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Assorted discrete transistors. Packages in order from top to bottom: TO-3, TO-126, TO-92, SOT23 A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify and switch electronic signals. It is made of a solid piece of semiconductor material, with at least three terminals for connection to an external circuit. A voltage or current applied to one pair of the transistor's terminals changes the current flowing through another pair of terminals. Because the controlled (output) power can be much more than the controlling (input) power, the transistor provides amplification of a signal. Today, some transistors are packaged individually, but many more are found embedded in integrated circuits. The transistor is the fundamental building block of modern electronic devices, and is ubiquitous in modern electronic systems. Following its release in the early 1950s the transistor revolutionised the field of electronics, and paved the way for smaller and cheaper radios, calculators, and computers, amongst other things.
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1 History 2 Importance o 2.1 Usage 3 Simplified operation
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3.1 Transistor as a switch 3.2 Transistor as an amplifier 4 Comparison with vacuum tubes o 4.1 Advantages o 4.2 Limitations 5 Types o 5.1 Bipolar junction transistor o 5.2 Field-effect transistor o 5.3 Other transistor types o 5.4 Part numbers 5.4.1 Other schemes 5.4.2 Naming problems 6 Construction o 6.1 Semiconductor material o 6.2 Packaging 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External links o 10.1 Datasheets
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Main article: History of the transistor
A replica of the first working transistor. Physicist Julius Edgar Lilienfeld filed the first patent for a transistor in Canada in 1925, describing a device similar to a Field Effect Transistor or "FET". However, Lilienfeld did not publish any research articles about his devices, nor did his patent cite any examples of devices actually constructed. In 1934, German inventor Oskar Heil patented a similar device. From 1942 Herbert Mataré experimented with so-called Duodiodes while working on a detector for a Doppler RADAR system. The duodiodes built by him had two separate but very close metal
 This was the work of Gordon Teal. such as their utility in low-power devices.  Importance The transistor is the key active component in practically all modern electronics. can use as many as 2.  Usage The bipolar junction transistor. and over the next few months worked to greatly expand the knowledge of semiconductors. and is considered by many to be one of the greatest inventions of the twentieth century. the vast majority of transistors now produced are in integrated circuits (often shortened to IC. usually in the CMOS configuration. the BJT remained the transistor of choice for many analog circuits such as simple amplifiers because of their greater linearity and ease of manufacture. He discovered effects that could not be explained by two independently operating diodes and thus formed the basic idea for the later point contact transistor. flexibility. "About 60 million transistors were built this year  . Even after MOSFETs became widely available. woman. The first MOS transistor actually built was by Kahng and Atalla at Bell Labs in 1960. According to physicist/historian Robert Arns. the output power was larger than the input. microchips or simply chips). The name transistor is a portmanteau of the term "transfer resistor". allowed them to capture nearly all market share for digital circuits. Desirable properties of MOSFETs. The first silicon transistor was produced by Texas Instruments in 1954. Although several companies each produce over a billion individually packaged (known as discrete) transistors every year. John Bardeen and Walter Brattain at AT&T's Bell Labs in the United States observed that when electrical contacts were applied to a crystal of germanium. It is often easier and cheaper to use a standard microcontroller and write a computer program to carry out a control function than to design an equivalent mechanical control function. Solid State Physics Group leader William Shockley saw the potential in this. In 1947.. . an expert in growing crystals of high purity. legal papers from the Bell Labs patent show that William Shockley and Gerald Pearson had built operational versions from Lilienfeld's patents. capacitors and other electronic components. and child on Earth. for [each] man.. to produce complete electronic circuits. and reliability have made it a ubiquitous device. Its importance in today's society rests on its ability to be mass produced using a highly automated process (semiconductor device fabrication) that achieves astonishingly low per-transistor costs. Transistorized mechatronic circuits have replaced electromechanical devices in controlling appliances and machinery. or BJT. who had previously worked at Bell Labs. A logic gate consists of up to about twenty transistors whereas an advanced microprocessor. as of 2009. Pierce. was the most commonly used transistor in the 1960s and 70s.3 billion transistors (MOSFETs). along with diodes. The term transistor was coined by John R." The transistor's low cost.contacts on the semiconductor substrate. resistors. yet they never referenced this work in any of their later research papers or historical articles.
