knife Knot shown in this image.
Tip #2: When creating Tassels, you will usually start off with a bundle of slender cords (1mm or less). I like to use 8 to 10 strands, which work together as if they were one cord. Tip #3: Sometimes you will use a combination of knots when creating Tassels. In the instructions below, one uses the Overhand Knot along with a Half Hitch. Another combines the Lanyard Knot with the Linen Stitch.

Tip #4: Neatness is very important. The ends need to be trimmed evenly and coated with glue to prevent unraveling.

Knife Knot Tassel

Creating Tassels with the Knife Knot is one of the best techniques I have ever used, so I listed it first. This knot is very pretty, and there is a loop at the top. Cut 8 or more strands of 1mm material, each 36 inches long. Secure one end of the bundle to the board, with tape rather than pins. Mentally label the secured end as the "tail" and start the first loop at least 8 inches from that end. Tip: If you apply tape around the cords at both ends, the bundle is easier to work with.

Step 1: Create Loop 1 in a counter-clockwise direction. Bring the working end over the first part of the bundle as you come down to make Loop 2. Pass the cords under the tail, forming a Figure 8 shape.

Step 2: Bring the working end up to Loop 1, creating a large loop on the left. Moving clockwise, pass the working end under Loop 1, as you head to the right side of the knot.

Step 3: Direct the working end down near Loop 2. Pass over the lower curve of Loop 3, and under the tail, moving clockwise. Bring the end up to Loop 1, and weave through the coils. The over - under sequence is marked in red.

Look closely at the images. There is a + sign in the middle of the Figure 8 design you just made. Step 4: Following the path of the arrows, bring the working end down, under the tail and over the lower portion of Loop 3. Pass into the space indicated from below, moving left to right. The end will come out where the large pointer is on the right.
Step 5: Take the TAIL and direct it up to Loop 1, going around Loop 3. You should be moving clockwise. Pass the end under loop 1 as you bring it into the same central space as you did in the previous step. In other words, go into that space from below. Both ends will come together there, forming a larger bundle of cords, which is what you are aiming for. Step 6: Turn the design so it's horizontal. The large loop on the left (3) should be secured to the board. Tighten the other loops gradually, so a neat button forms. The large loop will be above the button, and the ends of the Tassel will be below

it.

Simple Overhand Tassel When creating Tassels, sometimes you want the process to be simple and fast. The Overhand Knot can be combined with a Half Hitch to form a very basic Tassel. Instead of tying the knot with the entire group of cords, you use a separate strand to gather

and hold the cords together. Step 1: Cut a group of ten 1mm cords, 12 to 15 inches long. Use a thicker cord (2mm), wrapping it around the center of the group. Tie an Overhand knot to secure the 2mm cord to the bundle. Fold

the bundle of strands in half.

Step 2: Take both ends of the 2mm cord, and make a Half Hitch around the bundle, approximately ½ inch from the fold. You can make a second one if you wish. Apply glue to the knot. When it's dry, cut off the excess from the 2mm cord. Trim the Tassel so the ends are neat.

Lanyard Knot Tassel Creating Tassels can be a fun project all on it's own. While I was practicing some new knots I was unfamiliar with, I made a Tassel using the Lanyard Knot. Here are the

directions, if you wish to give it a try:

Step 1: Arrange a group of 8 cords so they form an “X” shape. Tie a Lanyard Knot, using the four segments.

Step 2: Bring all the ends together under the knot. Use 1 strand to secure the entire bundle with the Linen Stitch. Apply glue to the wrapped portion, and allow to dry. Trim the Tassel so the ends are even and neat.

Manrope Tassel Here's another great method for creating Tassels. I recently learned how to tie the Manrope knot, so I decided to give it a try. It worked out extremely well, so here are the directions:

Step 1: Cut two 6-strand bundles of 1mm cord material, 50 inches long. Arrange them on your project board, so they form an X shape. Secure them in the center with a piece of tape.

Step 2: Make a Wall Knot, which is basically the same as a Lanyard knot, only you pass under the cords as you progress. Be sure to move counter-clockwise as you design the knot.

Step 3: After the Wall knot is tightened, secure it to the board with a pin. Mentally label the 4 groups. Start on the bottom left when you number them, and l rotate counter-clockwise.

Step 4: Take group 1 and pass it under group 2. Then bring it over group 3. This is a bit different than the usual method of making Lanyard knots, but the concept is similar.

Step 5: Take group 2 and pass it under group 3. Direct the bundle of cords over group 1, and over group 4.

Step 6: Use the cords in group 3 next. Pass under group 4. Go over group 2. At the bottom left, pass over both parts of the loop formed by group 1.

Step 7: Pass group 4 under group 2. Direct the bundle to the loop at the bottom left, passing under the group 1 cords. Go over the portion of group 3 that passes through it. At the right, pass over group 2, and under the cords in group 1.

Step 8: There are four spaces surrounding the central Wall Knot. I numbered them in green, and marked the path with arrows, to show you where each group of cords need to go next. For example: The ends of group 3 need to be passed into space 3, which is just to the right of where they are resting.

Step 9: Bring all the ends together behind the knot, and tighten it gradually. Leave one or two strands a little loose at the top of the button, to give you a loop for hanging it. Step 10: Take 1 of the dangling strands and wrap it around the entire group to gather them together, below the Manrope knot. Make one or two Half Hitches to secure it. Trim all the ends so they are even and neatly arranged.

Oysterman Tassel Creating Tassels will definitely help you practice some unique knots. The Oysterman knot is a very easy button knot to make, and is rarely seen in modern Macrame patterns. Here are instructions for creating this interesting Tassel:

Step 1: Obtain a bundle of 1mm cords, 20 inches long. Make a Slipknot by tying an Overhand knot in the center, keeping one end inside the knot, forming a loop. Make sure the end that moves easily is on your right.

Step 2: Direct the right end into the loop at the top. Tighten the Oysterman knot slowly, by pulling on the ends. The cords above the knot can be used to make a loop, and the ones below are the ones that dangle. You can tie an Overhand knot, leaving about 1/2-inch of space, to make the loop (see large image above).

Chinese Step Tassel How about creating Tassels with Chinese knots? Well, this is one method that you can definitely use. This long, round knot is a Chinese Step Knot. It doesn't have a loop at the top, but you can make one by tying an Overhand or Square Knot after leaving a small space. Here are the instructions:

Step 1: Cut at least 8 strands of 1mm material, approximately 20 inches long. Lay them on your work surface as shown.

Step 2: Use the bottom portion, and wrap it around the top part 3 times. The red arrow shows the direction of the wrapping.

Step 3: Pass the working end, which made the wraps, through the loop. Tighten the knot slowly to prevent it from bunching up.
The ends above the knot can be tied to form a loop. The ones below are the dangling portion of the tassel, and should be trimmed neatly.

Cross Pin Technique

Description: The Cross Pin Technique is a unique way of securing delicate materials to a project board. Leather and Satin, for example, are materials used in Macrame jewelry designs, and are easily damaged by pins. But you often need pins to control the loops, as you tie the knots. By securing the cords in this manner, you don't have to worry about damaging the fibers. So it's great for materials such as Satin, Silk, Leather and other delicate types of cord materials.

Step 1: You need a piece of scrap cord large enough to make one loop, to practice this technique. I used Satin Cord in this example. Create the loop so one end crosses over the other.

Step 2: Take a pin, and place it just above the crossed area. Tilt it so it leans backward (down), crossing over both segments.

Step 3: Take another pin and place it below the crossing point, leaning upward (forward). The two pins will cross, and hold onto the cord quite securely. The closer the pins are placed to the cord, the tighter the hold will be.

You can use this technique at any place on the loops, not just at the crossing points. It's also a great way to secure loops that have been doubled, so you don't end up with a large number of pins.

CHINESE

MACRAME KNOTS

Cloverleaf Knot
<< FLOWER KNOT

FOUR LEAF CLOVER >> (Tightened) Description: The Cloverleaf Knot is sometimes called the Flower Knot, since the loops don't need to be completely tightened. It is the most important decorative knot in Chinese Macrame. It’s vital for you to know how to tie it if you plan to combine the Chinese knots into unique patterns. It’s the equivalent of knowing how to make Square Knots. Practice both variations repeatedly until you are completely familiar with tying them. Variations: The Cloverleaf can be tied to make three or four loops. Both techniques are described below. You can click on the small images and a large picture will come up in a new window.

You’ll need one cord, at least 60 inches long, to practice the standard Triple Loop Cloverleaf Knot. I highly recommend you use a Project Board and pins to help you control the loops. Secure each one as you make them, at the crook, which is the curved portion. Note: The folds, which are called "Bights", are narrow. The Loops are round, and have a crossing point.

Step 1: Fold the cord in half at the center. If you wish, you can make the first fold closer to the secured end, which is on the right in this image. The working end is the left segment.

Step 2: Make Loop 1 by rotating the working end clockwise. As you bring the end to the right, pass under the secured end.

Step 3: Make a bight on the right, as you bring the working end back to the left. Pass under the right part of the first fold, and over the left portion.

Step 4: Make the second LOOP at the top, by rotating the end clockwise and down. As you do so, pass over the upper part of the bight you made in step 3, and under the bottom of it. The working end should be to the right of the secured end at this point.

Step 5: Make another bight by bringing the working end up to the top right area of the Cloverleaf knot. As you do so, pass the end under and over the two segments of the bight you made in step 3. Tip: It's the same path the cord went in step 4, only the opposite direction.

Step 6: To make loop 3, bring the working end clockwise, heading left. Pass it over and under the last bight you made, over the secured end, and over loop 1. The weaving sequence is shown in red. Bring the working end back to the right, passing under the right portion of Loop 1. Pass under the secured end, and through the bight made in step 5, which is under- over. The weaving for this portion of the Cloverleaf knot is shown in

blue. Step 7: Keep the three large loops secured, but remove the pins from the other areas. Tighten the center first, by pulling on the loops, as well as the ends. Next, adjust the size of the loops one at a time, in the order they were made.

Four Leaf Clover
Four Leaf Clovers are readily found in most pastures, and it's fun to have one among your household decorations. They symbolizes luck and fortune. It's really easy to make one, once you know how to create the Triple Cloverleaf knot. So practice that one first until you are very comfortable with it. Step 1: Follow the instructions at the top of the page. This version has one additional step, so you

need to follow the instructions for steps 1 - 6. Step 2: Make the fourth loop by rotating the working end clockwise and upward. It should rest to the right of the secured end. Pass over the first segment you come to, under the next two, and through Loop 2 (over - under).

Step 3: Remove the pins from the center, and leave them on the 4 outer loops. Pull on each one, as well as the ends, to tighten the center. Note that the ends head in opposite direction is this variation of the Cloverleaf knot.

Step 4: Reduce the size of the loops one at a time. You can tighten the loops completely, as shown, or leave them larger to make a flower shape.

You can also make a Butterfly design, simply by keeping the two loops at the top larger than the two on the bottom.

Brocade Knot

Description: The Brocade Knot is a very unique Chinese Knot that resembles a flower. This is a CHALLENGING decorative knot that requires time to master. You can use this knot to decorate other projects, or to make jewelry. Try tying a chain of them as part of a belt. Or create a special bookmark with an Oriental flair.

To succeed, you need to understand the difference between a loop and a bight, so be sure to review these terms by viewing the Macrame Dictionary. When designing this unique knot, be sure to use some type of Project Board that can hold pins. You’ll need them to help you control the loops. You can click on any of the small images for the Brocade Knot, and a larger photo will show up in a new window.

To practice the Chinese Brocade Knot, you’ll need a long cord, at least 72 inches long. Locate the center and secure it to your board directly in front of you. Secure all the loops as you make them, and mentally label each bight or loop as shown in the images. Make everything large at first, so you have room to maneuver the cord.

Step 1: Cut one cord, at least 60 inches long. Secure the left end of it to your board. Use the right end to make a clockwise loop, at the center of the cord (Loop 1). Bring the working end to the left, passing under the secured portion as you do so. Form Bight A on the left side of the knot. The working end should pass over the secured end as you bring it back to the right. Design Tip: The biggest difference between a bight and a loop is the size and shape. A Bight is long and narrow, and in this case, is part of the central portion of the Brocade knot. A Loop is circular, often larger, and for this knot, will be on

the outside, forming the "petals". Step 2: Create Loop 2 on the right, in a clockwise direction. Pass the working end under to create the loop. Direct the working end under both parts of Loop 1 as you bring it to the top left area of the knot.

Step 3: Direct the working end back down towards the lower tight, forming Bight B. It should rest between Bight A and Loop 1. Bring the working end back to the lower right, passing over everything in its path.

Create loop 3 at the lower right, in a clockwise direction. Pass the working end under to complete the loop. Next, pass it under both portions of loop 2 as you bring it up to the top right.

Step 4: Direct the working end into loop 1 from below, passing under the right side of the loop. Next, bring it back down towards the bottom of the knot, passing over everything in its path. The working end should come to rest to the right of the secured end, which you will be using next. So secure it before moving on to make the next portion of the Brocade Knot.

Step 5: Take the left end of the cord, which had been secured, and direct it up to the top of the Brocade knot. It should pass into Bight A from below (under over), and out over the top of Bight B. This will form Bight C at the lower left portion of the knot.

Step 6: To create Loop 4 on the left, pass the working end through Bights A and C as you bring it to the right (over - under). Pass over the secured end. IMPORTANT: Whenever you see the words "pass through", it usually means to direct the end over one portion of the loop or bight, and under another portion of it. Another way to look at it is by the over - under sequence. In this case, it's: OVER - OVER - UNDER - UNDER, since the two bights crisscross.

Step 7: Bring the working end back to the left, passing through Loop 3 (over - under). Pass under the secured end. Pass through Bights C and A (under - over). Tip: Once you get beyond the secured end, the cord goes in the same path as the previous step, but in the opposite direction ( UNDER - UNDER - OVER - OVER ). This step results in Bight D, on the lower right, which nestles inside Loop 3.

Step 8:Take the working end and rotate it back to the right side of the Brocade knot, forming Loop 5. Direct the end through Bights C and D (over - under). Another way to look at the sequence would be: OVER - OVER - UNDER the crossed portion - and OVER the secured end.

Step 9: Bring the working end back towards the lower left, passing through

Loop 2 (Over - Under). Pass under both parts of Loop 3, and under the secured end. Pass through Bight D (under - over), and the same with Bight C.

Step 10: Remove the pins from the bights and both ends. Leave them on the five loops. Tug on the loops and ends to tighten the

middle section of the Brocade Knot. Step 11: Reduce the size of each loop one at a time, by following the path of the cord through the knot. Don't rush the tightening process, since it's the most important step of the Brocade Knot.

Chinese Button Knot

Description: The Chinese Button Knot is very popular, and is frequently seen in traditional clothing worn by the Chinese people. When you see it, you wonder how this interesting decorative knot is tied. Follow the steps outlined to find out. This knot makes a neatly finished design anywhere on a cord, and can be used as a jewelry fastener. You can also make it flat, and use it as an interesting focal point for a bracelet or necklace. You should practice constructing this important Chinese Macrame knot several times, first designing it on a surface. As you become comfortable with it, try holding it as you make the loops. You can click on the icons and larger pictures will show up in a new window.

Step 1: Secure one end of a 60-inch cord to your board. Take the other end and create the first loop, rotating clockwise to form a "P" shape.

Step 2: Take the end that is on the left and bring it around in a clockwise circle. The end should pass under both portions of Loop 1.

Step 3: Take the end that is now on the left, and make the third clockwise loop. Weave the end through the four segments as shown (under - over - under - over).

Step 4: Use the same end to make the fourth loop, also in a clockwise direction. Pass over the right end. Weave the four segments under - over - under under, as you bring the working end up to the top of the Chinese Button Knot.

Step 5: Now comes the fun part! Tightening the knot is best accomplished by removing the slack from one loop at a time. If you do it in the order you made them, it's really a whole lot easier. Take your time and adjust the coils until you have a nicely rounded knot. You can keep the coils loose and make a flat design, too.

