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I.

What is ESP ?
English spesific purpose is Technique of teaching english refer to the student Seed while student learning based on the Children reason for learning or. ESP is defined to meet specific needs of the learners.

1. The Origins of ESP ?


ESP was not a planned and coherent movement, but rather a phenomenon that grew not of a number of converging trends.These trends have operated in variety of ways around the World, but we can identify Three main reasons Common to the emergence of all ESP. 1. The demands of a Brave New World Expasion of science, Technology and Economic Historical reasons led to the dominance of english in science and Business A new generation of learnersof english learning not just to be culture or well educated but learners who needed english and knew why they needed it. Particulary in Business time and Money constraints created a need for Coast effective courses with clearly defined goals(hutchinson & Water 1987:7) English teachging moved out of the tradisional Educational establishments. English teaching became big Business Teachers of english became more accountable, subject to needs, wishes, and demands of whoever was payting. English teachers statted working not just in Educational establishments, but in businesses where result Were expected,and paid for.

2. A revolution in linguistics Traditionally : Granma. New emphasis : language in the real World the so called communicative approach

Language varies according to situation , therefore the distinctive features can be identifield and made the basis of the new courses in partikular Three was some discussion of the distinctive feature of the language of science and concentration of this feature.

3. Focus on the learner In pyschology emphasis on the learner and their attitudes Hence courses where important was given relevan to learners needs and interest.

2. The Development of ESP


ESP has undergone 3 main phases of development. It is now in a 4 th phase with a 5 th phase starting to emerge. ESP has developed at different speeds in different countries. The concept of special language: register analysis Beyond the sentence: rhetorical or discourse analysis Target situation analysis Skills and strategies A learning- centered approach

1)The concept of special language: register analysis


1960s and early 1970s. The aim was to identify the grammatical and lexical features of the different registers.Teaching materials then took these linguistic features as their syllabus. Register analysis revealed that there was very little that was distinctive in the sentence grammar of Scientific English beyond a tendency to favour particular forms such as the present simple tense, the passive voice and nominal compounds .

The main motive behind register analysis was the pedagogic one of making the ESP course more relevant to the students needs.

The aim was to produce a syllabus which gave high priority to the language forms students would meet in their Science studies and in turn would give low priority to forms they would not meet.

ESP has focused on language at the sentence level, on sentence grammar Description of surface forms.

2) Beyond the sentence: rhetorical or discourse analysis

ESP focused its attention on the level above the sentence, as ESP became closely involved with the emerging field of discourse or rhetorical analysis. The leading lights in this movement were Henry Widdowson, Larry Selinker and Louis Trimble. Attention shifted to understanding how sentences were combined in discourse to produce meaning The concern of research was to identify the organizational patterns in texts and to specify the linguistic means by which these patterns are signaled. These patterns would then form the syllabus of the ESP course .

Basic hypothesis: we take the view that difficulties which students encounter arise not so much from a defective knowledge of the system of English, but from an unfamiliarity with English use, and that consequently, their needs cannot be met by a course which simply provides further practice in the composition of sentences, but only by one which develops a knowledge of how sentences are used in the performance of different communicative acts (Widdowson , 1974)

3) Target situation analysis

What it aimed was to take the existing knowledge and set it on a more scientific basis, by establishing procedures for relating language analysis more closely to learners reasons for learning

The purpose of an ESP course is to enable learners to function adequately in a target situation, that is, the situation in which the learners will use the language they are learning.

The ESP course design should proceed by first identifying the target situation and then carrying out a rigorous analysis of the linguistic features of that situation. The identified features will form the syllabus of the ESP course. This process is usually known as NEEDS ANALYSIS.

The target analysis stage marked a certain coming of age for ESP. Learner need was apparently placed at the centre of the course design process.

4) Skills and strategies The principal idea behind the skills-centered approach is that underlying all language use there are common reasoning and interpreting processes , which, regardless of the surface forms, enable us to extract meaning form discourse . There is therefore, no need to focus closely on the surface forms of the language. The focus should rather be on the underlying interpretive strategies , which enable the learner to cope with the surface forms, for example guessing the meaning of words from context, using visual layout to determine the type of text, exploiting cognates, etc. This approach generally puts the emphasis on reading or listening strategies . The characteristic exercises get the learners to reflect on and analyze how meaning is produced in and retrieved from written or spoken discourse. The language learners are treated as thinking beings who can be asked to observe and verbalize the interpretive processes they employ in language use. Description of underlying processes

5) A learning- centered approach The 4 stages outlined above are based on descriptions of LANGUAGE USE. Our concern in ESP is not with LANGUAGE USE- although this will help to define the course objectives- our concern is with LANGUAGE LEARNING .

A truly valid approach to ESP must be based on an understanding of the processes of language LEARNING .

3. Language Desriptions

Describing a language is not the same as describing what enables someone to use or Lear a language. This is six main stages of Development:

1) Classical or tradisional Grammar

The description based on an analysis of the role played by each word in The prestige of the old classical languages ensured the survivsl of a form ESP has never been strong.

the sentence. of description even Rafter english had lost most of case markers.

