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1.0 Area of chosen problem: Contemporary Islamic Issue
1.1 Current condition: Islam is the fastest growing religion in the world today. The religion is now expanding globally and over time, Islam has become a multi-racial religion. 1.2 General problem: Islamic buildings are always focusing on one ethnic’s culture. Islam and ethnical culture are always mixed up, causing some stereotype perception towards Islam being a monotonous religion. 1.3 General solution: To represent global contemporary Islam through architecture. The building should have a cross-cultural approach. 1.4 Specific scope: Malaysia: Designing an Islamic centre that represent and promotes multi-racial Islam in order to take away stereotype perception among Malaysians and visitors on Muslims being on of Malays. Chinese and Indians in Malaysia are two other main ethnic in Malaysia after Malay and some of them are Muslims as well. However, mosques in Malaysia were traditionally built according to segregation of ethnics such as Indian Muslim mosques. The proposed building should be serving facilities for all Muslims comfortably without the feeling of being out of place.
1.5 Reflection on Problem 1.5.1 Rethinking the causes of the problem by stepping back to main point that causes the issue to rise: a. The facilitation need of an Islamic centre. b. The representation of growing aspect of Islam which already starts to consist of nontypical ethnics who are not normally associated with Muslims. c. Promotes Islam as a global religion. Reconstruction to basic points: d. Islam e. Multi-racial f. Global Deliberation: Reposition the scope from Malaysia to Melbourne instead because: If promoting Islam as a multiracial religion is a major point for solving the stereotype perception of Islam, it is best to promote it in an area where least people are aware of the multiracial Islam. Thus, a Western country like Australia who fits the targeted user specification than Malaysia. In terms of facilities provision, Malaysia already has heaps of Islamic centre than Melbourne. Plus, Muslims in Melbourne are growing rapidly.
2.0 Brief Construction
2.1 In order to promote the described purpose as well as serving facilities to Muslims, function of the building has been set to fulfill the following points: Providing facilities and infrastructure for Muslims who are in need (for example, for an area which there is a problem in Islamic facilities). Represent and serve multicultural Islamic society. Providing a positive (possibly new) image for Islam in Australia. Providing a sense of connection between Islam and Australia. 2.2 An overwhelming majority, 79%, of Muslims in Australia have obtained Australian citizenship (221,856 out of a total of 281,578)
2.3 Should not represent a culture like those existing mosque in suburbs – Albanian Mosque, Somalis Mosque, mosques that usually consist of a particular ethnic in majority. 2.4 Have higher relation to Australia as a country. 2.5 “However, there are some people in Australia who believe that Muslims cannot and will not do this. This is because Muslims are seen as rejecting Western values and fundamental Australian values based on Western values. Contrary to belief, most Muslims do not have any problems with these values. In fact, many Muslims have migrated to Australia precisely because of them. From a Muslim point of view, Australia is a generous and accommodating society that accepts people from all over the world, of all faiths, colours, languages and ethnicities. Australia gives people
3. When asked why he stood up for the Jew. Such rights and freedoms are not available in a significant number of Muslim countries. and to Him we submit (Qur’an 3:83). the values listed here are part of Islam too. For most Muslims. teach.0 Gender participation: 4.2 Interfaith dialogue in Melbourne – reformation of Islamic foundation and focusing back on what the Prophet had done in his time – putting culture aside – 3.recognition and the freedom to practise. the Prophet said: Was he not a human being?” 4.” 3. and even propagate their religion here. we make no distinction between any of them. and that which was revealed to Abraham and Ishmael and Isaac and Jacob and the tribes and that which was given to Moses and Jesus and to the Prophets from their Lord. and Muslims do not see any conflict between these values and their religion (Abdullah Saeed)”.0 Age participation: .1 About 1:2 (male:female) due to Friday prayer which is obligatory for men but not women.1“We believe in God and that which was revealed to us.3 “One day the Prophet was sitting with some of his companions and he stood up as a funeral procession for a Jew passed by. 5.0 Cross-cultural in a Western country: 3.