Chinese Snake Knot

Description: The Chinese Snake Knot symbolizes good fortune, due to the fact that you are considered lucky if a snake is found in your home. The snake is considered the guardian of treasure and riches, so it’s not surprising that traditonal Chinese craftsmen have a knot named after that creature. This unique decorative knot is not seen in traditional Macrame projects. I added these instructions for it because it makes a beautiful chain. This knot can be used as a purse handle, as part of a handcrafted necklace, or even as a slender belt. You can click on the images and a large picture will show up in a new window.

You will need 2 strands of cord, at least 36 inches long to practice the Chinese Snake knot. The design looks best if there are two colors, but it can be made with one. In the images, Cord 1 is blue, and Cord 2 is brown.

Step 1: Secure the end of Cord 1 to your project board or work surface. Move down at least 3 inches, and make the first loop in a clockwise direction. Pass the end over the tail to make the crossing point on the right.

Step 2: Secure the end of Cord 2 to your board. To start Loop 2, rotate counter-clockwise, passing over the working end of Cord 1 (bottom right). Bring it under the secured end (top right), and through the loop from below (under - over).

Step 3: To complete Loop 2, remove the pins from the secured end of cord 2. Pass it through the first loop, from the top. Make sure it goes over the lower portion, over the segment of cord 2, and under the top portion. Re-secure the end at the top left area of the Chinese Snake Knot.

Always keep the secured tails at the top. The working ends should be longer, and at the bottom. Tighten both loops by pulling on the working ends. Loop 1 (blue) should be tightened all the way. Loop 2 should be kept a little loose.

Step 4: Use the working cord on the right (Cord 1), and bring it under the working end of Cord 2. Pass it over the secured end of Cord 2 at the top left. Finally, pass it through Loop 2 (brown) from the top. This creates the third loop.

This is a closer view of the three loops you have made so far. I left them a little loose so you can see the details better.

FLIP THE KNOT OVER. Re-secure the tails at the top after you have done so. Pull on the end of Cord 2 to tighten Loop 2. Then move on to the next step.

Step 5: To make Loop 4, use Cord 2, which is now on the right. Pass it under Cord 1, on the left. Rotating clockwise, bring the end through Loop 3, which was the one previously made (Step 4).

This is a close-up view of the four loops you have made so far. I left them a little loose to show the details. If using two colors to make the Chinese Snake Knot, the loops of each color will all be on one side.

Step 6: Flip the knot over. Repeat Step 5 over and over, to complete the knot.

The key to remembering the steps is to ALWAYS FLIP THE KNOT OVER FIRST. Next, use the working cord on the right. Pass it under the working end of the other cord before you rotate it around clockwise. Always pass the end into the loop previously made, which will be on the right.

You tighten this knot as you progress. After the new loop is made, pull on the end of the other cord, to tighten the loop you passed the end through. That's the one made in the previous step.

Chinese Step Knot

Description: The Chinese Step Knot, also known as the Triple Connection Knot, is a decorative knot that resembles a bead when completed. You can use it as a finishing knot, at the tips of the cords you are working with. But it can be tied anywhere on a strand of material. I've also seen it used to connect two cords, by tying it with both strands together, as if they were one cord. This Chinese Macrame knot works best if the cord material is more than 4mm in diameter, otherwise it doesn’t show up well. It looks great if you are using Satin Rattail Cord, which has a beautiful sheen and is very soft and luxurious. You can click on the images, and larger pictures will show up in a new window. You need one strand of cord material, at least 12 inches long to practice.

Step 1: Secure one end to your board. This is called the standing end. Use the other end to make a clockwise loop, so that the crossing point is on the left. Make sure you secure the crossing point.

Step 2: Wrap the working end around the standing end three times, moving right to left. Keep the coils snug, or it's harder to tighten the knot.

Step 3: Pass the working end through the loop (on the right), going into it from the top. I moved the loop down slightly, so you could see the details better.

Tighten the knot by pulling on the standing end first. This reduces the size of the loop. Pull on the working end to adjust the wrapped area.

Cross Knot

Description: The Cross Knot is one of the easiest Chinese Macrame techniques. On one side, it looks like a cross, on the other side, a diamond shape. You can tie alternating rows of this decorative knot to make a really beautiful pattern. Variations: The Diamond Stitch is very similar, so I've included it in these instructions. The Winged Cross Knot is also described below.

Step 1: To practice, obtain a single length of cord at least 36 inches long. Find the center, fold the strand in half, and secure it at the crook (curved portion) to your work surface or Project Board. Take the right portion of the cord and bring it under the left, making a “P” shaped loop. Bring the cord over and back towards the right.

Step 2: Take the left end and bring it up through the loop at the top, going over both segments. Bring it back down to the bottom, going under both horizontal segments. Secure the left end temporarily.

Step 4: Switch to the right end again, directing it horizontally. It should pass under the left end, which is secured. Pass it under - over the next two areas of the left portion, as you bring it to the left horizontally.

Step 5: Hold both ends in one hand, and the large loop (top) in the other. Pull gently, and with equal force, to tighten the Cross knot.

Diamond Stitch

Description: The Diamond Stitch takes advantage of the design on the back of the Cross Knot. It’s tied a bit differently, though, and does not have a loop. In some Vintage Macrame books, it’s found under the name Square Stitch, which can get a bit confusing, particularly if your pattern calls for Square Knots as well as this technique. See the Vintage Basket for a pattern that uses this unique decorative knot. Step 1: To practice, secure one end of two strands to your project board, at the top. They should be vertical.

Step 2: Use the left cord (blue)to make two folded areas, one down and the other heading upward. Mentally label the first downward bight as fold 1, and the second portion going upward as fold 2.

Step 3: Now take the right cord (Purple), and direct the end through fold 2 horizontally. Make sure you go into it from below (under - over). Pass over the segment of cord that is on the far left.

Step 4: Bring the same end back towards the right, passing through the three segments of the left cord, under - over under.

Step 5: Now direct the same working end back to the left. Pass over the first segment of the other cord. Then bring through fold 1 from the top (over - under). Step 6: Tighten the Diamond Stitch gradually, by pulling on the ends. It’s best to leave it a little loose, so the design is seen more easily.

Winged Cross Knot

Description: The Winged Cross Knot looks great either direction. One side has a cross shape, and the other a square. It's made a little bit differently, and there are two loops.

Step 1: Fold a 45-inch cord in half to form a bight. Lay it on your work surface horizontally. The working end will be the one on the bottom, so secure the other end.

Step 2: Bring the working end down and form a clockwise loop (A). Direct it upward, over the secured end. Then bring it down under both segments of Bight 1. It should rest to the right of Loop A when you are finished.

Step 3: Bring the working end back up, passing through Bight 1 from the top (over - under). This creates Bight 2, which is vertical.

Step 4: Direct the working end around in a clockwise circle, in the upper right area of the Winged Cross Knot. Weave it through Bight 2 and Loop A by going under - over - under - over, as you bring it to the left.

Step 5: Bring the working end back to the right side of the knot, passing through Bight 2 from the top (over under). Secure only the loops to your board (A and B).

Tighten the Winged Cross Knot by pulling on the ends and loops gradually. Adjust the size of the loops.

Double Connection Knot

Description: The Double Connection Knot is used in combination with other Chinese Macrame knots to form elaborate designs. Its primary purpose is to make a stable loop, with two cords dangling below. This technique could be used in just about any Macrame project where you will be hanging something, such as a plant hanger or wall decoration. You could also use it to connect two cords. I like to use it when making earrings, to secure the hooks. You can click on the images and a large picture will come up in a new window.

Step 1: To practice, obtain a single cord at least 24 inches long. Fold it in half, and secure it to your work surface, at the folded area

up top. Mentally label the two ends right and left. Step 2: Use the right portion as the working end. Direct it in a clockwise direction, passing under the left portion of the cord. Further up, closer to the fold, pass over both portions. Bring the end down to form the first loop. Pass the end under and over to complete it.

Design Tip: Notice that you just made a Slipknot, but in a unique manner. Tighen it slightly by pulling on the ends. The loop at the top should be the size you need for the Macrame project you are working on.

Step 3: Use the left portion as the working cord now. Pass it under the right one, just below the Slipknot you made in step 2.

Step 4: Direct the left end towards the right side of the knot, in a clockwise direction. Bring it into the center of the first loop from below (under - over). Pass it under the upper portion of the same end you are working with (left). This forms the second loop.6

Step 5: To tighten the Double Connection knot, pull both the ends and the folded portion at the top. Make sure you do so with equal force. Otherwise, the loop will be either too long or short. If necessary, you can adjust the size of the upper loop by removing the slack from one area at a time, following the path of the cord.

Hanger Knot

Description: The Hanger Knot is used for both decoration, and for making a stable loop to hang something with. You can tighten this Chinese knot to make three loops, which is handy if you want to make something like wind chimes, for example. It’s essentially two Overhand Knots linked together, and is sometimes seen in Chinese Macrame patterns under the name "True Lover's Knot". Variations: Three-Loop Hanger Knot You can click on the images and a large picture will come up in a new window. Step 1: Obtain a single cord at least 30 inches long. Secure one end of it to a project board or table, with pins or tape.

Step 2: Take the right end, which is the working end, and make an Overhand Knot, moving in a clockwise direction. The crossing point needs to be on the left. Don’t tighten it yet.

Step 3: Make another Overhand Knot, in a clockwise direction. As you do so, pass the working end through the first knot, passing over

and under the right portion of it as shown. The crossing point should be on the right. Step 4: Tighten this decorative knot by pulling on both ends gently, taking care not to twist the coils. The portion between the two Overhand Knots, at the top, should be held to form a loop. You can see the area indicated in red, in the photo above.

The Three-Loop Variation is tied in the same way as above. The only

difference is in the tightening process. Step 1: Begin by making the knot, following steps 1 through 3 above. Don't tighten it yet. Secure the loop at the top to your project board. Spread the knots so you can clearly see the crook (curved portion) of both Overhand knots. The arrows indicate which way they will move in the next step.

Step 2: Direct the crook of the left OH knot through the crossed area of the right OH knot. Repeat this with the crook of the right knot, bringing it through the left knot. Step 3: Adjust all three loops by pulling the slack out gradually. You’ll be left with two ends at the bottom of the Hanger Knot.

Plafond Knot

Description: The Plafond Knot is another interesting decorative knot used in Chinese Macrame. As you tie it, try to picture the central section as a square, with a "frame". This interesting knot can be used as a unique way to hang something, since there is a loop at the top. I’ve seen it used as a pendant for a necklace with a Chinese design, as well as Wind Chimes and Key Rings. You can click on the small images and a larger picture will come up in a new window, showing the details of the Plafond Knot.

Obtain a single length of cord at least 60 inches long to practice this interesting decorative knot. Use a Project Board and pins to help control the loops. Make sure you know how to tie Square Knots before you get started.

Step 1: Fold the cord in half, so you have two ends. Move

down 4 inches, and tie a Half Knot. That's the first half of a Square knot. This will create

a large loop.

Step 2: Tie another Half knot 2 inches below the first. Move down 4 inches, and tie a third one. Make one final Half knot 2 inches lower. Turn the entire design upside down on your project board, so the large loop is at the bottom. Setting up the Plafond knot is very important, so take your time with this step.

Step 3: Take the Half Knot at the top (and the ends) and fold it down into the middle section. The second Half knot will be at the top now.

Step 4: The black stick shows the center of the same two Half knots. That's the area where the loop will pass through in the next step.

Step 5: Pass the large loop at the bottom through the two Half Knots at the top (where the black stick was placed). Secure the loop. The lower Half Knots will end up folded just like step 3, into the middle section.

Step 6: Pass the right END through the center of the two Half Knots at the bottom. The space is indicated by the black stick, and the blue arrow shows the direction. Be sure to pass under the right segment of cord that's above the area, as you head into the Half Knot. It's marked with a blue "R". Repeat the process with the END on the left. The only difference is that you need to pass over the segment of cord above that area, before entering into the Half Knots. It's marked with a blue "L"

in the image above.

Step 7: The most important thing to remember when tightening is to do so gradually. Tighten the center of the Plafond knot first, leaving three loops as indicated. Next, remove the slack from the two loops at the sides of the knot.
The top loop is last, and can be tightened to any size, depending on how you plan to use it. The Plafond Knot makes an interesting key chain or a cell phone loop. You simply pass the large loop to the ring, and make a Larks Head to secure it.

Mystic Knot

Description: The Chinese Mystic Knot is sometimes referred to as the Pan Chang Knot. It represents the endless cycle of nature. This decorative knot is one of the most highly used techniques in Chinese Macrame. This interesting design can be used to make a clasp for a purse, to decorate wind chimes, or to make a pendant for a necklace. Try making it with Satin Rayon Cord (Rattail) for a very beautiful Macrame design. Click on the small images and a larger picture will come up in a new window. This will help you see the details more clearly. Note: In the images, you will see terms you may not be familiar with:
  

Bight = Narrow Fold Loop = Circular, and has a crossing point Crook = Rounded portion of a loop or fold

Look them up in the Macrame Dictionary, if you need more information. The bights in the images will have numbers, and the loops will have letters.

You will need a Project Board and pins to help you control the cords. Cut one cord at least 72 inches long to practice this technique. Secure every loop and fold with a pin, or wrap the cord around bulletin board pins, as in the photos. Step 1: Find the center of the cord and secure it to the board. In the image below, that's the area marked with the word "center". It needs to be a wide fold, so if you use bulletin board pins, make sure it goes around two of them. It will be labeled Bight 1 in the images. Take the right end and direct it down (vertically), then back up, making a narrow fold (Bight 2). Do the same with the left end (Bight 3). You can see this in the image below. Secure the left end for now.

Step 2: Take the right end, and form Loop A in the upper right corner of the Mystic Knot. You will be moving clockwise. Weave the end horizontally, alternating over and under the 4 vertical segments, as you bring the cord to the left. Make Bight 4 as you bring the end back to the right side, just below. Make sure the end follows the same path, so the under - over sequence is

the same. Step 3: Make Bight 5 on the right. If you use bulletin board pins, direct the cord around 2 of them, since it needs to be wider. This fold will be in the middle section of the Mystic Knot. Direct the cord left, following the same under - over sequence as in step 2. Bring the end back to the right to create Bight 6, also with the same sequence. Secure the right end to your board.

Step 4: Take the LEFT working end and make Loop B, in a counter-clockwise direction. It should rest at the left upper corner of the Mystic knot. Bring the end to the right by going over all 4 segments. Pass into Loop A, and bring the end back to the left, passing under all four segments. This creates Bight 7, which should rest to the north of Bight 4.

Step 5: Direct the end around Bight 4 on the left, so you can use the same pin. This is Bight 8. Bring the end to the right, so it's inside Bight 5. The end will need to pass over the 4 vertical segments. Bring the end back to the left, passing under the four segments. This creates Bight 9. Tip: You should be able to see the overall concept of the Mystic Knot now, consisting of circular loops on the outside, along with the wide folds. The narrow folds are on the inside, and make up the center of the knot.

Step 6: Make Loop C on the bottom left, rotating counter-clockwise, around Bight 6. Now the end will pass through the segments of the cord heading vertically, towards the top of the design. Start by passing through Bight 6 from below (under - over). Pass over the next 2 segments, and into Bight 4, again from below (under over). Direct the end into Loop B at the top of the design. You can see this in the image below, where I marked the over - under sequence in RED.

Step 7: Head back towards the bottom of the design by going under the first segment at the top. Go over the top part of Bight 8, and under the top of Bight 4. Then go under the lower portions. The path of this weaving is marked in BLUE. Repeat this process exactly, when you get down to Bight 6 and Loop C.

Step 8: Bring the end back up to the top of the Mystic knot, passing around Bight 3. This new area of weaving nestles inside Bight 1, which is wider. The

over - under sequence is marked in RED going UP and BLUE as you come DOWN. The weaving can be changed, but make sure you alternate more on the downward pass. Step 10: Remove the pins from the inner, narrower bights first. Pull on the round loops in the corners as well as the wide bights as you begin tightening. They will become very large. Follow the cord throughout the design, removing the slack from each loop as you progress. The Mystic Knot is supposed to have a snugly weaved square in the middle and 7 loops on the outside, which are marked with the pink X's in the image above.

