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Volume 21 Number 1
5 Principled pragmatism Bob Adamson describes a pragmatic approach to course design. 42 Can Facebook improve students’ exam writing? Luke Fletcher takes Facebook to FCE and beyond. 46 Webwatch Michael Carrier looks at handheld and mobile apps.
73 Teaching English language and literature in non-native contexts Boutkhil Guemide puts the case for teaching literature.
12 Natural, real-world grammar Simon Andrewes asks how we should test the validity of grammar rules. 14 You think English is easy! Glenn Dahlem shows why it isn’t.
A Book I’ve Used
79 Global (Upper Intermediate B2) Terry Prosser 81 Interactive Games and Activities for Language Learning Hilary Livingston 82 Access EAP Foundations Terri Edwards 84 Academic Writing: A Handbook for International Students (3rd edition) Le Van Canh
48 Freewriting and free speaking for academic writing William Hay looks for ways to unblock “writer’s block”.
16 Playing with collocation Simon Mumford suggests activities for teaching words that go together. 20 Creativity in the language classroom Jill and Charlie Hadfield have some ideas for teaching grammar through creative writing. 22 Picturing English grammar: Phase Two K.A.Kyriacou uses “Islands of English” to depict buried grammatical treasures. 28 Get students involved and entertain them! Jerry Thekes has some fun ways to practise grammar.
51 Metacognitive strategies Lesley Lanir explains how to teach your students “text talking”.
IT MADE ME THINK
56 Here we are, now motivate us Andy Boon explores ways to get your students motivated to learn. 62 A grammar grid Sasan Baleghizadeh outlines a framework for developing grammar materials.
85 Intercultural Communication: an Advanced Resource Book for Students (2nd edition) Judy Ng and Roger Barnard 87 The New Lives of Teachers Darren Elliott 88 Language Assessment in Practice Jonathan Marks
33 Tech News & Events Michael Carrier 35 The flipped classroom or the connected classroom? Russell Stannard looks at the benefits of putting more input online. 38 Teacher-Programmer collaboration in CALL design Punjaporn Pojanapunya describes successful collaboration in materials design.
66 Creating significant learning experiences for EAL learners Fiona Baker describes a teacher preparation course in Content Language Integrated Learning (CLIL). 70 First job, right move Nick Baguley outlines what new teachers should look for in a new job.
A Book I Like
90 Evolving English: One Language Many Voices Elizabeth Hollis-Watts
93 What’s New 95 Writing for MET 96 Subscription Form
Volume 21 No. 1
1 .2 Modern English Teacher Volume 21 No.
can be provided outside the classroom. This input could be through Facebook. Andy Boon shares some ideas for motivating your classes. on the other.com 3 . You may be planning and designing a new course. this issue reflects the multi-faceted nature of teaching. Nick Baguley offers some advice to teachers on what to look for when applying for a new job (apart from the salary!) and Boutkhil Guemide makes a plea for teaching literature. teaching a particularly difficult grammar point. freelance ELT teacher and teacher trainer Technology Matters Editor: Michael Carrier Published by Pavilion Publishing (Brighton) Ltd ISSN: 0308-0587 Published: January. online and pre-recorded material – screencasts. The idea is that more input.co. PO Box 100. leaving teachers and especially lecturers free to provide lectures and guidance. audio files. A Happy New Year to you all! Volume 21 No. in addition to the print versions. PO Box 100.uk Publisher: Tony Greville Modern English Teacher title and all editorial contents © 2010 Pavilion Publishing (Brighton) Ltd Printed in Great Britain by Matrix Print Consultants Ltd Subscriptions processed by: Pavilion Publishing. Mainline Media tel: 01536 747333 fax: 01536 747520 email: carole. Facebook is used by over 750 million people worldwide and Luke Fletcher describes his experiment to use it to improve his students’ FCE writing skills. In contrast. Prof. and reproductive and creative activities. vocabulary lists and exercises. 1 www. The grammar theme is continued by Kyriacos Kyriacou who takes his “Islands of English” into the realm of modals. Jill and Charlie Hadfield continue their series on creativity in the classroom. April. and finally a much needed book on language assessment. In the “flipped” classroom. West Sussex PO18 8HD. no matter where you teach or who your students are. and decided on a learning-centred rather than a content-centred approach. links to websites. we have a review of a course with lots of electronic add-ons and even a digital edition of the whole package. but if the teachers work together with experienced programmers. this material is the core content. Bob Adamson and Fiona Baker look at two very different course design problems. We begin with a resource book for applied linguistics students dealing with intercultural communication.blanchett@mainlinemedia. October Design: Martin Sansom email: martin@matrixprint. Then there are reviews of an EAP coursebook and a supplementary book for academic writing. Pavilion Publishing. writer. Of course any effort to design a computer-based learning program can be fraught with difficulties. through major subscription agencies or contact: Subscriptions. UK tel: 01243 576444 fax: 01243 576456 Subscribe on our website. UK tel: 01243 576444 fax: 01243 576456 email: subscribe@pavpub. etc. Simon Mumford gives us some fun ideas to practise collocations and Sasan Baleghizadeh brings together the theories behind teaching grammar to outline a framework for grammar presentation based on the dichotomies of fluency and accuracy. etc. followed by a book which examines the demands on those pursuing a career in primary and secondary teaching. we have a book from David Crystal exploring how English has developed over time. including grammar lessons. Punjaporn Pojanapunya takes us through a successful project she has been involved in. William Hay suggests freewriting as a way of unblocking writer’s block. In his Keynote article. West Sussex PO18 8HD. Our Reviews section reflects the growth in electronic media with many books now available with components on CD and online. in A Book I Like. while Jerry Thekes helps us practise grammar through games.com seen as support in classes. captured lectures. the project will succeed. Turning to the ever-increasing influence of technology in teaching. Chichester. – were Editor: Dave Francis Reviews Editor: Roger Gower. Russell Stannard investigates the “flipped” classroom.onlineMET. Until recently. Background Books deals with three very important areas. To round off. or getting to grips with the latest technology.com Advertising Sales: Carole Blanchett. Bob Adamson describes the background to and construction of a writing course based on a student-centred approach and flexibility for teachers to adapt the programme to their own context and teaching situation. Chichester. on the one hand.Editorial In many ways. while Lesley Lanir promotes text talking as a way to improve learners’ reading ability. helping a student with reading problems. In A Book I’ve Used. Fiona Baker was faced with preparing a teacher training programme for CLIL teacher trainees in Abu Dhabi. links to reading and listening content. July. surprisingly looking at ways to use learners’ creativity to practise grammar. His learners were teenage students in Hong Kong at lower intermediate level.
e. but not too much. The purpose is to construct a model for resource design that is underpinned by relevant theories of student-centred learning. the learners are challenged and stretched. Vygotsky. on the grounds that theoretical principles must inform practice. and students learn when they see its critical features (i. “ Content is therefore sequenced to ensure that students are first introduced to those key ideas and then return to study them at various stages in more complex contexts. effective learning requires students to be set tasks that are appropriate to their cognitive and linguistic capacities. and to reflect upon and talk about their learning. while also being sufficiently flexible to accommodate the different pedagogical styles of individual teachers. 1 www. In the project. according to the theory. Bruner (1977) recommends that one should identify the key ideas and concepts of a discipline and then students should be exposed to those basic ideas repeatedly. Volume 21 No. Vygotsky argues that using language to articulate ideas enables learners to make sense of them. exemplars. particularly when the new learning falls within the learners’ ‘zone of proximal development’ (ZPD) – in other words. Content is therefore sequenced to ensure that students are first introduced to those key ideas and then return to study them at various stages in more complex contexts. it identifies some of the key characteristics of the specific contexts in which the resources were to be used. building new knowledge onto existing knowledge. structured activities.KEYNOTE Principled pragmatism Bob Adamson describes a pragmatic approach to course design. The resources should therefore help the students to identify these critical features by highlighting them. fellow students. and other sources of support in the form of demonstrations. “Scaffolding” by teachers. This paper starts by examining the theoretical influences that underpin the current emphasis on student-centred approaches to learning an L2. The model is principled in that it synthesises a range of theories that are. arguably. drawing on Halliday’s (1985) notion of Theoretical perspectives Theoretical support for a learnercentred approach has been provided by the work of educational psychologists such as Piaget (1963). 1977).. Also. This involved linguistic analysis of the construction of text – such as the organization. facilitate this construction. grammar and vocabulary – as well as the sociolinguistic aspects. associated with student-centred learning and pragmatic in that it allows teachers a degree of flexibility in selecting appropriate pedagogical practices for the context in which they are working. ” for instance. to be active participants in their own learning. Then. should be directed to an object of learning. the particular characteristics that differentiate the object of learning). Some samples of the resources that have been designed on the basis of this model will also be presented. T his paper is a reflection on the process I adopted for designing resources for a second language (L2) writing course for a specific group of students in Hong Kong. The learning theory of variation (Marton & Booth. but in a way that allows for pragmatic interpretation by implementers. believed that learners develop conceptual maps to structure knowledge. Learning. Vygotsky (1978) and Bruner (1967. The paper proceeds to outline the construction of the model for resources design that accommodates both the theory and the reality. I sought to identify the critical discourse features of the communicative language that was being taught. procedural frameworks and so on.com 5 .onlineMET. 1997) views teaching as a continuous process of changing students’ way of seeing. to work together. learning resources. In sum. A related concept is spiral sequencing.
The result resembles a hamburger (Figure 1). When the various theories outlined above are combined with the features of the classroom context in Hong Kong. in that it was expected to cover common social situations as well as work-related writing tasks … 6 Modern English Teacher ” Volume 21 No. 1984. The process moves from comprehensible input of communicative texts. needs to incorporate opportunities for the students to participate actively in the construction of texts and to possess a range of competences that enable them to apply their communicative skills in society. Long. or achieving a sense of pride at creating a good quality product. Long’s Interactionalist Hypothesis (Long & Sato. thus providing the students with a sense of achievement as they see their work on display or being put to practical use. and so on. 2001) and forms an essential element of self-actualization. 1997). as they do not perceive an immediate need around them to learn and communicate in English. engaging in an activity related to their interests. The model for the design of the materials for the writing course. in that it was expected to cover common social situations as well as work-related writing tasks. 1985) and Swain’s Output Hypothesis (Swain. 1 . When I developed materials for the writing project. The students had been learning English in schools for between five and eight years. my intention was to pay attention to the following aspects: Making learning enjoyable: Making learning enjoyable does not necessarily equate to “having fun”. stress the role of learners being actively and creatively involved in the learning process through the negotiation of meaning. Making learning successful: As success is a great motivator. resources for the writing course that provided a framework that was intended to be sufficiently flexible to allow for principled pragmatism. through attention to discrete linguistic components and skills (with examples drawn from the communicative input texts). the materials should have some form of communicative outcome (productive or receptive or both). Holistic input: focus on genre/meaning Focus on discrete linguistic items and skills: pedagogical space Holistic output: social construction of text in the genre Figure 1. but few of them would claim competence higher than lower intermediate level. to holistic communicative output that mirrors – to varying extents. 1993. 2010). Hong Kong is significant as a context. The first stage requires the learners to handle holistic discourse in a more receptive mode (i. A number of hypotheses about second language acquisition. This presents a particular challenge of motivation for students. Making English learnable: The related but different concepts of ZPD and Krashen’s i + 1 (Kinginger. Motivation is stimulated by a variety of sources: from a feeling of enjoyment in learning. I developed a model for designing the Motivation Motivation is a major factor in language learning (Dörnyei.. including Krashen’s Input Hypothesis (Krashen. from a sense of achievement. with the latter being introduced gradually for expansion in later specialized courses. but the daily exposure to English of the majority of the population is very limited (Morris & Adamson. they might carry out reading comprehension activities). that could be used in real-life settings. from a belief in the value of what is being learnt. before the middle section which is the focus on the relevant aspects of form. 2001) both suggest that having to handle language that is too difficult cognitively and/or linguistically is demotivating for the learner. The course was wide ranging. therefore.e. from identification with the culture or society of the L2 speakers. depending on the students’ familiarity with the genre in question – the communicative input texts. insofar as English is emphasised for its value as an international language. 1987). in the writing course. Enjoyment can come from the students responding to a challenge. The approach to preparing the resources for the course comprised five steps: 1 identifying valuable genres and topics “ The course was wide ranging. The third stage is the structured production of the writing genre by the learners. Overview of general resources design: the Hamburger Model The project The project in question was to produce English resources for a course designed to support the development of students’ writing in a vocational institution in Hong Kong.KEYNOTE language as a social semiotic.
sport (16).com 7 . These decisions are tricky. the school syllabus. with genres being revisited. Topics were chosen by reference to the official syllabus and to the small-scale survey.e. alongside the focus on form. The syllabus was structured as a spiral. Genre analysis goes beyond the structural forms – it involves issues of purpose. the demands of Step 3: Identifying the critical features of each genre and topic I used genre analysis tools to identify the critical features of each genre. other ideas had to be sacrificed altogether. while the specific writing tasks and the relevant discrete linguistic elements were subjugated to a secondary role. My solution was an attempt to balance all these considerations – in other words. given the time available and the value of the activity. mediation of meaning and so on. so the students would be able to make connections between Volume 21 No. Another important decision concerned the horizontal and vertical sequencing.KEYNOTE Level 3 Weblog and discussion Magazine article (advocacy on social issue) Level 2 Online chat Advertising Webpage: a Eyewitness a product product or report or service service Level 1 Emails: Introducing Homepage Diary entry making an a club/ Introducing about daily arrangement society myself life Genre Messages Notices Website Reflections Marketing brochure Website: a new company Questionnaire Biography Jingle survey and report Report on a news event A tense drama Free verse (ballad) Acrostic A character Scientific reference description Personality Simple quiz & analysis narrative Investigations Stories Nominating a prizewinner Letter of complaint Formal letters Historical account Environmental report Academic writing Poetry Table 1. (I incorporate the development of such skills in the second stage of the hamburger model. Vertical sequencing refers to the ordering of topics and tasks within a genre across the three levels of junior secondary school. It proved to be a process which required regular restarts and readjustments. and life as a teenager in Hong Kong (15). seeking to achieve a pragmatic compromise – and to facilitate the arrangements of the genre and topics by massaging the contents of the holistic input through the creation of pseudo-authentic texts (i. they looked realistic but were created for the classroom). A third step was to review the materials that they would be studying across the curriculum. each allowed up to five votes) which revealed preferences for the following topics: famous people such as pop singers (26 votes). In sum.) I first carried out a review of the syllabus to identify the main genres to be covered. Some writing tasks that I originally planned had to be reduced in scope. as they involve (inter alia) consideration of learners’ previous knowledge and their cross-curricular needs. and attention to cognitive as well as linguistic difficulty. products from well-known brand names (18). while the choice of content and the language level were pitched within the ZPD of typical learners of the particular age group. Overview of the writing curriculum (selection only) 2 organizing the genres into a spiral syllabus 3 identifying the critical features of each genre and topic 4 designing contextualized presentation of the genre features and the discrete linguistic items 5 attending to the scaffolding of learning experiences The actual work of developing a plan and designing the materials is not the simple linear process that the five steps might suggest. positionality. reinforced and expanded over time. (The genres provided the “big picture” framework.) The linguistic dimensions were investigated through an analysis of the field. The cognitive and linguistic demands were calibrated by adapting samples of existing work written by students who had previously learnt the genre in question. 1 www.onlineMET. tenor and mode (Halliday. They can also serve as a Step 1: Identifying valuable genres and topics I developed a grid for the writing resources that was based around communicative genres. the need for both variety and cohesion to maintain learner interest. An important judgement was deciding the end product of each writing task. topics and tasks within a single level. Step 2: Organizing genres into a spiral syllabus The ideas of Vygotsky and Bruner outlined above were useful in the materials design in this project. Horizontal sequencing refers to the ordering of writing genres. the analysis was based on the following questions: • What is the purpose of the text (from both a pragmatic and a critical perspective)? • How is the text organized? • What are the key linguistic features that contribute to the construction of this genre? This analysis helped me to identify the key teaching points that the teacher can revisit if the learners have previously encountered them or to present for the first time. I talked to several students about the topics they wished to write about and then conducted a smallscale survey of one class (n=32. Table 1 shows a part of the grid that formed the basis of the curriculum organization. 1985). what they were learning in the English classroom with other topics.
was acting suspiciously near the centre before the fire. (The 8 Modern English Teacher Volume 21 No. Legislative Council members urged the government to rebuild the centre immediately. Joanne: Uh-huh. describing an event The support materials have been designed to allow the students to focus on both the holistic features of the genre and the specific linguistic items that are the critical features of the communicative discourse. Figure 3. or less information could be provided to make it more challenging. Can you tell me your name please? PC Wong: Police Constable Wong Man Ho. Overt teaching takes place in the second stage of the hamburger. Instead. May I ask you some questions? PC Wong: Yes. (The blanks can be varied – more information could be provided if the students need more scaffolding. by more details about the incident.30 in the evening. Joanne: Right. while the reading comprehension activities in the first stage can be oriented towards a focus on these features. arson-related vocabulary. The centre. Last week. The fire. in a loose sequence. They can find support and friendship there. Connie Tam. Staff reporter A centre which provides services for disabled people was destroyed by fire yesterday evening. We are asking the public to help us. 1 . Eye-witnesses said a tall man. which started around 7. Let us have a look at an example of holistic input (Figure 2). I preferred to leave them the pedagogical space to teach these items in the way that they felt was best suited to their students.) This contextualization has the added benefit of providing an opportunity for oral practice – the students can rehearse the questioning skills that they will need to complete the written task by acting out the dialogue once they have completed the reading comprehension exercise.” he said. from Hong Kong Mercury. said she was shocked by the incident. the leader of the People’s Livelihood Party. The analysis of this genre was as follows: Purpose of the text: to present information in an apparently objective manner about an event and the reactions of different interested parties Organization of the text: the main news is foregrounded and then is followed. but did not believe that starting a fire was the way to solve the problem. two people were arrested for painting slogans on the windows of the centre. Figure 2. Sandy Chow. In this extract. “Disabled people need these centres. Key linguistic features: direct and indirect speech. aged around 25.KEYNOTE reference for assessing the outcomes of the students’ learning at the production stage of the process. which is on Lee Man Estate. there were many strong and diverse views on the matter. Joanne: Thanks for your time. The secretary of the Hong Kong Association for the Disabled. was extinguished by firemen around one hour later. but we are looking for ______________________________ Joanne: Can you describe this man? PC Wong: ______________________ ______________________________ Joanne: Okay. And what time did it start? PC Wong: ______________________ ______________________________ Joanne: Any damage? PC Wong: ______________________ ______________________________ Joanne: Has anyone been arrested? PC Wong: No. A group of residents argue that the centre will lower the value of property on the estate. Charles Sim. the genre is investigative writing and the topic is reporting a news event (Level 2). if they have any information. the reporter asks factual questions and the students have to reconstruct the answers on behalf of the police officer by transferring information from the newspaper article. Reading comprehension exercise for focus on meaning Although the analysis identified key discrete linguistic features of the text.” she said. Fill in the missing information Joanne: My name is Joanne Chu. opened just one month ago. Joanne: Where did the fire happen? PC Wong: ______________________ _____________________________. The reading comprehension exercise (Figure 3) is contextualized by using the reporter and a police officer attending the scene. Text for Holistic Input The leader of the group. said that Hong Kong society should be caring and respectful. vocabulary and skills. background information and reactions from the various parties Fire damages new centre for handicapped Joanne Chu. I decided not to prepare any resources for the teachers to teach the grammar. “We need to solve the problem peacefully. there have been several protests against the opening of the centre. Any more details about the fire? PC Wong: Not at the moment. said that he opposed the centre. Police believe that the fire was started deliberately. In recent months. Step 4: Designing contextualized presentation of the genre features and the discrete linguistic items The presentation of the features can be done in two forms: overtly and covertly. The reason for this decision was my feeling from discussions with the teachers who were going to use these materials that there was no consensus on how to teach these components – indeed.
Model B: outline of text in the same genre 4. Some teachers may not strongly espouse these views of language learning and teaching for various reasons. when students are introduced to a new genre. I also considered how to support the students as they came to terms with bigger blocks of learning. some having taught for over 20 years in vocational training settings and others being novices. Model A: Complete text for reading comprehension and holistic Step 5: Attending to the scaffolding of learning experiences At the micro-level (within a unit). this does not tie the teacher too closely to a prescribed set of pedagogical practices. such as a whole genre. I conceptualize the learning sequence in terms of the “Diverging Input” Model (Figure 5). Overview of scaffolding students’ output are encouraged to work in pairs or small groups on these activities. Concluding remarks Although the design of the materials reflects a communicative pedagogy. and this is a new genre for them. if the students are required to describe a scientific process. For the latter. This approach would also open up space for students to make more choices about their writing as their familiarity with the genre increases.KEYNOTE teachers had a wide range of experience.) Allowing the teachers a degree of flexibility might also help to ensure their acceptance of the overall course. Figure 4. At the macro-level (across the curriculum). they are provided with comprehensive input that mirrors the expected output with only minor variations. This freedom allows the teacher to take their specific context into consideration. for example. as briefly discussed in Step 4 above. massaging the texts so as to highlight the critical features and adding elements that I felt would make the texts more coherent and interesting. To do this. when they were undertaking their own writing. for instance. Thus. At the output stage. 1 www. and might feel constrained or even threatened by the resources. The students 2. so. I drew (where possible) on texts produced by students of a similar level in previous years.onlineMET. 1. Over time. so as to enhance their social construction of meaning. Student version: first draft of own text for editing 7. the materials provide them with a description of a scientific process – the variation being that the process that they read and the process that they are expected to write are different. Student version: outline of own text 5. as the students become more familiar with scientific writing. they had the completed text that they had handled at the input stage as a point of reference. Second. they may eventually be able to read an article in a magazine about the social problems caused by deforestation as input and produce a written description of the process of reforestation. Model B: final version 3. Student final version Note: Dashed line shows the reference points for students in composing their own texts. the students were scaffolded in two ways (Figure 4). First. I also tried to ensure that the materials were accessible to the students by tailoring the complexity of the content and the language. Model B: first draft for editing 6. The hamburger model incorporates a compromise that reveals the challenges INPUT close similarity less similarity OUTPUT EARLY STAGES Figure 5. The Diverging Input Model DEVELOPMENT Volume 21 No. and the tailoring of content to match their ZPD) and a communicative orientation. I tried to provide sufficient help to enable the students to complete the individual activities. the input can be less closely related to the output. On the other hand.com 9 . they were provided at the planning and drafting stages of the writing process with a parallel work-in-progress written by a fictional character whose English was at a similar level to their own. According to this model. insofar as the final outcome produced by students is realistic discourse. teacher flexibility is limited by the fact that the materials do reflect student-centredness (such as in the choice of genres and topics. This creates two structured opportunities for further focused attention on the linguistic and discourse features of the text (Appendices 1 & 2).
in applying theory in practice. Theories are distilled from real-world experiences for the purpose of generalization and dissemination across contexts. Creating theoretically-informed materials that can be applied in practice in specific contexts involves a certain degree of “dedistillation” – building in flexibility that allows for contextual characteristics to be accommodated. The approach taken in the project described in this paper has been to take student learning as the ultimate goal and to create a framework that allows the principled application of theory in a pragmatic manner.
practice in second language acquisition. New York: Prentice Hall International Long, M. H. (1985) Input and second language acquisition theory. In S. Gass & C. Madden (Eds.), Input and second language acquisition (pp. 377-393). Rowley, Mass.: Newbury House Long, M. H., & Sato, C. J. (1984) Methodological issues in interlanguage studies: an interactionist perspective. In A. Davies, C. Criper, & A.P.R. Howatt (Eds.), Interlanguage (pp. 253-280). Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press Marton, F. & Booth, S. (1997) Learning and awareness. Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Morris, P. & Adamson, B. (2010) Curriculum, schooling and society in Hong Kong. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press Piaget, J.-P. (1963) The origins of intelligence in children. New York: W. W. Norton and Company, Inc Swain, M. (1993) The output hypothesis: Just speaking and writing aren’t enough. The Canadian Modern Language Review, 50(1), pp. 158-164 Swain, M. (1997) The output hypothesis, focus on form and second language learning. In V. Berry, B. Adamson, & W. Littlewood (Eds.), Applying linguistics
(pp. 1-21). Hong Kong: University of Hong Kong Vygotsky, L.F. (1978) Mind in society: the development of higher psychological principles. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
Bruner, J. (1967) A study of thinking. New York: Science Editions Inc Bruner, J. (1977) The process of education. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press Dörnyei, Z. (2001) Teaching and researching motivation. London: Longman Halliday, M.A.K. (1985) Spoken and written language. Oxford: Oxford University Press Kinginger, C. (2001). i +1≠ ZPD. Foreign Language Annals, 34(5), pp. 417-425 Krashen, S. D. (1987) Principles and
Bob Adamson is Professor of Curriculum Studies at Hong Kong Institute of Education. He has taught in secondary and tertiary institutions in mainland China, Hong Kong, France, Australia and the UK. He has been involved in several textbook projects, including the English for China series published by the People’s Education Press and Longman. Email: badamson:ied.edu.hk
Modern English Teacher
Volume 21 No. 1
Appendix 1. Sample of Model B plan and related activities
Model B plan:
Joanne Chu’s colleague, Mike Lam, is now preparing a report about a strange object found at Happy Valley Race Course. Here are his notes: News: strange object (like a whistling machine) found at Happy Valley Racecourse near the starting gate. Last year: Golden Cup was cancelled because of a typhoon. Interviews: Chief Steward, Mr Trevor Lee: “This could be a machine to frighten horses. It seems to give off a high-pitched sound.” PC Tsang Chi Hung, in charge of police investigation team (3 officers), “We are checking the racecourse very carefully for clues.” Susan Hon (member of groundstaff) found the machine at 6:30 am today. “I saw a wire sticking out of the ground. At first, I thought it was a bomb, so we called the police immediately.” Hillary Cheng, Jockey Club spokeswoman: “There are no plans to cancel the big race, the Golden Cup next Saturday.”