a voltage drop develops between base and emitter while the base current exists. voltage regulators.  Simplified operation This section does not cite any references or sources. etc. flowing from the base to the emitter) can control or switch a much larger current between the collector and emitter terminals. A small current at the base terminal (that is. The amount of this voltage depends on the material the transistor is made from. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. the terminals are labeled gate. amplifiers. the transistor can be used to turn current on or off in a circuit as an electrically controlled switch. and a voltage at the gate can control a current between source and drain.  Transistor as a switch . Alternatively. (November 2010) Simple circuit to show the labels of a bipolar transistor. The image to the right represents a typical bipolar transistor in a circuit. A bipolar transistor has terminals labeled base. it can act as an amplifier.more recently MOSFETs have captured most analog and power applications as well. including modern clocked analog circuits. For a field-effect transistor. Since internally the base and emitter connections behave like a semiconductor diode. and emitter. This property is called gain. where the amount of current is determined by other circuit elements. and drain. Charge will flow between emitter and collector terminals depending on the current in the base. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. and is referred to as VBE. The two types of transistors have slight differences in how they are used in a circuit. motor drivers. power transmitters. A transistor can control its output in proportion to the input signal. source. collector. The essential usefulness of a transistor comes from its ability to use a small signal applied between one pair of its terminals to control a much larger signal at another pair of terminals. that is.
The transistor is then said to be saturated. The transistor is acting as a switch. The common-emitter amplifier is designed so that a small change in voltage in (Vin) changes the small current through the base of the transistor and the transistor's current amplification combined with the properties of the circuit mean that small swings in Vin produce large changes in Vout. with some providing current gain. Hence. some voltage gain. The first discrete transistor audio . or completely on. and this type of operation is common in digital circuits where only "on" and "off" values are relevant. the voltage across the load (the lamp with resistance RC) VRC + VCE = VCC. and signal processing. Transistors are commonly used as electronic switches. such as the light-switch circuit shown. and some both. values of input voltage can be chosen such that the output is either completely off. in grounded-emitter configuration.BJT used as an electronic switch. standard common-emitter configuration. Various configurations of single transistor amplifier are possible. the supply voltage shown as 6V If VCE could fall to 0 (perfect closed switch) then Ic could go no higher than VCC / RC. as the base voltage rises the base and collector current rise exponentially. The relevant equations: VRC = ICE × RC. In a grounded-emitter transistor circuit. radio transmission. and the collector voltage drops because of the collector load resistor. for both high power applications including switched-mode power supplies and low power applications such as logic gates. vast numbers of products include amplifiers for sound reproduction. even with higher base voltage and current.  Transistor as an amplifier Amplifier circuit. From mobile phones to televisions.
 Comparison with vacuum tubes Prior to the development of transistors.000 volts (SiC devices can be operated as high as 3.  Types .  Advantages The key advantages that have allowed transistors to replace their vacuum tube predecessors in most applications are • • • • • • • • • Small size and minimal weight. Complementary devices available. is better achieved in electron tubes due to improved electron mobility in a vacuum. Extremely long life. something not possible with vacuum tubes. such as that used in over-the-air television broadcasting.amplifiers barely supplied a few hundred milliwatts. In contrast.  Limitations • • • Silicon transistors do not operate at voltages higher than about 1. Lower possible operating voltages. No warm-up period for cathode heaters required after power application.000 volts). Higher reliability and greater physical ruggedness. battery-powered applications. Insensitivity to mechanical shock and vibration. Modern transistor audio amplifiers of up to a few hundred watts are common and relatively inexpensive. Silicon transistors are much more vulnerable than electron tubes to an electromagnetic pulse generated by a high-altitude nuclear explosion. thus avoiding the problem of microphonics in audio applications. electron tubes have been developed that can be operated at tens of thousands of volts. Highly automated manufacturing processes. High power. resulting in low per-unit cost. but power and audio fidelity gradually increased as better transistors became available and amplifier architecture evolved. Some transistorized devices have been in service for more than 50 years. vacuum (electron) tubes (or in the UK "thermionic valves" or just "valves") were the main active components in electronic equipment. allowing the development of miniaturized electronic devices. Lower power dissipation and generally greater energy efficiency. high frequency operation. making transistors suitable for small. facilitating the design of complementary-symmetry circuits.
matched pair Physical packaging: through hole metal. high voltage. super-beta. Application: switch. silicon. The frequency of transition is the frequency at which the transistor yields unity gain). an abbreviation for "frequency of transition". medium. through hole plastic. N-channel. PNP (BJTs). gallium arsenide. etc. ball grid array. power modules Amplification factor hfe (transistor beta) . general purpose. medium. high Maximum operating frequency: low. "other types" Polarity: NPN. silicon carbide.PNP P-channel NPN N-channel BJT JFET BJT and JFET symbols P-channel N-channel JFET MOSFET enh MOSFET dep JFET and IGFET symbols Transistors are categorized by • • • • • • • • Semiconductor material: germanium. audio. IGBT. surface mount. IGFET (MOSFET). microwave (The maximum effective frequency of a transistor is denoted by the term fT. JFET. high. P-channel (FETs) Maximum power rating: low. Structure: BJT. radio frequency (RF).