Pagoda Knot

Description: The Pagoda Knot represents the sacred architectural designs commonly seen in Asian temples and places of worship. It's a beautiful decorative knot that incorporates elements of the the Celtic Triangle Knot with weaving techniques.

I found it in a book called "Decorative Fusion Knots", by JD Lenzen. Be sure to click on the link or image to visit his website, where he provides tutorials for many other combination knots like this one.

Step 1: Create the first counter-clockwise loop in the center of a 60-inch cord.

Step 2: Make the second counter-clockwise loop, so it rests above Loop 1 as shown.

Step 3: Make the third counter-clockwise loop, postioning it to the right of Loop 2.

Step 4: The fourth counter-clockwise loop should be positioned to the right of Loop 1, and below Loop 3. The design should look like a square. Pass the working end (right) under the standing end (left), so they are crossed.

Step 5: Take the end that is now on the right, and pass it through Loop 4, from below (under - over).

Step 6: Take the end that's resting on the left, and pass it through Loop 1, from above (over - under).

Step 7: Flip the knot over, so Loops 1 and 4 are at the top, and the entire design is upside down. Bring the end on the right down, so it passes over Loop 3.

Step 8: Take the left end, and bring it down to Loop 2. Pass under it, then weave it through Loop 3, going under over - under the three segments.

Step 9: Use the right end again, and bring it under the left end, in the lower central area of the Pagoda knot. Then weave it through Loop 2, passing over - under - over the three segments.

Step 10: Flip the design over. Tighten the Pagoda Knot gradually, removing the slack from the loops in the order they were made. Then ends will come out of the knot at the top.

Pipa Knot
Description: The Pipa Knot is an interesting Chinese design that makes a great clasp for jewelry. You can also make it with wire or leather cord to make very unique earrings. It's been seen on ancient Oriental clothing as a clasp as well as for decoration. So this historical decorative knot has been around for a long time. You can click on the small images below to see larger ones.
You will need one strand of material, at least 36 inches long. Also, be sure to use a project board and pins the first few times you create the Pipa knot.

Step 1: Secure the right end of the cord to your board. Move up around 6 inches and make a clockwise loop. The left segment should pass over the right as shown. Secure the loop at the crook. It's important to make the knot as small as possible, so Loop 1 should be around 1/2-inch in size.

Step 2: Make a second loop, resting below the first, in a counter-clockwise direction. It should rest on top of the secured end of the cord (tail). Secure it at the crook. Loop 2 needs to be larger than Loop 1, so make it around 1-inch in size.

Step 3: Bring the working end under Loop 1 at the top of the Pipa knot, moving in a clockwise direction. Mentally number this one Loop 3. Make sure the cord crosses over itself as you bring it towards the bottom left area of the knot. Pull the end so Loop 3 wraps around the first one snugly.

Step 4: Loop 4 should be made in a counterclockwise direction, and should nestle inside Loop 2 (at the bottom). Secure the loops either at the crossing point, or the crook.

Step 5: Bring the working end up to the top of the knot, and pass it around the first loop. Make sure it rests above Loop 3. It should be made heading clockwise, and mentally labeled Loop 5. Next, bring the end down and make the 6th loop at the bottom in a counter-clockwise direction. It should nestle inside Loop 4.

Step 6: To make the final loop (7), pass the end around the first loop. This new loop should rest above Loop 5. Pass the working end through the small hole between the loops at the bottom of the Pipa Knot.

Tug on the ends to tighten the knot, but make sure the loops remain flat and do not overlap. The reason you make it small is so that you don't need to tighten it very much.
If you did make it large, start at the tail and progress gradually, all the way through the knot, as you remove the slack.

To make a Pipa Knot clasp, simply make a Chinese Button Knot with the long end, tying it around the short tail a few times. Make the knot again for the second half of the clasp, but secure the ends to the back of the knot with glue. The button knot fits through Loop 1 at the top of the design.

Crown Knot

Description: The Chinese Crown Knot is sometimes called the Shamrock Knot. It has loops along the outside that resemble flower petals. This design is very similar to a Lanyard Knot, which is a basic Macrame knot. Those are sometimes called Crown knots, too, but don't have the loops. You can create this beautiful Macrame knot with any number of loops, so I have included two variations of this interesting knot for you to try. You can click on the images and a large picture will come up in a new window.

You will need a Project board and pins. To practice, you need one cord at least 72 inches long (2 yards). Using 2mm to 4mm cord will make the knot less bulky. In the images, I used 3mm Paracord material.

Step 1: Fold the cord in half, and secure it to your board, so the ends are at the bottom. Make a fold at 3 o’clock, and another at 9 o’clock. The size of each "arm" should be around 5 inches. Mentally label the folds as shown.

Step 2: Direct the two ends counter-clockwise, so they pass over fold 1. They should come to rest to the right of fold 2. Make sure you leave a space as shown.

Step 3: Direct fold 1 to the left, folding it over the ends, and over the 2nd fold. Secure it at the crook.

Step 4: Direct fold 2 downward. Make sure it passes over fold 1, as well as fold 3. Secure it to your board.

Step 5: Direct fold 3 towards the right. It needs to pass through the space formed back in step 2. Pass into it from the top (over - under).

Step 6: Tighten the first knot by pulling on the folded portions. Make sure none of the coils overlap, and the knot is neat. Arrange it on your board, so the ends are at the top. Mentally re-number the folds as shown.

Make another Crown Knot, rotating clockwise this time. Start the process with the ends, mentally re-numbering the cords as shown.

Step 7: The second knot is made by rotating clockwise this time. Move the ends downward, passing over fold 1, to create the space.

Step 8: Direct fold 1 to the right, passing over the ends as well as fold 2. This is the same as Step 3, but in the opposite direction.

Step 9: Direct fold 2 upward, passing over fold 1 as well as fold 3. This is the same as step 4, in reverse.

Step 10: Direct fold 3 to the right, passing into the space from the top (over - under).

Step 11: Tighten the knot and reduce the size of the second set of loops one at a time. While you do so, pull on the areas made in the first Crown knot that are between them. Those four loops should be smaller.

Five Loop Crown Knot

To make the Chinese Crown Knot with 5 outer loops, you’ll need one cord at least 90 inches long. And you will definitely need a project board and pins.

Step 1: Set up the folds just as you did in the previous instructions. Make five of them, though. There should be folds resting at 2, 4, 8, 10, and 12 o’clock. The ends will be at 6 o'clock. Mentally number the folds, starting on the right lower area of the design, moving counterclockwise.

Steps 2 - 7: Here are images of how the folds are positioned when you fold them over the next one in line:

Ends Over Fold 1

Fold 1 Over Fold 2

Fold 2 Over Fold 3

Fold 3 Over Fold 4

Fold 4 Over Fold 5

Fold 5 Through Space

Tighten the first Crown knot gradually, one loop at a time.

Step 8: Reposition the design, so the ends are at the top. Make the second Crown Knot, moving the ends first, and then one loop at a time. You'll be moving in a clockwise direction.

Step 9: Tighten the second knot, which produces the five long loops in this image. As you adjust their size, pull on the segments of cord between them to make the six smaller loops larger.

Crown Designs

Triskelion Knot

Tea Cup Knot

Good Luck Spiral

Description: These three Crown Designs are variations of the Chinese Crown Knot. They have three parts instead of four, which makes them unique. The Triskelion Knot is triangular, and the Good Luck Spiral is round or oval shaped, but with triangular elements. Crown Designs are usually fairly flat, but the Tea Cup knot looks like a real cup. It can actually hold small items, so makes a good setting for beads or stones. To make it larger, simply use heavy 6mm cord material.

These designs were found in this great book, "Decorative Fusion Knots" , written by J. D. Lenzen. Be sure to visit his website, by clicking on the link or image. His knot gallery contains video tutorials for a variety of very unique and appealing designs.

Good Luck Spiral

Step 1: Use a cord that is at least 60 inches long for the Good Luck Spiral. Match up the ends, and make two bights. Make sure all three segments are about the same size. Mentally label the bights, and position them as shown.

Step 2: Take Bight 2 and rotate it towards the left (counter-clockwise), passing over the two ENDS. The space should be mentally labeled "A".

Step 3: Take the ends next, and bring them downward. They should pass over the two bights. The space that is formed should be labeled "B".

Step 4: Use Bight 1 next, and bring it over the ends, heading counter-clockwise. Direct it through Space A from the top (over - under). This forms a third space, which should be mentally labeled "C".

Step 5: Some Crown designs need to have the ends tucked in order to be stable. So direct Bight 1 into Space B, from below (under - over). Direct Bight 2 into Space C, from below.

Step 6: Finally, tuck the ends into Space A, from below (under - over).

Tighten the knot gradually, by pulling on the ends and the bights.

Triskelion Knot

Step 1: Use a cord that is at least 60 inches long for the Triskelion knot. Match up the ends and form two bights. Arrange the three segments as shown, so the ends are on the right.

Step 2: Make a clockwise loop with the two ENDS. The loop should be mentally labeled "A".

Step 3: Make two more clockwise loops, using the bights. Mentally label them "B and C" as shown.

Step 4: Direct Bight 2 through the space formed by Loop A, from the top (over - under).

Step 5: Direct Bight 1 through Space C, from the top (over - under).

Step 6: Finally, pass the ends through Space B.

Step 7: This is the only one of the three Crown Designs that doesn't need extra tucks. So all you need to do is pull on the ends and bights to tighten it.

Tea Cup Knot

Step 1: You will need a cord at least 60 inches long. Match up the ends and make two bights. The ends should be at the top right, and the bights should be labeled as shown.

Step 2: Direct the ENDS towards the left, passing over Bight 1. The space that is formed on the right should be mentally labeled "A".

Step 3: Bring Bight 1 down, passing over the ends as well as Bight 2. The space that forms at the top should be labled "B".

Step 4: Bring Bight 2 towards the upper right, and direct it across Space A, but do not go through it. This forms Space C on the left.

Step 5: Bring Bight 2 left, to Space B, and weave it downward through the three segments. Make sure it passes over the ends, which run through that area.

Step 6: Take the ends next and bring them down and to the right, to Space C. Make sure they pass over Bight 2. Weave through the three segments, passing over the portion of Bight 1 in that area.

Step 7: Take Bight 1 and bring it up to Space A, on the upper right. Make sure you pass over the ends. Weave it through the three segments, as you did the others (U - O - U).

Step 8: Tighten the knot by pulling on the ends and bights. Flip the crown design upside down.

Step 9: Now you need to close up the bottom since there is a space. Move the ends or bight that is on the right, heading down and to the left.

Step 10: Move the ends/bight that is on the left, heading down and to the right.

Step 11: Take the remaining segment and tuck it under the first one you moved in step 9.

Step 12: Tighten the design by pulling on both bights and the ends firmly. You can apply glue to the bottom of the Tea Cup, and cut off the ends. Or you can weave them into the overall design.

Tighten and adjust the Tea Cup Knot until it is the size and shape you want.

Kinky Lovers Knot
The Kinky Lovers Knot is a unique historical knot rarely seen in Macrame patterns. It's related to the Hanger knot, which is sometimes called the True Lover's Knot. It's essentially two Figure Eights intertwined, and results in a diagonal square shape below a sturdy loop. You can use this decorative knot to make a very nice necklace, by simply making the loop large enough to fit over your head. It's also makes a nice bracelet clasp.

I found it in "Decorative Fusion Knots" , written by J. D. Lenzen. Be sure to visit his website, by clicking on the link or image. His knot gallery contains tutorials for a variety of very unique and appealing designs.

Step 1: Start by making a loop in the center of a 40inch cord. It should look like a "P" that is inverted (upside down). The right end should be vertical, and should pass over the left end, which is horizontal.

Step 2: Take the end that is on the left (horizontal) and bring it over the right end, heading clockwise. Direct it down and through the bottom loop, forming a figure eight shape. Make sure you pass into the loop from below (under - over).

Step 3: Take the right end, which is at the top of the design, and curve it in a clockwise direction. Secure it at the bend to form the loop at the top of the knot. Bring it down and pass it through the bottom loop of the figure eight, from below (under - over). It should rest to the right of the other end.

Step 4: Rotate the end you just used in a counterclockwise direction, to form another loop. Direct it towards the top of the knot, and into the top loop of the first figure eight shape. Make sure you go into it from the top, so you pass over - under.

Step 5: Bring the same end down, and into the bottom loop from the top (over - under).
This forms the second figure eight.

Step 6: The loop at the top of the Kinky Lovers Knot is made by the portion of the right end that you secured in step 3. Pull on the ends to tighten the knot around it, after you have adjusted it to the size you want.

Maedate Knot

Description: This Maedate Knot is a well known Asian design that represents the insignia or badge of a Samurai Kabuto, which is a helmet. Some of these emblems represented familes, while others represented ranks or professions. Round forms like this knot represent the sun or moon. As a decorative knot, this interesting technique is very unique and makes an appealing decoration for almost any Macrame project. Click on the small images and larger ones will come up in a new window.

After searching a long time, I finally found this in "Decorative Fusion Knots"written by J. D. Lenzen. Be sure to visit his website, by clicking on the link or image. His knot gallery contains tutorials for a variety of unique designs.

Step 1: Start by making a loop in the center of a 36-inch cord. The left end should pass over the right to make the crossing point.

Step 2: Take the end that is resting on the right, and make a counter-clockwise loop. Arrange it so it's resting somewhat on top of the first loop, and to the right. There should be three distinct spaces.

Step 3: Identify the right and left sides of each loop. Move the left side of Loop 2 OVER the right side of it. Make sure it passes under the right side of Loop 1 as you move it towards the right. Move the right side of Loop 1 UNDER the left side of it. Both these steps will create a figure 8 shape in the middle of the design.

This is what the Maedate knot should look like when you are finished moving the two segments.

Step 5: Tighten the knot and adjust the size of the loops by pulling on the ends gently.

CELTIC KNOTS
Celtic Button Knot

Description: The Celtic Button Knot is a relatively simple decorative knot to tie. Tightening it can be a challenge, though, so be sure you have no distractions when you practice. Most Button Knots are used for clothing decorations and jewelry. They are also frequently used as finishing knots to hide the ends of cords.

Variations: Sliding Button You can click on any of the images below and a larger photo will show up in a new window.

Step 1: You need a single cord to practice. Secure the left end to your working surface with pins or tape. Make a counter-clockwise loop,

passing the working end over the secured end.

Step 2: Make a second counter-clockwise loop with the working end. Position it so it rests on top of the first. It should be slightly to the right, creating three

spaces. Identify the space in the center, which is marked with an X in the image.

Step 3: Bring the working end around again to make a third loop (counterclockwise). Weave the end through, alternating over and under the four segments as shown.
Tip: One thing I always try to remember is to pass under - over the two segments associated with the central space. This applies to both the third and fourth steps.

Step 4: Rotate the working end around a final time, making the fourth counterclockwise loop. Pass the end through the loops, paying close attention to the central space marked with the X. Pass it into Loop 3 (over), and out through that central space.
Step 5: Now for the challenging part. Spread the coils so that you can see the four loops clearly. Start at the secured end and remove the slack from each loop in the order they were made. Take your time and just follow the cord inch by inch, until a round knot is created.

Sliding Celtic Button Knot

The Sliding Celtic Button Knot is tied in the same way. The difference is that there is a holding cord running through it. If you were making a necklace using two cords, one would be the holding cord, and the other used to tie the knot. You can use this decorative knot to form a clasp for a necklace as well, since you can use as many holding cords as you need. Step1: To practice this variation of the Celtic Button knot, obtain 2 strands of material. Secure both of them at the left end, to your work surface, resting horizontally. Secure the right end of one strand as well, making sure it is taut. This will be the holding cord, and will not be used to tie the knot (Purple in the images below).

Step 2: Using the working cord, make the first loop rotating counter-clockwise. Pass under the holding cord, and then over, slightly to the left. Make sure the working end passes over to make the crossing point, which should be below the holding cord.