Activity to make a link to the complete Model A:
What do you think Joanne Chu’s notes for the story of the fire looked like?
Activity to launch Model C (students’ own output)
Choose a news event that interests you. (It could be based in your neighbourhood or your institute.) Carry out an investigation and make notes for your report.
Appendix 2. Sample of Model B draft and related activities
Mike has drafted his report. Check his work and make suggestions for improvement. Look at the grammar, spelling and organization of the article. Is the important news clear to the reader? Are the different interviews well organized? Are the paragraphs short? Mystery object found at Happy Valley The Golden Cup race will be held at Happy Valley racecourse on the next Saturday. Hillary Cheng, a Jockey Club spokewoman say “There are no plans to cancel the big race, the Golden Cup next Saturday.” A strange object which likes whistling machine was found in the ground near the starting gate yesterday at 6.30 a.m in the morning. Three police officers is looking for clues. Mr Trevor Lee, which is the Chef Steward, said “This could be a machine to frighten horses. It seems to give off a high-pitched sound.” PC Tsang Chi Hung, who in charge of police investigation team (three officers) said “We were checking the race course very carefully for clues.” A member of the groundstaff, Susan Hon, found the machine at 6.30. She saw wire sticking out of the ground and thinking it is a bomb and we called the police immediately. Last year, the Golden Cup cancelled because of typhoon.
Activity to make a link to the complete Model A:
Look at Joanne’s report and compare it to Mike’s. How can Mike’s report be improved? Write a new version for him.
Activity to make a link to the student’s own work:
Now draft your own report. Look at Joanne’s and Mike’s reports to help you. Then show the report to two classmates for their comments.
Volume 21 No. 1
Natural, real-world grammar
Simon Andrewes asks how we should test the validity of grammar rules.
atural, real-world grammar is today the aim and the claim of any state-of-the-art syllabus, or course book, or reference work.1 That grammar rules should be tested for validity against experience before passing them on, one of the main points of Maurice Claypole’s Fractal Approach to Learning English2 for example, fits in seamlessly with the mainstream approach to teaching English to speakers of other languages. The validity of this maxim hardly requires critical scrutiny. Among other things, it is a warning against the application of fossilised, prescriptive grammar rules that have not kept up with language development. The split infinitive dogma is one of the most celebrated – and ridiculed – examples of this, whereby to wilfully split an infinitive is still seen as offensive by oldfashioned purists and done with puerile glee by many of the rest of us. Similarly, a key feature of Martin Parrott’s highly recommended Grammar for English Language Teachers (CUP) is the provision of opportunities for teachers to test grammar rules against real language use by means of a wide range of authentic materials. Yet there is a slight divergence of focus between these two examples. While Claypole recommends the teacher’s experience as yardstick for testing grammar rules against real-world usage, Parrott offers us authentic materials. Is this difference significant? The teacher’s experience: is it enough? Experience is so individual, and generalisations made from personal experience cannot always be trusted. For example, there are native speakers who have taught half a life-time in a
The teacher’s experience: is it enough?
Experience is so individual, and generalisations made from personal experience cannot always be trusted.
some other phrase, such as ‘Is it ok if I ...?’” And for eventuality, they would use ‘might’ rather than ‘may’. So ‘may’ had a very low priority in his teaching repertoire. The other teacher, from the same city, apart from considering the word necessary for talking about eventuality, considered its use for requesting permission ‘good practice’ that students should be encouraged to exploit more fully. Testing the usage of this modal against their own experience, they came to very different conclusions. What about substituting unreliable personal experience for authentic materials, then? Questions arise, such as: “Where are they taken from?” “Who are they selected by?” “How representative are they?” “What particular purpose do they have?” One immediately thinks of the corpora that teachers have at their disposal nowadays, making available to them such a wealth of real-world language data and giving them access to authentic examples of grammatical structure and usage on which to base their teaching. These corpora, surely, provide the reliable data to compensate for the limits of the individual teacher’s restricted experience.
non-native speaking environment and whose ear for their mother tongue has become unreliable; or there are non-native speakers who are doubtful about the value of what their own ‘ear’ instinctively tells them. Then, there are regional native-speaker differences. A few years back I was giving a course in the basics of TEFL to English-speaking Spanish learners at Granada University. The class was composed mainly of UK and US students. I used to like to ask the class if, judging from their own experience, a particular phrase was acceptably correct English. “Put your hands up if ‘if I’d known’ is correct English.” Up go all the UK hands, and many US hands. “And ‘if I’d’ve known’?” The US hands go up; the UK hands stay down. And this pattern was repeated regularly, as we ‘tested’ various grammar rules: one rule, it seemed, for the UK and another for the US. Recently, within the UK, in a teacher development session discussing the usage of modal verbs, a surprisingly heated discussion arose over the use of the modal auxiliary ‘may’. One teacher, again referring to his own personal experience, held the word to be redundant. “Nobody uses ‘may’ to ask for permission. They use ‘can’, or
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including that of the authentic materials we choose to make use of.. At present he is DoS at the English Department of a higher educational college in Greenwich. Simon Andrewes Simon Andrewes has been involved in TEFL since the mid-1970s. may reflect relatively narrow social contexts and restricted linguistic environments. their selection of authentic material. and David Crystal is a or the authority on global English. rather than being taken from settings in which English is used as a lingua franca. for a possible future discussion: If I’d’ve known. in spite of their huge store of authentic language. but it is not so accessible to outsiders. I argued there that corpora. Less used with countable noun Like used to connect a clause Adjective form used as adverb – Are you good? Enjoy used without an object Dropping the ‘s’ for third person in Norfolk. it is regrettable that authentic materials offered by corpora are almost exclusively of native speaker use. Volume 21 No. for example.” (Modern English Teacher. the authentic language corpora put at our disposal are not necessarily appropriate for every teaching situation. London.e. July 2011). between non-native speakers and without the presence of any native. In this context. as I have pointed out elsewhere3. But at the same time. So returning to the question of a divergence between Claypole’s ‘teacher’s experience’ and Parrott’s ‘authentic materials’. April 2011).eu “ … corpora. let us indeed question the validity of grammar rules presented in English language teaching publications against the yardstick of our own experience. in spite of their huge store of authentic language. including it for first person in the West Country? 1 I found this expression ‘natural real-world grammar’ in the blurb of Heine’s Outcomes series of course books. One of his greatest defects as a teacher. taking into consideration the particular classroom we are teaching in. Email: simon@granadalabella. i. 20. may reflect relatively narrow social contexts and restricted linguistic environments. So yes. tends to be quite narrowly contextualised and to some extent idiosyncratic. Other questionable usage. 2 According to Neil McBeath in his review of Claypole’s book (Modern English Teacher 20. 3 “English Teaching and Corpora. especially that of spoken language. he regrets to say. is that his attention is more easily attracted to the grand overview than the nitty-gritty detail.onlineMET. Extensive though they are. It is no longer disputed that such settings account for the vast majority of communicative exchanges in English.4 In the end. when we consider English as the global language it is today. but it is representative of the aims and claims of many ELT publishers. This sort of language is readily acquired by members of and participants in that particular speech community. 1 www.com ” 13 .ABOUT LANGUAGE However. with figures of around 90% being cited. when we consider English as the global language it is today.2. is the figure attributed to David Crystal’s research.3. due to the fact it belongs to a linguistically and geographically localised speech community. of our own experience. we also need to remember sometimes to question the validity. we may conclude that the teacher’s experience needs to be deepened and widened by knowledge of and familiarity with authentic materials. it is down to the teacher’s experience to evaluate the usefulness of corpus sources and materials for the particular class s/he is teaching. 4 88%..
an alarm goes off by going on. for now my time is UP. English is a crazy language. English was invented by people. later as a public relations counsel. it wets the earth and often messes things UP. we say it is clouding UP.. things dry UP. it is time to shut UP! Glenn Dahlem Glenn Dahlem was born and raised in Madison. & Ph. beeth? One goose. but to be dressed UP is special. why does a topic come UP? Why do we speak UP and why are the officers UP for election and why is it UP to the secretary to write UP a report? We call UP our friends. He later received B. and it reflects the creativity of the human race. His areas of writing interest in addition to linguistics and language usage are coaching sports. and some guys fix UP the old car. it takes UP almost 1/4th of the page and can add UP to about thirty definitions. why do we wake UP? At a meeting. from Winona (Minnesota) State University. A drain must be opened UP because it is blocked UP. Email: gdahlem@gmail. why didn’t preachers praught? If a vegetarian eats vegetables. archaeology. He worked professionally first as a school counselor. of course. We lock UP the house.com 14 Modern English Teacher Volume 21 No. People stir UP trouble. we find that quicksand can work slowly. When it threatens to rain. Wisconsin. which. neither apple nor pine in pineapple. they are invisible.. It will take UP a lot of your time. Sweetmeats are candies while sweetbreads. two meese? One index. and that is ‘UP’ It’s easy to understand UP meaning toward the sky or at the top of the list.ABOUT LANGUAGE You think English is easy! Glenn Dahlem shows why it isn’t. so. We seem to be pretty mixed UP about UP! To be knowledgeable about the proper uses of UP. grocers don’t groce and hammers don’t ham? If the plural of tooth is teeth. two geese. but if you don’t give UP. There is no egg in eggplant. Why doesn’t ‘Buick’ rhyme with ‘quick’? Going up! You lovers of the English language might enjoy this: There is a two-letter word that perhaps has more meanings than any other two-letter word. PS.S. why isn’t the plural of booth. When the sun comes out we say it is clearing UP. USA. nor ham in hamburger. you might try building UP a list of the many ways UP is used. To be dressed is one thing. are meat. If you are UP to it. We open UP a store in the morning but we close it UP at night. degrees from his hometown University of Wisconsin. When it doesn’t rain for a while. 1 . And why is it that writers write but fingers don’t fing. polish UP the silver. but when we awaken in the morning. work UP an appetite. you may wind UP with a hundred or more.S. English is crazy! Let’s face it. We take English for granted. and think UP excuses. Hawaii. When it rains. they are visible. when the stars are out. what does a humanitarian eat? Sometimes I think all the English speakers should be committed to an asylum for the verbally insane. boxing rings are square and a guinea pig is neither from Guinea nor is it a pig. we warm UP the leftovers and clean UP the kitchen. but I’ll wrap it UP. But if we explore its paradoxes. and business development. what do you call it? If teachers taught. look the word UP in the dictionary. In a desk-sized dictionary. English muffins weren’t invented in England nor French fries in France. while a wise man and a wise guy are opposites? You have to marvel at the unique lunacy of a language in which your house can burn up as it burns down. you fill in a form by filling it out. not computers. That is why. He presently resides in Honolulu. but when the lights are out. two indices? Doesn’t it seem crazy that you can make amends but not one amend? If you have a bunch of odds and ends and get rid of all but one of them. He also holds an M. So one moose. And we use it to brighten UP a room. One could go on and on. where he works as a freelance writer. At other times the little word has real special meaning. which aren’t sweet.D. line UP for tickets. In what language do people recite at a play and play at a recital? Ship by truck and send cargo by ship? Have noses that run and feet that smell? How can a slim chance and a fat chance be the same. is not a race at all.
PRACTICAL IDEAS Playing with collocation Simon Mumford suggests activities for teaching words that go together. This activity looks at a number of different sound similarities. such as the Macmillan Collocation Dictionary (MCD). in a disappointed way for disappointingly low. This new corpusbased knowledge is now available in specialist dictionaries. Do the drill quickly and continue until only a few are left in. *go to a check). 16 Modern English Teacher Volume 21 No.g. because the tendencies of words can be exploited to create innovative classroom activities. e. with irritation for unacceptably low. Assimilation (final and initial sound the same) • annual leave • leadership position • whole lifetime • traditional lifestyle Alliteration (same initial sounds) • national newspaper • perfectly possible • increasingly intolerable • persistant problem Rhyme (same final sound) • bright light • bad mood • present moment • hold the lead Stage 2 Based on the table below. Say each collocation in a way that shows its meaning. in a casual way for pretty low. Call out the collocations (shown in the table) and ask each team to ‘claim’ a word if they think it collocates with their word. The team with the most correct ‘claims’ at the end is the winner. some of which are collocations (carry out a check. bed and board. Note that run and health are collocates for both words. such reference works also have potential as a source of inspiration for teaching activities. ie one is check and the other charity. Collocation bingo Stage 1 Choose two words to compare. neutral for slightly low. e. • He was driving at a ridiculously low speed. and with alarm for dangerously low. no gain. • The off-season rates are surprisingly low. x x x Catchy collocations Collocation drill Stage 1 The following are all collocations of the word low.g. and those who repeat noncollocations are out. Give one point for each correct ‘claim’ and take one off for each incorrect one. and assign one word for each team. check and charity. However. C ollocation has become recognised as being an important aspect of word knowledge. • Oxygen levels dropped to dangerously low levels. Write the words on the board. with laughter for ridiculously low. and some of which do not (*annual charity. e.g. designed as a reference for higher level students. 1 . no pain. call out pairs of words. family and friends. check health carry out quick donate to set up errors run go to annual animal work for regular event routine x x x x x x x x charity x • • • • unacceptably unusually ridiculously dangerously Stage 2 x x Say some sentences in a neutral way and ask students to repeat them with the appropriate intonation. • • • • • • • • • slightly quite fairly relatively pretty (informal) remarkably disappointingly extremely incredibly It has been suggested that collocations are easier to remember when they have sound similarities. they put their hands up. Put the class in two teams. and surprise for incredibly and remarkaby low. i. set up a charity). x x • The response was disappointingly low. • Supplies are extremely low. • The products were at a relatively low price. It’s easier if you choose them from the same page of a collocation dictionary.e. Students should repeat only the actual collocations. Examples from MCD are: • Her blood pressure was quite low.
because of the confidential j. practise them. and say I was robbed on the train. skilled and fragile in the grid below: the words must form collocations with the words at the beginning and end of each column and row. and words at the bottom and to the right come after. make up catchy combinations. but. I know this can be considered d.(f) Collocation grid Students have to place the words naked.onlineMET. The arrows show the solution.com → 17 → . Words at the top and to the left go before the word. • He was grossly overweight his whole lifetime. an inquiry. a. and say I was robbed on the train. and I decided to take it home. but. When I got home. 1 www. Move one square at a time. Therefore. over highly economically totally excessively entirely rather mood Solution over highly economically totally excessively entirely rather incredibly fragile state incredibly Collocation maze Ask students to go round the maze as follows: in each move. because of the confidential (i) information it contained. the collocations are the clue to ordering the story. suspected that I lost the documents. Because of a momentary h. I decided to fabricate c. Smajor→ safe change→ → journey look→ career plan → easy→ suitably skilled strange F labour condition greed expectations means reply ambition protest manner personnel completely relatively terribly suitably skilled naked optimistic peaceful mood state ambition protest polite manner personnel labour condition greed expectations means reply Volume 21 No. the first (main) word of each line collocates with the last (main) word of the previous line. information it contained. My boss demanded the Police carry out (e) an inquiry. In the example given. My boss demanded the Police carry out f. skilled. I realised my position was b. Then. and state and conditions. material. I know this can be considered (c) immoral. I left it on the train. my secret to anyone. Some examples: • National newspapers are increasingly intolerable. but the documents were never found. The lines are broken at the collocations. peaceful. my guilt. and until now I have never disclosed (k) my secret to anyone. • There’s mass panic at the present moment. I decided to fabricate (b) a story. and ask students to do the same. I left it on the train. for example. people never (h) suspected that I lost the documents. • A leadership position is perfectly possible. immoral. serious. • He was in a bad mood during his annual leave.PRACTICAL IDEAS Internal rhyme (same vowel sound) • mass panic • grossly overweight • sole owner • driving licence Explain the collocations and practise them. I didn’t want to risk losing my job by admitting e. When I got home. except for the first and last lines. up or down or left and right. people never i. To this day. and until now I have never disclosed Solution (with collocations underlined) About five years ago I was working with completely relatively terribly some sensitive (j) material. Collocation story Ask students to put the parts of the story below in the correct order. a story. g. I realised my position was (a) serious. Clues to shared collocations can be found by looking for words with related meanings. Because of a momentary (g) distraction. ambition and greed. Start at S and finish at F. polite. To this day. so. About five years ago I was working with some sensitive k. optimistic. but the documents were never found. the word in the old square must form a collocation with the word in the new square. the two collocations are highly skilled labour and suitably skilled personnel. I didn’t want to risk losing my job by admitting (d) my guilt. distraction. and I decided to take it home.
This exercise should show that thinking in chunks rather than words aids memory. amply 2. drinking. The collocations are shown in green. Then delete the words between the collocations. one verb is introduced with to. repay. growing 7. Total 100 % Draw the table on the board.__. (and) upkeep. and ask students to help each other remember the whole sentence. loan. false. rather than seen as a string of individual words. become. based only on the lines and colour. Neglect. explaining any unknown vocabulary. rewrite the words in the correct order. heavy. warmly. disturbance. Now erase the collocations.P___ ---. key. motion Remembering collocations Write the following sentence on the board. 1 . Essential. Tell the students that this sentence is much easier to remember if it is broken down into groups of words. change 4. Ask students to remember the sentence. showers. and one synonym is introduced with and. pretty 3. sharpen. 6. debate. training) and ask students to identify the one that can be made with the bold letters below. name. growing 7. 1. and others in yellow. students have to put the first letters in the correct order.DEW DM . ___ . However. and that to use a word correctly (as opposed to passive recognition). . the order has been mixed up. Point out that students need all this information. damage. Good senior managers are truely impartial.TI. leaving the first letters as reminders. Necessary. focus. become. intervention.____ ---. obsession. as shown below. 18 Modern English Teacher Volume 21 No. and see how much students can remember. general (adj) support (v). Next. Read out some the collocations for minimal from the dictionary (amount. very. Constant. table Finally. motion. balance. Good senior managers are truely impartial. showers. Improve. offers. G__ . so help the students as follows: choose a collocation that is cross referenced with maintenance in the collocation dictionary. and deal effectively with deliberate misconduct to protect the good reputation of the company. debate. invite. To find the word (in this case. narrow. accept. pass.___ __ . effort. involvement. unhealthy. and use of colour should help them to visualise the collocations. disruption.PtGR ---. Finally. invite. Annual. name. Colour code the sentence as above and drill it. officially 5. the first letter of each word spells another word which collocates with all of the words. rule. and DEW DM to PtGR of the company. change. narrow. as below: GSM . obsession. warmly. with a line for each word. fundamental (adj). married. Finally erase these letters. impact. uphold (v) Find the collocation Ask students to find the word which collocates with all the others in each list. GSM are TI.PRACTICAL IDEAS Collocations: major change / change career / career plan / plan a jouırney / safe journey / safe and easy / looks easy / looks strange Collocation mnemonic In this acrostic. To make the words fit. theory Synonyms 25 % (and antonyms where appropriate) Collocations 30 % Solution Minimal. pen. cost. This is quite challenging. and deal effectively with deliberate misconduct to protect the good reputation of the company. . pen. very. just leave the first letter of each collocation. work. false. key. balance. Improve Constant Need Neglect To undertake Minimal Necessary Essential Annual Ensure And upkeep officially 5. drinking. minimal. share. table Next. papers. papers. accept. number. loan. .D__ D_ . offers. maintenance. change 4. replacing each with a line. repay. amply 2. supervision. focus 6. work. share. Ensure democratic (adj). 1. married. Need. give the words alone and ask students to remember the collocates for each word. pausing after each collocation. for students to use as a mnemonic for maintenance and its collocates. and ask students to remember the word that each group collocates with. pretty 3. How well do you know a word? Type of information Class of word Spelling Pronunciation value 15 % 15 % 15 % principle (noun) P-R-I-N-C-IP-L-E principle belief. maintenance).T_. cost. Answers are underlined. pass. sharpen. unhealthy. give the lists with the answers removed. (to) undertake. heavy.
Well done! 100% Conclusion It is being increasingly recognised that knowing the meaning of a word is not enough. Spell it. However. many students may never own or even consult a collocation dictionary. 100% A. A. Give out the cards again and let them test each other. His other interests include academic writing. Effect. and pass them around the class. negative.onlineMET. How well do you know effect? B. A. Can you pronounce it? B. Simon Mumford REFERENCE Macmillan Collocation Dictionary (2010). Prepare some cards like the above.PRACTICAL IDEAS knowledge of collocations is important. A collocation dictionary is therefore a useful tool for students. Collocations? B. 100%).com 19 . What class of word is it? B. and that understanding collocation is important for helping students to use words effectively. One way of introducing collocations to students at higher levels is through class activities based on corpus information. result. What are some synonyms? B. E-F-F-E-C-T A.g.com Volume 21 No. Therefore. Izmir University of Economics. He holds the Aston University MSc. Turkey. Macmillan Publishers Simon Mumford enjoys designing classroom activities and has published many articles. hence its high percentage. TESOL. 30%. 70%. where he works with faculty staff on their papers for publication. a collocation dictionary will be a valuable resource for language teachers working with students at higher levels. produce. A. and he works in the Academic Writing Centre. Influence. A. Email: simumford@yahoo. B. Ask students to justify their level by providing the required information. but with different words. 1 www. A. Noun. Collect back the cards and then ask individual students how well they each know a word (e. Cause. as in the dialogue below.
. The freedom of the creative act is often achieved within strict limits. Grammar and creativity At first sight. Warning Structure: will Function: warning.com/page59. patterns and connections involves substantial amounts of repetition. predicting Techniques: using pattern and repetition. I shall………………. I’d like is followed by the infinitive with to. html) with the students. Techniques: using pattern and rhyme Preparation Copy the poem below (changing the town name ‘Thames’ to one your students are familiar with) and the rhyme list. freedom rather than control. modal verbs are followed by the bare infinitive. imaginative stimulus What to do Put students in pairs. Then give copies of the rhymes sheet: Snails/jail/whales/tale Spain/rain/train/plane Cruise/ news/shoes/booze/zoos Mountain/fountain Greece/fleece/niece/police Prize/surprise/lies/pies Hair/dare Bank/prank/tank Put students in pairs or groups and ask them to write more verses. creativity involves breaking rules. 1 . What to do Give the students copies of this poem and read it with them. Get groups to read out their verses. we will explore using creative writing to practise grammar. What things would you mention? Read the poem Warning by Jenny Joseph (in When I am an Old Woman I Shall Wear Purple Souvenir Press 2001 http://labyrinth_3.. recognised patterns and established connections. The practice of such rules. However. and new connections.PRACTICAL IDEAS Creativity in the language classroom Jill and Charlie Hadfield have some ideas for teaching grammar through creative writing. Creativity often involves adherence to strict rules as well as innovation or the strict following of a pattern as in a limerick or a sonnet. I shall………………. Put the pairs into groups of four and ask them to share their ideas for warnings and think of some more. In contrast. Ask them to discuss what would be the good things about growing old? Then ask them: You are writing a warning to your friends and children about your future behaviour when you are old. it seems that creativity and grammar are not easily compatible. In this article we will explore how these paradoxes can be exploited to provide creative activities for grammar practice that combine constraint and freedom and in particular how the use of patterning and repetition in poems and stories can be used to practise grammatical structures. emphasising the rhythm: I’ve never been to India I’ve never been to France I’ve never eaten frogs’ legs And I’ve never learned to dance I’ve always lived in Thames I’ve never been abroad I’ve always lived at home I’m getting rather bored… Draw attention to the rhyme scheme (ABCB with second and fourth lines rhyming). Grammar involves rules.tripod. I n the third article in this series. And many poems. novelty. stories and songs depend for their effect on repetition. Past regrets Structure: present perfect Function: talking about life experiences 20 Modern English Teacher Volume 21 No. I enjoy is followed by the gerund. a closer look at what is involved in creativity reveals a series of paradoxes. Then give them the following framework (alter shall to will if you feel it is more natural) and ask them to put their ideas into poem form: Warning poem When I’m old. Collect them in and put them together to make a poster poem for the classroom.