The four terminals of the FET are . separated by a thin region of semiconductor known as the base region (two junction diodes wired together without sharing an intervening semiconducting region will not make a transistor). is a combination of two junction diodes. the emitter-base junction is forward biased (electrons and holes recombine at the junction). Devices designed for this purpose have a transparent window in the package and are called phototransistors. Bipolar transistors can be made to conduct by exposure to light. It is typically greater than 100 for small-signal transistors but can be smaller in transistors designed for high-power applications. and is formed of either a thin layer of p-type semiconductor sandwiched between two n-type semiconductors (an n-p-n transistor). BJT. This construction produces two p-n junctions: a base–emitter junction and a base–collector junction. and a collector. or a thin layer of n-type semiconductor sandwiched between two p-type semiconductors (a p-n-p transistor). Also. the collector current is approximately β times the photocurrent. Unlike the FET. sometimes called a unipolar transistor. which is the dominant mechanism in the base current. By controlling the number of electrons that can leave the base." In an NPN transistor operating in the active region. surface mount. the BJT is a low–input-impedance device. Because of this exponential relationship. most of these electrons will diffuse into the reverse-biased (electrons and holes are formed at. Collector current is approximately β (common-emitter current gain) times the base current. It is useful in amplifiers because the currents at the emitter and collector are controllable by a relatively small base current.Thus. and move away from the junction) base-collector junction and be swept into the collector. perhaps one-hundredth of the electrons will recombine in the base. a particular transistor may be described as silicon. The BJT has three terminals. NPN. as the base–emitter voltage (Vbe) is increased the base–emitter current and hence the collector–emitter current (Ice) increase exponentially according to the Shockley diode model and the Ebers-Moll model. a base. corresponding to the three layers of semiconductor . the BJT has a higher transconductance than the FET.an emitter. since absorption of photons in the base region generates a photocurrent that acts as a base current. and electrons are injected into the base region.  Field-effect transistor Main articles: MOSFET and JFET The field-effect transistor (FET). uses either electrons (in N-channel FET) or holes (in P-channel FET) for conduction. high frequency switch. Because the base is narrow. low power. the first type of transistor to be mass-produced. The bipolar junction transistor (BJT).  Bipolar junction transistor Main article: Bipolar junction transistor Bipolar transistors are so named because they conduct by using both majority and minority carriers. the number of electrons entering the collector can be controlled.
Metal–semiconductor FETs (MESFETs) are JFETs in which the reverse biased PN junction is replaced by a metal–semiconductor Schottky-junction. The conductivity is varied by the electric field that is produced when a voltage is applied between the gate and source terminals. and a gate potential can "enhance" the conduction. and a gate potential (of the opposite polarity) can "deplete" the channel. oxide (the insulation). Also. at the 65 nm technology node. and then at a roughly quadratic rate ( ) (where VT is the threshold voltage at which drain current begins) in the "space-charge-limited" region above threshold. Nearly all JFETs are depletion-mode as the diode junctions would forward bias and conduct if they were enhancement mode devices. Unlike IGFETs. in which a two-dimensional electron gas with very high carrier mobility is used for charge transport. the body is connected to the source inside the package. the drain–source current (Ids) increases exponentially for Vgs below threshold. FETs do not inherently amplify a photocurrent. Functionally. there are ways to use them. for example. and this will be assumed for the following description. by exploiting the photocurrents in channel–gate or channel–body junctions. For either mode. and the HEMTs (high electron mobility transistors. FETs are divided into two families: junction FET (JFET) and insulated gate FET (IGFET). are especially suitable for use at very high frequencies (microwave frequencies. As the gate–source voltage (Vgs) is increased. reflecting its original construction from layers of metal (the gate). Nevertheless. a more positive gate voltage corresponds to a higher current for N-channel devices and a lower current for P-channel devices. For depletion mode. The IGFET is more commonly known as a metal–oxide–semiconductor FET (MOSFET). and body (substrate). In FETs.named source. or HFETs). forms a diode between its grid and cathode. FETs are further divided into depletion-mode and enhancement-mode types. the JFET gate forms a PN diode with the channel which lies between the source and drain. several GHz). and they both conduct current under the control of an input voltage. gate.  Other transistor types . the channel is off at zero bias. similarly. this makes the N-channel JFET the solid state equivalent of the vacuum tube triode which. Unlike bipolar transistors. especially JFETs. These. the channel is on at zero bias. most IGFETs are enhancement-mode types. both devices operate in the depletion mode. On most FETs. hence the current flowing between the drain and source is controlled by the voltage applied between the gate and source. A quadratic behavior is not observed in modern devices. reducing conduction. they both have a high input impedance. depending on whether the channel is turned on or off with zero gate-to-source voltage. the drain-to-source current flows via a conducting channel that connects the source region to the drain region. For low noise at narrow bandwidth the higher input resistance of the FET is advantageous. and semiconductor. drain. For enhancement mode. as light-sensitive devices.