Step 3: Make the second loop exactly the same as the first one, passing under the holding cord first. Place it to the right of the first loop and partly on top. You need to have three distinct spaces as shown. As you bring the working end down, it should pass over the holding cord.

Step 4: Start the third loop to the right of the second one. First, pass the working end under the holding cord. Next, weave the end through the three spaces by going over - under - over - under. Arrange the loops so you can see the central space clearly (marked with an X).

Step 5: Make the fourth loop by first passing under the holding cord. Weave the end through, going into Loop 3, by passing over the first segment. Bring it under the other segments, so the end comes out through the central space.

The working end should pass over the two segments on the far left. Tighten the Celtic Button Knot gradually, removing the slack from the loops in the order they were made.

Figure Eight Patterns
Description: Figure Eight Patterns form some of the most interesting designs seen in Macrame. This Celtic symbol represents the concept of eternity, because they can literally go on forever. These decorative knots are usually made in chains. A sennit of Figure Eights will have the interlaced weaving common to all Celtic Knots. Single knots are used as finishing knots and for linking cords to one another. To see a pattern where this Macrame knot is used, check out the Figure Eight Bracelet. These Figure Eight Patterns are described below: Single Knot, Figure Eight Tuck, Fisherman's Knot, and the Vertical and Horizontal Chains. You can click on the images and a large picture will come up in a new window.

Single Figure Eight Knot

The single Figure Eight knot has to be tied so it will hold its shape. It can be used as a finishing knot, near the ends of cords, simply by tightening it all the way. This decorative knot can also be used to add cords, by passing a second one through the loops. When it's tightened, it grip the second cord and hold it in place.

Step 1: Obtain a piece of cord to practice, and secure the left end to your work surface. Make a counter-clockwise loop for the bottom half of the Figure 8. Bring the working end over the secured end. Start the second loop a little further up, by passing the working end under the secured end, from left to right.

Step 2: Bring the working end down, and direct it into the first loop from the top (over - under).

Step 3: Tighten the knot by pulling on both ends equally.

Figure Eight Tuck

The name for this knot refers to the fact that the ends are tucked back into the Figure Eight knot after it is made. That's what makes the horizontal bar in the middle. Figure Eight Patterns like this can be used anywhere on a cord, but are often used near the tips, as finishing knots.

Step 1: Make a Figure Eight knot like the instructions above, but rotate in the opposite direction instead (clockwise).

Step 2: Take the working end and bring it up to the top loop of the Figure 8. Pass it into the loop from below (under - over).

Step 3: Take the pins off the secured end. Bring it down into the bottom loop. Enter into the loop from the top (over - under).

Step 4: Tighten the knot gradually, by pulling on the ends. Try to hold the knot flat as you remove the slack.

Fisherman's Knot

Some Figure Eight Patterns can be useful as well as decorative, and they often have a variety of names. This one is called a Fisherman's knot. I've seen it named the Double Cross as well. It's a great way to connect two cords.
Step 1: Lay two cords on your work surface horizontally, securing the ends on your left. One will be a filler cord (Red), and the other will be the working cord (Blue).

Make the first loop of the figure 8 with the working cord, in a clockwise direction. Pass it under the filler, over it, and over the working cord to make the first cross. Bring the working cord under both of the secured ends.
Next, bring the working end towards the left, rotating counter-clockwise. Pass under the filler cord as well as the opposite end of the same cord you are working with.

Step 2: Rotate the working end counter-clockwise now, passing under to make the second loop. Bring the end through the first loop by passing under the upper portion, over the filler cord, and over the bottom portion.

Step 3: Tighten the knot gradually to prevent it from bunching up. It should look like an X shape even when tightened completely. Design Tip: Figure Eight Patterns usually look best when loosely tied, but this one is an exception; it should be tight.

Vertical Chain

Figure Eight Patterns can be used to create chains, also called sennits. This one is designed by linking the knots so they rest side by side. The knots themselves are arranged up and down (vertical).
Step 1: You need a long piece of cord at least 50 inches long. Secure the left end to a Project Board or table. In the images below it's called a "Tail".

Step 2: Make the first loop at the bottom of the design, in a clockwise direction. Cross the working end under the secured tail to complete the loop. Create the second loop at the top, heading counterclockwise. Pass the working end under to make the crossing point, as you bring the end back down to the bottom of the figure eight.
Tip: When creating Figure Eight Patterns, it's important to make the loops the same size and fairly small. Otherwise you will have to tighten the whole chain later on, and that's harder than it looks. I usually make the loops the size of a penny.

Step 3: Make the next loop by directing the working end in a clockwise direction. Pass through the first loop from below (under - over). Make sure you pass under the segment on the far left as you direct the end back up to create the next loop at the top.

Step 4: Make the next loop at the top in a counterclockwise direction. Pass the working end into the loop from below (under - over). Make sure you pass the end under as you bring it back to the bottom area for the next loop.

Step 5: Repeat steps 2 - 4 over and over, until the sennit is the size you need.

Horizontal Chain

This Celtic Knot is designed by laying the loops horizontally, or length-wise, so they link at the crook, which is the curved portion. Figure Eight Patterns like this can be used to make belts, necklaces and items that require long chains.
You need a long cord, at least 60 inches in length. Secure the left end to your work surface or Project Board. In the images, it will be labeled the "secured end".

Step 1: Make the first clockwise loop a few inches from the secured end. Direct the working end under the secured end to complete the loop. Secure the crossing point.

Step 2: Bring the working end over the secured end, and

make a second loop, heading counter-clockwise. Step 3: Bring the working end under Loop 1, so it crosses through the center of the loop, at the

crook. Step 4: Make a large counter-clockwise loop on the right of the first Figure Eight. It should be the same size as both portions of the first

knot.

Step 5: Direct the working end through loop 1, by passing over - under - over the three segments.

Step 6: The large loop should remain in place after you complete step 5. You will have a tendency to make it too small, so adjust it as needed. Mentally label the bottom and the top parts of it.

Flip the bottom portion of the loop over the top, to create the next Figure Eight design. Secure the crossing point.

Step 7: Repeat steps 3 thru 6, until the chain is as long as you want. Make sure you secure each crossing point.
Design Tip: When using Leather, Silk or Satin materials, make sure you use the Cross-Pin Technique to secure cords. Step 8: Tighten the knot a little bit, one section

at a time. Make sure all the loops are the same size.

Step 9: Use a second cord, and follow the path of the first one, all the way through the design. Start at the secured end. Tighten and adjust the knots again. Figure Eight Patterns look best when somewhat loose, so you can see the details.

Celtic Square Knot

Description: The Celtic Square Knot is a symbol popular with Celtic artists, representing the creation of the universe. It's also called the "Box Knot", since it is often carved on the top of handcrafted boxes, like the one shown above. You could use this decorative knot to make Macramé jewelry, and any pattern that requires a knot made with one strand. It's often used in combination with Celtic Button Knots to make very attractive necklaces.

You can click on the images and a larger photo will come up in a new window.

Step 1: Make the first loop in the center of a 20-inch cord, so the left end crosses over the right.

Step 2: To make the second loop, use the left end and direct it counter-clockwise so it passes under the first loop. The end should come to rest on the left.

Step 3: To make the third loop, take the right end, and weave it through Loops 1 and 2. You should be moving from left to right. Pass over - under - over the three segments.

Step 4: Enlarge the three loops so you can see them clearly. Direct the right end down to the crook of Loop 2, at the lower right area of the Celtic Square knot. Pass it into the space from below (under - over).

Step 5: Take the other end (left) and bring it down to the third space, at the bottom left area of the knot. Pass it into the space from the top (over-under).

Step 6: Tighten the knot by pulling on the ends. Adjust the loops so that the one at the top is slightly larger than the box shaped area. This knot looks best if space is left between the segments, so you can see the overall design.

Celtic Triangle Knot

Description: The Celtic Triangle Knot is based on the Triquetra Symbol, which is found in many European designs. It symbolizes a variety of concepts, such as body, mind and spirit. It's also called the Trinity Knot, representing the three members of the Godhead. It makes a great pair of designer earrings, particularly if made with Satin, Paracord, or Leather. You can click on the images and a larger picture will come up in a new window.

Step 1: Make a counter-clockwise loop in the center of a 36-inch cord. The right portion should pass over the left to form the crossing point. If using Leather or Satin cord, make sure you use the Cross Pin Technique to secure the loops.

Step 2: Take the end that is now on your right, and make a counter-clockwise loop. It should rest below and to the right of Loop 1 at the top. Take the other end and make a clockwise loop, directly across. Make sure you pass the end under to form the crossing point. Cross the left end over the right, below the two loops you just made. This crossing point should line up with the center of Loop 1.

Step 3: Pass the end that is now on the right, through Loop 2 (right), from below (under - over).

Step 4: Pass the same end under both sides of Loop 1, as you bring it towards the left upper area of the Celtic Triangle Knot.

Step 5: Now take the other end, on the left, and

pass it through Loop 3, from above (over - under). Step 6: Still using the left end, weave it through the three segments in Loop 1,

over - under - over. Tighten the Celtic Triangle Knot gradually. The bottom loops should be small and the top one larger. I left the knot loose so you could see the design, so you should tighten it more than I did.

Interlaced Plaits
Description: There are three types of Interlaced Plaits you can use for Macrame. The woven pattern that results from the use of these knots is the highlight of many Celtic art designs. The Ancient Egyptians were quite fond of them, as were the Romans. The three-strand version, frequently used in hairstyles, is called the King Solomon’s Plait. Variations: Four Strand Plait and Braid Knot.

King Solomon's Plait

Step 1: Secure 3 cords to your work surface, and mentally number them, moving left to right. Take cord 3, and move it across cord 2, so it is in the middle. Step 2: Take cord 1 and move it across cord 3, to the middle.

Step 3: Move cord 2, which is on the right now, over cord 1 to the middle. Continue to alternate between the three cords as you repeat steps 1 thru 3 to finish this decorative knot.

Four Strand Plait
The Four Strand Plait is tied a bit differently. To practice, it might be a good idea for you to use four cords of different colors. To make wider Interlaced Plaits, you can follow this same pattern, but use additional cords.

Step 1: Secure four cords to your table vertically. Mentally number them, moving left to right. Step 2: Take cord 4 and direct it under cord 3, over cord 2, and under cord 1.

Step 3: Cord 3 will now be on the right. Direct it towards the left in the same manner. Pass it under cord 2, over cord 1, and under cord 4 on the left.

Step 4: Take cord 2 next, and do the same thing. Bring the end under cord 1, over cord 4, and under cord 3. Step 5: Since cord 1 is on the right now, that's the next strand to use. The end goes under-over-under the remaining three stands, just as you did the others. To continue, repeat steps 2 - 5.

Braid Knot
The Braid Knot is a unique Interlaced Plait I've only seen in one book so far. It's a bit different than the other two variations, and makes a great Celtic Necklace. Obtain a cord at least 40 inches long. Attach one end to your Project board or table surface, which will be referred to as the "secured end".

Step 1: Make a large, elongated loop, heading up, then back down, rotating counter-clockwise. Direct the working end under the secured end. Place a pin at the crossing point.

Step 2: Pass the working end through the top part of the loop, which is called the crook. Direct it through from below, which turns out to be under - over as shown. Now you have three portions to create the plait, which should be mentally labeled left, right, and center.

Step 3: Now you begin the braid the three segments, following the instructions for the King Solomon's Plait. Start with the left portion and move it over the middle one, so it's in the center of the three cords.

Step 4: Now use the right portion and move it to the center. It will pass over the left as you do so. Next, use the cord that started out in the center, but which is now on the left, and bring it into the middle. To continue, alternate between the segments resting on the right and left.

Step 5: As you make the braid, you’ll develop unwanted crosses on the bottom. Pull the secured end out first, and then untwist them.

Step 6: Continue making the plait until there is only about 1-inch left at the bottom, which will look like a loop. Direct the secured end through it, from the top (over under), as shown.

Tighten the Interlaced Plait by pulling on the ends and gradually removing any slack.

Circular Knots

Seal of Solomon

Celtic Ring Knot

Description: Circular Knots are fun and easy to make, so they are often used in children's projects. The Seal of Solomon is sometimes called the Flat Turks Head knot. The center of it is left open slightly, with five loops along the edges. In the image above, it's doubled. The Celtic Ring Knot is a type of circular braiding, and can also be doubled to thicken it. These two historical decorative knots can be used to make coasters, rugs and other projects. If made small, both of these circular knots can be used to make a ring or pendant. Please click on the small images below to see larger ones, which come up in a new window. That will help you see the details.

Seal of Solomon

The Seal of Solomon represents fire, water, and balance. This image shows how it can be doubled or tripled, creating a wide, flat design. Add several strands, or use just one, following the path of the curves and loops as you thicken the knot.

Step 1: Secure one end of a cord to your project board. Make a clockwise loop, passing the working end over the secured end to form the crossing point on the left. Tip: You need at least 90 inches to make this circular knot, since you will be doubling it.

Step 2: Make a second loop, rotating in a clockwise direction. It should rest on top of the first loop.

Tip: The key to making most circular knots is to make the loops large enough to have room to work.

Step 3: Loop 3 is created by weaving the working end through loop 2, heading left to right. Pass over the left portion of it, and then under the secured end. Finish by going over the right portion of Loop 2.

Step 4: Loop 4 is made by passing the working end through Loops 1 and 3, heading right to left. The weaving process is simple: Go under both parts of Loop 1, and over both parts of Loop 3. Another way to look at it is to pass over - under over - under the four segments.

Step 5: The fifth and final loop is made by weaving the working end through Loops 2 and 4. It's the same under - over sequence as the last step. Tip: The end should weave through near the top of the knot, so will be above the secured end.

Step 6: Take a second cord and use it to follow the path of the first one, doubling the knot. If the cord is more than 3mm thick, you don't need to double it. Tighten it carefully, removing the slack. There should be a space in the center.
Circular knots can be a challenge to tighten and balance, since cord material is so flexible. Usually, the best approach is to start at the end and work your way through the knot, one loop at a time.

Celtic Ring Knot

This Circular Knot is an interesting woven pattern that is seen in many Celtic art designs. The Celtic Ring quilt square shown here is a very popular sewing design. You can use this decorative knot to make coasters as well as jewelry items such as rings and pendants.
Cut 1 strand of material, at least 45 inches long, to practice this decorative knot. In the first few steps below, secure each point with pins or tape.

Step 1: Secure one end to your board. Take the other end and make a triangle, moving in a counterclockwise direction. Make sure the three Angles are mentally labeled A, B, C as shown. At the top, pass the working end under the secured end to make the crossing point.

Step 2: Direct the working end in a counter-clockwise direction. Make an inverted triangle this time (upside down). The working end needs to pass under Angles B and C. When you get to the top, pass the end under - over the two segments making up Angle A. Mentally label the Angles D, E, and F as shown. Now that the angles for this circular knot are all made and secured, you will use the working end to weave through them.

Step 3: Direct the working end under Angle D, located in the upper right area of the Celtic Ring Knot. Pass the end into it heading left to right, moving horizontally as you complete this step.

Step 4: Bring the working end down to Angle B, heading right to left. Pass the end over - under the two segments in that area.

Step 5: Bring the working end down to Angle E at the very bottom of the knot. Pass over - under the two segments.

Step 6: Bring the end to Angle C, which is on the left. Pass over - under the two segments.

Step 7: Bring the end up to Angle F on the left. Pass over - under the two segments, and over the secured end.

Step 8: Tighten the design so it forms a circular knot. For a pendant, you can use the two ends to make a necklace. Or you can weave them through the top of the knot and finish them off, for an item like a coaster.

To double the Celtic Ring knot, use a separate cord, or the working end. Follow the path of the first cord, starting at the secured end. It helps if you don't tighten it until the knot is doubled.

Celtic Circle Knot

Description: The Celtic Circle Knot is derived from the Celtic symbol that represents the concept of eternal life. The beautiful, intricate pattern it makes is worth the effort it takes to produce it. Tying this unique decorative knot can be a challenge, so be sure you have no distractions. Use a project board and pins to control the loops, securing each one at the crook, which is the curved portion. All the loops are to be made in a counterclockwise direction.