4 percent answered that they actually live in the city of Melbourne.133 students in 2005. 2% of 81000 students = 1620 Muslim students – approx.800 international students.6.1 Melbourne was home to approximately 23.2 Thus. . More than 81. 7. 2000.000 people were studying in tertiary institutions within the City of Melbourne. Responses were solicited from Muslims located in greater metropolitan Melbourne at the time of data gathering.0 Students: 7.0 Residence of Melbourne Muslims: 2.000 international students. including 21. 7. including 11.
Refer to Proposal page 3 for final brief description.7. . the site Melbourne city is the most relevant [refer to Proposal page 3].3 Further refinement: Based on investigation on demographic statistics.
1 Experiment: Reconstructing the existing Melbourne City Mosque in West Melbourne: .8.0 Siting 8.
3 Within the area of Muslim population.1.1 Creating a vertical approach due to space limitation and nature of surrounding buildings.1.2 Near Flagstaff Garden where Eid prayer [congregational prayers on special festivals] take place.1. Option 1: 8. One of the possible ways to ensure familiarity among targeted users which most Muslims living in city are familiar with this mosque which is now just a square block of an office building.1 Familiarity 8.. Advantages: 8. 8.1..2 Cantilevered building design.. . 8..1..
Option 2: 8.. 8.. Lack Of Connection 8.. However they don’t suggest a solution to represent an image of Australian Islam on site.1 Possible expansion / new site in neighboring land plots.1.1 All the above approaches are only favor on one side which is serving facilities for Muslims living in the city.1..1.1. .2 Create a connecting space reaching out towards Flagstaff Garden.1. Option 3: 8.1 Other neighboring site on a corner lot that possibly will create a stand-out presence..3 A bridge-like building over King St will create a grand gesture. 8.
.8. Refer to Proposal page 4 for site selection criteria.2 Selected site: A site on Victoria St was selected as the best solution by taking into account its openness to the Melbourne CBD (for promoting reason).
1. research on the Melbourne contemporary Muslims had been done.1 An approach which I normally used in designing.0 Programmatic 1.2.2 Facilities research: 1. programs of the building need to work best.1 In order to portray a contemporary Muslim society. This is relevant to solving the problem because a connectivity solution that I am looking for may be taken from Muslim contemporary activities that are being done in Melbourne: . Therefore. It is the appropriate approach to be considered in this project since the project has some degree of providing infrastructure and facilities.THREE DESIGN APPROACHES 1.
1.2 ZESP Sustainable Program organization may be taken as the connection between Islam and Melbourne.2. due to some reasons: 1.1 With the grasp of knowing what programs are going on among Muslims in city and possible connections to Melbourne.3.2 Australia has a strong connection with water sustainability due to being in a dessert continent.2.2.3 Accommodation schedule: 184.108.40.206. accommodation schedule can be produced: .1 Islam has a deep spiritual connection with water: 1.
Lounge i. Shared bathrooms with 2 showers (male) d. 1500 seats theatre a. 2 (4 sqm) = 8 sqm c. 10 (70) sqm = 500 sqm b. 1000 (0. Approx 30 sqm d. 15 (1.Program MOSQUE Classifications a.3 sqm) = 20 sqm a. 2 Ablution area + Washrooms c. 5 Classrooms (20 ppl each) b. Praying area (1000 ppl) b. Approx 25 sqm a. 2 (150 sqm) = 300 sqm c. 6 single room (female) e. Exhibition area a. Storage Area a. d. Approx 80 sqm a. e. 5 Offices b. Approx 10 sqm e. Approx 30 sqm d. Approx 100 sqm j. Approx 15 sqm d. Approx 50 sqm = 510 sqm AUDITORIUM a. 2 Warden rooms en-suite g. 5 (12 sqm) = 60 sqm b. Approx 20 sqm d. 2 ( 6 + 14 sqm) = 40 sqm g. Approx 30 sqm h. Kitchen a. b. 6 (12 sqm) = 72 sqm e. Library d. Approx 300 sqm c. 2 (14 sqm) = 28 sqm b. Kids playroom h. Library c. 5 (70 sqm) = 350 sqm b. 5 Babies room ( 2 infants/room) b.5 sqm gross = 2400 sqm b. 2 Examine rooms 2 Washrooms Storage Reception Waiting area (15 ppl) =1100 sqm a. c. Teachers office (5 ppl) d. 4 (100 sqm) = 400 sqm Total = 2800 sqm SCHOOL FOSTER CARE ORGANIZATIONS OFFICES CLINIC a. Approx 17 sqm f.96 sqm) + 1. Dining area j. Approx 50 sqm i. 6 single room (male) c. Shared bathrooms with 3 showers (female) f. 6 (12 sqm) = 72 sqm c. 4 Lecture theatres for used of teaching + occasional events (80 ppl each) a. Approx 2300 sqm = 580 sqm = 90 sqm .
