Memorial Page of President Zviad K.

Gamsakhurdia (1939-1993) [Anonymoused]

MEMORIAL PAGE OF THE FIRST PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF GEORGIA, DR. ZVIAD K. GAMSAKHURDIA (31.03.1939 - 31.12.1993)

His Excellency, Dr. Zviad K. Gamsakhurdia (1939-1993) was an outstanding Georgian scientist, writer, politician and public benefactor, one of the leaders of the NationalLiberation and Human Rights movements in Georgia (1960s - 1990) and the first democratically elected President of the Republic of Georgia. Z. Gamsakhurdia was born in Tbilisi on the March 31, 1939. His father Dr. Konstantine
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Memorial Page of President Zviad K. Gamsakhurdia (1939-1993) [Anonymoused]

S. Gamsakhurdia (1893-1975) was the Classic of Georgian Literature of the XX century, well-known public benefactor, outstanding scientist (philologist, literature critic, politologist and philosopher), founder of the Georgian scientific school of Study of the life and works of J.W. Goethe, one of founders of the Faculty of Western Languages of the Tbilisi State University, Doctor of Philosophy of the Berlin University, Academician (Full Member) of the Georgian Academy of Sciences, Laureate of the Shota Rustaveli State Prize of Georgia. Konstantine Gamsakhurdia was also one of leaders of the National-Liberation movement of Georgia (1920-30's). In 1924-1925 and 1926-1928 he was repressed by KGB. Konstantine Gamsakhurdia was author of the Nowel "The Great Master's Arm" (1939), the tetralogy "David the Builder" (1942-1961) and other outstanding literary works. In 1912-1919 many papers of K. Gamsakhurdia were published in the German Press ("Suddeutsche Monatschefte", "Munchener Neusten Nachrichten", "Der Neue Orient", "Deutsche Rundschau"). In 1918 he was Member of the Board of the Constituent Society of the Tbilisi State University and in 1920-1924 - Associate Professor of German language of this University. In 1918-1919 he was the 1st Secretary of the Embassy of the Democratic Republic of Georgia (1918-1921) in Germany, in 1920 - Plenipotentiary Envoy of the Democratic Republic of Georgia in Italy. In Germany were published 2 books of Konstantine Gamsakhurdia in the field of Politology: "The Caucasus in the World War" (Weimar, 1916) and "The Oriental Politics of England and Russia" (Berlin, 1917).

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Memorial Page of President Zviad K. Gamsakhurdia (1939-1993) [Anonymoused]

Academician Konstantine S. Gamsakhurdia (1893-1975)

IN 1955 the future prominent leaders of the National-liberation and Human Rights movement in Georgia, - Zviad Gamsakhurdia and Merab Kostava, together with some likeminded persons then in the age of 15-16 years old, initiated and established an underground youth patriotic organization "Gorgasliani", which printed and spread proclamations about Human Rights violations in Georgia, and anti-Soviet and antitotalitarian character. The activists of "Gorgasliani" tried to give to the wellknown events of 1956 a background of Human Rights and National-liberation. The extremely risky and dedicated activities of this patriotic youth organization was not unnoticed by the KGB, which was known for its brutality. 3-5 April, 1957 members of "Gorgasliani" were charged (cr.case No 457). After six months of detention in the KGB-isolator they were released on conditional penalty because they were under age. After that Mr. Zviad Gamsakhurdia and Mr. Merab Kostava became the subjects of open or secret observation of the Soviet repressive system. 1958-1962 - Student of the Faculty of Western Languages and Literature of the Tbilisi State University. 1963-1977 - Research Worker of the Shota Rustaveli Institute of the
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Memorial Page of President Zviad K. Gamsakhurdia (1939-1993) [Anonymoused]

Georgian Literature of the Georgian Academy of Sciences and Lecturer of the Tbilisi State University. From 1973 - Dr.Ph., from 1991 - Doctor of Philological Sciences (full Doctor). 1981-1990 - Senior Research Worker of the Shota Rustaveli Institute of the Georgian Literature and Associate Professor of the Tbilisi State University.