2) Structural linguistics

The described in terms of syntagmatic structure with fundamental

propositions

Sentence with different meanings can be generated The substitution table as a typical means of planning grammatical

patterns

This example from nucleus series show:


Diabetes mellitus Inadequate heat loss Some foods A dog bite An Electric shock Insufficient calcium Severe shock Burns A haemorrhage Lead to Can May Result in Cause Unconsciousness Shock Bad teeth Death Heat stroke Blishters Allergies Asphysis Rabies

3) Transformational generative (TG) Grammar The structural view as cpllection of syntagmatic patterns The structural descriptions is superfisial Explain relathionship of meaning

For example: John is easy to please

John is eager to please According to a structural description, indicate the same relationship between the words in sentence. But obviously the relationship is not the same: the First sentence John is receiver of pleasing, while in the second he is doping the pleasing,similiarly the identify of meaning between an active and passive sentence would not be shown. 4) Language variation and register analysis The concept language variation gave rise to the type of ESP which was based on register analysis 5) Functional/National Granmar The second major off shoot of work into langguage as Communications which has influenced ESP has been the functional /national concept of language description, the term functional and national are easly and frequenctly confused. Functional are concerned with social behavior and represent the untettion of the speaker or writer. For example ,advisinng, warning, theatering, describing. National on the other hand reflect the way in which the human mind thinks. They are the categories into which the main and thereby language divides reality, for example, time, gender, number, location,quantity, quality. 6) The functional syllabus frequency , duration,

Discourse(Rhetorical) analysis Discource analysis has been closely assosiated with ESP.

4. Theories of learning

Theories of learning and language description are not causally linked. 1) Behaviourism : Learning as habit formation This simple but powerfull theory said that learning is mechanical prosses of habit and procceds by means of the frequent reinforcment of a stimyulus respons sequence. 2) Metalism : Thinking as rule governed activity The human mind was able to cope with an infinitiverange of possible situations. The thingking must be rule-governed : a finite and Earl small, set rule enbles the mind to deal with ther potentially infinite range of experiences it may encounter. The mind in other words Koes not just respons to a stimulus.

3) Cognitive code : Learners as thingking beings Learning than is a prosses in which the learner actively tries to make sense of data 4) The affective factor : learner asemotional beings. Learning, particulary the learning of a language The important of the emotional factor is easly seen if we consider the relatioonship betwwen the cognitive and affective aspects of the learner. 5) Learning and acquisition Learning is a conscious process Aquisition is a unconscious process

6) A model for learning

7)

Approaches to course design

Course design is the process by which the raw data about learning need in interpreted in order to produce an integrate series of teaching-learning experiences, whose ultimate aim is to lead the learner to a particular state of knowledge. 1. Language Centered course design The language-centered course design process aims to draw as direct a connection as possible between the analysis of the target situation and the content of ESP course. The weakness of Language-centered course design. a. The learner is simply use as a means of identifying the target situation. In this model, the learning needs of the student are not accounted for at all. Therefore, no learned-centered, but simply learned-restricted. b. The language-centered process can also be criticized for a being static and inflexible procedure, which can take little account of the conflicts and contradiction that are inherent in any human endeavor. c. d. e. Language-centered process is must be internally-generated system not an externally-imposed system. The language-centered model gives no acknowledgement to factor which enviably play a part in the creation of any course. The language-centered analysis of target situation data is only at the surface level. It reveals very little about the competence thats underlines the performance. 2. Skill-centered course design

A number of ESP project have been set up with the specific aim of developing the students ability. The skill-centered approach is founded in two fundamental principles, one is theoretical, and the other is pragmatic. a. The basic theoretical hypothesis is that underlying any language

behavior are certain skills and strategies, which the learner use in order to produce or comprehend discourse. A skill-centered approach aim to get away from the surface performance data and look at the competence that underlines the performance. b. The pragmatic basic for the skill-centered approach start from a distinction between goal oriented course and process oriented course.

The process-oriented approach is at least realistic in concentrating on strategies and processes of making students aware of their own ability and potential, and motivating them to tackle target text on their own after the end of the course. 3. Learning-Centered approach The learning-centered approach is based on the principle that learning is totally determined by the learner. Teacher can influence what the teachers teach. Learning is not just a mental process; it is process of negotiation between individual and society. Society sets the target and the individuals must do their best to get as close as the target as is possible. Traditionally the target situation analysis has had direct determining influence on the development of syllabus, material, methodology and test. A learningcentered approach, an approach with the avowed of maximizing the potential of the learning situation. 8) The Syllabus A syllabus is a document which say what be learn, but in fact there are several different ways in which a syllabus can be defined. a) The evaluation Syllabus

This kind of syllabus will be most familiar as the document that is handed by the ministries or other regulating bodies. It states what the successful learner will know by the end of the course. b) The organization syllabus Is the form of the content page of a textbook, and it is the form of the syllabus that most people would think. Factors which depend upon a view of how people learn: What is more easily learned? What is more fundamental to learning? Are some item needed in order to learn other items? What is more useful in the classroom