. party? film? phone Mum.com/watch?v=XXzb JgRfd7g&feature=related Prepare a ppt slide of the following words. This is the whale that capsized the boat that carried the girl that kissed the man that caught the fish that was in the photo that Jack took. Charlie now teaches at ELA.. ‘It is very good that. A Boy’s Head Structure: there is a/there are some Function: describing Techniques: using pattern and repetition.’ with simple paraphrasing (‘He doesn’t want piano lessons’. Students read their poems out without the title and the class guess what they are describing.. Jill’s new book on motivation. Ask them to write a story beginning ‘This is the photo that Jack took . Prepare lucky dip slips: either a boy’s pocket.. There are some. This is the fish that was in the photo that Jack took. a teenager’s diary or a teenager’s head.. lucky dip Preparation Prepare an outline of a head and make a copy for each pair of students in your class. And I shall………………. Put students in pairs or groups and put up the words on the board or ppt.. Between them they have written over thirty books. This is the man that caught the fish that was in the photo that Jack took. Jill and Charlie Hadfield Jill and Charlie Hadfield have worked as teachers and teacher trainers in Britain.. bumble bee. And there is . trimmed with pictures. a baby’s head What to do Give out the outline heads. Classroom Dynamics and a course for primary children: Excellent! published by Longman. an old man’s head. Here is an example: This is the photo that Jack took.. a mother’s head. we have looked at ways in which creativity. China.. Prepare a ‘What’s in my head?’ example for yourself: fill the head with thoughts e.htm) Explain ‘a project for doing away with’ and ‘There is much promise. 1 www. In this article. When they have finished. a girl’s handbag. Tibet. can be subjected to a number of constraints in order to produce an activity that will generate language that is predictable and conforms to a pattern – though still retains the power of creative expression to surprise and delight... piano lesson. Pre-teach key nouns from the poem A Boy’s Head: spaceship. is due in 2012. Get groups to share ideas.’) Put students in pairs or groups.... or write them on the board: man fish girl boat wind wave whale rod camera rock beach shark cook friend chips cat What to do Read the story with your class or play them the youtube video.youtube. Get each group to take a lucky dip slip and to write a poem on the pattern: The photo that Jack took Structure: relative clauses Function: narrating and describing Techniques: using pattern and repetition.. Two Teacher Education books were published in 2008: Top Tools for Language Teachers (Pearson) and An Introduction to Teaching English (OUP).. Ask students to write what is inside their head at the moment – show them your head picture as an example.ac..onlineMET. Madagascar. co-authored with Zoltan Dornyei... In it there is a a. Put students in pairs to discuss ideas.’ using any or all of the words. get them to read out their stories. Read the poem A Boy’s Head by Miroslav Holub (Selected Poems Penguin 1967 http://jbr33. prepare lesson. often thought of as complete freedom of expression. Collect in and make a poster poem.nz Volume 21 No. mark homework. though it is similar in many European languages. a businessman’s briefcase. Email: email@example.com. five books in the Oxford Basics series.com 21 . This is the girl that kissed the man that caught the fish that was in the photo that Jack took. Noah’s ark. and Jill at Unitec New Zealand. Auckland University. feed cat. shopping. multiplication table.PRACTICAL IDEAS I shall………………. run short courses and seminars for teachers in many other parts of the world. a . In the next and final article we will look at how further constraints can be placed on the creative process to produce activities that can stimulate creative expression for beginners. hare. including the Longman Communication Games series. and held several consultancies for aid agencies in developing countries. etc. There are some good illustrated versions on youtube: http://www. France. This is the boat that carried the girl that kissed the man that caught the fish that was in the photo that Jack took. idea collision Preparation Find a copy of the children’s story This is the house that Jack built. Anti-matter is probably best done by translation.com/a_boy. river.
most of us understand a clear map better than verbal instructions. Using this general mapping of the key tenses and structures is a painless way of underlining the possibilities of the grammar system. A Kyriacou uses “Islands of English” to depict buried grammatical treasures. since they progressively map how complete systems work. I n a recent MET publication (Kyriacou. if we would like to show how modals are used to look forward and how they are employed when we are looking over our shoulder towards a real or imagined previous time. It is important to underline here that grammar must be a tool in the process of communicative language teaching. In much the same way as travelling somewhere new. I have always found this mechanism to be both elegant and fascinating. 1 . if we would like to show how modals are used to look forward and how they are employed when we are looking over our shoulder towards a real or imagined previous time. Over the weeks. where only the immediately useful elements are put up by the teacher. The islands I have used with my L2 learners are obviously different. and perhaps my students pick up something of my own enthusiasm for it as we draw up what we manage to decide about it in class. MET 20(3) 2011). Almost certainly. the forms used become ever more complete and students can use the resulting picture to self-correct or the teacher can glance at the picture as a way of getting the students to think about forms used incorrectly. highly focused doses (Ellis 2001. one that students may already have started experimenting with. but that it might be best in small. Here again. and is not the primary teaching task. the intention is to show the possibilities of a system. however. A different kind of mapping is needed. Scheffler and Cinciala 2010). ” specifically if necessary. there should be some group members who can serve to scaffold the others. and they enable students to use the island mapping both to guide their production and also to articulate an individual grammar rule if the school system so requires. English makes wonderful use of the simple infinitive and the perfect infinitive for this apparently complex task. a concept that I later discovered was first introduced by Tomasello (2003) to study L1 language learning. I described a method I have used for many years to depict various basic areas of English grammar as “pictures”.PRACTICAL IDEAS Picturing English Grammar: Phase Two K. 22 Modern English Teacher Volume 21 No. An example of this follows: “ A different kind of mapping is needed. or revisiting a place we have already been to. in the Vygotskian sense The result of such mapping is a kind of ongoing substitution table. Lightbown and Spada 2008. Numerous researchers have highlighted the fact that grammar should indeed be taught. These pictures are produced as little “islands of English”. however.
If the students. They can produce nuances near to the meaning of the thoughts in their own hearts and minds. one of which is the use of mnemonics (Oxford 2001). The issue for languages like Italian is that they can form compound tenses and conditionals based both on “to be” and “to have”. self-correction and teacher correction all nudging or pulling the learner towards correct use. many learners fall back on their own language structures. In some ways. we would also like to involve others in this reflection. I know that speakers of Italian and French do face a real struggle if they attempt to translate their L1 versions of conditionals or forward-looking vs. they could refer to their “picture” grammar instead of referring to their L1 as a guide.com 23 . No wonder so many students from Romance language backgrounds go into a near panic when they try to form more complex sentences in English. Quite rightly. We need the ability to communicate all this in order to be humans. This kind of reflexive use is much more limited in English. and the teacher is there also to back up such exploration of the system under investigation. I use more geometric islands for this task because I want to give a clean sense of a system and something distinct from the general island of verbs. Of course. without an alternative support. mapping really can act as scaffolding.possible first uses of the little “tugs”: will. students may be tempted into making a stab at something similar to their L1. This is a much loved use in Italian. where modals such as “should” “could” “must” are involved. the flesh is weak and. students can try to acquire language by doing (as in task-based learning) through a process of negotiation and absorption (Bygate. and many verbs even fall into reflexive forms. real communication gives the student a chance to absorb and to experiment (Krashen 1976). and often these can be more difficult than our straightforward method. not in order to pass a language test! We may indeed want people to know about what we have experienced. In some lessons. backwardlooking structures into English. at times. Among the common features of good language learners we find various strategies. then look into their limited repertoire of English to find words to convey their meaning. in nonclassroom learning. It is here that many of my own students tell me they feel inadequate. where we really do need some kind of impact on the subject in order to employ it. This theorising also involves the future. looking at how time is mapped forward. or a wall-mounted representation can also act as a valid mnemonic tool to guide language production. building grammatical structure. but perhaps we also need to allow other people to see who we are as sentient beings. In Italian. that we are individuals who feel and react emotionally in such and such a way to certain events. Skehan and Swain 2001). if only they would take it! I have always found that students are really quite willing to take up simpler alternatives when something useful and intuitive is offered to support their efforts. Instead. The image of a blackboard representation. might. other lessons can indeed focus more on form (Ellis 2006. language students know they shouldn’t even try to translate from their L1 – years of repeated warnings issued by their English teachers should be ringing in their ears. such as “I woke myself” or “I stopped myself” when they simply mean “I woke up” or “I stopped”. and often comes up before the students have become really mature grammatically. grammatical “would” meaning. Our lives are lived and relived day by day and. modals like “should” and “could” also have to be added to the mix. Much human experience involves reflection. Other languages have their own approaches to such formation. should sentence in their L1. Spada and Lightbown 2008. with peer correction. but translated into English words. Looking forward . The result is often amusing to the teacher. perhaps by looking back at things they should have said or done. will must may/might go work finish study buy speak be think say tell should From experience. teaching today offers varied approaches to the exploitation of opportunities for learning (Mackey 2006). had a mental image to carry around all the time. 1 www. The teacher can prepare the ground by getting a new “picture” started early on and showing how little “tugs” are doing the same work as some of the fish on the first type of map. when they begin to experiment with previous experiences. Scheffler and Cinciala 2010). who instead sees a much simpler alternative available to the class. In other languages also. certainty or doubt. However. acting as auxiliaries to the verbs on the island. however. looking back with pleasure or regret. giving the bare support of what is needed in order to construct and transmit the complex thoughts that allow students a sense of personal satisfaction regarding the “quality” of their communicative efforts. One starts slowly.onlineMET. Grammar mapped onto islands simplifies the construction process and provides the structure that learners need so as to avoid translating from their L1. Also.PRACTICAL IDEAS (Mitchell and Miles 2004). must. if the students try to go beyond the basic. may. examining possibilities and theorising on what has already gone by. They often form the Volume 21 No.
PRACTICAL IDEAS should B have gone have finished have bought have worked have studied have spoken will A go work finish study buy speak be think say tell must may/might Looking back . would could B have gone have finished have bought have been have said have worked have studied have spoken have thought have told A may/might go work finish study buy speak be think say tell will must “tugs” being used for Conditionals II and III should 24 Modern English Teacher Volume 21 No. and a big letter “B” on system 2. and we will deal with them as we proceed in the course. “often. 1 . We may get something like the figure below. can they all do the same thing? The answer is. the auxiliary links that look forward. The second and third conditionals allow the students to rearrange the “tugs” and focus on the typical auxiliaries used for these. generally speaking.possible first use of little “tug” on “should” This moment of clarification allows the teacher to put up a big letter “A” on system 1. Students then love to fire questions about the other “tugs”. as they become necessary or come up in class. that look back on things. yes”. the links that look over our shoulder.
Certain options exist and are visible. Only put up what is really needed at any particular moment. but I strongly advise an incremental approach. choosing from student suggestions and peer discussion. They can take the centre stage with much more sense of freedom to be themselves. However. That is why I want students to map the grammar as early on as possible. good class interaction and a supportive atmosphere all serve to make risk-taking more acceptable to students. Put simply. in fact. this is the essence of communicative teaching – focusing on the individual and allowing him or her to communicate about themselves and their world. the more independent students will be in class and in their lives. Since the picture is left up on the wall. It is simple. For me. confusion is not limited to teenagers. Of course. but this should not be taken as diminishing its importance. Undoubtedly. The same experience has struck me during my work in the UK with postgraduate students. Nunan and Lamb 1996. and anxiety in the classroom has remained an important area of research discussion (Skehan 1989. but underlying this there may also be a fear of appearing to have an inadequate response to an experience. 1 www. The teacher’s job is to render the drawing fun and memorable. the islands open up the way to real communication about what our experiences tell us and what they make us. Communication has then flowered with more confidence. Ellis 2001). a major advantage of the “picture” grammar approach is that it is the students themselves who build the design. In terms of learning also. without the brake put on their personalities by the leaden weight of grammar that they just can’t manage well enough to make their meaning both clear and emotionally satisfying. clear and immediately functional. it may be a fear of sounding would could B have gone have finished have bought have been have said have worked have studied have spoken have thought have told may/might A go work finish study buy speak be think say tell will must a more complete “picture” should Volume 21 No. Below.PRACTICAL IDEAS As mentioned above. I still come across occasional reluctance to take part in academically more challenging tasks. I have applied this approach over a couple of decades to untangle the very confused ideas of many a high school student. many company directors and senior managers are equally lost and they have worked hard with me to sort out the tangle in their heads. The classroom result of this “picture” grammar approach is a set of enthusiastic students who can throw themselves into free expression fully. Mapping allows students to express more about the individual as early on in the L2 learning process as possible. However. it is a constant reminder of what is and isn’t needed to produce interesting structures.com 25 . many factors are involved in such reluctance to take part. it isn’t just a question of classroom practice or a belief in a particular method for learning English – the sooner we can free up genuine communication about things that matter. One of these may be a simple fear of exposing oneself to ridicule because of grammar errors. Establishing a secure and friendly environment for learning is. anything not on the map simply doesn’t exist (at least for now) and cannot be used.onlineMET. is a more complete “picture” of what the tugs can do. one of the distinctive features of communicative language teaching. and taken genuine pleasure in the process. lowering the affective filter was one of the key conditions laid down by Krashen (1976) to enable “openness” to input. The teacher can also provide helpful observations and set up questions that will push or pull the students to considering the available options.
stupid or insensitive or less emotionally responsive than others owing to the absence of language control rather than absence of awareness or feeling. As teachers, we tend to view mistakes as being good, useful indicators of where students are and where they will have to go in the near future. However, we must not forget that students, especially older learners, might prefer to sound as sophisticated in English as they do in their L1 even from Day 1 of a course. That may not be within the bounds of reasonable expectation, but we should be keenly aware of where students want to go in their studies. The island approach has always worked very quickly in getting such learners onside and making them willing to take chances in communication, since they feel more confident about the likely outcome of their efforts. In conclusion, I would like to suggest that making such a panorama of the grammar system available to our students allows them to gain control and begin to experiment with communicating more complex thoughts and feelings. It is a tool that can quickly empower learners and enable them to take more of their learning into their own hands; to make them more autonomous learners Personally, I believe that this kind of visible scaffolding is one of the best tools I have at hand as a teacher and I feel that the profession could benefit from making more use of such support than it presently does.
Krashen, S. (1976) Formal and informal linguistic environments in language acquisition and language learning, TESOL Quarterly 10, pp. 157-68 Kyriacou, K.A. (2011) Picturing English Grammar: Using “Islands of English” to depict buried grammatical treasures. Phase One, Modern English Teacher, 20(3), pp. 30-33 Mackey, A. (2006) Second Language Acquisition. In An Introduction to Language and Linguistics (Eds. Fasold and Connor-Linton) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Mitchell, R and Myles, F. (2004) Second Language Learning Theories, London: Hodder Arnold Nunan, D. and Lamb, C. (1996) Affective issues in the language classroom. In The self-directed teacher: managing the learning process, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Oxford, R. L. (2004) Language Learning Strategies Chapter 24, In The Cambridge Guide to Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages (Eds. Carter, R. & Nunan, D.) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Scheffler, P and Cinciala,M. (2010) Explicit grammar rules and L2 acquisition ELT Journal, Volume 65/1 January 2011, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 13-23 Skehan, P. (1989) Individual Differences in Second Language Learning, London: Edward Arnold Spada, N. and Lightbown, P. (2008) Form-Focused Instruction: Isolated or Integrated? TESOL Quarterly, Volume 42, Number 2, pp. 181-207(27) Tomasello, M. (2003) Constructing a Language; A Usage-Based Theory of Language Acquisition, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
Kyriacos Andreas Kyriacou
Born in London, Kyriacos Andreas Kyriacou is a teacher of English for Special Purposes/English for Academic Purposes at Rome University “La Sapienza”. He has researched Discourse Analysis and CLIL and is very interested in Motivation. He has published in English and in Italian, and has a study in progress into language learning motivation in tertiary education. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
I would like to thank my daughter, Isabella A Kyriacou, for the artwork of both articles on “Islands of English”.
Bygate, M., Skehan, P., Swain, M. (2001) Introduction, Researching Pedagogic Tasks, Second Language Learning, Teaching and Testing. In Applied Linguistics and Language Study, (Eds. Bygate, Skehan, and Swain), Harlow: Pearson Education Ltd Ellis, R. (2001) The Study of Second Language Acquisition, Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 508-517 Ellis, R. (2006) Current Issues in the Teaching of Grammar. An SLA Perspective TESOL Quarterly, Volume 40, Number 1, Mar 2006, pp. 83-107
Modern English Teacher
Volume 21 No. 1
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Volume 21 No. 1
Get students involved and entertain them!
Jerry Thekes has some fun ways to practise grammar.
n this article, I will present the teaching of eight grammar games. By grammar game, I mean an entertaining activity involving learners in order for them to comfortably acquire the grammar point. I will try to argue for the importance of teaching grammar through fun as well. I believe that grammar teaching has a crucial part in the TEFL classroom; however grammar needs to be taught in a way that entertains the learners. Wright and Haleem (1991) emphasize the need for students to move about in the classroom by stating that physical activity in lessons can contribute enormously to an understanding of sentence construction. In both the ‘Luggage’ and the ‘Intercity’ game learners are physically active. Teaching grammar in TEFL lessons is important but not in spite of trying to be communicative but exactly because of it. I agree with Alexander (1994), who says that “in our eagerness to get our students to communicate, we frequently try to sweep grammar under the carpet … Grammar is being taught again not despite but because of the communicative revolution”. This statement is reinforced by Tarone and Yule (1996) who say that “developing this grammatical competence, it should be remembered, is in many respects the major goal of large numbers of students who take courses in a second or foreign language. Moreover, it has never really been seriously suggested that any language learner can become proficient in a language without developing a certain level of grammatical competence”. Widdowson (1988) also finds the
teaching of grammar inevitable in the TEFL classroom by saying that “grammar is not a constraining imposition but a liberating force; it frees us from the dependency on context and the limitations of a purely lexical categorization of reality”. Bruton goes on to point out the how grammar knowledge is acquired in the acquisition process. He says “grammar has to be encountered in context … there is little point in decontextualized grammar … furthermore, the context should be real to the users, so that the grammatical meaning takes on a genuine significance” (Bruton 2009, p.384). In the Luggage game below, it will be evident that grammar is absolutely contextualized. As will be seen, pictures play a vital role in the grammar games described. A number of TEFL professionals have called for the use of pictures as a powerful source in the elicitation process. By elicitation, I mean that the teacher prompts and motivates the learners to create meaningful speech acts. Mumford (2008, p.40), for example, affirms that “all teachers have access to pictures, however, and these can be a quick and easy way to bring other places and other people into the class. With imagination, pictures can be an extremely flexible resource”. This statement rhymes well with Ur (1991) who posits that: “it is very much easier to concentrate on thinking about something if you can see that something, or at least see some depicted or symbolic representation of it. Learners … who are asked to discuss or listen to something without any visual focus often find their attention wandering”.
With lively grammar games, I am trying to avoid students’ attention wandering. The grammar games in the article involve a lot of visuals and realia. Mumford’s and Ur’s arguments are reinforced by Wright, Betteridge and Buckby (2009) who posit that games with pictures involve the learners. They also find visualization important when grammar is presented and taught to TEFL learners. Making language teaching and the teaching of grammar game-like is of crucial importance so as to keep students interested and to create a relaxed atmosphere. Franciosi (2010, 1) also argues for the need of making TEFL classrooms more gamelike. Hadfield says that “affective activities aim to create a positive and supportive group atmosphere in a non-explicit way” (Hadfield 1992). The notion of making the lesson game-like is also asserted by Rinvolucri (1995): “Games are often associated with fun. Games can lower anxiety, thus making the acquisition of input more likely. They are highly motivating, relevant, interesting and comprehensible.” Games not only engage students’ interest in the TEFL classroom but they also keep them involved. Richards (1987) also condemns explicit grammar teaching when he declares that “focus on grammar in itself is not a valid approach to the development of language proficiency … grammatical skills are thus seen as a component of language proficiency rather than as an end in itself”. In the grammar games described in the article, the term grammar MacNugget is used. This denomination comes from Thornbury (2010), who maintains that “an enthusiasm for
Modern English Teacher
Volume 21 No. 1
The teacher hands out slips of paper to each student in the class. After students are engaged in the activity. second and third – features of the language that have little or no linguistic. business tourist is going to take a car rental brochure because he is going to rent a car. In order to motivate students to learn grammar. has given rise to the elaborate architecture of the so-called tense system – including such grammar McNuggets as the future-in-the-past. reality”.onlineMET. One student is instructed to read the sentence. neither Krashen (1982) nor Prabhu (1987) should be left out of consideration who assert – with slight distinction – that language is naturally acquired and explicit rule providing is to be avoided. e. ‘have a bad car’. It is advised that an explanation be given. they are given realia such as Agatha Christie books. if. the other half get sentence endings. duct tape Procedure: Prior to the lesson the teacher has put two different piles of prompt cards on two different chairs in the classroom. tube of sunscreen. L for Luggage game Grammar: going to Level: elementary Material: pictures.PRACTICAL IDEAS compartmentalization.) on the whiteboard. the ‘rainy day’ pictures will be matched up with the ‘we are playing tennis outside’ sentence. Once Volume 21 No. The teacher expects them to say sentences with ‘going to’ and give a reason for their choice. despite) Level: upper-intermediate Material: slips of paper.g. they have chosen them.22) also finds students’ motivation crucial and she points to the fact that involving the students and keeping them alert is the right path towards teaching them something new. slips of paper with sentence fragments on them Procedure: Prior to the lesson. pictures. For instance. If it is proved to them that the acquisition of grammar structures is an enjoyable pastime. On one chair there is a pile of images designating different notions. Maffione (2008. Before the description of games. In the lesson the teacher has the learners choose two pictures. When each student has found their partner.g. ‘that’ relative pronouns – is as follows. they are told to go to the chair with the pile of sentences.: ‘have a stomach ache’. etc. etc. ‘we are playing tennis outside’. lipsticks. duct tape. Sample sentences are seen below. family going on a package tour. who has multiple hands. teachers need to fend off the tension the learners tend to have.) The students are instructed to go to the whiteboard with the objects and symbolically put them into the bags. etc. the teacher must be involved in the activity as well. e. duct tape. etc. who is standing in front of the classroom with a card ‘in spite of the fact that’ stuck on his/her chest with blue tack.com 29 . ‘I am driving all the way to Turkey’. first. If there is not an even number of students. not to mention the conditionals. p. They are then instructed to find a contrasting match to their pictures. The rest of the class now sees a fragmented visual sentence which one student has to read out: ‘We are playing tennis outside in spite of the fact it is a rainy day. By the end of the game the whole class will have looked like the Hindu goddess Kali. After the presentation and the explanation. there is another pile of cards with sentences written on them. ‘rainy day’. The student behind the teacher holds up the sentence in his right hand and the picture in his left hand. the teacher makes a triangle on the floor in the classroom by sticking duct tape in the correct shape. the students are instructed to proceed to form the elliptic sentences with one student dropping the pronoun card into the triangle. On another chair. Students have to find their partners on the basis of forming meaningful sentences. and the past perfect continuous. When grammar games facilitating learners’ acquisition is at issue. inherited from grammars of classical languages.’ The other students then take turns in standing behind the teacher and holding up the sentences and picture in the same system as the first has done. This is the person I gave my laptop to. The presentation of the elliptic relative clauses – ones that do not include either of the ‘who’. Then the teacher throws the ‘who’ card into the Bermuda triangle in order to show that the relative pronoun can disappear from the sentence. one has to go behind the teacher. for example: ‘The girls on the beach are going to take a tube of sunscreen because they are going to spend a lot of time under the sun.’ ‘The K for Kali goddess game Grammar: Conjunctions (in spite of the fact that. 1 www. realia Procedure: The teacher sticks pictures of different types of travellers (lonely tourist. As all students stand behind the teacher. Thus. ‘which’. They are supposed to match the items with one type of tourist. they will be more willing to proceed in their TEFL studies. maps. I will indicate the grammar McNugget that the teacher is supposed to teach with that particular game. namely that the relative pronoun can disappear if the relative clause is in the objectival case. girls on the beach. Sentences are elicited from students with questions with regard to where they think these tourists are travelling. let alone psychological. the fragmented sentence can be read: “This is the person who I gave my laptop to”.’ B for Bermuda game Grammar: elliptic relative clauses Level: pre-intermediate Material: laptop. the teacher stands between one of the pairs and shows either the ‘who’ or ‘which’ card depending on whether the noun at hand is a person or an object. After all the students are done with their matching. It is important that half of the group get sentence beginnings.: she is working all day’.