1966-1977, 1981-1992 - Member of the Union of Writers of Georgia. IN 1973 under leadership of Zviad Gamsakhurdia and Merab Kostava in Tbilisi was established the first public and legal Human Rights organization in the Caucasus "Human Rights Initiative Group", which had close contacts with Human Rights groups in the former Soviet empire. The Human Rights Initiative Group also cooperated with the Moscow samizdat underground journal "Chronicle of current events" (Editor and Publisher Mr. Sergei Kovaliov). In 1974 Zviad Gamsakhurdia was founder of the underground offset printing ("Samizdat") of Alexander Solshenitsin's book "The Gulag Archipelago" and other important dissident literature.

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Memorial Page of President Zviad K. Gamsakhurdia (1939-1993) [Anonymoused]

Merab Kostava (1939-1989)

IN 1976, on the basis of this group, under Zviad Gamsakhurdia's leadership was established the Georgian Helsinki Group, which represented the first group of this kind on the territory of the former Soviet-Union. From its establishment the Helsinki Group actively defended the issue of Human Rights, especially the rights of political prisoners and prisoners of consciousness in the former Soviet empire. They also actively defended the Georgian language and the absolutely undefended monuments of Georgian culture. The Group was publishing and spreading illegal samizdat underground journals "Okros Satskmisi" ("Golden Fleece") and "Sakartvelos Moambe" ("Georgian Herald"). IN 1974 Dr. Zviad Gamsakhurdia and Mr. Merab Kostava were appointed International Members of the Nobelprize-awarded organization - "Amnesty International" (UK). IN 1977 the prominent leaders of the Helsinki Groups in the former USSR were arrested and Zviad Gamsakhurdia and Merab Kostava with them. Until their official charge in May 1977 they were kept in Moscow's Lefortovo-prison and then in one of the main Soviet repressive institutions, - the Special Department of the Serbsky Institute of Forensic Psychiatry in Moscow (which was subordanited to Soviet KGB). In May 1978 they were charged. Till June 1979 Mr. Zviad Gamsakhurdia was in deportation in Kizlyar-region in Dagestan (village Kotchubei).
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Memorial Page of President Zviad K. Gamsakhurdia (1939-1993) [Anonymoused]

IN 1978 the United States Congress proposed Dr. Zviad K. Gamsakhurdia as a Official Candidate for the Nobel Peace Prize. FROM the end of 1979, after the release and returnal in Georgia of Zviad Gamsakhurdia and his likeminded, they actively renewed the struggle for Human Rights and the Independence of Georgia. They also actively struggled for Merab Kostava's release. For those activities, which were accompanied by a dedicated care for the defense of the Georgian culture, in 1982-1983 Zviad Gamsakhurdia was put under house arrest. In spite of that in 1983 he managed to issue a samizdat journal "Sakartvelo" ("Georgia").

Zviad Gamsakhurdia, Mother Theresa and Merab Kostava (Tbilisi, 1989)

Mr. Merab Kostava was released in 1987 after hard work by Zviad Gamsakhurdia and other activists of Human Rights movement. After Kostava's release a new period in the Georgian National-liberation and Human Rights movement began. In the same year a new underground journal of the Georgian Helsinki Group, "Matiane" ("Chronicle"), was issued. Later (1989) also the bilingual Russian-English
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Memorial Page of President Zviad K. Gamsakhurdia (1939-1993) [Anonymoused]

samizdat journal "Vestnik Gruzii / Georgian Messenger" was published.

IN 1986-1990 the Georgian Helsinki Group (from September 1989 - Union) was coordinator of all important protest actions of the Human Rights and anti-imperialist movement. On the 9th of April, 1989, after the brutal dispursal of the peacefull action in Tbilisi, among other organizators Dr. Zviad Gamsakhurdia and Mr. Merab Kostava were arrested. They were kept during 40 days in the KGB-isolator.