Criteria like this must be used in order to determine the other items. c) The material syllabus d) The teacher syllabus; intensity and frequency of any item and thereby affect the image that the learners receive. e) The classroom syllabus; the classroom is not simply a neutral channel for the passage of information from teacher to learner. f) The learner Syllabus; it is the network of knowledge that develops in the learners brain and which able that learner to comprehend and store the later knowledge. The learner syllabus is differs from all the other types, not just being internal as opposed to external, but in that it face in the opposite direction. The syllabus role plays in the course design process Analyze target situation a. A language-centered process; in this approach, the syllabus is the prime generator of the teaching material. The syllabus is quite clearly the determiner of the entire course. Write syllabus

Write or select text to illustrate items in syllabus

Write exercises to practice item in the syllabus

Device test for assessing knowledge of the item in the syllabus

b. A Skill-centered approach; the aim is not to present and practice language items, but rather to provide opportunities for learners to employ the evaluate and evaluate the skills and strategies considered necessary in the target situation. Analyze target needs

Select interesting and representative texts

Devise a hierarchy of skills to exploit the texts

Order and adapt the text as necessary to enable a focus on the required skills

Devise activities/techniques to teach those skills

Devise a system to assess the acquisition of the skills

Write materials on undefined criteria

Write cosmetic syllabus to satisfy sponsors, teacher, students.

The skill syllabus as well as establishing criteria for the ordering and adaptation of text will probably also play a role in their initial selection. c. A Learning Centered approach; the methodology cannot be just grafted on to the end of an existing selection of syllabus items and texts; it must be considered right from the start. The ESP syllabus usually derived from a detailed analysis of the language features of the target situation. d. The post hoc approach; the syllabus, which is probably more widespread A syllabus it is not divine write, it is a working document that should be used flexibly and appropriately to maximize the aims and process of learning. 9) Materials evaluation Evaluation is a matter of judging the fitness of something for a particular purpose. Given a certain need, and in the light of the resources available. In any kind of evaluation, the decision finally made is likely to be the better for being based on a systematic check of all the important variable. Evaluation is basically a matching process; matching needs the available solutions. Evaluation process can be divine into four major steps : 1. 2. 3. 4. Defining criteria Subjective analysis Objective analysis Matching

Material evaluation as one way of exploiting a course design. Even if we eventually decide to write our own materials, the evaluation of existing materials can provide a good source of ideas and techniques. It can also have a lot of duplication of effort by possibly recalling existing material that can provide all or part of our material needs. The evaluation process should be systematic and it best seen as a matching exercise. 10) Material Design The most characteristic features of ESP in practice is writing material, a large amount of ESP teachers time may will be taken up in writing material. There are some reasons about it:

a)

The teacher of institution may wish to provide teaching material that may not be available commercially. Work to standard timetables with a similar number of hour, ESP courses can vary from one week of intensive study to an hour a week for three years or more.

b) Suitable material are available, it may be possible to buy them because of currency if import restrictions. c) ESP material may also be written for non educational reason. For these reasons, there is already an established tradition of ESP teachers producing in-house materials. 1. Defining objectives Some principle to defining objective in the actual writing material: a. Material provides a stimulus to learning. good material is encourage learners to learn, therefore, contain: Interesting texts Enjoyable activities which engage to learners thinking capacity Opportunities for learners to use their existing knowledge and skills Content which both learner and teacher can cope with.

b) Materials help to organize the teaching-learning process, by providing a path through the complex mass of the language to be learn. This structure should help the teacher in planning lessons and encourage in the learner a sense of progress and achievement. c) e) f) Materials embody a view of the nature of language and learning Material can have a very useful function in broadening the basic of teacher training Materials provide models of correct and appropriate language use. This is necessary function of materials, but it is too often taken as the only purpose with the result that materials become simply statement of language use rather than a transportation for language learning. 2. A Material Design Model The model consist of four elements d) Materials reflect the nature of the learning task

a)

Input; this may be a text, dialog, video recording, diagram or any piece of communication data, depending on the need. The input provide a number of things: Stimulus material for activities New language items Correct models of language use A topic for communication Opportunities for learner to use their information processing skills Opportunities for learner to use their existing knowledge both of the language and the subject matter

b) Content focus; conveying information and feeling about something c) Language focus; learner have the chance to take the language to pieces. Material should be design, therefore to lead to toward a communicative task. d) Task; the ultimate purpose of language learning is language use.

INPUT

CONTENT

LANGUAGE

TASK 3. A Materials design model: simple materials The basic model can be used for materials of any length. Every stage could be covered in one lesson, if the task is a small one, or the whole unit might be spread over a series of lesson.

RANGKUMAN

English For Specific Purpose

OLEH:

Nur Istiqomah NIM: 2081006320236

INSTITUT KEGURUAN DAN ILMU PENDIDIKAN BUDI UTOMO MALANG FAKULTAS PENDIDIKAN ILMU SOSIAL DAN HUMANIORA PRODI PENDIDIKAN BAHASA INGGRIS Januari 2011