Another sentence will read like this: ‘I had my dog cured by the vet. ‘rarely’. which describes a comic genre. then this student should say ‘I have breakfast every day’. ’plumber’. I for Intercity game Grammar: factitive Level: intermediate Material: slips of paper. it will be evident for them that this structure is completely different in meaning from the seemingly similar present perfect tense. the teacher can draw a cross by the red. e.’ Jilly: Because I’m going to a fancy dress party. The students pass around the pictures and wait for the teacher to elicit either an affirmative or interrogative or negative sentence with the associated color. The green color stands for the affirmative. T for Traffic lights game Grammar: affirmative. duct tape. The learners with pictures of jobs in their hands have to find partners on the basis of the certain occupation’s matching verb. Prior to the lesson the traffic light colors are drawn on the board in the usual order: red.g. interrogative. For instance. This is done in the same way with the negative and interrogative. yellow. etc. the students are requested to create reported speech sentences based on the comic story.PRACTICAL IDEAS It is my cell phone not yours I have just found This is a great book I am reading at the moment. The whole class works together and everybody is given a pencil. spotty pants. e. It is done with pictures of daily routine and slips of cards with ‘always’. e.’ The objective is to put together the sentences correctly and for the students to see that the object comes between the verb ‘have’ and the past participle form of the verb. negative in any tense Level: any Material: pictures.: ‘repair’. another student has ‘dust the room’ and is prompted with a red circle. Graham: Yes. Once they are done with this. green) Procedure: In this grammar game the teacher is using the simple associative intelligence of the students. Jilly and Graham are talking: Sam: Jilly. box Procedure: The teacher begins by revising the lexical set of jobs and work with the use of pictures. 30 Modern English Teacher Volume 21 No.g. The teacher sticks their cards on their chests and has the picture of an object connected with the job. this students should say ‘I don’t dust the room’. Their talking is indicated by captions drawn by the learners. chair. They have to report Sam’s sentence: ‘Sam asked Jilly why she was wearing those atrocious pink. ‘vet.’. The teacher presents the structure: ‘I had my car repaired by the mechanic. Students quickly get involved in this game since it is quite simple to associate red with negation and green with affirmative statements. They are instructed by the teacher to draw three different characters and give them names. ‘cure’. In order to make sure. etc. After the selection of the best characters. the rest of the group sees a chair with ‘had’ on it. the class is supposed to create a story with the characters talking to each other. a question mark by the yellow and a tick by the green. yellow. ‘sometimes’. she’s going but she didn’t let me wear my purple. This is a type of casting. One group of students picks the slips of cards from the box while the other group is given the pictures of jobs. F for Fumetti game Grammar: reported speech Level: intermediate Material: pencils Procedure: This game is named after the Italian and American English word Fumetto.g. however. the red the negative form and what we have left is the yellow. Thus. pictures. etc. Once the presentation is done. ‘cut’. After the teacher has presented how to form reported speech affirmative and interrogative sentences. if a student has the picture ‘have breakfast’ in his hand and is prompted with a green circle.’ The task goes on until each quote-on-quote sentence is reported. green. the teacher pulls up a chair with the word ‘had’ stuck on it and has the pair line up next to the teacher as they themselves stand next to each other as well. For example the three characters Sam. By moving into the correct place with the correct prompt. Elicitation is achieved through association with colors. the teacher tells them to vote for the best characters and the best suited names for them.’ Then students and teacher work together to select the right prompts as the activity proceeds. if. which denotes the interrogative form. the teacher standing next to the chair showing the picture of the object ‘car’. 1 . the teacher has a green circle stuck on his/her chest to indicate that it is the affirmative. in this part of the lesson students are expected to draw and come up with a comic story. striped shirt. coloured cards cut into circles for traffic lights (red. duct tape. Following this. spotty pants. ‘repair’. Teacher presents the way the present simple in the affirmative is formed.: one pair is the ‘mechanic’. why are you wearing those atrocious. ‘I sometimes mow the lawn in the garden. teacher elicits sentences from students by handing out pictures of daily routine and holding up either a green or a yellow or a red circle. My biggest worry is the time factor we have to be careful of. pink. While explaining. ‘tame’. Such sentences are presented as: ‘I always get up early.: ‘mechanic’.’ Once the story has been created. another is the ‘vet’. In a box the teacher has put verbs connected with work.’. one student standing next to teacher with the verb ‘repair’ stuck on his/her chest and one more student with the picture of a ‘mechanic’ closing up the line. ‘never’ written on them. etc.
I wish I could live in a big detached house’. The teacher has to make sure they use the grammar structure well as it is meant to be a grammar-focused game. In fact they are expected to use their imagination.J. The aim is to introduce. If only Level: elementary Material: a card with a picture of a goldfish. views and notions supporting the concept of the importance of teaching grammar through games. the teacher has the students draw abstract or non-figurative images and when they are done. a type of flower shown in this semi-abstract picture. Through the description of three grammar McNuggets I have intended to show that teaching grammar with fun and games is crucial in the facilitating process of teaching TEFL learners. (2010) Making ESL/TEFL Volume 21 No. slips of paper with good things written on them such as ‘marry a beautiful woman’. ‘meet Cheryl Cole’. The learner acting in the role of the old man takes three slips of paper and has to say three wishes with the help of them starting their sentences with either ‘I wish’ or ‘If only’. I have also used Rinvolucri’s view. go ahead with telling them to me’. The students take turns in thinking and saying what might be in the pictures. The teacher has to make sure that The teacher emphasizes that whatever the student say that might be in the picture is correct. As a follow-up activity. One student should change roles during the activity. etc Procedure: The idea is taken for Hemingway’s book entitled ‘The old man and the sea’ in which the goldfish offers three wishes to the old fisherman. Conclusion In the first section of this paper I have tried to find assertions. 383-386 Franciosi. Then the old fisherman students have to create sentences such as ‘I wish I could meet Cheryl Cole’. it is a Communicative Resource ELT Journal Volume 63/4.onlineMET. these pictures are handed around the room. ‘travel to Kiribati’.PRACTICAL IDEAS x they write the statements on the slips of paper in present tenses so that the learners will be challenged to make the correct ‘I wish’ sentences. O for Old man and the sea game Grammar: I wish. according to which grammar is only an umbrella term and every point has to be approached in a different way when teaching them is at issue. (2009) Grammar is not only a Liberating Force.com 31 . pp. The goldfish has only one line: ’I will make three wishes of yours come true. Students take turns in acting out the dialogue between the goldfish and the old fisherman. 1 www. The fastest and a stateof-the-art way of doing so is by using abstract pictures that can be seen below as examples. Y for Yarrow game Grammar: Modal auxiliary ‘might’ ? Level: pre-intermediate Material: abstract pictures Procedure: The game is named after yarrow. present and demonstrate the modal auxialliary verb ‘might’. REFERENCES Bruton. A. I have cited Krashen. S. I have found Thornbury’s notion of grammar is inevitable in this article. who condemns the conscious teaching of grammar rules.
E. D.Ed. L.S. No. He also taught in Saudi Arabia in the spring of 2011. His fields of interest include teaching grammar.com 32 Modern English Teacher Volume 21 No. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Jerry Thekes Jerry Istvan Thekes has an M. 2.G. & Haleem. 22-23 Mumford. A. Betteridge.) Grammar and Second Language Teaching Newbury House Wright. Email: jerry@jerrythekes. N. Sharwood Smith (eds. USA). (1995) Grammar Game Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Richards. Harlow: Longman Wright. in Italian linguistics and a B. second language acquisition and the history of language teaching methodology.C. G.A. (1992) Classroom Dynamics Oxford: Oxford University Press Krashen. H. & Yule. Cited from http://scottthornbury. J. (1988) Grammar.. (1996) Focus on the Language Learner Oxford: Oxford University Press Thornbury. pp.wordpress. developing course material and writing coursebooks for IFF Language Academy in Hungary for a decade. (2008) Keeping them Interested. M. J. Missouri. and. Vol. and learning’ In W. Rutheford and M. 40-42 Prabhu. A. 1-5 Hadfield. He has his TEFL Certificate from TEFL International Barcelona and is currently doing his PhD in Applied Linguistics. (2009) G is for Grammar MacNugget.PRACTICAL IDEAS Classroom Activities More Game-Like. (2009) Games for Language Learning. TESOL from the University of Szeged. com/2010/09/18/g-is-for-grammarmcnuggets/ Ur. 1 . & Buckby. (1991) Visuals for the Language Classroom. M. pp. He has been teaching. training teachers. His teaching and teachertrainer experience spans 11 years in Hungary. S. The Internet TESL Journal. in TESOL from Southwest Baptist University (Bolivar. Stephen D. pp. an M. S. (1982) Principles and Practice in Second Language Acquisition Pergamon Maffione. (2008) Picture This! Modern English Teacher 17(2). (1987) Second Language Pedagogy Oxford: Oxford University Press Rinvolucri. S. English Teaching Professional 58. XVI.A. (1987) The Context of Language Teaching Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Tarone. P. (1991) Grammar Practice Activities: A Practical Guide for Teachers Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 1991 Widdowson. nonsense.
britishcouncil. In each issue we’ll highlight new Twitter feeds you might like to follow: @TheConsultantsE Nicky Hockly of The Consultants-e is an expert on the use of ICT in the classroom.onlineMET.regonline. and if you follow them on Twitter.org/English This blog.com Jen is also president of ARCALL and a regular conference presenter on ICT work. and new techniques for use in the classroom. you may learn about new websites. and is now teaching an introduction to Mobile Learning. set up by USAID and sponsored by the British Council amongst others. aspx?EventID=968312. Conferences mEducation Alliance Conference The first international conference of the mEducation Alliance (formerly known as m4ed4dev Symposium) took place in summer 2011 in Washington D.soundspronapp. 1 www. wordpress.com/ Twitter Feed There are a lot of Twitter writers from the world of technology in ELT. More information from http://www. written by your MET Technology editor.. The Alliance supports the pioneering work in literacy that USAID is carrying out across Africa. technology and life at: http://www.jenverschoor. and mobile and handheld technology plays a key role in facilitating access to reading materials and skills. which should show the 2012 conference soon: http://www. new ideas. The mEducation Alliance aims to share experiences and expertise about the use of Mobile technology in education. including the use of technology – comments are welcome! Volume 21 No. has developed a number of online training courses for teachers in this area. @jenverschoor Jen Verschoor is a teacher trainer and ICT Coordinator who tweets from Buenos Aires and blogs about ICT.C.TECHNOLOGY MATTERS Tech News & Events App of the moment This month’s app is from Macmillan. Blog Roll There is a new English language teaching blog from the British Council which you can access here: http://blog. who have published an app version of Adrian Underhill’s phonemic chart which provides interactive ways for learners to practise and develop pronunciation skills while on the move. More information here at the temporary site under construction. shares samples of the British Council’s work in various areas of ELT.com/builder/site/default. with a special focus on literacy development and education in developing economies.com 33 .
bettshow. where the conference resources and interviews from previous years are still hosted. London.com/bett11/ Mobile World. 1 . February 27–March 1. please write in to MET to let us know. author and trainer. March 28–31. 2012 http://www. Please also let us know if you have an article you’d like to write about work you have been doing. June 24–27.TECHNOLOGY MATTERS Tech News & Events IATEFL Online Although the 2011 conference is long over.tesol. don’t forget that it still lives on – IATEFL Brighton Online is still available at http://iatefl. 2012 http://www. You can contact me at: mcarrier@btconnect. starting with IATEFL Aberdeen.mobileworldcongress. 34 Modern English Teacher Volume 21 No. January 12–14. From the Editor If you have any requests for topics that you would like us to cover.iatefl.org ISTE 2012. Barcelona. 2012 http://www. Glasgow.org/ISTE/2012 Michael Carrier has been involved in ELT for many years as a teacher. director.com/ IATEFL 2012.britishcouncil. March 19–23. San Diego. He is currently Director of English Language Development at the British Council in London. 2012 http://www.org/events/iatefl-annual-conferenceand-exhibition TESOL 2012.isteconference. 2012 http://www. Philadelphia.org.com Future Conferences Other upcoming ICT/TELL/CALL-related conferences you might want to plan for: BETT Show.
The basic idea is that the “input” part of what many universities and educational institutions still provide through lectures. my experience would suggest that in most cases the online content that we provide is designed to support our classes. if you look deeper into the idea. There is probably some truth in this. though this would probably vary from course to course. However. it frees up valuable time that can be used for other things. As for the broader world of ELT and EFL. However. we are actually providing them with the least amount of support. so that students do that part at home.e. now the tutor has more time to spend with the students. I have already cut down to a minimum the “input” that I provide in lectures and most of the time my students are processing. So what replaces the lecture? Well. can be flipped. For example. the flipped classroom could lead to more contact with the tutor and more opportunities to set up groupwork and classwork that help the students to prepare for their assessments. homework and projects). with their assignments. Of course. However. My feeling is that the Flipped Classroom is an exaggerated standpoint. the basic idea is that a lot of what we traditionally call the “input” part of a lesson can now be easily done by prerecorded videos. it would be quite easy for me to pre-record all my lectures on using technology in ELT and have these online so that the students would no longer need to attend my lectures on my MA in TESOL course. Their point is that we provide lectures and guidance. so to all intents and purposes I have already flipped the classroom. especially at university level.onlineMET. Volume 21 No. so that students do that part at home.com “ The basic idea is that the “input” part of what ” 35 . I do realise that this is not always the case. The idea is nothing new but has been brought into the public domain by people such as Salmon Kan who has presented the idea at TED. Our focus long ago shifted from the teacher to the learner. discovering or sharing their ideas. though. 1 www. exams and coursework. There is very little of the traditional lecture scenario. Supporters of the Flipped Classroom often argue that when the students need most help (i. screencasts. etc. TED is a popular forum for the latest ideas for using technology. It doesn’t have to be a recorded lecture. O ver in the USA the word of the moment in the educational world is the “Flipped Classroom”. audio files. In fact. why is it relevant to English language teaching? Well. In doing so. That begs the question though: what other things? Now most of you will say this is nothing new and indeed you would be right. My feeling is that the flipped classroom is much more relevant to teacher training and university-level courses where there tends to be lots of academic content that could easily be made assessable online. captured lectures and links to websites. the counter argument is that students should learn to be autonomous and work alone anyway. screencasts. lectures. After all. then perhaps we do have things many universities and educational institutions still provide through lectures. can be flipped.TECHNOLOGY MATTERS The flipped classroom or the connected classroom? Russell Stannard looks at the benefits of putting more input online. So what is the Flipped Classroom? Perhaps more importantly. we are trained to minimise ‘teacher talking time’ and to get the students processing and using the language as well as discovering it. set the assessments and generally let the students get on with it. In the flipped classroom it becomes the core content. it could be a whole variety of different input from interviews. and there is always the danger of providing too much support to students. it would seem on the surface of things as if the idea doesn’t really have that much relevance. it is quite likely to be a variety of different inputs that provide the learning content of the course. and there are plenty of lecturers up and down the UK still working within the traditional format.
Richard makes use of Techsmith Camtasia which is the same screen capture software that I use to make my videos on www. 1 . In other words what was once the homework is now done in class time. links to good reading and listening content. I was teaching multimedia in ICT and I decided to put all the learning videos I had created online and make them publicly available. I named the site www. Not links to vocabulary material that is already online. He then loads these videos onto the web so that students can access them and watch them when they want. he is now available. Students could access this material outside of the class and it could be built to tightly support a course. He has built up a whole range of mini lectures and exercises that directly link to the classroom. vocabulary lists and exercises. In fact it could be offered online and even made publicly available. He also builds in a certain level of expectation as the students need to watch and work through the videos in preparation for the work that he does in class time.TECHNOLOGY MATTERS to learn. This could be mini-grammar lessons. links to good reading and listening content. and in this way it could be used as a marketing tool for the schools and universities. What I have been witnessing in the USA is an attempt to build a whole range of learning materials that tightly supports what teachers are doing in class. The best example I have come across so far is not actually in the area of language teaching but is a maths course run by Richard Talbert. This frees up a lot of the classroom time that he previously used for covering the content of the course as now the students can access the material at home. when working on their assessments. Can we in the ELT world learn much from this? My feeling is yes. What he is doing is recording his screen while he takes the students through various maths calculations.multimediatrainingvideos.com. Learning videos and screencasts for vocabulary could easily be created. Many of the users of the site went on to enquire about the courses the material was linked to. “ 36 The idea of the Flipped Classroom is that more of the input be provided outside the classroom. The idea of the Flipped Classroom is that more of the input be provided outside the classroom.com and it became very popular. i. ” Modern English Teacher Volume 21 No. I did exactly this while working at the University of Westminster.e. In fact a whole raft of materials. vocabulary lists and exercises. This could be mini-grammar lessons. The class time is actually spent on working in groups and doing the course assessments. but rather I am suggesting producing learning videos for vocabulary that are tightly linked to the curriculum or the book the students are using in class. teachertrainingvideos. To some degree institutions already do this by providing lists of links and content but often it is rather ad hoc and not tightly associated with the course the students are currently doing. For example we could probably take out a lot of grammar teaching that is often done in class and replace it with a series of grammar videos created with tools such as Camtasia or ScreenR. So when the students probably most need the teacher. It doesn’t have to be just grammar. Could we do the same for grammar? What immediately comes to mind is Figure 1: Screen casts mean that much of the lecture content can be flipped and students can learn it at home how do we guarantee that the students will make use of the content? It is all well and good providing oceans of superb material that replaces our input sessions but will the students engage with it and make use of it? Richard’s solution is to provide a series of activities built around the videos to make sure the students can comprehend and assimilate the material. and we doubled the number of students on our course within two years.
the fact remains that this sort of approach to learning is now achievable and the costs have dropped massively as screencasting.slideshare. For example it is very easy now to get students to make webcam recordings at home and send them to their teacher. The idea is that the homework is really just an extension of the actual lesson.youtube. My idea is more about the link we can make between what we do in the class and what we get the students to do at home. The resulting recording can then be sent to the teacher. It might not mean much to the average ELT or EFL classroom taking place around the world but for many teacher training courses and university TESOL courses around the world. I introduced it at IATEFL this year and it has been a theme at many of my talks. it is food for thought. make a recording of themselves describing a picture). teachertrainingvideos. video production and podcasting have all dropped in price.com/fotobabble/ index. In the last three years he has won three major awards for his website www. I have been talking about the “Connected Classroom” for about two years now.com including the British Council ELTONs award for “Innovation” in 2010 and Times Higher Award for “Outstanding Innovation in ICT” in 2008.britishcouncil. loads the picture onto the Fotobabble site and then records himself/herself talking about the picture. Some people have said that it is quite “task-based” in nature as the normal outcome is to get the students to actually do something with the language they are taught in the lesson (in this case. 1 www.TECHNOLOGY MATTERS While stateside they are talking about the Flipped Classroom. However. After. You can follow Russell Stannard on Twitter http://twitter. teachertrainingvideos. “ The Connected Classroom is about building a ” 37 Volume 21 No. they might be put into pairs and given a picture to describe.html Russell Stannard is a Principal Teaching Fellow at the Centre for Applied Linguistics at Warwick University where he teaches about technology in ELT.com . much tighter link between what we do in class and what we get the students to do at home.org/2010/ sessions/2010-04-09/web-20-toolsmake-difference-russell-stannard  How to use Fotobabble: http://www. They might look at the grammar. the vocabulary and the organisation of a description.net/rtalbert  Russell talking about the Connected Classroom: http://iatefl.onlineMET.com/ russell1955. For homework the student goes home. So in a typical “Connected Classroom lesson” the students might practise describing a picture in the class. It is not a flipped classroom but rather it tries to use technology to exploit new types of homework which are much more engaging. finds an interesting picture to describe. The Connected Classroom is about building a much tighter link between what we do in class and what we get the students to do at home.com/ watch?v=gM95HHI4gLk  Examples of Robert Talbert’s work: http://www. Student A describes the picture and student B tries to draw it. Russell Stannard REFERENCES  Salmon Kan talking about the Flipped Classroom at TED: http://www. It is a continuation of what the students do in the class. The Flipped Classroom is unlikely to really catch on and my feeling is that in many ways ELT has already absorbed this idea.
In fact. however. for example. I was one of the designers at my school designing a CALL program called WebRead. animations. especially programmers and teacherdesigners. some sort of “shared-codes” should be contemplated. a program for reading strategy training. The continuing development of IT remains one of the main constraints as this constant evolution makes it much more difficult to make decisions on the position for language teachers on the IT development continuum. colors. and multimedia (hypertext. scaffoldings or supports are considered as crucial for helping learners develop understanding and complete tasks. and I found that the codes saved us lots of time. To this end. asking whether an IT training course should be integrated How can the teacherdesigner deliver to the computer programmer the design of pedagogic support integrated with technical support as desired? To enable programmers to look through the eyes of materials designers. feedback. The job made me realize that communicating with a programmer is time-consuming as we needed to view the project through the same lens. the issue on ‘what to be trained on’ was still debated.TECHNOLOGY MATTERS Teacher–Programmer collaboration in CALL design Punjaporn Pojanapunya describes successful collaboration in materials design. Hot Potatoes. into a curriculum. Microsoft Word and PowerPoint. C omputer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) is increasingly utilized as a learning aid in language education because of its advantageous characteristics – interactive. explanations. some brief procedures on what teacher-designers do should allow you to have a comprehensive plan for producing CALL programs. Step 2: Design the components of 38 Modern English Teacher Volume 21 No. 2001). is an issue which seems to be overlooked. when computerbased software provides more variety of options. how can they deliver all these pedagogic supports integrated with technical supports on the computer as they wish? Details on how people in IT and non-IT fields communicate and collaborate. CALL programs can provide supports including pedagogical supports: questions. Superior to classroom teaching. attractive. Moreover. information technology (IT) literacy for language teachers was an issue among teacher trainers. Before the shared-codes are presented. the current rapid growth of new technology has become conducive to the production of more attractive materials which can attract more attention from students. they might not be skillful in computer technology. What do teacher-designers do? Step 1: Decide the language point to be taught. Therefore. sounds. giving examples. as well as its easy accessibility. modeling. Later in 2004. hints/ helps. Amiri (2000) argued that IT literacy is crucial for language teachers. movie editing programs. Towndrow and Vallance provided some guidelines for teachers on how to design and produce language learning materials by using common computer applications. and numbers of motivational features. It was necessary for me to work with the programmer whose task was to apply my ideas. many more types and forms of supports can be provided in CALL. Consequently. In designing CALL. especially when they learn independently (Hammond. and other applications accessed via the Internet. prompts. especially self-learning outside class. Previously. What happens when teachers become designers of computer-based materials? While the teacher-designers’ expertise is in the principles of language pedagogy. many schools and teachers end up working with expert programmers to produce such materials. the growth of CALL places many teachers of English in a CALL/material designer position. the concept of “shared-codes” was created. When all these ideas come to teacherdesigners’ minds. These characteristics make CALL very persuasive for English teachers who aspire to foster students to learn. 1 . This availability and ease of use leads to collaboration between teacher-designers and programmers. and visuals).
pre-test. introduction. yes-no. NEXT. WebRead is a CALL process for training reading strategy. popup text. How does the teacherdesigner communicate with the programmer? Referring to Step 6.onlineMET. Sample For a clearer picture. allows students to access and exit the module or sections within the module they are working on at any time. especially technical supports. designed by six designers. Also. post-test). types of activities (e.e. and content presentation with pictures. Given the above overview of WebRead. multiple choice.g. exercises.com 39 . here are some basic steps: Step 1: List the supports you want to provide in CALL. Examples of support Pedagogical support Instruction Explanation Questions Feedback/ answer key Multiple choice Type of answer … Technical support Sound Pop-up Hyper-text Animation Notes for programmers/ Special requests Volume 21 No. predicting. Step 4: Think about navigation and links for every component of the lesson. selfevaluation. ac. All you need to do is to give the programmer a comprehensive briefing document which will allow him/her to apply all of your requirements in programming. Step 5: Plan the lesson presentation (e. and it is presented by a CD icon. warm up. visual support. A main menu. Students operate the program by the PLAY. explanations. colors. I would like to share my document that I prepared and used to communicate with a programmer through a sample from the WebRead design process. 1 www.). matching. and a post-test at the end of the program. Conversations between the cartoon characters in the program together with different types and forms of supports such as instructions.g. forms of evaluations).kmutt. The document includes: • codes with explanations for the programmer on page 1 • the content of WebRead exercise on Page 2. can you foresee how you can tell the programmer all those requirements? Please do not think of having the programmer sit and listen to a lecture about all of these ideas.th/webread. which is available for free download at http://arts. and BACK buttons while working on WebRead. activities. and animation are provided. user interface design. content positioning. To create shared-codes. main explanation for the strategy and the instructions. pre-test.g. guessing meaning from context. sound.TECHNOLOGY MATTERS the lesson (e. Common components in each module include the warm-up activity. feedback types. and feedback help students learn strategies. scanning. Step 6: Create a shared-code for yourself and the programmer Now. a sample of the Word document that I prepared for the programmer. Step 3: Prepare the material content in a Word document for the programmer by giving your “sharedcodes” with explanations on the first page of the document. Thai translation is provided where appropriate. lesson content forms and position. “Create a sharedcode for yourself and the programmer”. All she or he needs is a Word document file that contains the content of WebRead with shared-codes to represent your requirements. From the table. activities on substrategies. all the pedagogical support will be typed in black and the content of the material and instructions to the programmer all color-coded to aid programming. animations. There are six modules of reading strategies to use for different purposes: surveying and skimming. both pedagogical and technological (see the Table below for guidelines) Step 2: Create codes and assign a color to each of those supports as appropriate together with explanations for the codes. cloze. sounds. especially for conversation. along with a screenshot of the final programmed screen of the WebRead exercise are presented below. T/F. description. and making inferences. Technical supports i. you have a plan with views on the material interface. explanations of how to use the strategy. etc. hypertext. questions. Step 3: Write the content of the lesson including ways to give instructions. which is presented on every page. using text structure to help comprehension.