To see a Micro-Macrame pattern where this decorative knot is used, see these Celtic Circle Earrings. You can click on the images and a larger picture will come up in a new window.

Loop 1: To practice the Celtic Circle knot, obtain a piece of cord at least 45 inches long. Secure one end to your work surface. Use the other end to make the first loop, so the crossing point is on the left.

Loop 2: Use the working end to make the second Loop,

positioning it to the left and slightly below the first one. Loop 3: Make the third loop so it rests on top of loop 2. The working end should be

heading left to right. Loop 4: Create the fourth loop next, placing it so it lines up with Loop 1, but further down.

Loop 5: Create the fifth loop, which should rest to the left and slightly below

Loop 4. The working end should pass over Loop 4 as you bring it around to the left in the next step.

Loop 6: Bring the working end to Loop 2. Weave through, passing under - over - under the three segments in that area (Marked in RED). Direct the end through Loops 4 and 5, heading upward and to the right. The path is marked in BLUE, and the weaving sequence is over - under - over.

Loop 7: Make the 7th Loop so it rests on top of Loop 1, and slightly to the right. The end should pass over both parts of Loop 1. Bring the end down to Loop 4, weaving through it by passing under - over under the three segments.

Loop 8: To make the next loop, bring the end to Loops 1 and 7. Weave the end over - under - over - over. Pass the working end under the secured end.

Loop 9: The final loop is made by directing the working end to the right. Weave through Loops 2 and 3, passing over - under - over the three segments. Weave through Loop 1, passing under - over - under the three segments there.

Tighten the Celtic Circle knot gradually, reducing the size of the loops in the order they were made. Just follow the path of the cord, starting at the secured tail. When you’re finished, the knot should be round, and as small as you can make it, while still being able to see the overall pattern.

Bumblebee Knot

Description: The Bumblebee Knot features the interlaced weaving common to all Celtic knots. It's very easy to tie, and if you make a series of them, a really attractive belt can be formed from this knot. In the images, I made it with nylon Paracord.

I found this decorative knot on the website called Fusion Knots", which is owned by J. D. Lenzen. He recently published this great book, so be sure to visit his website, by clicking on the link or image. His knot library contains video tutorials for a variety of very unique and appealing designs.

Step 1: Cut one cord, at least 36 inches long. Make the first loop at the center. The left segment should cross over the right. Secure it at the crossing point, or at the crook.

Step 2: Next, make Loop 2 using the left end of the cord, rotating in a clockwise direction. Pass the end under at the crossing point, as you complete the loop.

Step 3: Make Loop 3 in a counter-clockwise direction, using the right end of the cord. As you complete the loop, pass over at the crossing point.

Step 4: Crisscross the two ends, so the left passes over the right.

Step 5: Use the left end and bring it up the right side, passing under Loop 3. Next, pass it over Loop 1, heading right to left. Finally, pass under Loop 2, as you bring it down to the bottom left.

Step 6: Use the right end, bringing it up to Loop 2. Weave it through, passing over - under - over, as you bring it towards the top of the Bumblebee knot.

Step 7: Continue to use the right end, and bring it up to Loop 1. Pass under - over - under the three segments, as you bring it towards the right.

Step 8: Use the right end again, and weave it through Loop 3. Pass it over - under - over, as you bring it towards the lower right.

Step 9: Tighten the Bumblebee Knot by removing the slack and reducing the size of each loop. You can tighten it completely, or leave some space so the design is more obvious.

Star Knot

Description: The Star Knot is a very interesting combination knot. I listed it with the Celtic knots because of the interwoven elements. It uses two types of modified Lanyard knots, one of which is very unique. You will need a project board and pins to successfully create this pretty decorative knot. One of the nicest things about it is the fact that you can place a bead or stone in the center, secured with glue. You can make it with slender material and use it as a pendant, or use it as a hair decoration. You can click on the small images, and larger ones will show up in a new window.

Step 1: To practice the Star Knot, obtain 3 strands of material, each at least 90 inches long. Place 2 of them in an "X" shape, and one horizontally, matching the centers. Secure them to the board. Mentally number them 1 - 6 as shown.

Step 2: Create a modified Lanyard Knot, by making sure you pass each end under the previous one, as well as the cord next in line. Make sure you rotate counter-clockwise. The end of cord 6 will pass into the loop made by cord 1, from below.
Note: This design is also considered a type of Wall Knot.

Step 3: Tighten the Lanyard Knot completely, and secure it to the board. Apply pieces of masking tape to the ends, and then re-number the cords 1 thru 6, starting at the lower right, moving clockwise. I strongly recommend you write the numbers on the tape, to make the next steps easier.

Step 4: Make the first clockwise loop with cord 1. Direct the end under the right portion of the loop to make the crossing point. The cord should come to rest over Cord 6.

Step 5: Use Cord 2 to make a clockwise loop, just like you did the one in the previous step. Be sure to pass under to make the crossing point.
Direct the end into the loop made by Cord 1, from below (under-over as shown).

Step 6: Repeat the same process with the other cords, using them in the order they were numbered, moving clockwise. Make sure you pass the end of each strand into the loop from below. Adjust the loops of the Star Knot so they are the same size.

Step 7: Take the end of cord 2, and fold it back towards the loop made by that same strand. You are making a regular Lanyard knot now, so keep track of this loop. Rotate clockwise as you progress.

Step 8: Fold cord 3 over cords 2 and 4. Cord 4 passes over cords 3 and 5. Cord 5 passes over cords 4 and 6. Cord 6 passes over cord 5 and 1. The final step is to fold Cord 1 through the loop formed by cord 2 (previous step).

Step 9: Mentally number the outer loops as shown. Notice there is a space through the folded areas of the Lanyard knot you just made. The first one is resting between loops 4 and 3. That's where the end will go through. The arrow shows the path of Cord 4 in the next step.

Tip: I found that the best way to double the Star knot was to start with cord 4 at the top. Take the end and bring it around the outside of loop 4, rotating counterclockwise. Pass it through the space that is indicate in the image above, and direct it down and through loop 2 from the top (over-under). Remember that each cord was passed through the loop next to it, back in steps 5 and 6. You need to use the same cord to make both loops while you are doubling the knot, so if you didn't label the cords with masking tape, you may need to trace each one back, to make sure you have the right strands. IMPORTANT: The space each end passes through will be between the loop made by the cord you are working with, and the next loop that lays counterclockwise to it. If you have trouble finding the space, just locate the crook of the folds, which is the curved portion. Here is a chart you can use to work on this section of the Star Knot:

Cord 4 = Space between 4 and 3 Pass through Loop 2 Cord 5 = Space between 5 and 4

Pass through Loop 3 Cord 6 = Space between 6 and 5 Pass through Loop 4 Cord 1 = Space between 1 and 6 Pass through Loop 5 Cord 2 = Space between 2 and 1 Pass through Loop 6 Cord 3 = Space between 3 and 2 Pass through Loop 1

Step 10: Tighten the Star Knot gradually, keeping the outer loops a little looser than the middle section. I found it best to start at the central knot, and follow each strand, removing the slack. It will take a while to get it to the right shape, but the end result is worth it.

Just for fun, I placed a round bead in the center, turning the Star Knot into a Daisy. Gemstones can be placed inside this pretty knot, which forms a frame for the stone. You will need to apply glue to hold the stone in place.

Celtic Weave

Description: The Celtic Weave is a combination knot with the typical interlaced pattern seen in Celtic artwork. A decorative knot like this can be used as a focal point in many Macrame projects, including handcrafted jewelry. I like to use knots like this when I need a central knot, with cords coming off it in different directions. In the images, I used two colors to show you the details a little better. You can click on each one and a larger image will come up in a new window.

Step 1: Start off by arranging 4 cords on your board. Two should be diagonal, like the brown ones in the image. The other two cords should form a plus sign, so one strand is horizontal and the second one is vertical. This gives you 8 segments to work with, to make the base. Mentally number each segment 1 thru 8, starting with the diagonal cord on the lower left (brown). You will be making a Lanyard Knot, but not in the standard way. The ends pass under rather than over, as you progress. Step 2: Pass segment 1 under 2, curving towards the right. Secure segment 1 where it bends on the left. This way the space is easy to recognize.

Step 3: Pass segment 2 under the previous cord (#1), and under cord 3. This process is the same as any other Lanyard knots, but each segment passes under the previous one as well as the strand ahead.

Step 4: Pass segment 3 under segment 2 as well as 4.

Step 5: Continue the process all the way around. Segment 8 should pass under segment 7 and into the space formed by segment 1. Be sure to go into it from below.

Step 6: Tighten the Lanyard Knot by pulling on the ends, one at a time (slowly). Try to arrange it into a square shape. Two ends need to come off each side. Make sure it's not too tight. Since I used two colors, I made sure there was one of each heading in the four directions.

Design Tip: Place a piece of paper on top of the Lanyard Knot, and secure it in the center. This way you won't be distracted as you make the upper portion of the Celtic Weave. Here's another tip: Each time you fold or weave a cord, secure it. This way you know which ones you have used.

Step 7: Mentally label the top and bottom segments left to right. Fold down the 2 strands at the top of the knot, and secure them. See below for more information.

Since you numbered left to right, start with the left top strand (T1-brown). It should come to rest to the left of the bottom strand with the same number (B1blue). The second top strand (T2-blue) should come to rest to the left of the second bottom one (B2-brown).

Step 8: Fold the strands at the bottom, and direct them towards the top. If you bring them straight up, they should be in position. Just in case, here's where they need to rest: B1 (blue) to the right of T1 (brown), and B2 (brown) to the right of T2 (blue).

Step 9: Mentally label the right and left segments from top to bottom. The first cord you use is the right upper strand (R1 - brown). Weave it through the vertical strands right to left, passing over - under - over - under as shown.

Step 10: Use the top strand on the left next, which is the blue one in this image (L1). Weave it through, passing over - under - over - under, moving left to right.

Step 11: Use the cord on the bottom right next, moving right to left (R2 - blue). Weave it through, over - under - over - under.

Step 12: The final strand you use for the Celtic Weave is on the bottom left (L2 - brown). Weave over - under - over - under the vertical cords.

Step 13: Tighten the crisscrossed portion of the Celtic Weave first, by pulling on the ends.

Step 14: Celtic designs are supposed to show the weaving as well as any loops that are made. So tug on the loops of the Lanyard knot until they surround the woven portion.

Globe Knot

Description: The Globe Knot is an interesting Celtic technique that produces a round, finished ball. The ends can be tucked inside the sphere, or the knot can dangle from them. It can be used as a finishing knot, as a head for Macrame animals, or even as part of jewelry designs. If you make it with slender material, this decorative knot can be used to make a unique pair of earrings. In the images below, the large, outer loops are labelled with numbers. The ones that have letters are smaller and are on the inside of the design. You can click on the images and larger ones will come up, to help you see the details. Cut 1 strand of material, at least 90 inches long, to practice making the Globe knot. Step 1: Secure one end to your project board. Make the first loop on the right, rotating clockwise. It should be at least 1-inch wide. On the left, make the first small loop (A), passing slightly under and to the left of loop 1.

Step 2: Create another large loop (#2) at the bottom of the Globe knot design. Rotate clockwise as you make the loop, which should be at least 1-inch in size. Bring the working end up towards the top, passing under small loop A.

Step 3: Bring the working end towards the right, still heading clockwise. This new loop at the top is labelled B, and is an inner loop, so should be as small as possible. Pass the working end under loops 1 and 2, as you make your way down and to the left. Step 4: Create the large Loop 3 on the left, passing around the outside of inner loop A. Bring the working end to the top of the design, still moving clockwise. Weave the working end through loops B and 1: Under loop B, over the secured end, under the other part of loop B, and over loop 1 on the right.

Step 5: Bring the working end back to the left, forming loop C. It will rest inside loop 1 when you are finished, which is indicated by the arrow. Direct the working end from right to left, coming out through inner loop A. You will pass over the right portion of loop 1, and under the next three coils.

Step 6: Direct the working end up to the top of the Globe knot design, passing under the left portion of loop 3, which is indicated by the pointer. This creates another loop, which should be labeled #4.

Step 7: Now it's time to connect everything. Bring the end down the right side of the knot. Pass over the first coil, under the next two, and over two as you bring the cord down. The end will rest inside of Loop 2 at the bottom.

Step 8: Bring the end back up, through the left side of the Globe knot. This will create inner loop D, which rests inside loop 2. Weave the end through as shown, alternating under and over the coils as you head to the top. You will pass over the one at the top, which is loop 4. Step 9: Keep the pins on the secured end, and the outer loops (1 - 4), but remove the rest. Tighten the inside portion of the knot (loops A - D) a small amount, but leave the outer loops large, so you can clearly make out the inner and outer areas. It's best to start at the secured end, and reduce the inner loops one by one.

Step 10: Double the Globe knot by following the path of ALL the loops with the working end. Start at the tail, which should still be secured. If you prefer, you can use a separate strand, perhaps a different color.

Step 11: Tighten the entire knot gradually, starting at the secured end. It will take a while to pull all the slack out, but keep working at it until you have a round ball. Trim both ends to about 1-inch and tuck them inside the Globe Knot, unless you prefer to use them for other knots.

Celtic Mat

Description: The Celtic Mat is one of my favorite Macrame knots. Each design is woven to produce beautiful interlaced patterns. The image above shows the technique known as the Ocean Plait Mat. Further down on this page are two other similar designs. One is called the Basket Weave, and the other is the Prosperity Knot.

Another page you might want to see if you like this type of decorative knot, is the Mashead Mat Technique. It results in a round or oval shape, and has similarities to the designs described here. These Celtic knots are perfect for rugs, but can also be used as pendants if made with slender cord (2mm or less). To make a rug, you would simply create any of these designs very large and follow the path of the cord with several others, filling in the knot. In the image above I used 6mm cord and doubled the knot, which resulted in a design about the size of a pot holder.

You can click on the small images to see larger ones that come up in a new window.

Ocean Plait Mat
You need one cord, at least 60 inches long, to make this first type of Celtic Mat. Make sure you use a project board and pins when first learning these techniques. If you wish to double the knot, cut a second cord. Step 1: Secure one end to the board, down on your left. Bring it up to the right to make Area 1, and secure it. Bring the cord left to make Area 2, and secure it there, too. To make the crossing point at the bottom (Area 3), pass the working end under the secured end.

Step 2: Direct the end towards the top of the Celtic Mat, passing under both portions of Area 1. The angle that forms is Area 4, which you can see in the image below.

Step 3: Make a loop at the top of the design, rotating in a clockwise direction. That's considered Area 5. Bring the end down to the lower left area of the knot, passing under all three segments.

Step 4: Bring the working end towards the right. Pass over the secured end. Direct it under both parts of Area 4.

Step 5: Spread the design out a little, so you can see all areas clearly. Direct the working end towards the loop (Area 5). Weave the end over-under-over-under the four segments making up Areas 1 and 5.

Step 6: Direct the working end down and to the right. Pass over - under - over - under - over the segments making up areas 2, 3, and 4. Make sure the end comes out through the middle of Area 4.

Step 7: Balance the loops by tightening or expanding them as needed. The top loop should be a bit larger and rounder than the others.

If you wish to double the Celtic Mat, use a second strand and follow the path of the first cord all the way through.

I found the next two patterns in a book called "Decorative Fusion Knots" written by J. D. Lenzen. Click on the link or image to visit his website, which contains video tutorials for many other interesting knotting techniques

Basket Weave
This type of Celtic Mat is very similar to the design shown above, but it is constructed differently. I recommend you make this design large the first few times. Once you know how to make it, try to use more delicate cord, so it ends up around 3 inches in size.
Obtain one cord at least 60 inches long. Make sure you use a project board and pins to control the loops.

Step 1: Make the first loop in the center of the cord. Make sure the right end passes over the left, to make the crossing point at the bottom.

Step 2: Take the end that is now on the left, and bring it through the loop, over - under. I indicated the crossed area that is mentioned in the next step.

Step 3: Turn the design so the crossed area is at the bottom (indicated by the circle). Make the loop longer, so it's around 4 inches in size.