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Memorial Page of President Zviad K. Gamsakhurdia (1939-1993) [Anonymoused]

IN the late 1989 Zviad Gamsakhurdia greatly contributed to working out the law of the first multiparty democratic elections in the former USSR, its adoption and its realization. ON the October 28, 1990, an absolute majority of Georgia's population supported the political parties and organizations of the electoral Bloc "Mrgvali Magida - Tavisupali Sakartvelo" ("Round Table - Free Georgia") and its acknowledge leader Dr. Zviad K. Gamsakhurdia, and at the first Session of the Supreme Council (the first National Multiparty Parliament), in November, 1990 he was unannimously elected as a Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia.

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Memorial Page of President Zviad K. Gamsakhurdia (1939-1993) [Anonymoused]

AFTER nationwide Referendum of Georgia about the restoration of the Independence
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Memorial Page of President Zviad K. Gamsakhurdia (1939-1993) [Anonymoused]

of country (March 31, 1991), on April 9, 1991, the Republic of Georgia was declare with the Act of Restoration of Georgian State Independence as a Independent country. Author of the Act was Dr. Zviad Gamsakhurdia. The Act is signed by Z. Gamsakhurdia and all members of the Supreme Council. "The territory of the sovereign Republic of Georgia is united and indiversible. On its territory the power only has the Constitution and the Authority of the Republic of Georgia. Any actions directed toward repression of the Authority of the Republic of Georgia, or violation of territorial integrity, will be treated as interference into the internal affairs of the sovereign state of Georgia, agression and rude violation of the norms of International Law. Primate of International Law toward the legislation of the Republic of Georgia and the direct actions of its norms on the territory of Georgia are declared as the main constitutional principles of the Republic of Georgia. The Republic of Georgia is aspiring to take a worthy place in the community of the countries of the world and declares and equally requires to maintain the rights of freedom of human, national, ethnic, religious, lingual groups, stipulated by International Law and required by UN Regulations, International Human Rights Declarations, International Acts and Conventions. The Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia declares that it firmly will defend political, economical and cultural internationally recognized principles of co-operation with other countries." (From the "Act of Restoration of Georgian State Independence", Tbilisi, April 9, 1991).

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Memorial Page of President Zviad K. Gamsakhurdia (1939-1993) [Anonymoused]

IN March 1991 the Supreme Council elected Mr. Zviad Gamsakhurdia President of Georgia, which was confirmed by the nationwide elections held on May 26, 1991. ON August 20, 1991, during so-called "Moscow putch", President Gamsakhurdia has called on all western parliaments and governments, in particular the USA, to de facto and de jure recognize the independence of the Republics of the Soviet Empire and establish diplomatic relations with them.

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Memorial Page of President Zviad K. Gamsakhurdia (1939-1993) [Anonymoused]

THE Baltic and Georgian leaders supported the Chechen aspirations as much as they could. Only one of them, President Zviad Gamsakhurdia's Georgia, actually officially recognized de jure the independence of the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria.

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Memorial Page of President Zviad K. Gamsakhurdia (1939-1993) [Anonymoused]

Zviad Gamsakhurdia and Richard Nixon (Tbilisi, May, 1991)

ON December 22, 1991, the military coup d'etat started in Tbilisi against the legal authorities of the Republic of Georgia. Since it became evident, that the putchists supplied by Russian military wouldn't be easily defeated and in order to avoid the further bloodshed the President, Supreme Council and Government members left the Parliament House on January 6, 1992. President Gamsakhurdia managed to escape with his family and members of the legal Government of Georgia first to Armenia and later to the Chechen Republic Ichkeria. President of Georgia continued the political struggle for independence of his country in exile.

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Memorial Page of President Zviad K. Gamsakhurdia (1939-1993) [Anonymoused]

First President of the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria, Gen. Jokhar Dudaev (1945-1996)

IN September 3, 1992, President Zviad Gamsakhurdia and President of the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria, Gen. Jokhar Dudaev was organizers of the 1st All-Caucasian Conference of the Movement "Round Table - Wholecaucasian House" (Grozny).