2. Pun Pun. special requests Webpage Hypertext. 1 . 3 .. Students can type their answers here Back Help Clue: Answer Originate = Originate Originated Next 40 Modern English Teacher Volume 21 No. SOMTUM story Help Answer 1 It is one of the most popular dishes which originated from the northeastern part of Thailand. Blue Text in RED = = = = = content of the lesson..TECHNOLOGY MATTERS Page 1: Briefing Text in BLACK Text in ORANGE Page 1. link Unknown word Textbox with code meanings (NB: Moji. and Ram are characters in WebRead) = text in the yellow textbox is clickable to enable pop-up text = text in the purple box is Moji’s talk = text in the green box is Pun Pun’s talk = text in the blue box is Ram’s talk = text in the pink box is the instructions to students = text in the orange box is L1 translations (Thai) with a sound file Pop-up text Moji talk Pun Pun talk Ram talk Instructions Add sound Page 2: Exercises Read the SOM TUM story. teaching supports instructions for the programmer. and type their meanings in Thai. try to guess the meaning of all words.
and “Answer” in pop-up form • “Next” button in Hypertext form • “Back” and “Next” in Hypertext form • Special request: students can type their answer. M. (2001) Scaffolding: teaching and learning in language and literacy education. Her research interests include technology in language learning. Email: punjaporn. the programmer and you might co-operate in creating such codes.th Volume 21 No. material design. Singapore: Longman Punjaporn Pojanapunya Punjaporn Pojanapunya is a researcher in the School of Liberal Arts. For better results. She holds an MA in Applied Linguistics from KMUTT. 1 www. The sample of “shared-codes” might work for your own CALL development. doi:10. This code system is not only useful for the programmer to have your views or for yourself. (2004) Using IT in the language classroom: A guide for teachers and students in Asia (3rd ed). King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi (KMUTT). 77-84.TECHNOLOGY MATTERS Figure 1: The final rendered page of WebRead – Exercise 2 The rendered page of WebRead in Figure 1 includes: • Instructions with sound • “Somtum story”. F. you spot small mistakes on the computer. J. a limitation of this coding system was that the code was created by myself and given to the programmer. (Ed. & Vallance. (2000) IT-literacy for language teachers: should it include computer programming? System. However.A. as you do not have to write all the requirements in a long text form. and discourse analysis. but it also saves a lot of your time by allowing you to recheck if the programmer has done what you desired and help. “Help”.poj@kmutt. 28(1). P. pp. Newtown (Australia): Primary English Teaching Association Towndrow.1016/S0346-251X(99)00061-5 Hammond. You can add other codes for any other supports as much as you want without worrying about how to put all your ideas in the computer interface. REFERENCES Amiri.com 41 .onlineMET..).ac.
when they point out that “Education is in an interesting transitional phase between its ICT-free past and its ICTaware future” (2007. half of whom log on at least once a day. and so on. Having spoken to teachers who had used blogs with mixed success.g. the current influence of Facebook. 2007 p. as I had students arriving and leaving every week rather than a closed class for a 42 Modern English Teacher Volume 21 No. Moodle) or VLEs could effectively maintain students’ interest or would be sufficiently used. whole term. I’ll outline a few ways in which I’ve used Facebook with the students: Why Facebook and not a blog? As mentioned already. the students would be more motivated and inclined to write. as indeed is its power and reach. I thought a Facebook group would be easier to set up and keep going than a blog.TECHNOLOGY MATTERS Can Facebook improve students’ exam writing? Luke Fletcher takes Facebook to FCE and beyond. people are spending more than 750 billion minutes a month on Facebook. Facebook. I felt Facebook was a more motivating medium than a blog. Finally. it’s difficult to argue with the statistics regarding Facebook. and I could begin using it for various purposes. R ecent reports suggest that there are now over 750 million Facebook users worldwide. comment on each other’s work. I also aimed to improve the quality of my feedback on their writing. Safe in the knowledge that most of my students were already self-confessed Facebook addicts. photos. The students also added each other as Friends.xv). I got them all to search for me on Facebook and then “Add me as a friend”. is very quick and simple to do (and. is impossible to underestimate. In this article I’ll try to explain how I used Facebook and some of the lessons I learnt. surely we can also use it as a powerful educational tool? I’m sure most of us would agree with Beetham and Sharpe. If Facebook can play a part in toppling governments in the Middle East. with the average user spending 55 minutes on the social networking website every day. Worldwide. Below. not only for bonding purposes but for reasons I’ll make clearer later. Like it or not. I now had my complete class of 15 FCE students as my only “friends” on this new Facebook teaching page. Creating an account. I believe part of our role as teachers in this digital age is to critically evaluate technology and web tools to try and ascertain what genuinely enhances the teaching and learning process and what merely distracts. meaning students would need less persuasion to check it. Whilst my Facebook experiments might not have caused a revolution in my teaching. p. First steps The first thing I did was to set up my own account (though importantly a different page to my already existing personal one – lessening the unlikely possibility of one of my “friends” posting any embarrassing photos of me which might lead them to question my professionalism!). I was sceptical whether tasks set on blogs or Learning Management Systems (e. ” of the exam they scored lowest on. information. I decided to put a few ideas I had about using Facebook for educational purposes into practice. This Facebook page was going to be used by me and my class only. the authors of Rethinking Pedagogy for a Digital Age. in contrast. share work. I hoped. people are spending more than 750 billion minutes a month on Facebook. was already happily being used by 90% of my class so would be simple to set up. When I had accepted their “friend requests”. Once I had helped the few remaining students in my class who were not already Facebook users to set up their profiles. 1 . my aim was to see whether I could successfully get my students using Facebook to improve their Cambridge First Certificate of English writing skills – more often than not the part “ Worldwide. above all.xvi). also free!). on younger people in particular. In the spirit of experimentation and aware of the viewpoint that “the content and process of learning must be compatible with the social culture” (Beetham and Sharpe. it did probably result in students achieving better grades in their writing than they might have done previously. fortunately. What’s more. as many people who use Facebook already know.
or things we are going to do in future classes. I occasionally also ask for feedback from the students about things we have done in class. I encourage students to send their Writing Tasks via the Message service on Facebook not only to me. Students see that they can really benefit from helping each other and working together. allowing them to benefit from each others’ work.. Inviting students to give feedback and being open to this. allows me. when I reply to their email and make corrections. For example. it is just like sending an email. meaning they have plenty of real-life practice at the informal chatty style of emails (occasionally tested incidentally in the FCE exam and certainly used frequently by students day to day). I can also quickly cut and paste extracts from their writing. others in the class are encouraged to take more care with their writing to match some of their classmates’ efforts resulting in a better standard all round. to make sure students are happy with their course. and with some personal comments. Students also feel pleased and flattered when I ask if I can forward their emails to their classmates as good model examples. reminders of work I’ve set them.flo-joe. making plans.com 43 . once I got more used to my method of correcting online. I think. complete with changes and corrections I’ve made. and send the Reply back to them. I often forward particularly good examples of student writing that I receive to the other students in the class. This might be anything from links to useful websites containing FCE Practice material (e. and then get students working together to come to the IWB and correct. I think they feel particularly valued and that the teacher really cares about their individual progress – as we know.onlineMET. how thorough it was and the ongoing personal dialogues they have with their teachers. praise. The consequent general improvement meant marking was. Students seemed to appreciate being included in the decision-making of planning classes.g. but to the whole class. Likewise. I’ve also found that students will often write me a brief message before the task I’ve given them. brainstorming ideas. highlighting useful language. I found this approach to feedback really helps foster a collaborative spirit of teamwork in the class. which they send me as a message/email on Facebook. and being able to have their say. helpful when it came to improving the accuracy and fluency of their spoken English too. probably easier). Again. and often leads to very positive feedback from students.. and they don’t have to rely solely on the teacher to learn. Students seemed to really appreciate the personal nature of the feedback. etc. (For those who have not used the Message service within Facebook. I then copy and paste their writing into a Reply. I set them the task to do for homework. often quicker as I spent less time reformulating hastily written nonsense! Sharing Information Occasionally I use Facebook to email information to the whole class. which is always nice for teachers to hear! Figure 1: typical Facebook exchanges Volume 21 No. vital in maintaining motivation in an exam course involving lots of hard work over a sustained period (25 hours a week for 12 weeks). 1 www. all the students can benefit from my changes and advice. or print out and get students to try and correct or reformulate for homework. etc. or ask them for suggestions on things they feel they would like more practice on. which is often easier for some students by email rather than face to face. This way. containing common mistakes I’d like them to focus on.TECHNOLOGY MATTERS Giving feedback on writing tasks Having set up a writing task in class. suggestions for improvements. One major advantage of using Facebook over traditional methods of marking is that it allows me very quickly to share good examples of student work and select extracts of work for error correction. into a Word document which I can then project onto the Interactive Whiteboard (or copy and paste on to an IWB slide).htm). www.uk/fce/ students/index.co. From some of the messages they’ve written to me. so all the students see their work. The dialogues they have with me and each other seem to really give them confidence and increase the naturalness of their language.
perhaps as a result of having more time to craft their thoughts. This had a knock-on effect on their confidence in speaking in class. which often leads to online banter between classmates – usually great for the atmosphere in class. This had a knock-on effect on their confidence in speaking in class. comment on each others’ photos. paste and editing system in my replies to student work means marking can be done quite quickly and efficiently. using the copy. As a rule I would advise teachers to show more discretion than students. where they went at the weekend and social activities they have been on. This leads to some interesting class conversations which might not otherwise have happened. students have an easy way to stay in contact with each other and seeing updates from students from all parts of the globe and interaction continuing between them long after they have returned to their countries always brings a smile to my face. Facebook provides a good medium for the odd light-hearted written teacher comment about a student’s punctuality. Seeing the quality of their classmates’ writing meant the more outwardly confident but less accuracy-focused South American students were better able to value and recognise the shyer students’ contributions and qualities. Sharing this information often makes them more culturally interested. as you receive more and more writing it becomes slightly harder to manage the Inbox and find previous writing tasks with language in their writing … enabled these students to make bigger strides in English.. This can be quite revealing and give you a surprising insight into what your class gets up to in their free time when you thought they were doing their homework or tucked up in bed. It’s pleasing to see students interacting with all their classmates in writing out of class. I have also used Facebook to discuss possible suggestions for class trips. At the end of their course. As a result. 1 . Improving class atmosphere and relationships If good rapport has been established between teacher and students. Students also tend to share pop videos with each other. and afterwards students have shared photos of these trips with their classmates online. they might know more about each other’s interests. are also usually good for this. etc. but still professional. using their common sense and only posting what they would be happy for all students to see. proactive out of the class (and interesting!). and stronger friendships “ 44 Taking more risks and experimenting more Possible drawbacks of using Facebook with a class Setting up and managing a system of using Facebook with your students does probably involve slightly more time and marking. Figure 2: Facebook for teacher input being formed. ” Modern English Teacher Volume 21 No. This way communication remains friendly and relatively informal. Taking more risks and experimenting more with language in their writing rather than just sticking to what they felt they already knew enabled these students to make bigger strides in English. Discretion You will probably find our “digital native” students are less discreet about what they choose to make public than we are! Don’t be alarmed to find out more about your students than you might otherwise have known. Some teachers might be horrified or scared by the possible prospect of “cyber-bullying” in all this. as when logging on. but fortunately I have never experienced incidents of this and doubt (as my students are very mature and 17+) that I ever will. Although I can keep all the student work in one place (my Inbox). your “News Feed” will show any “status updates” or comments your students might have posted on each others’ “walls” or on photos. as they have more to say. However. risk-averse Asian students in my class really came out of their shells. Photos from class trips. send each other links to useful websites they’ve found and so on. excuses for not handing homework in or party lifestyle. which again was good for the class atmosphere.TECHNOLOGY MATTERS One of the most pleasing results of this experiment for me was that I found that some quieter and shyer.
However. PGCE. and it is definitely an experiment I will try to repeat in the future. if you mark your students’ work in school. etc) at Embassy CES in London. don’t let colleagues mistakenly believe you are idling away time on a social networking website when in fact you are hard at work! classwork/homework. you can’t use coloured text in Facebook messages so it’s harder to highlight changes and corrections. (as a lazy FCE student might say…) there are many advantages and disadvantages of using Facebook with students. copy and paste student emails into Word documents and Folders though this is a bit more longwinded). Finally. REFERENCES Beetham. & Sharpe. Similarly. I have generally been really pleased with the improvements I’ve seen in my students’ writing throughout the term. but this is not a function Facebook currently has (you could however.com Some advantages of using Facebook with a class • Gets students communicating more in written English out of the class • A form of communication most students use everyday • Easier to set up for a continuous enrolment English course than a blog and probably more motivating • Offers a variety of ways of giving effective feedback/error correction in conjunction with an IWB • Students can benefit from each others’ work • Helps foster a more collaborative approach to writing and learning • Teacher can easily post messages/ updates to students about Conclusion To conclude. etc. London: Routledge Luke Fletcher Some disadvantages of using Facebook with a class • More work/time spent in front of a screen? • As yet you can’t use different colours/bold text to highlight corrections when marking • Work is submitted at different times (unless you set deadlines for email submission) • Potential increased quantity of marking as students occasionally ask you to correct other things (emails to friends. BA Hons) is the Head of Teaching and “Advanced Practitioner” (IWB Trainer.g. R. though probably not much more than normal.onlineMET. You might find students begin to ask other favours of you (e.com 45 . etc. links to useful websites. but from my experience and student feedback I have received. Instead of the red pen I tend to use capital letters to show corrections I’ve made. video clips.TECHNOLOGY MATTERS of students (though at least having students send work as opposed to paper means I haven’t yet had the teacher nightmare of losing student work!). and am happy to spend a bit more time on students who are putting a lot of work in. Luke Fletcher (DipTefl. CVs. (2007) Rethinking Pedagogy for a Digital Age: designing and delivering elearning. In an ideal world it would be nice to have folders for each student containing all their written work. H. Email: lfletcher@studygroup. Personally I also see it as a good sign when this happens.).) • No way of organising Inbox that I’ve found. 1 www. • Shyer students often take more risks when writing emails • Allows you to keep students’ writing in one place (and harder to lose student work!) • Often leads to more personal dialogue between teacher and student regarding individual needs/ progress • Can be used to encourage students to give feedback to you on content/ style of class • Allows students to share music. photos and articles broadening their outlook. creating more discussion and improving relationships • Allows students to stay in touch during and after the course. Can you have a look at my CV? Can you check this email I wrote to a friend? etc. Volume 21 No. the positives far outweigh the negatives. you might prefer to set clearer guidelines about what you are willing or not to mark. His current particular professional interests include teaching lexically and exploiting learning technologies in and out of the classroom. as far as I know. He has taught in Thailand and Spain and given workshops at IATEFL and other international conferences.
with some of the articles available focusing on language education. http://www. It covers all aspects of mobile education. http://one.iamlearn.TECHNOLOGY MATTERS Webwatch Michael Carrier looks at handheld and mobile apps.org/about/education 46 Modern English Teacher Volume 21 No. Each of these sites will lead you on to new links and references to research and practise in Handheld Learning. 1 . International Association of Mobile Learning The IAM association holds conferences and makes a wide range of academic resources available on its website.laptop.org One Laptop Per Child One Laptop per child (OLPC) is a project started by Nicholas Negroponte at MIT and aims to provide inexpensive PCs for children in developing economies – so they can learn about ICT and use the laptops to access better quality education and information about the wider world. T his issue’s WebWatch focuses on resources and information sources for Handheld and Mobile learning – one of the fastest growing areas of educational technology in recent years.
cambridgemobileapps. vocabulary and grammar exercises.com Mobile Learning for English The British Council’s Global English programme makes available a range of free and paid-for mobile phone apps for practising English – a mixture of games. com/ Mobile apps for Business English Video vocab provides a wide range of job-specific Business English vocabulary via mobile phone apps that you can download from Apple’s iTunes store. and this changes the pedagogy of the lessons and the way in which the teacher interacts with and supports the learners.com 47 . http://www. http://www.org/ en/mobile-learning Mobile apps from Cambridge University Press Most ELT publishers are now making their dictionaries and language practice materials available on mobile phone apps – CUP have their own ‘app store’ for everything from Games to Exams.onlineMET.classmatepc. Intel coined the phrase “1:1 computing” meaning each student has their own laptop.britishcouncil. http://videovocab. and listening comprehension activities and soap operas.tv Volume 21 No. http://learnenglish. 1 www.TECHNOLOGY MATTERS Intel Classmate PC Like the OLPC. Intel’s ClassmatePC is an inexpensive laptop or netbook for use in classrooms.
Of equal importance in a writing class is “free speaking” where the students simply talk about the topic they plan to write about. enthusiasm can 48 Modern English Teacher Volume 21 No. in the case of an L1 learner. Structuring freedom Unlike the L1 learner who can appreciate frequent freewriting sessions as a warm up. T he pressure of a deadline and the fear of failing a class are great motivators for students to write a class paper. If students are able to speak as well as write freely in the prewriting stage of an essay. if not. They stop. Surprisingly. helping L2 learners get it right in the prewriting phase is more useful than revising drafts. They can procrastinate until the night before the due date then forego sleep to get it written. good. and a full ten to fifteen minutes to write anything they wish (Dickson 2001). That is. Solid preparation helps the L2 learner organize their essay into a readable fashion. they can often produce something that is passable. there is usually a catch. It was a technique he uncovered as a graduate student to help with writing his class papers and. Consequently. a hallmark of the prewriting phase should be freewriting. Rarely is an L2 learner able to pull off such a last minute feat. Some teachers prefer to have the students write at the start of the class while their heads are clear of the expectations of homework and niggling problems from the class work. They are advised not to be concerned about grammatical structure. a drill to keep their writing skill in condition. The L2 learner is not only dealing with a brain which is translating thoughts from their native language into English. The students write. in the ESL environment too much freedom is not necessarily a good thing. and to generate content from which they can write (2001). a prompt such as a photograph. which is a very important initial step in producing a finished written piece. The teacher is not going to intervene in any way except to signal when to start and when to stop. 1 . Others prefer to make it the last thing the students do in class. spelling or punctuation (you are Jackson Pollock with a blank canvas). However. spelling. sentence structure. however. No one corrects their work and it is added to their portfolio of writing. Most textbooks on writing will include something on freewriting in any chapter on prewriting. when it comes to writing for academic purposes. there are no rules. Complete freedom The generally accepted practice of freewriting in ESL is to supply the student with a blank page. As Curtis Kelly found in crafting his textbooks on writing. as the students are already in a thinking mode or as an incentive to finish as soon as possible so they can leave the class early or on time. It is a spark for generating ideas for content and getting students on the road to a rough draft. a quote or an idea. For an L1 learner. freewriting is assigned as a separate activity for the student to write with complete freedom on a topic or in response to a prompt within a certain timeframe then filed away as a finished piece.WRITING Freewriting and free speaking for academic writing purposes William Hay looks for ways to unblock “writer’s block”. but also trying to interpret the meaning of “free. the Japanese essay-writing style. has become universally recognized as a remedy for writer’s block (Elbow 1998). Freewriting Many credit Peter Elbow with advancing the concept of freewriting in the writing process. It helps them build content and understand the concept of “English organization” in essay writing as opposed to. If the paper hasn’t been copied from Wikipedia. Writing Without Teachers. which encourages the student to cast away all their inhibitions about grammar. the L2 learner may ask why is it necessary to consistently produce work riddled with errors that no one is going to correct. when it is used in the context of prewriting for an essay or report it takes on the form of process writing. Commonly. the L2 learner needs to be engaged and committed during the prewriting phase. Even though it may become easier for the student to put more words on a page with regularly scheduled freewriting activities. following the publication of his book. it is usually a tangle of words and sentences without any real organization. they should be able to see a path which they can follow to a final draft. it can be considered liberating. and just write – to be completely and utterly free. for example.” Life has taught them that when something is free. Thus.
The freewriting component could be introduced after an outline is written for the essay the students are going to write. and proceed to first draft.onlineMET.WRITING wane and the output can become plodded rather than fluid. It not only adds variety to the class work. or a body paragraph. the process writing approach came about. predominantly write around the main point of their essay and state it at the very end in a method termed delayed statement of purpose. Having brainstormed to draft the outline and the fact that they have a map of where they want to go. The first draft should be typed and formatted in the proper essay style. a prompt such as a photograph. they can start with the introduction. have them review what they have written. They can see how a few “threads” on a page of “drivel” can be woven into a polished piece of writing. However. making a list or timeline. for example. there is really no such thing as a totally segregated class. double-spaced and with indented paragraphs. For an essay. if they like. which all students have and can help them produce work with original thoughts: and is less likely to lead to a bland reproduction of the sample given to follow (Kelly 2005. but still find a way to insert into a sentence. and strengthen in following drafts. Korean and Chinese students. or simply reflecting on an experience (Bello 2007). it is a rough draft. As a response to the notion of too much freedom in freewriting. Be sure to remind them that it is a freewriting exercise and that it is not a first draft. but also creates interest in the topic of the writing activity. which was cited by Kelly (2001). a skeleton which they can flesh out with chunks of text that they will trim. As a preliminary step in writing an essay. without worrying about spelling or grammar (Bello 2007). As you can see.com ” 49 . A writing class will (or should) integrate speaking. Next. It usually begins with some form of prewriting activity in which learners work in groups or as individuals to generate ideas about a particular topic: brainstorming. if they wish. which oftentimes spits out phrases the students don’t know how to use. as an initial step in the writing process. This makes it easier to see suggestions from the teacher or whoever is checking the draft and provides the added benefit of having a saved document they can revise for a final draft. it is implementing freewriting in the way Elbow originally stumbled upon the concept. Then they write freely on what they think each paragraph is about for ten to fifteen minutes. rebuild. p. according to their thesis statement or paragraph points. a quote or an idea. just by speaking about the content of their essay.16). the student can unearth useful vocabulary and phrases they can use. an outline is a necessary first step for Japanese students to acquire the rules of English organization in order to write in a fashion they need to master for academic purposes (Kelly 2001). which are included in their outline. the L2 learner can see the value of the process writing form of freewriting. At best. I would reinterpret the notion of prompts to mean parameters for the student to write within. 1 www. and a full ten to fifteen minutes to write anything they wish. They can see the positive results of making mistakes and understand why the teacher has asked them to write freely. A comparison of styles is illustrated as follows: Working to an outline Dickson identifies prompts for freewriting such as photographs or poems or quotes to help students get started (2001). as referred to in an article by Robert Kaplan. concentrating on getting ideas down on paper. as a means to combat the overuse of translating from an electronic dictionary. Encourage the students to write in a similar way to their speaking style. Encourage the students to “ The generally accepted practice of freewriting in ESL is to supply the student with a blank page. This is diametrically opposed to the style of writers of English who are expected to take either an inductive or deductive approach to an essay topic and guide it in a direct line from the introduction to the conclusion (Kelly 2001). reading and listening activities in the writing process. makes it easier to put something (anything) down on the paper without any supervision from the teacher. Japanese. rather than just writing for the sake of putting pen to paper. The students will have English organization Writing to an outline is crucial for L2 learners in order to help them organize their essays in what is considered a readable fashion for a writing class. Sharing opinions and ideas with other students can unlock intuition within the writer. In some respects. Each group member then works alone to compose a first draft. From a functional point of view. Integrated skills Even if the classes are segregated by skills. Volume 21 No.