Bring both ends to the top of the Celtic Mat design. Two loops will appear down below. Mentally number them as shown. Note that they each have a left and right portion, which is important in the next step.

Step 4: FLIP the left portion over the right. Do this for both loops, and secure the crossing points.

Step 5: Take Loop 2, which is on the right, and cross it over Loop 1. Make sure you can see all the crossed areas clearly before moving on to the next step.

Step 6: Use the right end and weave it down the middle of Loop 2, which is now on the left. It should pass over - under - over - under the four segments. The area you are looking for is below the crossed areas formed when you flipped the cords, which I marked with X's. They should still be secured.

Step 7: Take the left end and pass it down the middle of Loop 1. Remember the area is below the crossing points. Pass under - over - under - over - under the five segments.

Balance and tighten this variation of the Celtic Mat gradually. If you wish to double it, use a second cord and follow the path of the first one. It works out better if you start at the bottom, where the ends are.

Prosperity Knot
This variation of the Celtic Mat is very similar to the others, but is slightly longer. This historical knot has been featured in many Celtic as well as Chinese art works. The Chinese name for it is the Prosperity Knot. It represents abundance, long life, and wealth.

Step 1: Make a Josephine Knot in the center of a cord that's at least 60 inches long. Note that I labeled the three loops in the order they are made.

Step 2: Secure the top loop to your project board. Pull the left and right loops until they are around 3 to 5 inches in size.

Step 3: Re-position the ends so they are at the top, resting horizontally. The crossing point needs to be moved up, too. Note that each loop has a right and left side. This is important in the next step.

Step 4: Flip the left side of the loops over the right side (left to right). Secure the cords at the crossing points, which are above the loops.

Step 5: Move the left loop THROUGH the right one, from below. In other words, Loop 1 passes under - over the Loop 2, as it is moved towards the right. Move Loop 2 slightly to the left, and spread the segments out so you can see the details clearly.

Step 6: Take the right end and direct it down to the two loops at the bottom. It needs to weave through the center of Loop 2, passing over - under - under - over the four segments.

Step 7: Note in the previous step Loop 1 was resting over the right portion of Loop 2. Now you need to pick up Loop 1, and bring the crook of it under right segment of Loop 2.

Step 8: Take the left end and weave it through the middle of Loop 1, heading left to right. The weaving sequence is under - over - under - over - under. So the end comes out below the crook of Loop 1.

Step 9: Adjust the loops so they are balanced and neatly arranged.
If you wish to double this variation of the Celtic Mat, use a second cord. Follow the path of the first one, starting at one of the ends.

Snake Weave

Description: The Snake Weave is a historical Celtic design seen in many works of art, including handcrafted jewelry like the bracelet shown. The cord weaves back and forth, creating a snake-like woven design, similar to an Interlaced Plait. You can use this decorative knot to create beautiful bracelets and necklaces, along with straps for purses and other similar Macrame projects. I have included the instructions for a variation called the Celtic Bar, which is a little thicker and uses a slightly different technique. Click on the small images, and larger ones will come up in a new window.

I found both designs in "Decorative Fusion Knots" by J. D. Lenzen. Be sure to click on the link or image to visit his website, which contains tutorials for a large variety of unique and appealing decorative knots.

Step 1: To practice the Snake Weave, start by making a counter-clockwise loop in the center of a 72-inch cord. The left end should pass over the right one to make the crossing point.

Step 2: Bring the left end up towards the left, passing under the loop (right to left). Note that I used the Cross Pin Technique to secure the loop, since I used Satin Cord.

Step 3: Bring the RIGHT end through the knot, heading left to right on an upward angle (clockwise). Pass it over under - over the three segments.

Step 4: Tighten the knot by pulling on the ends. Next, FLIP it over, so the ends are heading downward, and the knot is upside down. Note that you just completed the first three steps of the Celtic Square Knot.

Step 5: Pull down on the loop at the bottom of the knot to enlarge it. The size of this loop will determine the length of the Snake Weave. Arrange the ENDS so they are near the top, and the other two loops are tightened at the top.

Step 6: Flip the left side of the large loop over the right.

Step 7: Direct the right end over the loop, as you bring it down to the left. It should rest south of the crossing point made in the last step.

Step 8: Now use the left end, and weave it through the loop, under - over - under as shown.

Step 9: Tighten the first portion of the Snake Weave by pulling on the ends and the loop.

Repeat steps 6 - 9 several more times to create the rest of the sennit. You'll know it's time to stop when you can't flip the loop anymore.

Step 10: Adjust the Snake Weave so it's the same width all the way down the length. You can keep the weave loose, or tighten it completely.

Celtic Bar

Description: The Celtic Bar is a variation of the Snake Weave where narrow loops (bights) are crossed as well as the ends. You can use this unique design for straps, bracelets, and anywhere you need a slender chain of knots.

Step 1: Locate the center of a 72-inch cord. Secure it to your board. Form two long, narrow loops (bights), so the ends are at the top. The length of the Celtic Bar is determined by the size of these loops.

Step 2: Cross the right end over the left, and secure the crossing point. Note that I used the Cross Pin Technique to secure the cords.

Step 3: Pass the end that is now on the left, under the left bight, as you bring it straight down. Pass the right end over the bight on your right.

Step 4: Cross the ENDS again, left over right.

Step 5: Now it's time to work with the BIGHTS (loops). Pass the left one under the end that is now on the left. Pass the bight on the right, over the right end.

Step 6: Cross the left Bight over the right one. The biggest difference between the Celtic Bar and the Snake Weave is that the loops are not flipped. Instead, you alternate between the ends and the bights, crossing them.

Step 7: Tighten the overall design slightly, and repeat steps 3 thru 6 over and over. The most important thing to remember as you cross either the ends or the bights, is to do so left over right.

Step 8: Make sure you end on Step 6, so the last thing you do is cross the left bight over the right. Pass the right END through the loop that is now on the right, from the top.

Step 9: Pass the left end through the other loop, from below.

Step 10: Pass the same end (left) through the loop on the right.

Step 11: Pass the right end through the loop on the left.

Step 12: Tighten and adjust the design.

Turks Head Knot

Description: The Turks Head Knot is based on the ancient symbol for eternity, the never-ending circle. The woven design this knot features is typical of the flowing patterns favored by Celtic craftsmen. This decorative knot is simply a type of braiding that makes a continuous loop. Pay close attention to the two main elements: Crossing Points and Weaving. It is perfect for bangle bracelets, headbands and other fashion items. You can also make a small version to use as a casual ring. To see a pattern using this decorative knot, check out this Bangle Bracelet. You can click on the small icons, and larger images will show up in a new window.

Single Turks Head
Step 1: Obtain an item you can use as a support, such as a glass or a thick dowel. The size of this knot is dependent on the thickness of the support. So if you want to make a ring, for example, a dowel should be used, the diameter of your finger. I used a glass in the example, since I wanted to make a bracelet. You need one cord, at least 60 inches long. If you plan to thicken the knot by doubling it, cut the cord longer. You also have the option of using another cord, to provide contrast to the Turks Head knot, like in the Bangle Bracelet above.

Step 2: Secure one end of the cord to the bottom left edge of the support. Wrap the cord around, from the front to the back. Bring the end to the front again, crossing over right to left. Mentally label that crossing point #1.

Step 3: Wrap the working end around the support again. Bring it to the front, passing between the secured tail and the right portion of the cord. Cross over the right portion, heading left to right. Make sure this second

crossing point is secured well.

Step 4: Direct the working end up to Cross 1. Pass through the area above it, going under - over the two segments. It should be

heading right to left. Step 5: Just above the point where you ended in the last step, pick up and MOVE the left segment over the right. DO NOT flip the cord upside down. This gives you two new crossing points (3 and 4).

Step 6: Direct the working end through the space you made in the last step, just above Cross 3. Pass into it from below, heading left to right (under - over). Tip: The entire weaving process in this Turks Head knot is always under - over, so you come into the space from below.

Step 7: Just above the 4th crossing point, weave through from right to left. Step 8: Repeat Steps 5 thru 7, making new crossed areas as you progress. Try to get as much weaving done as possible, even though it will be tight. Stop when you reach the starting point, near the tail.

Step 9: Locate Cross 2, which was secured, and remove the tape. Put your finger just above the crossed area, and slide it down. This will give you room for one more pass, heading left to right. The ends should be in the same general area. Direct them to the inside of the Turks Head knot, and apply glue to hold them in place.

Design Tip: To thicken the Turks Head knot, you can use the same working end and follow the path all the way through. You could aslo use a separate cord, and do the same thing. Make sure you start at the tail which was secured to the glass in the first step.

Quick Turks Head
This variation of the Turks Head knot is what I like to call the "Quick" version. The process is actually a shortcut. This variation is the best one to use when making Macrame rings. You need 1 cord, at least 60 inches long, to practice this Turks Head Knot. Step 1: The tail should be on the right, secured behind the support. Wrap the cord around three times. Mentally number the loops, in the reverse order you made them (left to right).

Step 2: Pick up loop 2 and push it over loop 3, heading left to right. This makes the first crossing point, which should be mentally labeled A. There's another one down below, which is B.

Step 3: Bring loop 1, which happens to be the working end, to the right of loops 2 and 3. That will make another crossing point in the back of the knot.

Step 4: Direct the working end into the space between the two crosses, heading right to left. Pass into it from the top (over-under).

Step 5: Roll the support, so you have access to the crossed area labeled B. Pass into the space just below the cross, heading left to right, from the top (over-under).

Step 6: Direct the working end to the area where the tail is located. Pass it into the same space, so the two ends are heading in opposite directions. If you wish to double the Turks Head knot, to make it thicker, add a new cord between the 2 ends. Follow the path all the way through the knot. Step 7: Tighten the Turks Head knot gradually. Remove it from the support if you wish, being careful not to disturb the pattern. Tighten it to whatever size you need. The ends can be glued on the inside of the loop.

Celtic Heart Knot

Description: The Celtic Heart Knot is a historical design seen in many Celtic art forms, including ceramic pottery like the image shown. But it's rarely ever seen as a decorative knot made with cord. Click on the small icons to see larger images, which come up in a new window.

I found the Heart knot in a book called "Decorative Fusion Knots" by J. D. Lenzen. Be sure to click on the link or image to visit his website, and look at the tutorials for many interesting knotting techniques and designs.

Step 1: Secure the left end of a 36-inch cord to your project board. Make a counter-clockwise loop with the working end. If you are making the Celtic Heart as a pendant, place the loop near the center of the cord.

Step 2: Rotate the working end counter-clockwise, and direct it into the first loop, from below.

Step 3: Bring the working end down and to the left, weaving over - under - over the three segments. This creates Loop 3.

Step 4: Bring the end to the right and upwards, to the top of the Celtic Heart knot. Alternate under and over the segments as shown.

Step 5: Turn the design to the right slightly, so the ends exit the top of the Heart shape. Loops 1 and 3 form the top, and Loop 2 is at the bottom.

Step 6: Tighten and adjust the cord so the design is the shape of a heart, and is the size you need. You can tighten it completely, or keep the weave loose, so the weaving is more obvious.

Josephine Knot

Description: The Josephine Knot is an ancient design that has been around for more than two thousand years. It’s believed to have originated in the Orient, where it's called the Double Coin Knot. In Europe it was named after the Empress Josephine. You can make a very pretty bracelet or necklace using this decorative knot. You can also put it into the body of many patterns. This Celtic Knot was used along with the Sailors Knot to make a Leather Bracelet, as shown in the images at the bottom of the page. You can click on the small images and larger ones will come up, showing you the details.

Step 1: You will need one cord, at least 24 inches long. Locate the center of the cord. Make a counter-clockwise loop with the left half of it. Be sure you bring the end under the other segment as you direct it towards the left.

Step 2: Bring the right end down, passing across the center of the first loop, so it rests on top of it. This creates a second loop.

Before moving on to the next step, pass the right end under the left.

Step 3: Bring the right end up to the top of the knot, rotating clockwise. Direct it through the first two loops, weaving over - under - over - under as shown.
This creates the third loop.

Step 4: Balance and tighten the Josephine Knot, so that Loop 2 is at the top, with the ends at the bottom.

Note that the Josephine and Sailor Knots are very similar in appearance.

You can combine the two knots to create belts, jewelry and other Macrame items.

Cloud Knot

Description: The Cloud Knot is the first of several new decorative knots I will be introducing in 2011. This Celtic design starts out with a Josephine knot, and adds a little extra weaving. So it's considered a "fusion or combination" knot.

The creator of this design, J. D. Lenzen, describes Fusion Knots as: "Innovative knots created through the merging of different knot elements or knotting techniques". I found this one in his new book "Decorative Fusion Knots". Be sure to click on the link or image to visit his website, which has tutorials for a large number of really unique knots.

Step 1: Obtain a single strand of material, at least 15 inches long. Tie a Josephine Knot, and secure the central loop, at the crook, which is the curved portion. Mentally number the loops as shown.

Step 2: Locate the end on the right, and note how it is tucked under the crook of loop 3. Untuck it so it rests over that loop instead. Make sure the end remains in place, so it's crossing the center of the loop.

Step 3: Note how the left end rests above the crook of loop 1. Untuck it now, so it rests under that area instead. Make sure the end remains in place, so it's crossing the center of the loop.

Tip: If you wish, you can now secure the entire knot to your board. Be careful not to disturb anything.

Step 4: To create loop 4, take the left end, and weave it through loop 3. Pass under the lower edge of the loop, and over the right end, which passes across the center. Pass it under the crook of loop 3.

Step 5: To make loop 5, take the right end and weave it under the left end, at the bottom of the Cloud Knot. Note how the crossing point is lined up with the center of loop 2. Next, pass it over, under, and over the three segments making up loop 1.

Step 6: Tighten the knot by working the slack out, one loop at a time.

Pentaradial Knot

Description: The Pentaradial Knot is a combination knot that has elements of both the Basket Weave and the Celtic Triangle knot. The name comes from the fact that it is based on the shape of a Bat Star, which is a marine animal. Click on the small images below, and larger ones will come up.

I found this unique design in "Decorative Fusion Knots" by J. D. Lenzen. You can click on the link or image to visit his website, which has video tutorials for a variety of unique decorative knots.

Step 1: Make a counter-clockwise loop in the center of a 60-inch cord. Make sure the left portion passes over the right to make the crossing point.

Step 2: Make a second counter-clockwise loop, to the right of the first. Make sure the end is heading downward when you are finished.

Step 3: Cross the end on the left, over the one on the right.

Step 4: Make a narrow fold, which is called a BIGHT, with the end that is now on the right. Push it through Loop 2 from below (under - over).

Step 5: Use the other end and make another bight. Pass it through Loop 1, from the top (over - under).

Step 6: Remove the pins and flip the entire design upside down. Turn the Pentaradial knot around so the bights are at the bottom, with the ends at the top.

Step 7: Take the bight that is on the left, and direct it through the one on the right, from below (under over). Secure both loops at the crook (curved portion).

Step 8: Take the end on the right, and bring it around counter-clockwise. Pass it through Loop 2 from below (under - over). Pass it under both portions of the bight that was on the left. Pass over the crook of the other bight.
If you look closely at the Pentaradial knot, the end you are working with is coming down through the middle of the right bight.

Step 9: Pick up the bight that started out on the left, and pass it under the outer segment of the other bight.

Step 10: Now take the left end and rotate it around clockwise. Pass it through Loop 1 from the top (over under). Weave through over - under - over - under, as you bring it down through the middle of the left bight.

Step 11: Tighten the Pentaradial knot gradually, removing the slack from the loops and weaves in the order they were made.

Pendant Knots

Pendant Knot

Brigid's Knot

Description: These Pendant Knots are easy to tie, and can be used not only as pendants, but as tiny charms, if made with fine materials. The ends can be used as part of the necklace design, since they come out at the top. You can click on the small images below to see larger ones, which come up in a new window.

These Celtic knots were found in a book called "Decorative Fusion Knots" , written by J. D. Lenzen. Be sure to visit his website, by clicking on the link or image. His knot library contains video tutorials for a variety of very interesting decorative knots.