to measure ion concentrations in solution.700 volts and can handle 2.5 kg. speedier than alloy-junction transistor Micro-alloy diffused transistor (MADT). improvement of grown-junction transistor Micro-alloy transistor (MAT). first kind of BJT o Alloy-junction transistor. a diffused-base transistor Schottky transistor Surface barrier transistor o Drift-field transistor o Avalanche transistor o Darlington transistors are two BJTs connected together to provide a high current gain equal to the product of the current gains of the two transistors. common in modern ultrafast and RF circuits o Grown-junction transistor. HFET.400 amperes. Intended for three-phase power supplies. o Insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) use a medium power IGFET. a diffusedbase transistor Post-alloy diffused transistor (PADT). IGBTs are particularly suitable for heavy-duty industrial applications. in LCDs. to give a high input impedance. MODFET) o MOSFET. similarly connected to a power BJT. . this device houses three NPN IGBTs in a case measuring 38 by 140 by 190 mm and weighing 1. speedier than MAT. similar to JFET with a Schottky junction instead of PN one High Electron Mobility Transistor (HEMT. o OFET Organic Field-Effect Transistor. o Photo transistor Field-effect transistor o JFET. o FREDFET. Power diodes are often connected between certain terminals depending on specific use. for non-volatile storage. Please help to clean it up to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. (September 2009) • • • Point-contact transistor. Each IGBT is rated at 1. o FETs used to sense environment Ion sensitive field effect transistor. unverified or indiscriminate. source/drain region shapes fins on the silicon surface. The Asea Brown Boveri (ABB) 5SNA2400E170100 illustrates just how far power semiconductor technology has advanced. up to several hundred GHz. where the gate is insulated by a reverse-biased PN junction o MESFET. where the gate is insulated by a shallow layer of insulator o Inverted-T field effect transistor (ITFET) o FinFET. speedier than MAT.This article contains embedded lists that may be poorly defined. first kind of transistor ever constructed Bipolar junction transistor (BJT) o Heterojunction bipolar transistor. in which the semiconductor is an organic compound o Ballistic transistor o Floating-gate transistor. fast-reverse epitaxial diode field-effect transistor o Thin film transistor.
e.. mixers. • • • EOSFET. making it an excellent conductor. Crucially the gate. developed at Tyndall National Institute in Ireland. Nanofluidic transistor. "Orange". Nanofluidic transistor. The tunnelling current is controlled by a voltage applied to the gate through a capacitor.a 2SD965 might only be marked "D965". but sometimes the "2S" prefix is not marked on the package . they waste significant power and generate significant waste heat. They begin with "2S". in each the alphanumeric prefix provides clues to type of the device: Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS) has a standard for transistor part numbers.. a 2SC1815 might be listed by a supplier as simply "C1815". This method has been described as akin to squeezing a garden hose to gate the flow of water through the hose. "O". deoxyribonucleic acid field-effect transistor • • • • Spacistor Diffusion transistor. (Even MOSFETs have junctions. "BL". formed by diffusing dopants into semiconductor substrate. electrolyte-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (Neurochip) DNAFET. A junction with the opposite semiconductor type is formed at a point along the length of the body for the third terminal (Emitter). comprising silicon. Eliminating them held the promise of cheaper and denser microchips. waterfilled channels. and oscillators.. and. Junctionless Nanowire Transistor (JNT). 2SD965. a configuration optimized for high frequency amplifiers. The nanowire is heavily n-doped. can be both BJT and FET Unijunction transistors can be used as simple pulse generators. They comprise a main body of either P-type or N-type semiconductor with ohmic contacts at each end (terminals Base1 and Base2).) Junctions are difficult and expensive to fabricate.  Part numbers The types of some transistors can be parsed from the part number. controls the movement of ions through sub-microscopic. "Blue" etc. is heavily p-doped. standing for "Red".. This series sometimes has suffixes (such as "R". because they are a significant source of current leakage.) to denote variants. such as tighter hFE (gain) groupings. and its presence depletes the underlying silicon nanowire thereby preventing carrier flow past the gate. There are three major semiconductor naming standards. Single-electron transistors (SET) consist of a gate island between two tunnelling junctions. the basis of future chemical processors Multigate devices o Tetrode transistor o Pentode transistor o Multigate device o Trigate transistors (Prototype by Intel) o Dual gate FETs have a single channel with two gates in cascode. The JNT uses a simple nanowire of silicon surrounded by an electrically isolated "wedding ring" that acts to gate the flow of electrons through the wire. was the first transistor successfully fabricated without junctions.g. although its gate is electrically insulated from the region the gate controls. .