2 Washrooms c. 2. 6 (3 x 2. 50 + 100 sqm = 150 sqm c. 2 (32 x 17 x 6. 2 (200 sqm) = 400 sqm b. 6 Kitchen + counter b. 2 Changing room + washrooms (accomm 50 people each) a. 2 Short-course pools c. 2 Gyms b. Approx 3300 sqm = 5600 sqm .5 sqm x 100 = 250 sqm e.77.6 m) = 2 (544) = 1088 sqm d. Banquet HALAL FOOD COURT a. Large open field for eid prayers can be steps / stacks (2000 ppl) a. 2 (25 x 13m) = 2(325) sqm = 650 sqm c.5 m) = 6(7.b. Public car parks replacing existing (112 space) b. Building’s car parks (167 space) RECREATIONAL AREA b. 2 Basketball/netball court / 4 badminton (County/club standard) d. 2 (120 sqm) = 240 sqm a. Lounge (accomm 100 people) e. Approx 250 sqm a. = 2700 sqm = 300 sqm = 2700 sqm LANDSCAPE COURTYARD CARPARKS a.5) = 45 sqm b. Approx 2300 sqm b. Approx 200 sqm a. Dining area (50 people) a.
4 Proposed design that may be achieved resulted from programmatic approach is the concept of bridging: .1.
5 Precedents research: 1.5.1 The Ground Zero mosque proposal is an interesting example of programmatic adaptation into traditional building.1. Examples of typical urban mosque layout: .2 Investigation on religious rule for praying area is done to ensure the vertical mosque is a good solution.5. 1. The idea of multistorey mosque is a good solution to the project.
1. 1.6 Reflection: 1.2 The idea of ‘bridging’ is too literal but may be developed into a better design such as making the bridge to appear less of a two-point bridge but a spiral connection around the building. .6. 1.6. an obvious element of connection is still missing.6.4 Yet.3 Site constraint of limited space may be a problem to having a continuous bridge as mentioned above.1 This approach is easy to cause lack of unity towards the design because the result may become two different building on a site which then backfires the whole idea of preventing segregation. 1.6.
the issue is how would the heritage overlay be celebrated? 2. However. this is an opportunity to create connection to Melbourne’s culture.220.127.116.11 Investigations on heritage properties: 2.2. it is desirable to connect this element to Islam.1 With the site being on a heritage overlay.1.1.1 Change of Use: 2. Melbourne is known to have rich heritage value.1 Heritage Overlay: 2.0 Issue-based 2.2 New Building: .1.
2. 18.104.22.168.4 Precedents on heritage preservation issues were researched where Daniel Libeskind’s buildings were focused: Daniel Libeskind’s Royal Ontario Museum .3 Refer to Proposal page 7 for background of Victoria Horticultural Hall.2.3 Removal: 2.
Montreal Museum of Fine Arts .Daniel Libeskind’s Dresden Military History Museum Provencher Roy Architects.
2 Iconoclasm : .2.
3.1 Internal garden courtyard: 2.3.1. The ground floor can be allocated for the Horticulture Society with living garden around the heritage building that has tall plants to reach along the vertical atrium so that the experience of the garden can reach Islamic centre on upper levels.3 Proposed experiments: 2.2.1 Concept of having a garden inside the building and spatial connections are between bridges. .