Pendant Knot
This decorative knot features the interlaced weaving common to all Celtic designs. It is easy to tie and looks great with just about any type of necklace.

Step 1: Make a clockwise loop in the center of a 60inch cord. The crossing point should be on the right, with the crook (curved portion) on the left.

Step 2: Make a counter-clockwise loop using the end that is at the top (see previous image). This second loop should rest under the first one, forming a pretzel shape.

Step 3: Take the end on the left, and bring it around the upper curve of the first loop, rotating in a clockwise direction. The end should go under - over - under - over as shown.

Step 4: Use the end on the right next, and make ta small loop near the top of the second loop. Rotate counter-clockwise. The end should go over - under - over - under as shown.

Step 5: Direct the ends diagonally, and cross the left end over the right. The crossing point should rest inside the circular portion as shown.

Step 6: Repeat steps 3 and 4, placing two more small loops on the right and left side of the large loops. The under - over sequence should be exactly the same.

Step 8: Cross the ends again, left over right. Take the end that is now on the right and tuck it under the bottom curve of the large loop.

Step 9: Tighten and balance the knot by removing the slack from each area. Pendant knots are designed so you can attach them to a necklace. Simply turn this one, so the ends are at the top.

Brigid's Knot

The Brigid's Knot is the most unique of the two Pendant Knots shown. Saint Brigid of Kildare, a patron saint of Ireland, founded two monasteries and a school of art. She was also the only female bishop in the early Christian Church. This decorative knot honors her life of kindness and generosity.

Step 1: Make a 2-inch loop in the center of a 60-inch cord. Rotate counter-clockwise, so the right end passes over the left to make the crossing point at the top.

Step 2: Direct the end that is now on the left through the loop. Pass under at the top, and over at the bottom.

Step 3: Take the other end and make a clockwise loop, the same size as the first one. The end should pass under the segment at the top, to make the crossing point.

Step 4: Bring the right end down, through the second loop. Pass over at the top, and under at the bottom

Step 5: Cross the ends, right over left.
Direct the right end through the left loop, passing under over the two segments. Direct the left end through the right loop, going over - under.

Step 6: Move the ends closer to the top of the design. Cross the right LOOP over the left.

Pendant knots have to be woven carefully, so pay close attention to the under - over sequences in the next two steps. Step 7: Take the left end and bring it down through the loop that's now resting on the left. Pass over - under - over the three segments.

Step 8: Take the right end and bring it through the loop that's now on the right. Pass under - over - under the three segments.

Step 9: Tightening both of these pendant knots can take time, so don't rush. Remove the slack from one area at a time, until the knot is balanced. Flip it so the ends are at the top, and keep it loose enough the see the heart shape.

Tree of Life

Description: The Tree of Life is a popular Celtic symbol that represents strength, longevity, and wisdom. But this decorative knot is usually created on paper, not with cord. In Macrame, it can be used as a pendant for a necklace. Click on the small images below to see larger ones, which come up in a new window.

I found this interesting knot in J. D. Lenzen's new book "Decorative Fusion Knots". Click on the link or image if you would like to see his other innovative Fusion knots, which are a combination of different knotting elements and techniques.

Step 1: Make a counter-clockwise loop in the center of a 60-inch cord. The working end should pass over the standing end to make the crossing point.

Step 2: Create the second counter-clockwise loop, positioning it to the right of the first. The working end should be resting to the left of the standing end when you are finished.

Step 3: Move the standing end, so it crosses over the working end (left over right).

Step 4: Flip the knot over, so the crossed ends are at the top, and the loops at the bottom.

Step 5: Take the end that is now on the right, and bring it straight down, passing over Loop 2. Bring it around in a clockwise circle, and pass it through Loop 2, under - over - under the three segments. Mentally label this Loop 3.

Step 6: Now take the end on the left, and bring it straight down, passing under Loop 1.

Step 7: Take the left end and pass it through Loop 3 from above (over - under). This connects the two bottom loops in the Tree of Life. Direct it through Loop 1, passing over - under - over the three segments. This creates Loop 4.

Step 8: To make the bottom of the Celtic Tree of Life, pass the right end through loops 3 and 4 horizontally (right to left). Pass under the segments on the left and right, and over the area where the two loops cross in the center. Take note of the pink star at the bottom. That area needs to be widened before you complete the next step. Just pull those two segments sideways, so they are about an inch apart. Step 9: Start by passing the left end under the right end. Then alternate over and under the six segments near the bottom of the Tree of Life design. The over - under sequence is marked in green.

Step 10: Stretch the cord so Loops 1 and 2 are moved upward, and there is space between the bottom and top areas. Then start at one end and remove the slack as you go through the entire knot. The ends need to be at the bottom as shown.

Handbasket Knot

Description: This Handbasket Knot is a historical Celtic design, seen in various works of art. Decorative knots like this one can be used as focal points for bracelets, since the ends comes out at the sides. You can also use it as a pendant, by attaching a necklace cord to the loop at the top. Click on the images below to see larger ones, which come up in a new window.

This Celtic knot was found in a book called "Decorative Fusion Knots" , written by J. D. Lenzen. Be sure to visit his website, by clicking on the link or image. His knot library contains tutorials for a variety of very unique and appealing designs.

Step 1: Make a large counter-clockwise loop, in the center of a 60-inch cord. Make sure the left end passes over the right to make the crossing point.

Step 2: Flip the right portion of the loop over the left, to make a second crossing point.

Step 3: Move the ends and the first crossed area up and into the loop, near the top curve of it. The second crossing point will be below the first when you are finished.

Step 4: Take the end that is now on the left, and pass it under the top curve of the loop.

Step 5: Take the end on the right, and make a clockwise loop. It should be horizontal compared to the first loop. Weave the end over the right segment, under the two in the center, and over the segment on the left.

Step 6: Use the left end, and pass it over the right end, which is resting on the left side of the knot. Alternate over and under, as you bring it towards the right. Make sure you are rotating counter-clockwise.

Step 7: Tighten and balance the Handbasket Knot. The top loop should be larger, which is where a necklace cord would be attached. To make a bracelet, use the ends instead.

Longhorn Knot

Description: The Longhorn Knot is an interesting knotting technique that is based on the triangular profile of the Texas Longhorn cattle. Note: The tightening process is the most challenging part of creating this decorative knot. In the images below, I made the knot very large, so you could see the pattern better. When you make it, try to keep it as small as possible. By clicking on the small images, you can see larger ones, which come up in a new window.

I found this unique design in "Decorative Fusion Knots" , written by J. D. Lenzen. Be sure to visit his website, by clicking on the link or image. His knot gallery contains tutorials for a variety of very unique and appealing designs.

Step 1: Make an Overhand knot, so the right portion crosses over the left. Position it so the crossing point is at the bottom.

Step 2: Use the end that is on the left, and bring it down through the loop to create the first bight. Pass it through from below, which is under - over the two segments.

Step 3: To make the second bight, use the right end and pass it through the loop, from the top. In other words, go into the loop over - under the two segments.

Step 4: To make Bight 3 at the lower left, bring the left end back to the top, through the middle of Bight 1. Pass under - over - under the three segments.

Step 5: To make the fourth bight, direct the right end clockwise, passing through Bight 3 from the top (over - under). Bring the end through the middle of Bight 2, weaving over - under - over the three segments.

Step 6: This is a good place to tighten the Longhorn Knot slightly. You can pull the slack out of Bights 3 and 4 completely if you wish. Position Bights 1 and 2 so they are sideways.

Step 7: Take Bight 2 and twist it to form a figure eight shape. Make sure you flip the top over the bottom.

Step 8: Pass the end that is on the right, through the outside portion of the figure 8 shape, which is next to the crook. Make sure you pass into it from below (under - over).

Step 9: Take Bight 1 and twist it to form a figure eight shape. Make sure you flip the bottom over the top. Direct the left end through it from the top, which is over - under.

Step 10: Tighten the Longhorn Knot slowly, removing the slack from each section gradually. The goal is to form a wide triangular shape.

Double Coin Patterns

Wide Lanyard Knot

Mayan Temple Knot

Description: These Double Coin Patterns both start out with the same decorative knot. The Josephine knot, also called the Double Coin Knot, can be expanded to form different shapes. The Wide Lanyard knot is a rectangular shape. The Mayan temple knot is a rounded triangular shape. You can click on the small photos below, to see larger images, which come up in a new window.

I found these Oriental designs in "Decorative Fusion Knots" by J.D. Lenzen. Be sure to click on the link or image to visit his website, which has a large library of interesting knots, along with video tutorials.

Wide Lanyard Knot

Step 1: Tie a large Josephine Knot (Double Coin) in the center of a 60-inch cord. Mentally label the loops as shown.

Step 2: Form Bight A (narrow loop) with the right end, by directing it through Loops 2 and 1. As you bring it around, you should be moving counterclockwise. Weave under - over - under - over the segments. Bring the end to the right when you are finished.

Step 3: Create Bight B using the left end. As you bring it around, you should be moving clockwise. Weave over - under - over the three segments.

Step 4: Bring the left end down, so it rests on top of the other segments. Secure the end to your board.

Step 5: Now use the right end to weave down towards Bight B. Start by passing over the left end, near the top of the knot. Go under - over - under - over the next four segments, ending at the crook of Bight B (curved portion).
The weaving sequence for both Double Coin Patterns is very important, so be sure to look at the images closely.

Step 6: Now use the left end again, and weave it down towards Bight A. Pass over - under - over - under the four segments, ending at the crook.

Step 7: Tighten and balance the knot, by removing the slack from the loops in the order they were made.

Mayan Temple Knot

Step 1: Start by making the Josephine Knot in the center of a 60-inch cord. Both of these Double Coin Patterns are very similar in the beginning steps.

Step 2: Create Bight A using the right end, moving counter-clockwise. Weave through Loops 2 and 1 by passing under - over - under - over the four segments.

Step 3: Create Bight B using the left end, moving clockwise. Pass over - under - over the segments of Loop 3. Bring it over the right end, and under the upper portion of Loop 1.

Step 4: Here is where the two Double Coin Patterns are different. Take the end that is now on the left, and bring it under the upper curve of Loop 1, on the left side of the knot. Weave over - under - over - under - over the remaining segments, as you bring the end down to the crook of Bight B.

Step 5: Use the end on the right, and bring it over the upper curve of Loop 1, on the right side of the knot. Weave it under - over - under - over - under the remaining segments, as you bring the end down to the crook of Bight A.

Step 6: Tighten the Mayan Temple knot gradually, removing the slack from the loops in the order they were made. Both of these Double Coin Patterns look best if tightened so there is only a little space between the different areas.

River Knot

Description: The River Knot is similar to other Double Coin Patterns in that it starts out with the same knot. The Josephine knot, also called the Double Coin Knot, can be used to form different shapes. This historical knot represents the sun rising over a rippling river. You can click on the small photos below, to see larger images, which come up in a new window.

I found this beautiful design in "Decorative Fusion Knots" by J.D. Lenzen. Be sure to click on the link or image to visit his website, which has a large library of interesting knots, along with video tutorials.

Step 1: Tie a large Josephine Knot (Double Coin) in the center of a 60-inch cord. Mentally label the loops as shown.

Step 2: Take the end that is on the right, and make a counter-clockwise loop. It should rest under Loop 2. Mentally label it Loop 4.

Step 3: Move the right end so it passes over the lower curve of Loop 2.

Step 4: Take the left end, and make a clockwise loop. It will start out resting on top of Loop 2. Move the end, so it passes under the lower curve of Loop 3. Mentally label it Loop 5.

Step 5: Take the left end and weave it through Loop 2. Pass under - over- under the three segments.

Step 6: Bring the left end down and to the right, weaving through Loop 4. Pass under - over - under the three segments as shown.

Step 7: Now use the right end, and start the weaving through Loop 3. Pass under the left end at the bottom of the knot. Go over - under - over the three segments as you bring it to the upper right.

Step 8: Turn the right end towards Loop 5, and weave it through, over - under - over.

Step 9: Tighten the River Knot gradually. Remove the slack from the loops and weaves in the order they were made. You can leave the top loop large, so you can attach it to a necklace. Secure the ends to the back or use them to make other knots.

Macrame Dictionary

Dictionary Quick Links

A through E F through M N through Z

Here is a Macrame Dictionary, to help you learn the terms and expressions associated with this ancient craft. Most people are not familiar with words such as Picot, and Sennit, which is why I've included three pages with specific words used in this craft. As you used the patterns on this site, you may come across unfamiliar words and abbreviations. Many of them will be listed in this section. You'd be surprised at how many common words are used in a different way in Macrame. The definitions, information, and images on these pages will help you become familiar with the unique manner some of these terms are used. Click on the links and images to go to other pages that will provide more details and show examples about specific words. The pages will come up in a new window, so you won't lose your place. Are you a beginner to Macrame? Be sure to go through the following pages thoroughly. You will learn this craft much more quickly if you do so.

Click on the images to go to three pages found in this Macrame Dictionary:

In Macrame Terms, you will begin the process of learning unfamiliar words that start with the letters A thru E. There are a few abbreviations, such as DHH and ASK, that you need to know before making most of the projects on this site.

By exploring the page called Macrame Definitions, you will further expand your knowledge of the terms used in this ancient craft. The words described on this page start with the letters F thru M. Description of terms like Gusset, Findings, and more will be found here.

Important Macrame Terms will provide you with more definitions and information about words beginning with the letters N thru Z. Terms like Rattail, Scallop, and Picot are on this page.

Have any comments or suggestions about the Macrame Dictionary? Contact Me.

A

Adding: Refers to the process in which the number of cords is increased in a pattern, after the mounting process. Several important techniques are

described in Adding Cords. Adjacent: This means the same as next-to. When tying Alternating Square Knots, you use 2 strands from adjacent knots to tie the next row. The cords in the middle are the fillers, and they are next to each

other as well.

Alternating: Patterns where the quantity, or type of knots used, change back and forth with each new row. This term is also used when you switch back and forth between 2 different cords, as you create the design. See Alternating Square Knots (ASK) for an example of this type of pattern.

Ascending: When the working portion of the cord is going upward. Another way to look at it is that the end is heading away from you as you are sitting in front of the knot. See the Josephine Knot for the use of this Macrame term.

B

Band: This Macrame Term is used to describe a chain of knots that are wide and relatively flat. There can be any combination of knots making up the band. Sometimes only one type of knot is used, such as in this DHH band used in the

Macrame Charm Bracelet design shown. Bangle: A type of bracelet that is designed with a continuous pattern, usually made of few knots. This

Bangle Bracelet was made with the Turks Head Knot. Bar: Tying a series of knots that form a distinct, raised area in the pattern. They are described as horizontal, diagonal, or vertical. See Double Half Hitch for more

information.

Bight: When you fold a cord, resulting in a narrow design. See the Josephine Knot for a good example for the use of this technique.

Body: This Macrame term is used to refer to the main section of the work, rather than the mounting or finishing steps. The body of this Ribbon Handbag, for example, is the portion between the handle and the bottom.

Braid: This term is used to describe the process of weaving cords together in an alternating pattern. Another term for it is a Plait. See Interlaced Plaits

for more details. Braided Cord: A type of Macrame cord in which the individual fibers are braided to form the material. The image shows a closeup of what it looks like. For more information, see Macrame Cord.

Bundle: Refers to a group of cords, often used together to create a design. In this Watchband Design, the cords end up in a group behind the buckle. This term can also be used to describe the action of collecting the cords together.

Button Knot: This is one of several Macrame terms that are

unique to this craft. It is a specific type of Macrame Knot that is round. Button Knots are easy to tie, but challenging to tighten. To see examples, go to Celtic Button Knot,

and Oysterman Knot. Buttonhole (BH): A type of clasp that is designed so a button can pass through it. In the early days of Macrame, the Larks Head Knot was called the Buttonhole Knot, which is where this clasp gets its name. See Buttonhole Clasp for more details.

C

Celtic: The artistic patterns and designs that originated in Europe, particularly Wales, Ireland and Scotland. The Macrame knots from these designs have interlocking components, and are quite unique. They are rich in symbolism, and very attractive. This Celtic Square Knot is just one of the many types I

describe for you in Learn Macrame.