for industrial types) follows (and. For example 2N3055 is a silicon NPN power transistor. etc. A letter suffix (such as "A") is sometimes used to indicate a newer variant.  Other schemes Manufacturers of devices may have their own proprietary numbering system. small signal transistor ("allround") BD Silicon. BC327-25) or voltage rating (e. because early transistors were mainly Germanium).g. and the first digit or two for the filament voltage). Some proprietary naming schemes adopt parts of other naming schemes. so begin with 3N).Beginning of Part Number 2SA 2SB 2SC 2SD 2SJ 2SK Type of Transistor high frequency PNP BJTs audio frequency PNP BJTs high frequency NPN BJTs audio frequency NPN BJTs P-channel FETs (both JFETs and MOSFETs) N-channel FETs (both JFETs and MOSFETs) The Pro Electron part numbers begin with two letters: the first gives the semiconductor type (A for Germanium. while the PN100 is unrelated to other xx100 devices). A 3-digit sequence number (or one letter then 2 digits. Suffixes may be used. Military part numbers sometimes are assigned their own codes. RF (high frequency) BJT or FET BS Silicon. such as the British Military CV Naming System.g. switching transistor (BJT or MOSFET) BL Silicon. for example CK722.just as the older system for vacuum tubes used the last digit or two to indicate the number of pins. power transistor BF Silicon. B for Silicon. Note that a manufacturer's prefix (like "MPF" in MPF102. the second letter denotes the intended use (A for diode. "C" often means high hFE. C for general-purpose transistor. high frequency. indicating a three-terminal device (dual-gate Field Effect Transistors are four-terminal devices. such as a letter (e. BUK854-800A).g. not a 2N108. 2N1301 is a PNP germanium switching transistor. and C for materials like GaAs). indicated the case type . such as in: BC549C) or other codes may follow to show gain (e. high power (for transmitters) BU Silicon.). but rarely gain groupings. high voltage (for CRT horizontal deflection circuits) Example AC126 AF117 BC548B BD139 BF245 BS170 BLW34 BU508 The JEDEC transistor device numbers usually start with 2N. which originally would denote a Motorola FET) now is an unreliable indicator of who made the device. for example a PN2222A is a (possibly Fairchild Semiconductor) 2N2222A in a plastic case (but a PN108 is a plastic version of a BC108. . then a 2. with early devices. The more common prefixes are: Prefix class Usage AC Germanium small signal transistor AF Germanium RF transistor BC Silicon. 3 or 4digit sequential number with no significance as to device properties (although low numbers tend to be Germanium devices.
Single element semiconductor material (Ge and Si) is described as elemental. and sundry other factors: Semiconductor material characteristics Junction forward Electron mobility Hole mobility Max. junction temp.27 0.39 0. Silicon (Si) types currently predominate but certain advanced microwave and high performance versions now employ the compound semiconductor material gallium arsenide (GaAs) and the semiconductor alloy silicon germanium (SiGe). So even when the original device (such as a 2N3904) may have been assigned by a standards authority. the other the higher-powered MOSFET 2SJ176).71 0. and well known by engineers over the years. ambiguity sometimes occurs.05 70 to 100 150 to 200 Semiconductor material Ge Si . electric field. For example. identifying a particular purchasing specification and not necessarily a device with a standardized registered number. For example two different devices may be marked "J176" (one the J176 low-power Junction FET. an HP part 1854.Manufacturers buying large numbers of similar parts may have them supplied with "house numbers". they tend to be assigned many different part numbers because manufacturers have their own systems to cope with the variety in pinout arrangements and options for dual or matched NPN+PNP devices in one pack. impurity level. strain. Rough parameters for the most common semiconductor materials used to make transistors are given in the table below. As older "through-hole" transistors are given Surface-Mount packaged counterparts.0053 is a (JEDEC) 2N2218 transistor which is also assigned the CV number: CV7763  Naming problems With so many independent naming schemes.14 0. the new versions are far from standardised in their naming.  Construction  Semiconductor material The first BJTs were made from germanium (Ge).19 0. it must be noted that these parameters will vary with increase in temperature. and the abbreviation of part numbers when printed on the devices. voltage m2/(V·s) @ 25 °C m2/(V·s) @ 25 °C °C V @ 25 °C 0.