Zviad Gamsakhurdia and Jokhar Dudaev (Grozny, 1992)
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Memorial Page of President Zviad K. Gamsakhurdia (1939-1993) [Anonymoused]

DUE to the strong public resistance to dictator Shevardnadze's criminal regime the first democratically elected President of Georgia was able to return to his country in September 24, 1993. The legal Government and Supreme Council renewed their activity in Zugdidi (western Georgia) gaining tremendous public support. The Shevardnadze's regime, doomed to failure was backed by Russia and United Nations. In November, 1993, the Russian troops occupied the Western Georgia. President Gamsakhurdia had to leave Zugdidi, since when he was haunted by junta. ON December 31, 1993 Zviad K. Gamsakhurdia died in Tsalenjikha-region (Western Georgia) under tragic circumstances. In February, 1994 Gamsakhurdia's body was reburied in the capital of the Chechen Republic Ichkeria. After the "Georgia's Rose Revolution" of November 21-23, 2003, on January 26, 2004, in a ceremony held at the Kashueti Church of Saint George in Tbilisi, the newly elected President of the Republic of Georgia, Dr. Mikheil N. Saakashvili promulgated a degree granting permission for Zviad Gamsakhurdia's body to be reburied in the capital of Georgia. He praised Gamsakhurdia as a "great statesman and patriot". President Saakashvili also renamed a major road in Tbilisi after Zviad Gamsakhurdia.

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Memorial Page of President Zviad K. Gamsakhurdia (1939-1993) [Anonymoused]

BESIDES his political activities Dr. Zviad K. Gamsakhurdia was a outstanding scientist (Philologist, historian, philosopher, theologian), writer and translator. Main fields of scientific activity of Dr. Gamsakhurdia were: history of Georgian literature, history of the Ibero-Caucasian Civilization, history of Georgian culture, history of American poetry, Rustvelology (Shota Rustaveli was a great Georgian poet of the 12th century), Anthroposophy, history of the Georgian Orthodox and Apostolic Church, etc. He was author of about 40 important scientific works (4 monographs) and more than 200 publicistic papers. He was married and had three sons.

PROMINENT PERSONALITIES ABOUT DR. ZVIAD K. GAMSAKHURDIA "I consider that as a national figure Zviad Gamsakhurdia has done great services to
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Memorial Page of President Zviad K. Gamsakhurdia (1939-1993) [Anonymoused]

his country. He was the first President of Georgia who dedicated himself completely to the struggle for his country's independence. I often had discussions with him, but it is without doubt that Zviad Gamsakhurdia was a great public figure. Gamsakhurdia is a great historical personality and will be in history forever..." (Professor YURI ORLOV (USA), Honorary Chairman of the International Helsinki Federation. "Russkaia Misl", Paris, 1994, No 4010). "Shevardnadze's victory over President Gamsakhurdia was in general positively accepted in the West. It tried its best to hide everything that happened in Georgia. As a result of that the events were not correctly analysed to the end, what gave the results that it will have political importance on a large scale for a long time. In the West they have forgotten that the prominent leader of the anticommunist movement, Mr. Zviad Gamsakhurdia, was chosen by the absolute majority of the population. His overthrow was provocated by the experienced chiefs of criminal groups and Russian soldiers..." (Dr. OTTO VON HABSBURG (Germany), Member of the Europarliament, President of the International Paneuropean Union. "ABC", Madrid, 24.11.1993).

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Memorial Page of President Zviad K. Gamsakhurdia (1939-1993) [Anonymoused]