ring finger. I. In conclusion.jp/ php/kelly/research.edu/~jelkins/ writeshop/writeshop/elbow. They aren’t working with the negativity of staring at a blank sheet of paper and should want to take the next step and complete a first draft. We count off with our fingers. A Collection of Curtis Kelly’s Research Papers.org/ caela/esl_resources/digests/writing. C. Retrieved on August 12.wvnet. from: http://www. TESOL Review. (2001) How Two Seminal Articles have Shaped ESL Writing Instruction. K. Finally. the other fingers can be unfurled as follows: the index finger is the first body paragraph. Second.com Conclusion It is commonly accepted these days that for L2 learners to write in a fashion which satisfies an academic purpose. Freewriting for Fun and Fluency. F. William Hay Motivation The objective of freewriting and free speaking in a writing class is not only to draw the student’s focus onto their writing task. from: http://www. Coupled with free speaking. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum REFERENCES Bello. J. and Shortreed. November 2009. Leading with the thumb as the thesis statement. 2010. Vol.R. C. freewriting in any shape or form is of benefit to the L2 learner. Hong Kong: Longman Asia ELT Kisito. (1998) Writing Without Teachers. the second body paragraph. (2009) The Use of Nonverbal Communication in the Foreign Language Classroom: A Pilot Study. from: http://www. 50 Modern English Teacher Volume 21 No.tesolreview. Retrieved on August 10. from: http://iteslj. even if the most it does is help improve their penmanship. Retrieved on August 12.html Kelly. They have a stockpile of thoughts and words down on paper or in their heads to sift through. The writing task needs to be planned and played with before the serious business of drafting begins.WRITING use the inventories of vocabulary in their heads or their partners’ heads before consulting their dictionaries or thesaurus.esl-galaxy. CAELA.html Elbow. F (2010) The Advent of Electronic Dictionaries in ESL/EFL Learning. they know where they have to go. July 1999.org/Techniques/DicksonFreewriting. R. However. G.html Jude. 8.html Kruger. (1998) Conversations of the Mind. Granted. Speaking with your hands We speak with our hands. ESL Galaxy. Prompts and Feedback. (2000) Notes from Peter Elbow. This natural way of communicating can be helpful in students verbalizing the outline of their essay. for academic purposes it is better if freedom in the writing process is pared back and given more direction. 2010 from: http://myweb. and indicate amounts with them: “Two ice creams. Furthermore. in segregated writing classes. the third body paragraph. He has been in Japan for over 10 years and has worked mostly in the ESL field. 2010. Email: haybill60@yahoo. Retrieved on July 14.%20 Frans%20Kruger. January 2000. from: http://www. Retrieved on July 13. 2010. (2005) Significant Scribbles. The Uses of Journal Writing for Second Language Learners. Retrieved on August 12. William Hay is an instructor at Kanda Gaigo Gakuin in the English for International Communication program. VII. it is important not to disregard listening and speaking skills in order to mine the intuition within the students so that they will produce interesting writing. The Internet TESL Journal. Retrieved on July 16. and treated as an initial stage in working on a structured piece of writing. Lawyer-as-Writer.ac. (1999).cal. there needs to be a focus on prewriting activities.osaka-gu.html Dickson. Teacher’s Manual. it allows students to stockpile ideas and vocabulary as well as source opinions and advice from peers who share the same confusions and misgivings about the assignment. With suggestions and encouragement from the teacher they should be motivated to see the finished draft of their assignment. please”. Once they have an outline. P. 1 . Coupled with freewriting. The Language Teacher. Our nonverbal clues reinforce our verbal communication. middle finger.pdf Williams Mlynarczyk. They can see how it will flow by the fingers on their hand.org/tlt/ articles/1999/07/jude Kelly. T. free speaking should be practised with the given structure of an outline. Each finger should be labeled with a transition such as: First of all. the conclusion.org/down/4. No. and the little finger. Each finger should also be a prompt for discussing what will be covered in the paragraph with a partner. 2nd Edition. (1997) Improving ESL Learners’ Writing Skills.jalt-publications. from: http://www. as it encourages them to put pen to paper. He also teaches writing for academic purposes at Reitaku University. (2001) Freewriting. but also to motivate them to want to complete the task beyond the expectations of the deadline and the percentage of their class grade. 2010. 2010. 2010.com/ electronicdictionaries. It forces the student to say something about each section of their essay and helps them see the organization in a straight-line approach. Writing Without Teachers. New York: Oxford University Press Elkins.
onlineMET. and what methods can we use to discover where and why the true aims of a reading programme are not being achieved? Take for example. why not. At the moment. authentic texts at an appropriate speed. or do they perceive them as lists that look handy but have little idea how and where to apply them? Many of our students slip back instantly into well-tested habits – that don’t work. He complains that he loses concentration when reading because he gets stuck on words he should be familiar with and eventually cannot connect the ideas together between sentences. Why do some of our students show significant Volume 21 No. however. he performs too poorly and slowly and cannot pass the academic English exam requirement to receive his BA. Are their basic reading strategies intact? Moving on from knowledge and deeper mental processes. as his vocabulary and understanding of sentence structure and grammar are at a reasonable level. • superficial information processing. How can you possibly investigate all these different variables? Discovering the sources of reading comprehension breakdowns You should consider other possible sources of their reading comprehension breakdowns. weaknesses in some areas of reading comprehension? Are they behaving in a similar fashion to novice readers who focus heavily on decoding single words. • inability to integrate ideas. have the basic reading strategies been taught? Skimming. like Alain. silently and with adequate understanding.READING Metacognitive strategies Lesley Lanir explains how to teach your students “text talking”. • overreliance on top-down processing. • inability to identify main ideas. 1 www. • lack of familiarity with text structures. tolerating ambiguity. then: • lack of awareness of sentence patterns. • gaps in semantic knowledge. speaks English fairly fluently after living in South Africa for two years as a teenager. etc. N uttall states that the aims of a reading programme are to enable students to enjoy reading in the FL and read independently unfamiliar. skipping unknown words. scanning. contextual guesses about meanings. the college student below who is in his fourth semester of academic level English. The lists and factors are endless. • lack of appreciation of text organization. what’s the next step if the above are in order? What do you do if. L1 French and Hebrew. A reasonable starting place is checking decoding accuracy and speed and reading fluency.com 51 . confirming or disconfirming inferences. Despite his reasonable level of verbal proficiency. fail to adjust reading for different texts and purposes and seldom look forwards or backwards in order to monitor or improve comprehension? (Patricia Carrell P 172-179) Or have you taken into consideration that they may be hindered by: • illiteracy in L1? • inability to transfer L1 reading comprehension skills to L2? • different syntactic and orthographic systems? • reading texts beyond their level? • reading or learning disabilities? • attention deficiencies? So. This all sounds fine but do all our students reach this level of ‘adequate understanding’ with enjoyment and if not. it is hard to appreciate why reading comprehension in a second language appears difficult and where Alain’s failings might be. do our students perceive them as being helpful and know how and when to apply them? Since research tells us that young and unskilled readers believe strategies will not help and as a result continue to rely on their own familiar and primitive strategies. Reading strategies – useful if perceived as helpful Reading strategies are certainly useful and can be taught endlessly. do we check thoroughly whether our students are proactively using our well-intentioned suggestions. • insufficient prior knowledge. or looking into cognitive breakdowns and information processing problems. some of your students cannot reach the overall main idea of the text or remember a few details in a logical order? • poor recognition of common phrases. Alain’s reading comprehension is poor. He says that he spends so long trying to understand the meaning of each sentence that he loses the whole idea and ultimately he cannot remember what he has read. Why do some comprehend and others don’t? For those of us who comprehend written texts effortlessly. Alain aged 22. making predictions.
4. Kern (1997) supports the idea of conscious awareness training in strategy use by pointing out that there are good and bad uses of the same strategy which could depend on the level of inclusion of metacognition in the strategy training. explaining and summarising makes the text redundant and turns reading comprehension into a demotivating testing situation. So. • where comprehension is breaking down. Block (1986) also researched ‘think aloud techniques’ based on Hosenfeld’s earlier research. 2.READING Strategies – useful if considered valuable As Nuttall says. taking into consideration the advantages and disadvantages of asking the students to reflect upon their operations as they perform a task. pinpoint and accumulate examples of common hitches. Research using ‘think aloud techniques’ discovered that successful readers: • keep the meaning of the passage in mind during reading. Research shows that greater understanding comes from using an objective approach when reading an informative text. • read in chunks. Favouring the introspective approach. so the teacher can immediately identify where the calculation failed. 52 Modern English Teacher Volume 21 No. well-intentioned lists of strategies and not just focusing on decoding single words and failing to adjust their reading for different texts and purposes? Using and teaching think aloud and text talk The idea of think aloud is to discover: • which reading strategies if any are being used. how do we investigate the mental process of comprehending and probe into whether our readers are firming up their reading experience by using our Application ‘Think aloud’ and ‘text talk’ methods can be used individually or it can be adapted and applied as a whole class exercise. the reader not only has to know which strategy to use but also how to: • involve metacognition in strategy choice. use them to help monitor and control the comprehension process and later use this information to show our students how to apply appropriate strategies and effort. Andrew Cohen and Carol Hosenfeld discussed ‘mentalistic’ behaviour in the early eighties and encouraged ESL professionals to accumulate descriptions of second language learners’ behaviour before building teaching programmes. The procedure is similar to that of a maths student who lists the operations used to solve a question. 1 . • repair and be conscious of the situations where strategies can be applied. What can we do to discover comprehension breakdowns? Studies show that through a method known as ‘think aloud’ and which Nuttall refers to as ‘Text Talk Strategies’ we can reach our students’ internal thoughts. it is worth differentiating between the reader’s mode of response. All this can take place because ‘think aloud’ techniques call for students to state their thoughts and behaviours as they are reading. Does the reader deal objectively (uses extensive mode) with the text focusing on understanding the ideas of the author or subjectively (uses reflexive mode). Are we switching off our students? Regrettably. Think aloud techniques are not innovative but they are underused. Block comments on the differences of using ‘an introspective or retrospective approach’. Block mentions that a retrospective approach keeps the reading process intact but reflection may distort the facts and does not reveal why readers fail to understand nor how they are processing text. it seems that in order to convince our students that strategy learning and application are positive concepts we need to: 1. in the midst of trying to understand whether our students do comprehend. How do we switch them on? Plausibly. • how we can improve their reading comprehension. isolate students with unique difficulties and help them individually. In other words. On the subject of metacognition and internal thoughts. identify accurately where reading comprehension breaks down. we often promote their disinterest and disbelief by applying the wrong sort of help. Block also mentions that besides focusing on which strategy a learner is using. Newell and Simon had developed a direct thinking out loud process. demonstrate overtly which strategies should be applied. reading out loud does not aid comprehension at all since the students are concentrating on pronunciation and not on meaning. Nuttall also points out that comprehension is a private process and that it can be difficult to convince our students that problems with comprehension may be surfacing because they are misinterpreting parts of a passage given that they may be unaware of where their initial misunderstanding begins. students need a range of strategies to deal with texts but as Anderson (1991) concludes. as opposed to asking them how they performed after they have completed the task. When embarking on using ‘think aloud’ exercises based on Hosenfeld’s research. For example. and how does that affect comprehension. • successfully integrate strategy use with other approaches. focusing on their own thoughts and feelings rather than on the information in the text. • what students do to repair their misinterpretation and breakdowns. 3. • recognise when comprehension is breaking down. Already by the early seventies. Likewise. the kind that equates to testing instead of teaching.
• recognise text structure. she gets relief from biscuits. will the results be positive or negative? positive. nibbles.READING • skip unimportant words. Alain was guided in the following way: 1.) (He repeats the word. while on her way home on the bus. T: Do you do that often? A: Yes. Volume 21 No. Text Avoid Opening the Fridge If you are feeling down and find yourself eating. use proven strategies to overcome emotional eating. • use prior knowledge. Somehow. Is submerge a positive word? No. French words are closer to English words than Hebrew.onlineMET. If you ‘use proven strategies’. T: Do you think your prediction is correct? A: Partly T: Why? A: Because I didn’t use the entire blurb to help me. to beat the boredom she nibbles on Snickers or Mars bars. there seems to be confusion in my mind because of the Hebrew and the French. Use proven strategies to (overcome) emotional eating. 3. I just used the French word to try to remember and understand the meaning. a) If you are feeling down and find yourself eating. • understand that words have different values. Substitute ‘something’ for the tricky word to check meaning and encourage Alain to make sense of the whole meaning of the clause. When Anne Woods. Use proven strategies to (something) emotional eating. using (either from memory or from the glossary) French or Hebrew ‘translations’ for unfamiliar words. Part of Alain’s transcript (Alain reads silently) ‘Avoid Opening the Fridge’ (‘avoid’ he repeats the word. word-by-word decoding of sentences. T: Why? A: Some of the words didn’t fit in with ‘submerge’ so I ignored them. 1 www. T: What is the passage going to be about? A: Eating problems T: What is missing? A: ? T: Go back to the blurb and find the words you have not used to help you predict the main idea of the passage. • integrate. How could Alain have helped himself with this? Other words that Alain faltered on: munches. T: Can we skip over this part? A: No. it was clear to see why he could be classed as an unsuccessful reader. Once he has composed a logical meaning. • read in short phrases. she gained 12 kilos. When she’s stressed at work. He: • lost meaning after decoding. during a period of unemployment that lasted for four months. More importantly. is in a good mood. • ignored essential details. Last year. just by analysing the way he read the blurb. Use proven strategies to (submerge) emotional eating.) He continues reading – ‘strategies to overcome…’ ‘overcome’ (He repeats the word a few times – says ‘submergé’ (to be drowned in) and turns back to the text. peanuts and Twix. ‘If you are feeling down and find yourself eating. • rarely skipped words when decoding. use proven…’ ‘proven’ (He tries to think of a similar French word – prouver. he does not check thoroughly to see whether it really fits or not. when I try to think in French the English word becomes clearer. Analysis To obtain meaning. 38. Let’s take a short excerpt of Alain’s individual ‘think aloud’ exercise set up and executed based on Hosenfeld and Block’s suggestions. she sits in front of the TV and munches on bags of potato chips. Turn the statement into a question. although he read the text slowly. once Alain had fully understood the full meaning of the blurb. his large vocabulary allowed him to make informed guesses about words he was unsure of. Use information in the preceding or succeeding phrases or sentences.com 53 . tries to think of a similar French word and remembers the English one) T: Did you know this word? A: Yes. • gave all words equal value. A: ‘use proven strategies’ T: What do we know about the blurb? A: It is a short summary of the main idea of the passage. He relies heavily on French. he might have come to the right meaning using ‘submerge’. T: What do you understand? A: If you are not happy you are submerged in emotional eating. and then returns to the text.) emotional eating. 2. Alain uses careful. In this exercise Alain’s breakdown in reading occurred at the beginning and was due to ignoring important information by relying on ‘false friends’ from his L1. Try something else. use proven strategies to overcome emotional eating. spells it out. Despite Alain’s reasonable level of spoken English. If he hadn’t ignored ‘proven strategies’. Reading for Alain consists mainly of passing back and forth between French translations and the Hebrew glossary and the passage.
READING This is a conditional sentence. • Do I know similar words? • Given my knowledge – does this sound logical? • Now what does the writer mean by that? • I don’t understand the word. I am stuck/ looking back at the text/ looking forward) • This is happening (I am beginning to understand this word isn’t/is important). T: What do you do with food? A: Eat it. I do not expect you to know the meaning of all of the words in the passage. 3. T: Is it essential? Do you need to look it up? A: No. 1.g. I want you to pay attention to two things a. Thanks for the email. the students will see and appreciate that they do not have to understand everything and at the same time receive an example of how a competent reader copes with a text. This process needs to be explicated and emphasised in the model given to the class above. they can share problems. Putting ‘thinking out loud’ into practice in the classroom When practising something new always select tasks that are similar to the actual exercises you intend to use to elicit students’ reading strategies later. knowledge and remind each other of the strategies that would be worthwhile using at any given point. You are going to show and teach me where your difficulties are. • examine illustrations and build too many suppositions from them. This is an example of what you are going to do: As you model by working through a short text. 4. questions should be open-ended to allow the students to reveal their thought processes and self-report openly. Provide sentences with a new word highlighted. Or for another type of vocabulary breakdown: [she] munches on bags of potato chips T: What is the format of an English sentence? A: SVO T: What type of a word is ‘munches’? A: A verb. What you do when reading without stopping to overcome comprehension breakdowns? (their ‘non-stop’ reading behaviour) b. Learners then can talk to each other about what they do and do not understand as they read. What you do when you meet unknown words? (their ‘interrupted’ reading behaviour). It is important the students understand they are documenting their verbal reports while reading using metacognition. Then you start the exercise. I’ll phone him. For the most part. Why? B) I understand the text. you may discover that your students: • read the title and make inferences from it or skip completely. noun. can encourage students to focus on their approach to unfamiliar words. Ask a series of questions. • I am doing this (stopping/ nothing. Please look at the first paragraph. to a direct question. Alain just needs to consider that there maybe a positive outcome not a negative one. 5. capitalisation) and punctuation. 2. 2005. Does your interpretation provide a solution? If you are not happy. Encourage your students to think metacognitively Exercises adapted from Kenneth Pakenham. As a practice introduction. • What kind of word is it? verb. Why? If from the context – how? C) I can understand the word because it is similar to a word I know. This type of ‘out loud’ exercise can be done later using verbal reporting only using pair work or small groups. T: So what is ‘munches’? A: Some kind of eating. A) I can generally understand the text even if I ignore the word. 1 . such as ‘Do you use the glossary?’ students might answer ‘yes’ because it is easier than trying to perceive what they actually do during the tasks or they might answer ‘no’ because the question is intimidating. • use or completely ignore orthographic information (e. I will find solutions to help you. you might say: I want to find out where you have difficulties understanding when reading. One of uses of the ‘if’ clause is to set the problem and the second clause offers a resolution. Read it as you normally read in class. Note down exactly what you do when you meet unfamiliar words. When I know what they are. • identify the grammatical category of words. Which one? How does that help you? Things you may discover about your students From utilising ‘think aloud’ exercises. T: What are potato chips? A: Food. I was unaware that today was Dan’s birthday. Ask them to select their response to the unknown word. you are submerged in emotional eating. • do/do not keep meaning of passage 54 Modern English Teacher Volume 21 No. 4. does it matter? Here the exact meaning of the word ‘overcome’ is not necessary. For example.
This could be done as a competition. foreignlanguagelearningdifficulties. & Hosenfeld. • do/do not question the meaning of a word. A. understanding the causes of our student’s comprehension breakdowns while reading is essential in teaching them how to liberate themselves and move on. C. Conclusion Many of our students search and struggle for meaning while reading. • rely on the glossary. (1996) Teaching Reading Skills. once using ‘think out loud’ or ‘text talk’.onlineMET. Website: http://www. Lesley Lanir. a freelance writer. For teachers. Supply texts to small groups with new words central to the meaning with questions based on those words. Do not allow the students to look up these words and see if they can answer the questions. • recognise cognates. 20. Prentice Hall Nuttall. (1972) Human problem solving. has been involved in TEFL for over 15 years specialising in learning disabilities and foreign language learning. & Simon. They do not know how to control and monitor their thoughts. To encourage them to try and infer the meaning of the words from the text use teams and tell them the more words they look up the more points they lose. Are your students beginning to: • read unaided • approach unfamiliar texts • cope with authentic texts • read at an appropriate speed • comprehend silently • reach adequate understanding REFERENCES Block. pp.com 55 . A. Students have to be aware that they should: • continue reading until the end of the sentence even until the next sentence to understand the context. 285-313 Hosenfeld. • use or not use their knowledge of the world. C. com/ Exercises to help You can help the student understand that he does not need to understand every word by using some of the following exercises adapted from Nuttall: Teaching them to ignore difficult words by: Supplying texts with words missed out. you and your students can use check list to see whether reading is progressing. • do/do not understand that words have different values. Cambridge University Press Lesley Lanir Common causes of comprehension breakdowns and how to deal with them Once you have found specific breakdowns in reading comprehension what can you do about it? One important skill as glossed over above is teaching your students how to cope with difficult words. educators resort to designing reading programmes and comprehension exercises based on intuitive guesses about students’ problems. Allow students to look up only a number of these words. C. Supply texts with new words central to the meaning with questions based on Volume 21 No. Supply texts with difficult words that are not essential to the text. (1981) Some Uses of Mentalistic Data in Second Language Research. J. Not knowing what to do their minds shut down. E. (2005) Making Connections. Without knowing our student’s thinking processes.READING in mind during reading. CTEFLA/RSA and an MA in Learning Disabilities. 3 Cohen. (1977) A Preliminary Investigation of The Reading Strategies of Successful And Nonsuccessful Second Language Learners. 1 www. Language Learning. To come full circle. (1986) The Comprehension Strategies of Second Language Readers TESOL Quarterly. System 5 Newell. K. A. • make an educated guess. ‘Think aloud’ exercises or ‘text talking’ provide methods you can use to study the reading comprehension behaviours of your students and understand better where they falter and whether any reading strategies are being applied to solve their problems as they read. 31. She has a BA in English and Education. Macmillan Heinemann Pakenham. lecturer and teacher trainer. Their thoughts wander and rush around and they often become fixated on an unknown word or phrase. As Nuttall reiterates: students should always have in their heads: Pre-reading Why am I reading this? While reading Do I need to stop and look up the word or not? After reading Do I get it? If not where did I miss it? Which words didn’t I understand? those words. their choice and see if they can answer the questions.
how can we help nurture and sustain their interest throughout the lesson when learner motivation is constantly at threat? In this short article. • they find the language too difficult. A group of students who are goal-oriented (Boon. • they find English lessons or the teacher boring. A group of students who are willing to take risks (Oxford. • their previous negative experiences of learning the language cloud the 56 Modern English Teacher Volume 21 No. or resting their heads on the desks. 1999). How do we as teachers change the classroom dynamic to one where learning can take place for all concerned? How do we create an environment and experience that will spark our students’ natural curiosity and eagerness to develop? Once in action. The students are at the back chatting with friends. p. It is the start of the class. Japan. 1972). 1990). and growth the educational experience offers each individual. Locke & Latham. and explore strategies for generating. … How can we go about sparking. who tolerate the ambiguity of language learning and do not fear making mistakes in front of their peers. however the methods to address these problems may be more elusive. Then. when walking into the classroom at the start of any new course. checking their phones. maintaining. 1992). Why are some learners not motivated? In order to prepare for a presentation on motivation at an English teaching conference in Tokyo. A group of students who have a high need for achievement (Atkinson & Raynor. suddenly. and protecting student motivation. I will provide an overview of Dörnyei’s (2001) motivational teaching practice model. However.IT MADE ME THINK Here we are. A group of students who see the intrinsic value in learning the L2 (Deci & Ryan. • they have few opportunities to use English outside of the classroom. I asked several of my university students the question – Why are some Japanese learners not motivated to study English? They responded that Japanese students’ motivation can be negatively affected when: • they are unsure whether English is really that important for their future lives. 2007. describe its practical application in the L2 classroom. 43) when the going gets tough. and supporting the motivation of each and every one of our learners? ” The dream Our dream is to walk into a classroom at the start of a new course and be greeted by a group of eager and enthusiastic students who are integratively and instrumentally motivated (Gardner & Lambert. A group of students who will work together as a cohesive unit (Dörnyei & Murphey. who long for feelings and rewards of success and who wish to avoid failure at all costs. the bell sounds. and who understand the potential external benefits of becoming proficient in the target language in terms of increased job prospects. stimulating. better salaries. support each other and help “pull each other along” (Dörnyei. who welcome and value contributions from each member. “ … reasons for low student motivation can be easily identified. 1974). challenge. the reality is obviously quite different. 2003). too confusing. who set challenging and specific short-term goals. who wish to learn for the personal satisfaction. or entry into overseas higher education institutions. 1 . and who remain committed to achieving these goals. sitting in silence. Introduction You walk into the classroom. A group of students who have a strong desire to be able to identify and communicate with members of the particular discourse community. 2001. now motivate us Andy Boon explores ways to get your students motivated to learn.
mouthing the word. It would therefore seem that reasons for low student motivation can be easily identified. I got lost. expectations. The replies that teachers usually provide closely match those given by my university students above. I pick up my bag. and levels of confidence that fluctuate during a lesson and throughout the duration of the course. 4 Encouraging students to reflect positively on learning experiences: providing students time and space to identify and provide reasons for positive and negative learning experiences. ‘ predictable norms and routines of the language classroom to capture learner attention and arouse interest in each and every particular activity. an environment where we truly believe our students will make progress. 1965). and ultimately succeed. Andy: Putting motivational teaching into practice Breaking the ice It is lesson one. helping the language to come alive from the two-dimensional page of the textbook via creative use of the materials. and desire to learn among the students: ensuring that the learning experience is enjoyable. I then go to the chalkboard. Excuse me! Is anybody sitting here? Oh! [Miming sadness and walking towards a different student sat by him or herself] Excuse me! Is anybody sitting here? Err. put the language on the board. nice to meet you. cooperate and collaborate together. too. This is where the greatest challenge and some would argue the greatest responsibility of the teacher begins. empowering students to take an active role in lessons and to experience extended periods of success ’ the in using the L2. and supporting the motivation of each and every one of our learners? In order for teachers to “achieve some systematic and enduring positive effect” (Dörnyei. and say “Bye” to the students. learn. Dörnyei proposes a four-phase process-oriented teaching model which we work towards: 1 Establishing a classroom environment in which motivation can thrive: an environment in which we teachers are enthusiastic and motivated ourselves (motivation is after all contagious as is demotivation!). seeks permission to sit next to the already seated Student B. able to take risks. to ‘perform’ rather than ‘storm’ (Tuckman. values. and ask them to repeat the activity in pairs (Student A stands and takes on the role of the late student. p. I then thank Student B.onlineMET. and certain that their individual contributions will be valued. Student B: [Shaking hands]. and others not. reducing potential learner anxiety. stand up. “me”. work to support and help each other. positive. During the presentation (and also in subsequent presentations on motivation). keeping the learners on their toes as to what may happen next. Here. however the methods to address these problems may be more elusive. 2 Igniting interest. maximizing student involvement during tasks.com 57 . engages in small talk. but I now have their attention. write my name “Andy” under the picture. Andy: Student B: No.IT MADE ME THINK present experience. There is some laughter – a good sign. I break the formidable silence by counting out loud the number of students sat facing me. Returning to the role of the teacher. before revealing these answers to audience members. Andy: Andy: Student B: Sure. 2001. Student B: Me. [Walking towards a student sat by him or herself]. Can I sit here? Thanks [Sitting down next to the student] So. an environment in which group members 3 Helping learners to sustain motivation while defending against possible distractions: making the learning experience stimulating and enjoyable via constant variation and novelty. How about you? [I engage in small talk for a short while and then hold out my hand] By the way. walk towards the door. defamiliarizing Students: Andy: Dörnyei’s motivational teaching practice Let us return to the classroom on the first day of a new course. I elicit from the class how I started a conversation with someone I am meeting for the first time. I have asked teachers to discuss their experiences of student motivational problems within their own teaching contexts. draw a smiley face with glasses. I walk into the classroom. needs. My name is [name of the student]. and then introduces him or herself). Nice to meet you. The following interaction takes place: Andy: Excuse me! Is this the right room for Andy’s English class? Yes. stimulating.28) on individual learner behavior. I rush back into the classroom pretending to be a late student. wants. Some students seem interested in my presence. an environment in which learners feel safe. helping learners to give greater prominence to the effort they have exerted during language tasks rather than to their actual L2 ability. and ask the group to applaud. and relevant for the group members. • they are too shy to participate actively in the class. I am a little nervous. checks whether it is the right classroom. goals. this is my first English class. 1 www. I wait outside for a few moments and then using the door at the rear. How can we go about sparking. my name is Andy. We walk in and often the reality is to be faced with a group of individuals with varying desires. to interact. • they perceive that English language learning is only to pass a test or entrance exam. providing feedback that motivates and enthuses learners so that they look forward to rather than dread the next lesson. curiosity. Student A: Yes. There is confusion and surprise. the motivational aims are to: Volume 21 No. too. and point towards my chest. Great! I am a little late.