The lower the junction forward voltage the better.GaAs 1. A relatively recent FET development. In some circuits special compensating elements (sensistors) must be used to compensate for such changes.3 The junction forward voltage is the voltage applied to the emitter-base junction of a BJT in order to make the base conduct a specified current. has a heterostructure (junction between different semiconductor materials) of aluminium gallium arsenide (AlGaAs)-gallium arsenide (GaAs) which has twice the electron mobility of a GaAs-metal barrier junction.85 — 0. However. it has relatively high leakage current. the high electron mobility transistor (HEMT). it cannot withstand high voltages. The junction forward voltage for a given current decreases with increase in temperature. The table indicates that Ge is a better material than Si in this respect. it is less suitable for fabricating integrated circuits. The values given in the table are typical for a current of 1 mA (the same values apply to semiconductor diodes). the higher the electron mobility the speedier the transistor. Some impurities. HEMTs are used in satellite receivers working at frequencies around 12 GHz. Ge has four major shortcomings compared to silicon and gallium arsenide: • • • • Its maximum temperature is limited. are introduced deliberately in making a MOSFET. Because the electron mobility is higher than the hole mobility for all semiconductor materials. For a typical silicon junction the change is −2. This temperature should not be exceeded or the transistor may be damaged. as this means that less power is required to "drive" the transistor.03 0. It is for this reason that GaAs is used in high frequency applications. called dopants.1 mV/°C. The density of mobile carriers in the channel of a MOSFET is a function of the electric field forming the channel and of various other phenomena such as the impurity level in the channel. to control the MOSFET electrical behavior. Because of their high speed and low noise. a given bipolar NPN transistor tends to be swifter than an equivalent PNP transistor type. Max. The current increases exponentially as the junction forward voltage is increased. This is included in the table because some silicon power . Al-Si junction refers to the high-speed (aluminum-silicon) semiconductor-metal barrier diode. junction temperature values represent a cross section taken from various manufacturers' data sheets.05 — 150 to 200 150 to 200 Al-Si junction 0. The electron mobility and hole mobility columns show the average speed that electrons and holes diffuse through the semiconductor material with an electric field of 1 volt per meter applied across the material. In general. GaAs has the highest electron mobility of the three semiconductors. commonly known as a Schottky diode.
but the assignment of a transistor's functions to the terminals is not: other transistor types can assign other functions to the package's terminals. most power transistors have the collector or drain physically connected to the metal can/metal plate. or plastic. Additionally. metal. and surface-mount. SMDs have better high frequency characteristics but lower power rating. but sometimes it is used in the circuit. At the other extreme.IGFETs have a parasitic reverse Schottky diode formed between the source and drain as part of the fabrication process. This diode can be a nuisance.  Packaging Through-hole transistors (tape measure marked in centimetres) Transistors come in many different packages (semiconductor packages) (see images). Even for the same transistor type the terminal assignment can vary (normally indicated by a suffix letter to the part number. The ball grid array (BGA) is the latest surface mount package (currently only for large transistor arrays). some surface-mount microwave transistors are as small as grains of sand. Because they are smaller and have shorter interconnections. ceramic.  See also • • • • • • • • • • Band gap Chip carrier Chip packaging and package types list Digital logic Diode Electronic component Integrated circuit Memristor Moore's law Semiconductor Semiconductor device modeling . It has solder "balls" on the underside in place of leads. also known as surface mount device (SMD). The package often dictates the power rating and frequency characteristics. q. Often a given transistor type is available in sundry packages. Power transistors have larger packages that can be clamped to heat sinks for enhanced cooling. Transistor packages are mainly standardized. BC212L and BC212K).e. The two main categories are through-hole (or leaded). Transistor packages are made of glass.