.1 The site where the building is located is placed with a garden in the middle. This is to create a centre atrium that connects all spaces around the site.2.2 Garden atrium: 22.214.171.124.
2. With the awareness of preserving historical buildings. A combination with other approach is preferable since the problem itself works like a 3D object consisting of 3 dimensions bound together.4.4. .4.3 It is almost impossible to solve the wicked problem using only this approach.2 This approach is useful to be taken further into the project as it suggests to a committee of how importance history and culture are. indirectly it connects with the realization of the importance of culture in architecture. the connection between Islam and Australia should be marked architecturally. 2.4 Reflection: 2.1 Heritage issue is a good limitation for the project as its limitation provides extensive creativity to tackle it. 2. Hence.
Since the purpose of the problem itself is to run away from typical.0 Traditional Culture: 3. since the problem is cultural. this approach seems like a parallel dimension that does not intersect with the problem. it seems relevant to try adopting traditional methods.3.2 Islamic geometry research: . However. traditional perception and image of Islam. 3.1 This is an approach which I have never thought of trying in designing any building.
2 By observing the Melbourne city grid.3.3.1 Calligraphy in Islam also based on geometry and proportions which aligns with Muslim belief where everything of God’s creation has its purpose and nothing is random. 3.3.3 Islamic calligraphy: 3. a simple calligraphy experiment can be done: .
4 With this. Does not matter how far you’ve learned in this world. This is aligned with the opening verses of Quranic chapter that consist of letters arranged without meaning.3. . the importance of letters that are used in mysterious verses is taken into account in calligraphy. Thus. 3. it is nothing compares to God’s knowledge. Most Muslims are aware of the purpose behind the mysterious set of letters since every Quran mentioned this: Quran put itself as a divine book that is beyond human’s knowledge and keep reminding readers of humility in seeking knowledge.3.3. these mysterious letters are put for that purpose. letters of the Arabic calligraphy also believed to contain specific meaning.3 Since Muslims believe in purpose and meaning.
3.3.5 Investigation on letter Haa (one of the letters used in mysterious verse) which is the letter appearing on the site based on the above experiment: Meaning behind letter Haa .
.Searching for ideas in its form Trying out ideas from proportion of dots from Nizam al-Nuqat type calligraphy.
1 Option 1: design concept that is based on mysterious and humility: Quranic verses about the idea of night and day succession.3.3.3. .6 Experiment in approaching the meaning of Haa as a letter: 3.6.
.3.2 Option 2: Haa adapted to the idea of bridging: Literal approach on the form of the letter by applying the form into plan to create a bridge.6.3.
3.3 Option 3: Haa represented through dots proportion calligraphy: .3.6.
Trying to apply repetition in Haa Putting the repetition into 3d .
.3. This is surprisingly useful for the project because rules and disciplines can be preserved but may portray in a contemporary design and may create connection to heritage value.1 Realization of the importance behind the meaning of traditional Islamic approach in arts. not the outcome.7 Reflection: 3. 3.2 Islamic arts are based on disciplines and rules which is useful because the importance of the arts is the discipline.126.96.36.199.3.
Quran chose to reveal them in fairly specific manner: . 1.DELIBERATIVE SOLUTION [POST-INTERIM] 1. This is believed to be associated with the Quran being repetitious about the picture of Paradise in a specific description. the history itself is the culture while for Islam.0 Selected specific design concept: Garden. history of gardens and plants has long been associated with the religion but it is not widely known by people. Most people are aware of Islamic arts taking plant motifs and floral patterns but less are aware of the art of gardening in Islamic arts. 1.2 History of garden in Islam dated back during Persian empire. For Melbourne.1 Garden has the highest importance for BOTH Islam and Melbourne which entails the very nature of the project which is culture. Quran is not a clear book to read and digest but when it comes to describing Paradise and Hell.
1.3 Gardening in Islam should also be relying on discipline such as the right axis and elements to put into the garden: .