"Mr. President, you have embraced democracy, and your vision and your leadership and your courage have made Georgia a model for democratic change", Secretary of Defence William Cohen gushed during a meeting with Georgian dictator Eduard Shevardnadze on August 1st. Cohen's "model" of his view of democracy is revealing. Shevardnadze took power after bloody 1991 military coup that overthrew Zviad Gamsakhurdia, the first freely elected President of Georgia, who had been jailed as a dissident under the old Soviet regime and died under suspicious circumstances in 1993. In his book "Biohazard", Ken Alibek, the former deputy chief director of Biopreparat, the Soviet bio-chemical weapons program, reports that the KGB had discussed killing Gamsakhurdia though the use of a specially devised biological agent." ("The New American", Vol.15, No:20, September 27, 1999, Insider Report). "...Shevardnadze conspired with a gang of "ex"-communist thugs to seize power from the democratically elected anti-communist president of Georgia, Zviad Gamsakhurdia, in January 1992. He was immediately showered with economic and
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Memorial Page of President Zviad K. Gamsakhurdia (1939-1993) [Anonymoused]

military aid from Washington (some $ 1 billion since 1992, an immense sum for a country of 5.5 million people). In 1993, Bill Clinton authorized the deployment of U.S. Special Forces personnel to augment Shevardnadze's praetorian guard, and directed that Georgian paramilitary troops be brought to Fort Bragg to receive instruction in "counter-terrorism" techniques. This bizarre use of U.S. personnel to protect a usurping communist tyrant has claimed the life of at least one Amrican, CIA official Fred Woodruff" ("The New American", Vol. 13, No: 04, February 17, 1997, Insider Report). "Only Zviad Gamsakhurdia who was overwhelmingly elected President when the Soviet Republic Georgia gained its independence had valid credentials as a longtime reformer. Gamsakhurdia was arrested and jailed in 1978 for protesting soviet violations of the Helsinki Human Rights agreements. After Gamsakhurdia was elected President of Georgia in 1991 he was driven from office by Moscow supplied and supported troops when he opposed Georgian entry into Yeltsin's commonwealth and attacked the Yeltsin "reforms" as phonies and part of the "Communist Mafia". Once he was overthrown, his opposition proposed that Eduard Shevardnadze might be a suitable successor. Ironically, Shevardnadze had been the Communist Party boss and head of the KGB in Georgia in 1978 when Gamsakhurdia was arrested and jailed." (Did Communism Really Die? By N. Dare.- www.eaglehost.com/ealeeye/ beastwatches/beastwatch01.html).

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Memorial Page of President Zviad K. Gamsakhurdia (1939-1993) [Anonymoused]

Zviad Gamsakhurdia and Boris Yeltsin (Kazbegi, Georgia, March, 1991)

ZVIAD K. GAMSAKHURDIA. THE SPIRITUAL MISSION OF GEORGIA ZVIAD K. GAMSAKHURDIA. THE SPIRITUAL IDEALS OF THE GELATI ACADEMY ZVIAD K. GAMSAKHURDIA. OPEN LETTER TO E. SHEVARDNADZE ZVIAD K. GAMSAKHURDIA. THE NOMENKLATURA REVANCHE IN GEORGIA

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Memorial Page of President Zviad K. Gamsakhurdia (1939-1993) [Anonymoused]

SOME MAIN SCIENTIFIC WORKS OF DR. ZVIAD K. GAMSAKHURDIA: 1) "About the American Poetry of XX century".- J."Khomli", Tbilisi, 1969, No 2 (In Georgian); 2) "20th century American Poetry." Publishing House "Ganatleba", Tbilisi, 1972, 150 pp. (a monograph. In Gorgian, English summary); 3) "The world conception of Shota Rustaveli and English translations of his poem." Publishing House "Metsniereba", Tbilisi, 1973 (Thesis of Dr.Ph. degree. In Russian); 4) "Literary articles." Publishing House "Merani", Tbilisi, 1976, 190 pp. (In Georgian); 5) "Rustaveli and Catholicos Anton I."- "Proceedings of the Georgian Academy of Sciences. Series of Literature", 1984, NN 1-4 (In Gorgian; English summary); 6) "The Man in the Panther's Skin" in English." Publishing House "Metsniereba", Tbilisi, 1984, 222 pp. (a monograph. In Georgian, English summary);
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Memorial Page of President Zviad K. Gamsakhurdia (1939-1993) [Anonymoused]