ISBN 0-13-822023-9. Oskar.org/isbn/0387257462. 8. ^ J. Krimmel). Roadmap to Entrepreneurial Success. 16.htm. Patent No. Analog design essentials. Springer. NJ: Prentice-Hall. "Improvements in or relating to electrical amplifiers and other control arrangements and devices". Siffert. New York . 2006 ISBN 0-07-145951-0. 2. ISBN 9780814471906.com.ieee. Patent 1. 1992. 2004 ISBN 3-54040546-1. F. Robert G. http://www. Cambridge University Press.org/xpls/abs_all. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.10. Heywang.^ FETs/MOSFETs: Smaller apps push up surface-mount supply 11. K. 4. American Heritage Dictionary (3rd ed. E. M. "The other transistor: early history of the metal-oxidesemiconductor field-effect transistor". 301–305.jsp? arnumber=730824. with A.fairchildsemi. pp. ISSN 0963-7346.B and C gain groupings . 7. E. Englewood Cliffs. Silicon: evolution and future of a technology (Editors: P. (October 1998). Berlin: Springer. Springer.^ Horowitz. ^ W.36. McGraw-Hill Professional. ^ David Bodanis (2005). 071003 bcae1. published 1935-12-06 (originally filed in Germany 1934-03-02).S. Sansen (2006). Retrieved on May 28. ^ Grant McFarland.^ apart from a small value due to leakage currents 14. Embedded.745. Microprocessor design: a practical guide from design planning to manufacturing. New York. 28. 9. (December 18.• • • • • • • • Semiconductor devices Transconductance Transistor count Transistor models Transistor–transistor logic Transresistance Very-large-scale integration 2N3055. European Patent Office. 2002). filed in Great Britain 1934-03-02. Ben (1992). http://ieeexplore.1049/esej:19980509.com 15. p. The Art of Electronics (2nd ed. AMACOM Div American Mgmt Assn. doi:10.175 1930-01-28 (filed in Canada 1925-10-22. F. p. Engineering Science and Education Journal 7 (5): 233–240.^ Clive TEC Transistors Japanese Industrial Standards 21. 5.1.google. in US 1926-10-08)." May 26.^ http://www.^ a b Streetman. "Introduction: Silicon in all its Forms". H. Crown Publishers. Price (2004). Julius Edgar. 3. 6. Zaininger. ISBN 0-521-37095-7. ^ Lilienfeld. pp.^ Turley. 10. 18.com/transres. Winfield Hill (1989). 12. ^ Robert W. http://worldcat.com/? id=q7UzNoWdGAkC&pg=PA42&dq=transistor+inventions-of-the-twentieth-century. Solid State Electronic Devices. ^ Heil. J. 13. 2009.^ IGBT Module 5SNA 2400E170100 19. p. 42.^ "Intel Previews Intel Xeon 'Nehalem-EX' Processor.The Two Percent Solution.com/ds/BC/BC549. 115. "Method and apparatus for controlling electric current" U. "Silicon: The Semiconductor Material". 2004 ISBN 3-540-40546-1. GB439457. ISBN 0-387-25746-2. Chelikowski. C. Paul. p. ^ Arns. ISBN 0-7394-5670-9. §0152. 17.). p. Siffert. 2009.pdf Datasheet for BC549.). ^ "transistor".bcae1. Electric Universe. p.^ W. Krimmel). http://books.^ "Transistor Example". an early general purpose transistor  References 1.^ Single Electron Transistors 20. Silicon: evolution and future of a technology (Editors: P.
Analogue and Digital Electronics. An Inventor of the Transistor has his moment". Riordan.org/print/2155. Mataré. ISBN 0-7506-4427-3.org BBC: Building the digital age photo history of transistors Transistor Flow Control — Scientific American Magazine (October 2005) The Bell Systems Memorial on Transistors .  Further reading • • • • • • • • • Amos S W & James M R (1999).^ A.net/g8yoa/cv_table.2005.pdf ARRL Transistor .org/datasheet/philips/BUK854-800A. Part Numbers to JEDEC (pdf) 25.22.pdf datasheet for BUK854800A (800volt IGBT) 23. ISBN 0333-65820-5. Macmillan Press Ltd. IEEE Spectrum 42 (11): 52–57.google. 24 February 2003. Winfield (1989). Lillian (1998). "Herbert F.hpmuseum. Microelectronic circuits (Fifth ed. Smith (2004). http://books.C. "The Transistor's 20th Anniversary: How Germanium And A Bit of Wire Changed The World". Bacon.  External links Wikibooks has a book on the topic of Transistors Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Transistors • • • • The Transistor Educational content from Nobelprize.htm.ieee. ISBN 0-393-31851-6.1109/MSPEC.org/Technology/2003/Transistor-MatareInventor24feb03. ButterworthHeinemann.org/cgi-sys/cgiwrap/hpmuseum/archv010.Diode Cross Reference .W Norton & Company Limited. Principles of Transistor Circuits. http://www. Silicon Chips and You. D. Paul & Hill. http://spectrum. 397 and Figure 5. W.com/?id=mykDAAAAMBAJ&printsec=frontcover. retrieved from Google Books 2009-03-22 (Bonnier Corporation) 192 (6): 80–84.S. Stevenson (1968).P. The Art of Electronics.).^ http://www.1526906. ISSN 0161-7370. Bonnier Corp. Wiley-IEEE Press.html CV Device Cross-reference by Andy Lake 26.cgi?read=27258 Richard Freeman's HP Part numbers Crossreference 24. W. ISBN 0-19-514251-9.17. Michael Riordan (2005).^ http://www. Renmore (1980).^ http://www.: Popular Science.qsl. Sedra and K.org/qexfiles/300-hpxref. Lionel (1998). Michael & Hoddeson. Complete Guide to Semiconductor Devices. C.^ http://www.mindfully. The New York Times. Horowitz. "How Europe Missed the Transistor". Crystal Fire. ISBN 0-521-37095-7.datasheetcatalog.arrl. New York: Oxford University Press. 2nd Edition. doi:10. pp. Cambridge University Press. The invention of the transistor & the birth of the information age Warnes.H.