The flower beds are sunken so that the plant shall not interfere with the view of the architecture. and blossom provides both spectacle and perfume.1 Water was quite a strong concept in connecting Australia and Islam. 2. the garden concept is the best solution that intersect this 3 dimensional problem. A grid of pathways divide the flower beds and provide a controlled and infinitely varied series of aspects. Rows of myrtle bushes provided the water with shade. 1. 2. Historical layers of horticulture evolution in Australia which is vertical garden wall: .2 Another addition to the concept that may be included is water. I found it better to stick to the Garden Concept alone because the building’s purpose is not to only provide facilities and be decorated with elements for it to be interesting. this project is to send messages as well: New identity of Australian Islam.0 Water concept: 2.4 Not many people have been exposed to Persian garden in Australia which dated back to 500 – 300 BC during Achaemenid period in Iran. 1.2. the ensure that only fresh growth is visible.1 Experiment: Water flows along patios of mosque or water wall features.5 With the history of Melbourne being the Garden State and was once undergone the Garden Movement. Every description of Paradise that mentions garden is followed with the description of river: 2.2 However. the fruit and vines shade the plants.2. 2. the evergreen spruces echo the architectural colonnade.The infamous garden carpet illustration from North-West Iran which consists of central axis of water with tributeries to right angles.
3 Therefore.1 With the Horticultural Hall being in the middle of site. 3. it is best to stick with a clear message for a clear identity.0 Enhancing heritage value of the Horticultural Hall: 3. the whole design of the building should show clear direction of pointing attention towards the Hall. color.3 The design of façade is done to portray a plant creeping sensation towards the Hall. Contemporary Islamic society. and scents are important elements.1 In order to attract visitors and promote the Australian Islam identity. Thus. the vertical garden on façade is designed to have plants that are associated with Persian Garden especially flowers that scents. This ensures a relationship between the building and the Hall. 2.2.2 Therefore. 3. 4. 3. This is to preserve the character of Islamic Garden where axis.Patrick Blanc’s vertical garden at Paris Museum. it is not hard to point attention to it but it is wicked to create a unify structure that appears as one on the site instead of having two buildings separated by the Hall. the start axis of the spatial design would be the Hall to point attention to it. Example: .0 Islamic garden: 4.
3 Persian lilac 4. The scent of jasmine is really distinguishable.3 Other species of Persian flowers that can be planted in Melbourne: 4. .3.1 Jasmine is commonly planted at the entrance of traditional mosques in Malaysia to produce fragrance distinguished scent during dawn prayer.3.2 Commonly planted in Islamic graveyards.3.4. Jasmine is also widely by Muslims in religious areas: 4.4 Love-in-a-mist 4.2 Persian rose 4.4 The living façade will consists of creeping and non creeping plants and flowers to create an organic balance to the façade.3.2 Main plant of the façade would be jasmine which is a typical flower in historical Persian garden. 4.1 Persian iris 4.2.2. 4.
1 Producing motif from Haa: .0 Rethinking Haa in calligraphy: 5.5.
This will take too much space: .5.2 Trying to apply the approach through section but it is not suitable since it does not use the shape of the site effectively.
6. Therefore it is important to ensure the message is clear. Plus. it is also useful to have simple design concept rather than complex unity because the purpose of the building itself is already a complex solution for this particular cultural issue. As stated before. the building is not only to portray aesthetic design but most important is to convey the message of gardening as a connection between Australia and Islam.0 Finalization of facade: The best solution to still have repetition and the derived Islamic motif from calligraphy because it is simple and has direct meaning in order for public to see the Islamic architecture in a contemporary way. .
7.0 Finalization of section: 8.0 Finalization of mass model: .
0 Finzalization of façade design: North elevation .9.
West facade .
gov. Steele S. .au”. Heritage Council of Victoria. “The Language of Pattern”. “Design Criteria for Mosque and Islamic Centre: Art. Albarn K. Architecture and Worship”. Abdul Malik L.heritage. “The Sense of Unity: The Sufi Tradition in Persian Architecture”. Anz C 2009. 3. Walker D 1974. Kahera A. “www.REFERENCES: 1. 4. Smith JM. 2.vic. Bakhtiar L & Ardalan N 1973.