7) "Goethe's Weltanschauung from the anthroposophic point of view."- J. "Tsiskari", Tbilisi, No.5, 1985 (In Georgian); 8) "The cult of women in "Tamariani" and "The Man in the Panther's Skin"."- "Bulletin of the Georgian Academy of Sciences", 1985, N2 (In Georgian; English summary); 9) "The ancient Egyptian work "The town of deads"" (Georgian translation, introduction and commentaries of Zviad Gamsakhurdia).- J. "Tsiskari", N7, 1985, pp. 97-105 (In Georgian); 10) ""Tamariani" and "The Man in the Panther's Skin"."-"Proceedings of the Georgian Academy of Sciences. Series of Litrature", 1987, N4 (In Georgian; English summary); 11) ""The Man in the Panther's Skin" and Saint George."- "Literaturuli Dziebani" ("Literary investigations"), No 2, Tbilisi, 1987 (In Georgian, English summary); 12) "Symbolic onomathology of "The Man in the Panther's Skin." "Bulletin of the Georgian Academy of Sciences", 127, No 3, 1987 (In Georgian, English summary); 13) "Collected articles and Essays." Publishing House "Khelovneba", Tbilisi, 1991, 574 pp. (In Georgian); 14) "Tropology (Image Language) of "The Man in the Panther's Skin"." Publishing House "Metsniereba", Tbilisi, 1991, 354 pp. (a monograph. In Georgian, English summary); 15) "The Spiritual mission of Georgia." Publishing House "Ganatleba", Tbilisi, 1991, 95 pp. (a monograph. In English); 16) "Dilema for the Humanity."- "Nezavisimaia Gazeta", Moscow, May 21, 1992 (In Russian); 17) "Between deserts" (about the creative works of L.N. Tolstoy).- "Literaturnaya Gazeta", Moscow, No:15, 1993 (In Russian); 18) "Konstantine Gamsakhurdia."- Konstantine Gamsakhurdia. Works. Vol.I, Tbilisi, 1992, pp. 5-18 (In Georgian).

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Memorial Page of President Zviad K. Gamsakhurdia (1939-1993) [Anonymoused]

MAIN LITERARY WORKS OF DR. ZVIAD GAMSAKHURDIA: 1) "Fables and Tales." Publishing House "Nakaduli", Tbilisi, 1987; 2) "The Betrothal of the Moon (Poems)." Publishing House "Merani", Tbilisi, 1989.

SOME MAIN TRANSLATIONS OF DR. ZVIAD GAMSAKHURDIA: 1) Anthology of American Poets. Publishing House "Ganatleba", Tbilisi, 1971; 2) William Shakespeare. "King Lear", 1969; 3) N. Gogol. "Terrible Revange", 1983;

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Memorial Page of President Zviad K. Gamsakhurdia (1939-1993) [Anonymoused]

4) Charles Baudelaire. "Petits Poems en Prose (Le Spleen de Paris)", 1991; 5) Leonard Cottrell. "The Wonders of Antiquity", 1991.

LITERATURE ABOUT DR. ZVIAD GAMSAKHURDIA: 1) Konstantin Gamsachurdia. Swiad Gamsachurdia: Dissident, Prasident, Martyrer. Perseus Verlag, Basel, 1995; 2) Jurgen Gerber. Georgien: Nationale Opposition und kommunistische Herrschaft seit 1956. Nomos-Verlagsgesellschaft, Baden-Baden, 1997; 3) CAUCASUS and unholy alliance. Ed. by Antero Leitzinger. Leitzinger Books, Vantaa (Finland), 1997; 4) Bas van der Plas. GEORGIE: Traditie en tragedie in de Kaukasus. Papieren Tijger, Nijmegen (The Netherlands), 2000; 5) J. "Soviet Analyst", Vol. 21, No: 9-10, London, 1993; 6) J. "Gushagi", No: 1(31), Paris, 1994; 7) J. "Gushagi", No: 2(32), Paris, 1999.

THE MEMORIAL PAGE PREPARED BY: Dr. Levan Z. Urushadze

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Memorial Page of President Zviad K. Gamsakhurdia (1939-1993) [Anonymoused]

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