low-power. the venerable NPN 2N3055 has been the "standard" power transistor. 2SD. http://userpages. Complementary pairs are shown as NPN/PNP or N/P channel. 15A. high power Darlington complementary pair BJTs. general purpose. Designed for television horizontal deflection. Historical and technical information from the Public Broadcasting Service This Month in Physics History: November 17 to December 23.5-watt. Treasure trove of transistor history Jerry Russell's Transistor Cross Reference Database. general-purpose. 115W BJTs are used in audio power amplifiers. 1500 V power BJT.html A short video showing how a transistor works. 40A. power supplies. with two NPN BJTs on a single substrate. BJT. 120 V. Links go to manufacturer datasheets. From the American Physical Society 50 Years of the Transistor. making them popular with hobbyists. With metal cases they are rated at about one watt. They have plastic cases and cost roughly ten cents US in small quantities. complementary pairs. general purpose. Searchable database of transistor specifications and datasheets. these BJTs have low-distortion characteristics and are used in high-power audio amplifiers. Its complement. 200W. and control. Charts showing many characteristics and giving direct access to most datasheets for 2N. The Transistor and Portable Electronics. 8 GHz microwave NPN BJT.  Datasheets A wide range of transistors has been available since the 1960s and manufacturers continually introduce improved types. all types are made from silicon semiconductor.) • • • • • • • • • • • • • 2N3904/2N3906. low power. BC182/BC212 and BC546/BC556: Ubiquitous. and power switching. 2N2219A/2N2905A: BJT. 1997 Bob's Virtual Transistor Museum & History. BSP296/BSP171: IGFET (enhancement mode).edu/bshelburne/Comp150/LogicGatesCircuits. 2N3055/MJ2955: For years. 2SA. 2SC3281/2SA1302: Made by Toshiba. 200 W. 2SB. All about the history of transistors and integrated circuits. and other numbers. . Unless otherwise stated. 2N7000 is a typical small-signal field-effect transistor. (On some datasheets the accuracy of the stated transistor category is a matter of debate. medium power. 250 MHz PNP BJT. medium power. December 12. 2SC. 2SH-K. its high voltage capability also makes it suitable for use in ignition systems. near complementary pair. MJ11012/MJ11015: 30 A. the PNP MJ2955 arrived later. complementary pair. 60V. especially in automobiles. For high-power amplifiers and power switches. IRF3710/IRF5210: IGFET (enhancement mode). 0.wittenberg. BFP183: Low power. From Science Friday. BU508: NPN. 100V. A few examples from the main families are noted below. 2N5457/2N5460: JFET (depletion mode). They have been widely counterfeited . Used for logic level conversion and driving power transistors in amplifiers. AF107: Germanium. LM394: "supermatch pair".• • • • • • • • • • IEEE Global History Network. Transistorized. 1947: Invention of the First Transistor. These 1 MHz. control. which are in PDF format. Used in audio amplifiers. The DatasheetArchive. near complementary pair. complementary pair.
 Patents • • • • • US patent 1745175 Julius Edgar Lilienfeld: "Method and apparatus for controlling electric current" first filed in Canada on 22.wikipedia. Shockley: "Circuit element utilizing semiconductive material" oldest priority 26.: "Three-electrode circuit element utilizing semiconductive materials" oldest priority 26.1928.06. a thin film MOSFET GB patent 439457 Oskar Heil: "Improvements in or relating to electrical amplifiers and other control arrangements and devices" first filed in Germany on 02.03.org/wiki/Transistor" Categories: Transistors | Semiconductor devices | 1947 introductions | American inventions Hidden categories: All articles with unsourced statements | Articles with unsourced statements from October 2009 | Articles needing additional references from November 2010 | All articles needing additional references | Articles needing cleanup from September 2009 | All pages needing cleanup Personal tools • • New features Log in / create account Namespaces • • Article Discussion Variants Views • • • Actions Search Read Edit View history Navigation • Main page . describing a device similar to a MESFET US patent 1900018 Julius Edgar Lilienfeld: "Device for controlling electric current" filed on 28.02.1934 US patent 2524035 J.1948 Retrieved from "http://en.10.1948 US patent 2569347 W. Bardeen et al.1925.03.
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