Center: This Macrame term is used in 2 ways. The first is to indicate the knot, strand, space, etc. that is in the middle. It is also used to describe the action of placing one cord under another so there is the same length on either side. See Adding Cords for more details.

Chain (CH): This term means a series of knots tied one right after the other. Also called a Sennit. The term Band is sometimes used as well, particularly if

the knots form a flat pattern. Go to Half Hitch Patterns to see several types of Macrame sennits.

Charm: A small, detailed bead made of metal or other material, that is designed to dangle. Charms are used in bracelets, necklaces and even earrings. They usually have a hole or tab at the top. See Charm Bracelet for an example.

Chinese: Refers to Macrame knots and designs that originated in China. This Brocade Knot is one of several Chinese knots described in the area of this

site called Learn Macrame. Cloisonne: A type of bead that has metal filaments, which are added to outline a color or design. These beads are made of metal and are usually colorful. Oriental designs use these beads often. See Macrame

Beads for more information. Combination Knot: Chinese Macrame features the technique of combining different types of knots into unique designs. This knot shown is made up of Cloverleaf Knots and Button Knots, a popular combination. In Learn Macrame there are several types of Chinese knots you can

practice to learn how to tie these interesting designs. Composition: This term is used to describe what the cord material is made from. The ball of cord in the image is made of Cotton, a natural fiber. Hemp, Jute, and Flax are other types of cord, all composed of different natural fibers. See Macrame Cord for

information.

Cord: The material you use to tie the Macrame knots. Leather, nylon, cotton, hemp, silk, and yarn are all different types of cord, made with a variety of fibers. The image shows rolls of Opelon Floss cord. For more information, see Macrame Cord.

Core: This Macrame term refers to the specific strands that hold the knots. The working cord makes the knot around it. Also referred to as a filler cord. In the image, the blue cords are the core. See Basket Stitch for an example of how this term is used.

Crook: The curved portion of a loop, circle, or fold. See the

Cloud Knot to view how this term is used. Cross Pin Technique: This is one of several Macrame terms you won't see in other crafts. This is a method of securing cords to a project board using pins that cross each other. Highly recommended when using Leather or Silk material

D

Descending: When an end heads downwards, or towards you as you are sitting in front of the knot. This is a completed Cloud Knot, which shows a

descending portion. Diagonal: A cord, or row of knots, that runs from upper right to lower left, or the opposite direction. The image shows a row of

diagonal Double Half Hitches. Diameter: The width of a strand of cord, described in millimeters. When you choose materials for your Macrame projects, you will need to know the diameter of the cord you are purchasing. For more

information, see Macrame Cord. Double (DBL): The action of combining 2 knots, cords, etc. and using them together. This term can be used to describe cords, loops, folds, etc. A Double Half Hitch, for example, is made up of 2 Half Hitch knots. In the image, double loops of cord are joined together to make Linked

Overhand Knots. Double Half Hitch (DHH): This is one of many Macrame terms you won't see in other crafts. Since these decorative knots are one of the primary knots used in Macrame, it is essential that you learn how to tie them. See DHH Patterns for unique ways to use this important technique.

E

End: The cut portion of the cord, also called the tip. That area can either be secured, or used in the construction of the knots (see below).

Ends (Working or Standing): The end that is secured is sometimes called the starting, or standing end. The other end, which is used to make the knot, is called the working end. See Josephine Knot for details.

Excess: Refers to the cord material left over after a design is completed. These strands are usually cut off and discarded. The image shows the wing design for the Angel Ornament.

F

Filler Cords: This Macrame definition is unique to this craft. It means the specific strands that run through the center of certain knots. For example, if you are using 4 cords to make a Square Knot, the inner two are filler cords. Also

referred to as the Core.

Findings: Fasteners or closures for necklaces, bracelets, and earrings. They are usually made from some type of metal, but some can be made from Macrame knots. See Decorative Fasteners for more details.

Finishing knot: A specific type of knot used at the ends of the cords to secure them, and prevent unraveling. The Barrel Knot in the image, for

example, is one of several useful finishing knots. Finishing Touches: Techniques used in the final steps of Macrame projects. These methods include tying knots, weaving the ends into the pattern, making fringe, etc. See Finishing

Techniques for more details. Flax Linen: A type of fiber that is made from the same plant Linseed Oil comes from. This soft, luxurious fiber has been used to make clothing for over 5000 years. It is not easy to find, but many people in Ireland spin this type of material into yarn and cordage. See Macrame Cord for more

details. Folds: This term refers to loops that are narrow and/or elongated. In the image is a Cloverleaf Knot, before tightening. The inner portion has the folds, which are also called "bights". The round Loops are along the

outside of the design.

Fringe: A decorative feature that results in a large group of dangling cords. This technique was very popular in the 1970s. See Making Fringe for more details.

Fusion Knots: Also called "Combination knots", these techniques can result in some unique designs. This one is called a Cloud Knot, and starts off with a Josephine knot, with some additonal weaving added.

G

Gemstones: Semi-precious stones that are polished and shaped into chips, beads and pendants. The stones in the image are Amazonite. Turquoise and Quartz are other types of gemstones. See Macrame Beads for more details.

Gusset: This is a term used to describe the sides of handbags. Most patterns will have you add cords to widen the sides so the purse will not be so flat. See the Teardrop Purse for an example. For more information, see also Adding Cords.

H

Hemp: A tough, natural fiber that you can use to make Macrame projects. This type of cord has been popular since the 1960's. Today it is used to make friendship bracelets and other types of casual jewelry. See Macrame Cord for more information.

Hitch: A type of knot that is designed to attach to another object or cord. The image shows a Cats Paw Hitch, which is unique. The Larks Head Knot and the Double Half Hitch are commonly used in Macrame projects.

Holding Cord: This is another unique Macrame definition you

won't see elsewhere. It means the specific cord that the knots are attached or mounted to. In the image, the black cord is the holding cord for the Josephine Knots (pink). See

Unique Mounting Designs for more examples. Horizontal: A cord, or row of knots, that runs side to side within your Macrame project. The image shows the Flower Bracelet resting horizontally on a table.

I-K

Interlace: This is another Macrame definition you won't see very often in other crafts. It is a pattern where you intertwine and weave the cords together. Celtic Knots feature this type of pattern. The image shows the Celtic Circle,

which is made up of interlaced loops. Inverted: This term means upside down. In this Alternating V Pattern, the shape is inverted so the point is

at the top of the design.

Jute: A strong, coarse fiber that you can use for Macrame projects. It is particularly suited to making outdoor furnishings. Burlap sacks are made from this material. For more information, see Macrame Cord.

Knots (K): What Macrame is all about! There are many types of knots, but the ones used in this craft are often called Decorative Knots. The image shows one of several Linked Overhand Knots.

L

Lampwork: Handcrafted beads that are made by heating glass rods and winding them into three dimensional shapes. Intricate details and colors are then added to create a variety of beautiful designs. See Macrame Beads for more details.

Larks Head (LH): One of the most common Macrame knots used to attach cords to rings, dowels, and other cords. It's sometimes called a Mounting Knot. It can rest horizontally, vertically, or as part of a chain. See Larks Head Sennits for

unique ways to use this decorative knot.

Leather: A type of Cord material that is made from animal hides. It is usually round or flat, and somewhat stiff. This Leather Bracelet can be found in the Micro-Macrame section of this site.

Loop: Understanding this Macrame definition is vital. It is a circular or oval shape usually made by overlapping two ends. This image shows a loop, with the crook, or rounded portion, highlighted. See Cloud Knot for the use of this term.

M

Macrame: The craft of tying knots in cords, in a variety of patterns, to form artistic decorations, clothing, furniture, and jewelry. This Vintage

Basket is made using several types of Macrame knots. Metallic: A type of cord that looks like gold, silver, or brass metal. This twisted cord is a combination of silver and gold strands. See Macrame Cord for more information.

Micro-Macrame: You won't find this Macrame definition in most standard dictionaries. It describes projects, usually jewelry, using very delicate materials. These Celtic Circle Earrings are dainty, and made with fine leather cord, 1mm

thick. Migrama: The term Macrame is derived from this Arabic word, which means "ornamental fringe". When this craft began, artisans would make knots along the edges of scarves and shawls that they created.

Mount: This Macrame definition is seldom used in other crafts. It refers to the process of attaching cords to a ring, handle, frame, or another cord. The image shows a Spiral design that is mounted to a horizontal cord. See Unique Mounting Designs for more examples.

N

Natural: This term refers to cord materials and other items that are made from plants, wood, or other substances found in nature. Flax and Hemp are both made from plant fibers, and are very popular materials for Macrame. See

Macrame Cord for more information. Netting: A pattern of knots formed with open space between the rows. Used in hammocks, curtains, shawls, etc. This Vintage Shawl is a good example of a net-like pattern.

Novelty Buttons: Fancy and uniquely shaped buttons that can be used in crafts as well as Macramé. Can be used to embellish designs, instead of beads. Novelty buttons come in all shapes and sizes. See Macrame Beads for more information.

O

Omit: This important Macrame term means to ignore specific strands when creating a pattern of knots. For example, Alternating V Patterns can be made by omitting (not using) certain strands along the edges of the design.

Open Design: This term is used to describe patterns, beads, buttons, etc. that have lots of space in their design. This Leather Bracelet for example, has plenty of space within each knot, so the details can be seen easily.

Organize: This important Macrame term is used when working with cords that are grouped together. This Lanyard Knot is made with multiple strands which need to be neatly arranged, or organized, so the completed knot looks good.

P

Pandora Beads: A unique type of glass bead that has a silver or gold lining on the inside of the hole. These beads have become very popular, particularly in Europe. For more information, see Macrame Beads.

Pendant: A medium or large size decoration that has a loop at the top, so it dangles below a cord. There are many types of pendants available for Macrame projects, made of metal, glass, or other materials. Drop beads and Charms are similar. See Macrame Beads for more details.

Picot: This important Macrame term is used often. It is a loop of cord that stands out from the finished edge. In the image, there are 3 picots at each edge of the knot. To learn how to tie these interesting designs, see Picot Designs.

Plait: Overlapping 3 or 4 cords in an alternating pattern will form a plait, also called a braid. Designs like these are easy to tie, and are actually a

type of weaving. See Interlaced Plaits for more details. Project Board: An item used in both Macrame and Jewelry Making that is made from cork or other material. Cords can be secured to projects boards with pins, to help control them. See Macrame Essentials for more information.

R

Rattail: A type of cord material that is made of Satin Rayon or Nylon. It has a great sheen and is one of the best types of Macrame cord available. This

Figure Eight Bracelet was made using this type of cord. Rough: Refers to how the cord material feels to the touch. Leather is a very smooth type of cord, while Jute can be quite rough. To make Jewelry, for example, you would not want to use cord that is rough against the skin. See Macrame Cord for more

information. Reduce: Many items change sizes while they're being made, like this Collar Choker. To create patterns like this, first you increase the width by adding cords, then reduce the size by omitting strands.

S

Scallop: This important Macrame term refers to a distinct loop of knots, created along the edges of crafted items, similar to a picot. Scallops were widely used in Macrame projects made in the early 1900's, so they are considered a Vintage technique. See Vintage Shawl, and Buttonhole Scallops for more information.

Segment: This term is used when describing specific areas of a knot, as it's being constructed. The different segments of this Celtic Triangle Knot are

marked in red. Sennit: This is one of the most important Macrame terms you will come across. It means to make a chain of knots, one right after the next. They can be tied vertically, as in the image, as well as horizontally or diagonally. In Learn Macrame, you will find several types of decorative knots that can be used to form sennits. In the newer Macrame books it is spelled "sinnet".

Shank Button: A type of button with a hole running through a tab in the back. Buttons are ideal for Macrame projects. They can be used as clasps, as well as decorations. Many Novelty Buttons have shanks, which is why they are among my favorite items to use for Macrame. See Macrame Beads for more information.

Spiral: This important Macrame term is used to describe a chain of knots that will form a decorative twist as they are tied. The Spiral Stitch shown in the image is very commonly used in Macrame. See also the Half Hitch Spiral, which is

similar, but made with a different knot. Standing End: This term means the same as "Tail", which is usually the secured or unused end of the cord.

Square Knot (SK): The most common decorative knot used in Macramé. If you don't know how to tie one with filler cords running through the center, go to Square Knot to learn how.

Stiffness: The degree the cord material you are using will stretch or bend. These Celtic Triangle Earrings were made with Leather, which is a very stiff material, compared to cotton, for example, whis is very flexible. See Macrame Cord

for more information. Stitch: This old, but important Macrame term describes specific types of patterns that are created by knots. This term is seldom used in modern patterns. The image shows a type of Basket Stitch, which is the Vintage name for certain patterns created by the Alternating Half Hitch.

Symbolic: Many Chinese and Celtic Knots are derived from symbols used by artists to represent specific concepts and ideas. This Celtic Circle Knot, for example, is designed with linked circles and is symbolic of the concept "eternal life".

Symmetrical: This important Macrame term refers to the

process of tying knots in a specific pattern so the design is balanced. This Teardrop Purse has the same pattern on the front and back. The knots on the right and left of the

center are symmetrical as well. Synthetic: This term refers to man-made substances, so is the opposite of "natural". Nylon, a popular type of cord material, is synthetic. Rayon, also called Rattail, is another synthetic material available for Macrame. See Macrame Cord for more information.

T

Tail: This important Macrame term is used often. It refers to the standing end of a cord, which is usually secured to a work surface in some manner. In this image, the tail is on the left, heading downward. See Cloverleaf Knot.

Tassel: A decoration consisting of a group of threads bound together with a knot, with the strands hanging loosely below. The knot at the top is

called the head. See Creating Tassels for more details. Taut: Sometimes holding cords need to be pulled and secured so they are tight. In the image, the 2 strands in the center are pulled taut. The other 2 strands will be used to tie the

knots onto those cords. See also Tension, below.

Tension:

The tightness of the cords as the knot is being made. This important Macrame term is often used to describe holding cords when securing them to a work surface. In the image, the strand indicated has a lot of tension compared to the others.

Texture: A description of what the cord material feels like. In the image, this Yarn is very soft to the touch. Metallic cord, Jute, and Hemp, on the other hand, are usually somewhat coarse. See Macrame Cord for more details.

Tightening: Pulling the knotted cords in a specific way to move the coils closer together. This is the most important step in many types of knots. In the image, this Chinese Button knot has not yet been tightened. Once it is, it will form a

firm, round knot. Triquetra: A Celtic art symbol made up of triple loops. This design symbolizes Body, Mind, and Spirit, the Triple Goddess, the Trinity, and Earth, Sea and Sky. This common symbol can be made with cord to form the Celtic Triangle Knot.

U-V

Unravel: To remove the braiding or twisting from a cord to separate the individual strands. In this Angel Door Decoration, the cords for the skirt as well as the hair have been unraveled and brushed. This Macrame technique was very

popular in the 1970's.

Vertical: A cord, chain, or knot that runs up and down. It's important that you know the difference between the terms horizontal, diagonal, and vertical, since they are used often. This chain of Alternating Half Hitches is one example, another is the Vertical Larks Head.

Vintage: A pattern, knot, or technique popular in the early 1900’s or prior. Certain designs, like this vintage collar trim, were heavily used in Macrame projects made in the 1800's, but are seldom seen today.

V Pattern: Tying a series of knots in which the cords used are different in each row, can result in a design that looks like a V. See Alternating V Patterns for some great examples of this important technique.

W

Weave: Directing cords so they pass over and under other strands, usually in an alternating manner. The image shows the details of the

Interlocking Weave design. Working Cords: Another important Macrame term to know, these are the specific cords used to TIE the knots. Also referred to as knotting cords in some patterns. In the image showing a Square Knot, the purple strands are fillers, and the blue ones are the working cords.

Working End: When creating knots, one end is usually secured to the board, which is called the tail, standing, or starting end. The other end is used to construct the knot, and is called the "working end". Go to the Josephine Knot to see how these important Macrame terms are used.

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