S7. run back to his or her group. and to bring that student directly into the action zone. can interact at the same height as the chosen student. Revolving sushi bar in action 58 Modern English Teacher Volume 21 No. cooperate. I write the word “City” on the board and divide the students into groups of four. the motivational aims are to: 1 Encourage cooperation and interaction between group members. department store). The winner of the game is the group that has written the most lexical items on the board.g. How many movie theaters are there in the city?). S8) listens and then states whether it is the city that his or her partner likes or dislikes: S4 S8 S3 S7 S2 S6 S1 S5 Figure 1. the activity is memorable. After that. If students decide not to participate in the class. 2010) and the activity is repeated. Revolving sushi bar Students then switch communication roles. Moreover. 1990). students must communicate. S4) talks about his or her chosen city whilst each student on the right (S5. it is likely to contribute positively to the evolving group dynamic. I can immediately learn (and I tend never to forget) that particular student’s name and we can both begin to find out information about one another. 2 Increase individual commitment to achieving group goals. I ask one student from each group to come to my desk and I whisper the first question to them (e. It signals the start of an educational journey in which students need to cooperate in order to complete tasks successfully. S2. 3 Introduce a non-serious competitive element. S6. 2 Begin to create a cohesive learner group. Students are encouraged to work for the good of the group. then passes the chalk to student 3 and so on (See Chalkboard relay – Boon. The winning group is the one with the most points. 2010). and show one side of the paper to their partner. Dörnyei (2001) states that “games in which small groups compete with each other promote inter-member relationships” (p. Student S2 S6 S1 S5 Figure 2. 4 Bring humor into the classroom. they do so at the peril of letting down their peers. has always raised a laugh on the very first day among my students. A different student must then run back to my desk with the answer. to learn about each other. Any attempts of ‘social loafing’ (not pulling one’s weight within the group) are often peer-managed as students encourage each team member to exert the effort needed to win the game. He or she then passes the chalk to student 2 who writes a different word. this activity takes place in the heart of student territory. stand at the ends of each table in columns. Rather than beginning the lesson by initiating the first activity from the front of the class. As students repeat the activity in pairs. I then ask the next students from each group to come to my desk and I whisper the second question to them and the relay game continues until all questions have been answered. I get the opportunity to interact with one student right off the bat. often on a raised podium that can signify an elevated status and create boundaries between instructor and students.g. and ask it to the other members. Here. the teacher is playing the role of a fellow student albeit artificially. this can create feelings of belonging and camaraderie amongst members and increase their overall levels of performance (Locke & Latham. The first group to provide the correct answer is awarded one point. Each student on the left (See figure 1 – S1. We then play Question relay. Not only are these competitive games fun. 1 runs to the board and writes the name of an item that one may find in a city (e. and to begin to overcome possible feelings of embarrassment or anxiety of using the L2 in front of their peers. The activity is funny and so far. Students are put in pairs. 44). a student who is sat by him or herself and may have yet to make friends with others in the class. On one side of the paper. 3 De-emphasize classroom power relationships. I then give each group a short passage to read about a city in England. In this respect. students are instructed to write the name of a city they like and on the other side to write the name of a city they do not like. Making it relevant for learners I pass the students a blank piece of paper and ask them to fold it in two. This can help reduce their initial anxiety and help them to feel an immediate sense of belonging to the language experience and to the group as a whole. Each student has to remember the question. I give each group a piece of chalk and they race against the other teams for a three-minute period.IT MADE ME THINK 1 Begin to build a positive relationship between teacher and students. S3. 1 . Students are rotated until they return to the partner they worked with in the first round of the activity: S4 S8 S3 S7 Nurturing group cohesion It is lesson two. it provides the opportunity for them to break the ice. In order to complete each activity successfully. each student is rotated one space around the tables to work with a new partner (See figure 2 and Kaitenzushi/Revolving sushi bar – Boon. and work together. Moreover. The teacher seeks permission to enter this space and to be seated at one of the student desks and by doing so. but also if students can feel a sense of success and achievement through teamwork. the underlying message of the activity is one of narrowing the perceived gap between teacher and students and working together to construct a more relaxed classroom environment.
one that is very unique and personal to them. Cliques can cause friction as students begin to always sit. they bring their notebooks to the front of the class and I check them and provide brief written feedback underneath their self-assessed Using the textbook creatively It is lesson three. the motivational aims are to: 1 Personalize content for students. Brown & Wiltshier. the music. Rather than sitting down. Students are growing accustomed to the textbook. talk. Students are encouraged to draw upon and share their own ideas. have a shared responsibility for its success or failure. and complete the missing information Volume 21 No. even hostile group. the element of fantasy and play. opinions. and value contributions from all group members. Students answer comprehension questions in the book. rotating. students are standing. all contribute 1) Date: 2) What did I study in today’s lesson? 3) What new words or phrases did I learn? 4) I enjoyed/didn’t enjoy the class because… 5) I worked hard/didn’t work hard because… 6) My performance score is… Table 1: Self-reflection template to making the activity enjoyable. they are required to interact with whoever is next in rotation. moving. Groups work together to plan a student fashion show. Students are introduced to vocabulary for clothes. “ They become co-constructors of their own learning environment using the L2 to negotiate meaning with one another and such liberation can be a powerful motivational force. 2 Make the task memorable. In this task. and work with particular classmates only. and experiences. students have the opportunity to begin to discover. Along with many of the ideas already mentioned. record the date (Section 1). Students are then put into groups of four or five and given a lesson handout (See Appendix).IT MADE ME THINK Here. and complete the two sentences (Sections 4 & 5) with information that is pertinent to them (below): Students are also asked to award themselves a score ranging from A+ to D. 4 Maximize student involvement. Rather than just turn the page to the next task in the unit. they walk down the ‘imaginary’ catwalk set up in the classroom space. This can lead to an ‘us and them’ atmosphere and a disparate. decide their roles (MC or models). and hopefully. so does the danger of cliques. learning. and patterns and then listen to a fashion show in which the Master of Ceremonies (MC) describes what four models are wearing (Helgesen. Other groups listen and write down the key vocabulary they hear in the space provided on the handout. all students are afforded an active role and thus. The microphone. As a result. 3 Discourage clique formation. feeling tired. They become co-constructors of their own learning environment using the L2 to negotiate meaning with one another and such liberation can be a powerful motivational force. facing forward.onlineMET. I ask students to open their class notebooks and to reflect on their learning experience. materials. students have the opportunity to close their books and use the target language in a fresh. They have some degree of control over the content they are to talk about during the activity. As students are randomly paired and then rotated within the Kaitenzushi/Revolving sushi bar activity. humorous. 1 www. When each student/ model of group one is called upon by the MC. I hand the MC of group one the microphone and play some music. When students have finished writing their reflections. fighting the temptations of sleep. the motivational aims of the activity are to: 1 Do something interesting with the material in the textbook. a passive observer to the unfolding events. and novel way. ” on the handout with each student/ model’s name and a description of what that particular student/model is wearing today. Encouraging learner selfreflection It is the last ten minutes of the lesson. 2 Break the monotony of sitting down. Today’s lesson topic is fashion. communicating. exciting.with regards to their performance in the particular lesson (Section 6). facing one another. and a memorable learning event for students. A Word document reflection sheet template (See table 1) is projected on the white screen in the classroom and students copy the text down. learn. As a group forms and friendships develop.com 59 . facing forward. 2006). When ready. answer the first two questions (Sections 2 & 3). Each group then performs their student fashion show for the class.
the article can only scratch the surface of the pedagogical possibilities that exist.W. You worked well today. M. (2003) Group dynamics in the language classroom.L. they often promise me (and actually go on) to put greater effort into subsequent lessons. Modern English Teacher 16(2). You were late for class today – really an A?). R.. E. E. A. A. motivation. M. Psychological Bulletin 63(6). 2 Encourage students to focus on effort rather than ability. “highlighting the role of effort … facilitates future achievement and everybody has an equal chance to it” (p. W. 40-47 Boon. T. (Eds. Z. 22-24 Deci. effort can lead to increased competence in the L2 and this opportunity is available for all who try. pp. J. TESOL Canada Journal 9(2). boon@tyg. confidence. As Dörnyei (2001) suggests. 30-49 Tuckman. (1965) Developmental sequence in small groups. Modern English Teacher 19(3). Good job today. Students are asked to reflect on the amount of effort they feel they put into the lesson (See table 1 – Section 5). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Gardner. Brown. 2001). (1990) A theory of goal-setting and task performance. Andrew Boon REFERENCES Atkinson. (2001) Motivational strategies in the language classroom. direct. The learner self-reflection activity is then repeated at the end of each subsequent class and helps me to decide each student’s overall performance score at the end of the semester (This contributes to 10% of a student’s final grade). & Lambert. J. MA: Newbury House Helgesen. 2012). Andrew Boon is an associate professor in the faculty of humanities at Toyo Gakuen University. This can increase learner satisfaction. (2007) Mission: Possible: Goalsetting as a tool for increasing student motivation. 3 Provide effective and immediate feedback. At the time of writing. Harlow: Pearson Education Ltd Locke. and individual words of praise and encouragement or suggestions for areas that need improving to each student. 384-399 Conclusion This article has suggested various strategies for generating and maintaining student motivation in the language classroom with reference to Dörnyei’s (2001) four-phase processoriented model. B. S. (2006) English firsthand success. & Raynor.jp. Moreover. at this time.g. New York: Plenum Dörnyei.. Also. NJ: Prentice Hall Oxford. However. influence. They can also reflect on and identify reasons for their feelings of satisfaction or dissatisfaction with the lesson (See table 1 – Section 4) and provide this feedback instantly and directly to the teacher. He can be contacted at andrew. He has been an active member of JALT since 2004. 1 . the motivational aims are to: 1 Encourage students to reflect on their learning experience. & Ryan. Washington. Here. Discover the News with David Harrington (Language Solutions. 60 Modern English Teacher Volume 21 No. He has been teaching in Japan for over 14 years and is an Aston University PhD student. You answered many questions. & Wiltshier J. & Latham G. and improve the teen (child or adult) spirit of your students. In other words. & Murphey. DC: Winston and Sons Boon. Rowley. Thus. pp. has presented at numerous conferences. he is currently working on a new coursebook. Here we are. and methodology. pp. or You were a little bit sleepy today).) (1974) Motivation and achievement. now motivate us.O. if students feel that they have not worked hard in the lesson for a particular reason. it is over to you to inspire. As self-reflections are checked at the front of the class. R. Z. (1985) Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. (2010) Utilizing classroom space. (1992) Who are our students? A synthesis of foreign and second language research on individual differences with implications for instructional practice. and interest in the learning experience (Dörnyei. Englewood Cliffs.IT MADE ME THINK performance scores (e. Students are given the time to think about and record what they have learned in the lesson rather than walk out of the classroom and forget it. and has published several articles on teacher development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Dörnyei. I can provide quick verbal feedback to each individual student (e. E.g. (1972) Attitudes and motivation in second language learning. C. R. P. pp. A. 120). the teacher can provide immediate.
TEACHER DEVELOPMENT Appendix 1 Fashion show Good evening. we have ___________. Next. Finally. First. He/She’s wearing _____________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Very stylish! Thank you.onlineMET. ________. He/She’s wearing ____________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Great color combination! Thank you. Next up is _____________. ________. Let’s take a look at the latest student spring fashions. ladies and gentlemen. here’s ___________. LISTEN TO EACH FASHION SHOW AND WRITE DOWN KEY WORDS IN THE BOXES BELOW: Fashion show 1 Fashion show 2 Fashion show 3 Fashion show 4 Fashion show 5 Volume 21 No. That is the end of our student fashion show. ________. 1 www. we have ________. He/She’s wearing ______________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Very nice! Thank you.com 61 . ________. He/She’s wearing __________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ An excellent choice of clothes! Thank you.
Cullen. The purpose of the present paper is to propose a framework which could serve as a basis for generation and development of grammar materials. and argue that fluency work in the class should be followed by accuracy-centered activities (Brown. This was partly due to language teaching researchers’ dissatisfaction with the audio-lingual method that overemphasized mastery of grammatical forms and partly due to the growing interest in the anti-grammarians’ proposal that it is possible to acquire a second language through meaning-focused communicative practice and no explicit grammar instruction (Krashen. anti-grammarians. This is witnessed by the bulk of theoretical as well as practical books and articles that have recently been published and hence contributed to the scholarly literature on grammar teaching issues (e. anti-grammarians were in favor of promoting learner fluency rather than accuracy. it is surprising why very little. teacher trainers. In the 1980’s. However. Introduction Teaching grammar has always been a topic of heated debate among English language teaching (ELT) professionals. if any. which includes a chapter written by Stranks. Tomlinson. 2001. Due to the importance attached to the role of successful communication and lack of emphasis on grammar teaching. Ellis. 2009. a number of others have adopted an anti-grammar attitude. 1982. and moderate grammarians1. even this valuable article does not offer any model or practical guidelines on how grammar teaching materials could be developed. pro-grammarians argued that language learners should be able to produce accurate sentences and hence were in favor of promoting accuracy. It would even be useful for researchers. Thus. and materials writers in that it helps them better realize the pedagogical value of grammar activities offered to the learner. 2010. Needless to say. Figure 1 below shows these three positions. 1991). They are in favor of focusing on grammatical form during the context of communicative interactions rather than focusing on forms in a predetermined syllabus (Long. 1 . 2003. anti-grammarians. 2010. 2006. Krashen and Terrell. Tomlinson and Masuhara. Batstone and Ellis. pro-grammarians that grammar should neither be overemphasized nor totally rejected.IT MADE ME THINK A grammar grid Sasan Baleghizadeh outlines a framework for developing grammar materials. The position adopted by moderate grammarians indicates that grammar teaching has not lost its importance. 2009). Nassaji and Fotos. English language teachers witnessed a strong opposition to grammar teaching. However. 2001). 2008. This remains to be a mystery given that recently published edited volumes on materials development issues (Harwood. ” on developing materials for grammar teaching. 2010) have devoted very little space to materials for the teaching of grammar except Tomlinson (2003). Despite this wealth of published literature. It is the author’s contention that this model would be useful for teachers. as far as grammar teaching is concerned. ELT researchers and professionals can be divided into three distinct groups: pro-grammarians. Thornbury. has ever been published anti-grammarians moderate grammarians Figure 1: The scholars’ positions regarding grammar teaching 62 Modern English Teacher Volume 21 No. Moderate grammarians are in favor of a compromise between fluency and accuracy. and moderate grammarians. 2008. 1998. Moderate grammarians are the third group of scholars who are fervent supporters of communicative language teaching (CLT). While some scholars have always been in favor of teaching it. Ur. 1964). 1983). Pro-grammarians are the scholars who hold the view that grammar is the most important language component to be taught and grammatical forms are like the building blocks that form a language (Lado. they argue “ … ELT researchers and professionals can be divided into three distinct groups: programmarians. as it helps them decide on the right kind of elicitation tasks needed for second language acquisition studies.g.
a. They are similar to them in that they Reproductive 1 Accuracy 2 Fluency 3 4 Creative Figure 2: Framework for developing grammar materials Volume 21 No. ELT materials should expose learners to activities that both encourage them to use grammatical forms for the sake of communication in real-life situations (fluency-centered practice) and activities that prompt them to use grammatical forms for error-free language production (accuracy-centered practice).and fluencycentered activities respectively. grammar activities could be categorized in terms of whether they encourage language learners to use grammatical forms through reproduction or creation. The following activity a sample of an error correction exercise found in one of such books.com 63 . Creativity. …………………………………… …………………………………… …………………… (from Intermediate Language Practice by Vince and Emmerson. They are both oral and written. They are often employed to help learners freely produce structures that have already been presented and intensively practiced.IT MADE ME THINK The proposed framework The proposed framework appears in the form of a grid with two dimensions. such as Murphy’s English Grammar in Use and Eastwood’s Oxford Practice Grammar. 2003) 1 Accuracy-centered reproductive activities These activities are what Ellis (2009) calls situational grammar exercises. as defined by Nunan (1999: 241) is “the opportunity to recombine familiar language elements in new and unfamiliar ways”. As mentioned earlier. The figure below displays the proposed framework. The purpose of the present article is not to offer a comprehensive list of the activities that would fit into each cell. …………………………………… …………………………………… …………………… c. Substitution drills. The distinction between fluency (speaking at a normal speed with very little hesitation. However. However. A new bridge is be built across the river. Likewise. the importance of accuracy was supplanted by fluency for some time. 1999). Rather. due to the anti-grammar movement of the 1980’s.onlineMET. the proposed framework is intended to serve as an open-ended model for creative teachers and materials writers to devise their own innovative tasks. Accuracy-centered reproductive activities are typically found in numerous grammar practice activities 2 Fluency-centered reproductive activities According to Nunan (2004). In what follows. All the food at the party was ate. The proposed framework introduced in this paper is formed by crossing two lines which represent accuracy/ fluency activities on one axis and reproductive/creative activities on the other. According to Nunan (1999) reproductive activities are associated with the production stage in the PPP instructional cycle of presentation. as Brown (2001: p. gap-fills. Rewrite each sentence. these are communicative activities which are both similar to and different from the grammar exercises introduced above. which require learners to reproduce language. 268) rightly remarks. The first and the second cells represent accuracy. …………………………………… …………………………………… …………………… b. repetition. …………………………………… …………………………………… …………………… d. we will briefly examine each cell. and production. sentence transformation and sentence combination exercises are typical activities that belong to this category and so are all editing exercises. Many pet dogs are losing every day. 1 www.and fluency-centered activities that require learners to use language creatively. The first dimension deals with the distinction between fluency and accuracy and the second dimension is related to the difference between reproductive and creative activities (Nunan. Therefore. and require learners to correctly use targeted structures in non-communicative situations by manipulating a set of given sentences. The outcome is a grid with four cells. and selfcorrection) and accuracy (speaking without making obvious grammatical mistakes) as well as deciding which one to prioritize has always been a matter of controversy among language teaching researchers. The injured man was been taken to hospital. the third and the fourth cells respectively represent accuracy. Underline the errors in these sentences. practice. In addition to the important distinction between fluency and accuracy. learners need to go beyond this by using language creatively. “It is now very clear that fluency and accuracy are both important goals to pursue in CLT”.
they differ from grammar exercises in that they incorporate an element of meaningful communication. dense text is read (twice) to the learners at normal speed twice. Focused tasks are fluency- 64 Modern English Teacher Volume 21 No. the learners are supposed to produce a grammatically accurate version of the given text. to a large extent. the proposed framework can serve as a useful model for a systematic classification of existing grammar teaching activities. Although second language acquisition research suggests that it is better to start with fluency work and then proceed with accuracy (see Ellis’ 2003 proposal for a modular syllabus). The majority of the activities proposed in Grammar Practice Activities by Penny Ur (2009) such as role plays. c. Or Banks are warning homeowners that interest rates are going to rise. including accuracy-centered reproductive activities. aiming at grammatical accuracy [emphasis added] and textual cohesion but not at replicating the original text. 1 . The various versions are analyzed and compared and the students refine their own texts in the light of the shared scrutiny and discussion. etc. and focus on accuracy in that they encourage learners to produce a set of correct written sentences. it is regarded as a constructive activity. Be ready to explain why. I would …’. there is also an element of authentic communication. • You found a wallet with a lot of money in it. The following activity requires learners to manipulate the forms ‘What would you do if …?’ and ‘If I …. a creative activity is one in which learners get a chance to recombine familiar language in new ways and this is exactly what they do when they jot down familiar words and produce their own texts while doing a dictogloss. Expand them so as to summarize the story. The following is a ranking task which requires learners to use the comparative structure and clauses of reason to perform it. the learners pool their battered texts and strive to reconstruct a version of the text from their shared resources. centered on the one hand because they encourage learners to use language communicatively (e. b. to solve a problem or rank a given set of items) and creative on the other because they do not explicitly tell learners which grammatical feature to use. Look at the list below. • You saw someone shoplifting. Work with a partner and decide which ones are the five most exciting sports. However. 2009). e. This is because the nature of reconstruction described above is different from reconstructive activities in which learners manipulate a limited set of grammatical structures. d. namely information gap because the first student is not sure of his or her interlocutor’s response. Discuss what you would do if … • You came home and found a burglar. Hence.IT MADE ME THINK provide manipulative practice of a given set of grammatical forms. it should not be forgotten that much of the English language teaching in the world occurs in English as a foreign language (EFL) settings in which grammatical accuracy is of substantial importance (Fotos. learners should decide for themselves which linguistic resources to use to perform the task. fluencycentered reproductive activities. these are activities which take accurate production of learners through creative activities as their primary goal. accuracycentered creative activities. Nevertheless. the tentative order of presentation for an EFL context would be 1-2-3-4. (from New Headway Pre-Intermediate by Soars and Soars. quizzes. For example: BANKS WARN HOMEOWNERS: INTEREST RATES TO RISE 4 Fluency-centered creative activities These are focused tasks that require learners to produce language while using a specific grammatical feature (Ellis. they are creative activities in that learners are not given any models to follow. A typical grammaticization task is one which presents learners with a number of newspaper headlines and asks them to produce complete sentences out of them as follows: Here are some newspaper headlines. • Someone gave you a present that you really didn’t like. Although the dictogloss requires learners to reconstruct the short text read to them. Therefore.. This. the procedure for this activity is as follows: a. The dictogloss is an accuracy-centered activity because as shown by the emphasis added above. Grammaticization activities require learners to apply grammar to a given set of lexis to produce language (Batstone. interviews. depends on the context where English is used. To reiterate Nunan’s (1999) definition. 2000) Banks have warned homeowners that interest rates will rise. An important consideration is the order in which the materials in each cell should appear in a language instruction course. 1994). According to Wajnryb (1990:5-6). are fluency-centered reproductive activities. where it is the norm to start with reconstructive accuracy work and then proceed with reconstructive fluency activities. 2001) Another interesting accuracy-centered creative activity is grammar dictation or dictogloss. The proposed framework is in the form of a grid with four cells. A short. Working in small groups. (from Uncovering Grammar by Thornbury. the learners jot down familiar words and phrases. introducing creative tasks some time later in the 3 Accuracy-centered creative activities Obviously. Thus.g. Typical activities belonging to this category are grammaticization tasks and grammar dictations. 1998). Moreover. As it is being read. Each group of students produces its own reconstructed version. and fluency-centered creative activities. swimming basketball fencing soccer wrestling hockey tennis volleyball diving Conclusion The present paper was an attempt to offer a framework for developing materials for teaching grammar.
B. ELT Journal. 301-307 Harwood. (2010) Research for materials development in language learning: Evidence for best practice. 83-107 Ellis. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Nassaji. R. Oxford: Oxford University Press Stern. Boston. does not follow a robotic model like this. Foreign language research in cross-cultural perspective (pp. In K. P. where fluency. H. He has recently published in Folio. develops. New York: McGraw-Hill Long. London: Continuum Ur. London: Continuum Tomlinson. (Second edition) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Vince. H. (1982) Principles and practice in second language acquisition. (1983) The natural approach: Language acquisition in the classroom. (2009) Task-based language teaching: Sorting out the misunderstandings. Oxford: Macmillan Wajnryb. Oxford: Pergamon Lado. R. 40. B. MA: Heinle & Heinle Publishers Soars. introducing creative fluency and accuracy activities some time later. (2000) New Headway pre-intermediate. and Fotos. S. (2001) Uncovering grammar. (1999) Second language teaching and learning. (2006) Current issues in the teaching of grammar: An SLA perspective. White Plains. Oxford: Oxford University Press Thornbury. TESOL Quarterly.C. and C. However. it should be noted that this is just a proposed order of presentation of materials in theory. and ELT Journal. International Journal of Applied Linguistics. R. is more important than accuracy.com 65 . R.. B. Kramsch (Eds. Sasan Baleghizadeh is an Assistant Professor of TEFL at Shahid Beheshti University. (1991) Focus on form: A design feature in language teaching methodology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Tomlinson. D. (2010) Teaching grammar in second language classrooms: Integrating form-focused instruction in communicative context. (1992) Issues and options in language teaching. (2009) Principled grammar teaching. New York: Cambridge University Press Krashen. (2001) Teaching by principles: An interactive approach to language pedagogy (Second Edition). T. New York: Routledge Nunan. Oxford: Pergamon Krashen. 221-230 Ellis. for English as a second language (ESL) settings. (1990) Grammar dictation. syllabus design. at least in the early stages of language learning. (2003) Intermediate language practice. S. He is also a member of the Research and Planning Department at the Iran Language Institute. and Soars. Finally. pp. 39-52). the recommended order would be 2-1-4-3: starting with reconstructive fluency work and proceeding with reconstructive accuracy tasks. D.IT MADE ME THINK syllabus. 37. (1998). M. pp. (2008) Teaching grammar as a liberating force. admittedly. London: Continuum Tomlinson. Oxford: Oxford University Press Ellis. (2003) Developing materials for language teaching. N. Iran. (2003) Task-based language learning and teaching.de Bot.onlineMET. D. The reality of what is practiced in language teaching classes.com Volume 21 No. and materials development. (1998) Materials development in language teaching. NY: Pearson Education Cullen. Email: sasanbaleghizadeh@yahoo. S. J. where he teaches applied linguistics. L. System. where he designs. In many cases. (1964) Language teaching: A scientific approach. D. Shifting the focus from focus to form in the EFL classroom. P. Oxford: Oxford University Press Notes 1 This categorization and the figure following it are partially adapted from Stern (1992). pp. R. S.). 52. and edits English language examinations and teaching materials. R. 19. (1994) Grammar. 62. (2009) Grammar practice activities: A practical guide for teachers. and Emmerson. S. and Ellis. Tehran. 221-246 Fotos. R. G. 194-204 Brown. pp. (2010) English language teaching materials: Theory and practice. B. and Terrell. and Masuhara. H. (2008) English language materials: A critical review. M. D. Sasan Baleghizadeh REFERENCES Batstone. The Teacher Trainer. Yet the least such a model and the recommended order can do is to bring some order to the varied activities English language teachers use in their classes. Ginsberg. H. R. R. 1 www. ELT Journal. R. creative activities may precede or overlap with reconstructive activities. Oxford: Macmillan Tomlinson. H. pp. Oxford: Oxford University Press Batstone.
institution. and how it fits into the larger curricular context. Introduction While much has been written on Content Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) and its value for teaching and learning. 1 . What do I want students to learn? These are the learning goals. significant learning. What is Fink’s integrated model of course design? Fink’s integrated model (2003) involves a process orientation to course design rather than a content-based approach. It applies Fink’s conceptual tools to the design. Many courses in tertiary education still follow a content-centered approach. How will students (and the teacher) know if these goals are being accomplished? This is the feedback and assessment. Although this approach requires more time and effort. and then work on how such learning can be facilitated. all are consistently connected within a situational analysis and hence. The next step then. profession and society at large. and responds to Fink’s set of organizing questions with examples from the course design. 3. By connecting these three components in a fully integrated way. The alternative to a content-centered approach to course design is to take a systematic integrated approach. A lack of CLIL teacher development programs suggests that the majority of teachers working on bi-literacy programs in primary schools may be under-prepared to teach adequately. is to gather information about the situational factors which will inform the course design. department. are context appropriate. The teaching and learning goals and activities are seamlessly aligned with the learning feedback and assessments. accompanied by a paper-based mid-term and end of semester assessment. 2. It discusses areas for further integration.TEACHER DEVELOPMENT Creating significant learning experiences for EAL learners Fiona Baker describes a teacher preparation course in Content Language Integrated Learning (CLIL). This is compounded by the fact that few faculty members have had training in designing quality integrated CLIL courses. Situational analysis Why is there a real need for this CLIL course at the college? Given the importance of Content 66 Modern English Teacher Volume 21 No. understand the special instructional challenges of the course. he urges teachers to shift from a contentcentered approach to a learningcentered approach that asks: “What kind of learning will be significant for students. designed using the table of contents from a textbook. and educative assessment. they support and reinforce each other. This would incorporate what Fink (2003) refers to as active learning. and plan with these in mind to make three key components: 1. few BEd courses have been designed to develop primary school teachers in a CLIL approach. What will the teacher and students need to do for students to achieve the learning goals? These are the teaching and learning activities. This design pays virtually no attention to the question of what students might learn beyond content knowledge and this is the most limiting factor to the success of a course at tertiary level. The first step is to identify the important situational factors that will impact on the design. it offers the best possible chance of ensuring that students have a significant learning experience based on current research. The heart of this approach is to first decide on what students can and should learn in relation to the content. what is expected of the students. These three key components are integrated. as it is relatively new. and discusses concerns which arise and how these might be addressed. and how can I create courses that will result in that kind of learning?” This article reports on the initial design phase of a Content Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) course as a component of a BEd program in a newly founded college in Abu Dhabi. Fink poses a fundamental question for all faculty: “How can I create courses that will provide significant learning experiences for my students?” In the process of addressing this question. What is distinctive about Fink’s (2003) integrated model is that there is complete inter-relatedness between each of these components. It gives a situational analysis and answers. gives ideas on how the components can further reinforce and support each other more. the key factor is to build the integration of three strong primary components within a situational analysis. that is. What are the principles followed in the initial design phase? In the initial design phase of developing a course.
practices and techniques of a content and language integrated learning approach in relation to: planning. • apply key principles and strategies to meet grade level and individual EAL learner needs within a situational analysis. content and language integrated learning in light of worldwide trends and bi-literacy initiatives. discuss and apply current knowledge of theory applicable to CLIL learning and apply it gradually through the gradual release of a responsibility model to develop an integrated CLIL lesson plan. delivery and assessment of CLIL lessons and is designed to blend theory with research and practice at each stage of the design process. It develops essential teacher competencies in the planning. Recognize the essential role of the native language in a CLIL approach. The outcomes below are those which work and are considered to be significant in terms of the present and future. as well as to the professional competences that teachers need to develop during undergraduate training. and build on their practice Feedback and assessment procedures Fink (2003) discusses the necessity for what he terms “educative feedback and assessment” which means enhancing learning with high quality feedback. and practise key principles. While CLIL has become increasingly important globally. • observe and reflect on aspects of best practice of CLIL in today’s classrooms as a basis for understanding CLIL practice. of planning and delivery of teaching and assessment from their practicum experiences. (Quote box) Language experts and curriculum designers should give more attention to CLIL teacher preparation. ” Volume 21 No. Planning and Assessment. learning goals should move beyond what students should “understand and remember” into kinds of learning. and Human Development and from practicum experiences in schools. by reading press articles and by engaging in personal. which is underpinned by theory and needs to be applied and reflected on in practice. analysis and application of current educational thought.com 67 . • discuss. This will occur through an understanding. While it has been suggested that universities and teaching training colleges qualify teachers who are well prepared to teach English as a Second language (ESL). How does this course fit within the larger curricular context? This course is designed to draw on student knowledge from Curriculum Studies courses in Science. • apply principles of CLIL to the new wave of literacy learning outcomes in planning. delivery and assessment of lessons. • summarize. apply. and apply their knowledge and exploration of teacher development from their Education Studies courses: Effective Teaching. community and school engagement. pedagogy. Math and English. as well as to the professional competences that teachers need to develop during undergraduate training. • understand what it means to be culturally responsive in teaching. Language experts and curriculum designers should give more attention to CLIL teacher preparation. Learners and Learning. these teachers often find that they have serious limitations when confronted with the teaching of content-based material – the essence of CLIL. 1 www. recognize why this is important and explore how this can be done. through teaming and translation. and the know-how to work through these challenges by applying CLIL methodology. Discuss What is the nature of the content of CLIL? The goals of this CLIL course are informed by the nature of CLIL. material selection and development.TEACHER DEVELOPMENT Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) for bilingual primary schools globally. It is designed to draw on students’ knowledge from their content-based and curriculum studies courses. What do you want students to learn that will still be with them several years later? As Fink (2003) suggests. an understanding of the challenges surrounding learning content through English as an additional language. with both languages developing concurrently.onlineMET. The CLIL course is a preparation to: • appreciate the rich linguistic diversity of the primary school classroom and the challenges this brings to teaching and learning. as well as to the professional competences that teachers need to develop during undergraduate training. It calls for a more sophisticated approach “ Language experts and curriculum designers should give more attention to CLIL teacher preparation. Inherent is an appreciation of the rich linguistic diversity of the primary school classroom. teacher preparation colleges need to incorporate CLIL approaches in their curricula to ensure teachers are prepared not only to teach English as a second language (ESL) but also contentbased subjects in English. teacher preparation courses in CLIL and among practising teachers are rare.
The assignments are carefully scaffolded and progress from pre-structured to openended. scheduling is a barrier to outside visits and to collaboration with others in the community – including hands-on observation of practice of CLIL in today’s classrooms. which in itself is limited owing to a lack of CLIL teacher Assignment 2 Prepare a CLIL lesson with materials and tasks for a selected case 68 Modern English Teacher Volume 21 No. portfolios. rich learning experiences. and continue to dialogue with parents for the child’s educational benefit. Active learning involves experience: actual. simulations and dramatizations concerning teaming with parents. ” to assessment than a content-centered course as educative assessment enhances the quality of student learning. information and ideas involving primary and secondary sources. Teaching and learning activities Fink (2003) suggests that learning should be about how students are engaged actively during the sessions to learn more and retain their learning longer. observation. out of class and online. The rubric for the second assignment is closely matched to what would be thought of as quality within the field in writing a CLIL lesson plan – so. The problem should be somewhat open-ended and not totally prestructured. providing rich learning experiences and involving students in reflective dialoguing. students are involved in in-service learning. practices and techniques of a content and language integrated learning approach in relation to: planning.e. The rubric should closely match the criteria for high quality work in the area. They suggest the addition of experiential learning and opportunities for reflective dialogue. In Assignment 1. guided design. These activities involve in-depth reflective dialoguing. Opportunities are given for students to engage in self and peer assessment. doing and observing. learning. Feedback is incorporated to help students learn. design. deliver and assess a CLIL lesson plan. apply. It involves assessment that is forward looking and that replicates the real-life context as closely as possible. situational observations and authentic projects. By doing things. looking in that they incorporate what students need to do in the real world context – i. Active-learning advocates Bonwell and Eison (1991) describe active learning as involving students in doing things and thinking about the things they are doing. so students can understand what they are learning and the significance of it. small group problem-solving. The feedback loop is designed to prepare students for understanding the criteria and standards that will be Application to course design How do the assignments follow an educative assessment procedure? The assessments devised follow an educative assessment format as they actually enhance the quality of student learning. 1 . journaling about the subject and/or learning process. and practice key principles. material selection and development. language and literacy outcomes What opportunities are there for active learning in the CLIL course? Rich learning experiences are scheduled to occur in class: debates surrounding the status of CLIL in schools. investigation Description Students will conduct a two-pronged interview with the family and the learner to develop an EAL child’s profile Students will apply essential principles. as well as in giving a basis for issuing a course grade. case studies. they are referring to activities such as debates.TEACHER DEVELOPMENT “ The CLIL course is a preparation to … discuss. pedagogy. The assessments are forward Course assessment Task Assignment 1 Interview. used to assess their performance. etc. accessing them in class. interview parents and child to obtain background. Questions should prompt students to think about where they could actually use what they have learned. simulated. this will carry over well into the student’s future as a practising teacher. Owing to the constraints of the environment/culture and workings of the college. simulations. He takes a holistic view of active learning which involves accessing primary and secondary sources. tools (technology and media) and strategies to prepare a CLIL lesson plan for a selected case Weight 50% Task Type Individual investigation of a child studying through the medium of English Poster presentation 50% Individual planning of a lesson for EAL learners at a selected grade level with appropriate content. and reflective dialogue: minute papers.
A. Fink (2003) suggests that faculty members committed to improving their ability to facilitate significant learning. Assignments are designed to be a final application of a sequence of work rather than an integral ongoing component of the course. With respect to cultural boundaries. San Fransisco. REFERENCES Binwell. Student use a range of multi-media products to support their content language-integrated lesson planning and preparation.TEACHER DEVELOPMENT training in general. Assistant Professor Education Studies. 1 www. so there is a need for closer integration of the assignments within the units to support and reinforce the goals of the course. & Eison. college in Abu Dhabi. 20. has taught in tertiary education in the United Arab Emirates for eight years and she has worked in TESOL internationally. (2003) Creating significant learning experiences: an integrated approach to designing college courses. caution should be expressed in exploring CLIL. Washington DC: George Washington University Fink. as the assessments Fiona Baker PhD. With regard to situational factors. the value of the assessments for learning and improvement tends to be overshadowed by the grade. Retrieved from http://www. 5. this will result in quality development for CLIL teachers and positive results for bi-literate learners. there are gaps in the development of primary school teacher preparation programs in CLIL.D. This limitation directly relates to the institutional environment concerning the expectations of course load and content which is currently under review. Thriving in Academe. C. It provides an example of an integrated course design for significant learning which focuses not on content – information and knowledge giving – but on teacher development.onlineMET. Self and peer-assessment can play a more important role in learning and reflection on learning once assessments are embedded in the course delivery. tools and skills when working with EAL learners. Fiona Baker Suggestions for initial design improvement Fink (2003) suggests a careful review of the decisions made to ensure that the course design is properly integrated. At the same time. this holistic and process-oriented framework has proven to be valuable. UK.org/ May 11.ae Volume 21 No. Email: fbaker@ecae. but time to feedback on the assignments and to understand the criteria within the rubric for real-world application is limited. NEA Higher Education ADVOCATE Vol. She has taught CLIL in primary classrooms globally. although many of the faculty have been long resident in the country. Creating Significant Learning.D. While the assessments are educative in nature. (June 2003) Reflections on helping students learn. nea. CA: John Wiley & Sons. This article has given an example of a CLIL course which applies Fink’s model (2003). There could be dissonance between faculty and student values and beliefs and those of the student. She obtained her PhD in Education from Exeter University. As a framework for the initial phase of integrated CLIL course design. Fiona currently designs and delivers courses on the BEd program at a newly founded Education. 2011 Conclusion In tertiary education. Students relate their findings in Assignment 1 to Assignment 2 to develop knowledge of appropriate strategies. No. are not fully integrated in the units.C. As adjustments are made institutionally to allow for greater opportunities for integration and for further exploration through out-of-class activities. there is a gap in know-how regarding the development of integrated course designs.ac.com 69 . are encouraged to adopt the processes. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report 1. The assessment procedures do not address all of the learning goals. Students reflect on their micro-teaching of CLIL principles and techniques. To conclude. there may be chances for more flexible scheduling to allow for authentic observations and hands-on practice in schools. Fink. The learning activities support the learning goals and there is integration within the significant learning elements of Fink’s taxonomy. Reflective dialoguing occurs as a continuous process throughout the course and is the final component of both assignments. J. (1991) Active Learning: Creating Excitement in the Classroom. L. Inc. L. Students are involved in investigating language learning from a family/ learner perspective in Assignment 1 and summarize their findings in a conference poster format.
On meeting me at the airport. and the teaching equipment used in each classroom. There was no formalised development programme.175) Scott Thornbury and Peter Watkins list the basic components of the Cambridge ESOL CELTA*. Sometimes it can be the smallest things which have the biggest impact. F ollowing the joy of completing an initial EFL teacher training qualification such as the Cambridge ESOL Certificate in English Language Teaching to Adults (CELTA) or the Trinity TESOL. 70 Modern English Teacher Volume 21 No. providing a kind of checklist for potential employers. During this time I also had a full induction at the school which involved meeting all the staff. Listed below are the main components of the two most widely taken and respected initial EFL teaching qualifications and some ideas about how these can be mirrored by a school or teaching organisation. there would be to develop as a teacher. However. Clearly. and earning just enough to buy the basics and travel a bit during holidays. For example. perhaps the most often overlooked element to all this is what support and opportunities a school or teaching organisation can offer newly qualified teachers to develop professionally. level and background). In The CELTA Course Trainee Book (Cambridge University Press. Conversely what can those on the job market reasonably expect from their employers and how can they prioritise to maximise job satisfaction and professional development? A useful starting point might be for teachers fresh off an initial training course such as the Cambridge ESOL CELTA or Trinity TESOL to reflect on what part of that programme had the biggest impact of their learning. whether it’s one of a chain (either locally or internationally). teaching a wide range of both adult and Young Learners classes with limited resources. Another key element is the provision of a structured induction programme for teachers arriving at a school. Two weeks later I was on a flight to Izmir having asked very few questions about what was awaiting me. Whatever the circumstances the challenge is to secure a reasonably well-paid job in an appealing part of the world with a school or organisation that helps its teachers to settle as well as develop professionally. if any. The most basic included a quick tour of the building the day before term started. However. For many it’s an opportunity to find their first teaching post with the added bonus of travelling overseas. I was totally unaware of how the school worked. some of the contractual details and what opportunities. Clearly the salary on offer is an important factor but remember to think about the cost of living locally. such naivity and lack of research could have proved very costly. exchange rates and the payment of any increments or end of contract gratuities before dismissing a figure out of hand. Finally. the coursebooks and materials provided. the quality of induction programmes will vary but it’s important that a school provides a basic level of support to new teachers. and observing a range of lessons. Fortunately. At another. how will you be paid and when? What about tax and health insurance? Is accommodation included? How many days holiday will you get and are these also paid? Other crucial elements include the number of hours you’re expected to teach a week. 2007 p. individuals can then look to see if the school they’re applying to replicates such methods. getting a local identity card. establish exactly what the salary covers. So what should a newly qualified EFL teacher on the jobs market be looking for? What sort of questions should they be asking during the recruitment process? This article outlines a few ideas which might be helpful to those searching for their first teaching position whilst. Twenty years ago I was offered a job in Turkey by the Director of the UK-based school where I’d just finished a CTEFLA. 1 . we were provided with a month’s fully paid bus pass to help get around a little easier and explore the city at weekends. The most comprehensive was based around a two week fully paid settling-in period during which I was put up in a local hotel. given plenty of time (and support) to find accommodation and complete all the necessary administrative work such as registering at a hospital. I enjoyed a challenging yet ultimately highly rewarding 12 months. parent days and writing end-of-course tests included or paid extra? Finally. a list of key contact numbers and a copy of the local English newspaper. However. who the students were. at one school I was given a pre-paid phone card so that I could call home and a welcome pack that included a city map. at the same time. I knew the name of the school and had details of the owner who was going to pick me up at the airport. I was given some IT training on the school’s computer systems. So what are some of the basics? When considering which advertisement to respond to it’s worth trying to find out how long the school has been open. I’ve experienced a range of approaches. the Turkish school owner bought me some groceries and invited all the new teachers to his family’s beach house that weekend. Are additional administrative duties such as placement testing.TEACHER DVELOPMENT First job. and if it belongs to a professional organisation which requires minimum standards and conducts regular inspections. going through the school’s procedures and policies. Their argument is that by considering which were the most useful. comes the excitement of looking for a job. the maximum number of students in a class (as well as their age. setting up a bank account and organising internet and mobile phone accounts. Matching what a school can offer to their preferred learning style before making any decisions about accepting a job offer seems like a sensible way to approach the search for a teaching post. right move Nick Baguley outlines what new teachers should look for in a new job. In addition.
A monthly staff meeting ensures that everyone 5 Researching and writing course assignments = action research. well-organised and bright staffroom. is it possible for newly qualified teachers to get involved by either contributing an idea to a particular session or leading one? What support is given to those who’d like to get involved but may need a little guidance? 2 Planning teaching practice = a buddy system for lesson planning Pre-service training courses promote the concept of lesson planning in small groups. However. it can be nice to write a piece with a colleague. be truly effective in-service observations must be managed properly. to 7 Informal talk with colleagues = staffroom. which is open beyond lesson times. Some schools will have a peer observation programme in place allowing teachers to observe each other on an informal basis. 3 The observation of colleagues and practising teachers = peer observation and the observation of more experienced colleagues While many teachers on a pre-service training course will say that they never want to be observed again. This might involve piloting a new coursebook or computer program at the school and then producing a report with recommendations. there needs to be a hierarchy within the school to foster professional development. writing articles and presenting at conferences One option here is for new teachers to be given the opportunity to do Volume 21 No. There’s nothing worse than welcoming a colleague into your class. such as a café. Assistant Director of Studies (ADOS) or a Director of Studies (DOS). is essential if teachers are going to communicate properly on a daily basis. A comfortable. In time the research that goes into the above could form the basis of a presentation at a local EFL conference. This encourages discussion and the exchange of ideas. Does the school have regular development sessions? How often are they held and when? Who delivers the sessions? Are they advertised in advance and who are they designed for? In addition. some classroom research. 1 www.TEACHER DEVELOPMENT 1 Input sessions = an in-service training programme For those who really benefitted from the daily input sessions on a preservice training course. lounge or balcony can also encourage social interaction.com 71 . These ‘buddies’ will often be teaching the same level using the same coursebook. a beginners’ group or an IELTS preparation class). there should be a system of appraisal in which the teacher’s progress can be measured against an agreed set of criteria. Another communal area. It should provide a focused system for each teacher’s own professional development. However. being observed for an hour and then he/ she leaves the room saying something like ‘That was really great!’ Of course giving feedback is a skill but at least if the two teachers can meet before the lesson to discuss what each hopes to get from the event and then meet again reasonably quickly after the lesson to share ideas. For those starting out. This could even be extended to a review article for an in-house publication (such as the IH World online journal) or an EFL publication. A teacher with slightly more experience than those starting at the school can be assigned to help with the planning of lessons. Modern English Teacher (MET) and IATEFL ‘Voices’ are very open to articles from new teachers. But perhaps the most important aspect is to ensure that everyone gets something from the process. the truth is that this is one of the most valuable tools for professional development. it can be beneficial to observe a more experienced colleague teaching in a slightly different context (for example. Not only can this reduce the planning burden to some extent but it also leads to a sharing of thoughts and materials. A number of magazines. Whether this is a Senior Teacher. In addition.onlineMET. there’s some concrete outcome. an in-service development programme is the key. It allows ‘buddies’ to reflect together on the success of their lessons and ties in nicely with a peer observation programme (see below). Contributing an idea to a page such as ‘Practical Ideas’ in Modern English Teacher is another possibility. 6 Course reading = access to a school library Most schools will have some kind of library with a range of methodology books and supplementary materials. This method shouldn’t simply be about the renewal of a contract or the award of an annual increment. this needs to be little more than an ad hoc series of seminars. staff meetings and social programme Perhaps one of the most important things for many freshly qualified teachers is the opportunity to simply exchange ideas with colleagues in both a formal and informal setting. It’s useful if this resource can include the key texts for further professional qualifications such as the Cambridge Certificate in English Language Teaching to Young Learners (CELTYL) extension course and the Cambridge Diploma in English Language Teaching to Adults (DELTA). 4 Post lesson feedback and tutorials = line management and appraisal system It’s important that new employees have someone in authority that they can go to for professional advice. Sometimes it can be useful to watch a peer working with the same level or doing a particular kind of lesson. The use of a buddy system in schools can help to create a similar environment. The line manager should observe the teacher and give formal oral and written feedback. such as English Teaching professional (ETp). Whilst appreciating that many EFL publications are now available online it’s also encouraging if a school subscribes to a couple of key magazines with back issues kept in the teachers’ room for easy reference. Alternatively.
and then see whether similar kinds of things are available in the workplace. At present he spends most of his time working for the British Council in Cairo and International House in Belfast. Thailand. The idea is to put participants in the position of a low level foreign language student as well as demonstrate some key teaching techniques. This session often has quite a positive impact on trainees. • Experiment a little by trying new activities or teaching techniques and then reflecting on their effectiveness. Of course there are a few other things that teachers might consider as a way of developing professionally over the first year which don’t necessarily require the direct input of a school: • Keep a journal or diary of how you feel. This should include lesson plans and feedback sheets from formal observations. accommodation and information about the teaching context are extremely important. Oman. If teachers fresh off an initial training course have a clear idea about what they’re looking for during their first year in order to develop. In a similar way. This portfolio acts as a record of development and can be useful to present at job interviews.TEACHER DVELOPMENT is aware of what’s happening within a school and allows opportunities for questions. can be excellent for morale. • Develop or contribute to the school’s website or marketing materials. the US and the UAE. However. While traditional areas such as salary. international conferences as well information on a variety of Special Interest Groups (SIGS) that members can subscribe to. letters/cards of appreciation from students. a list of in-service training sessions attended and a record of levels taught. • Keep a file of all lesson plans and materials so that you can adapt and reuse. Libya.training@yahoo. • Join an internet discussion group. • Subscribe personally to an EFL publication or newspaper such as the EL Gazette. what’s going well at work and what you’d like to change. • Join a professional body such as the International Association of Teachers of English as a Foreign Language (IATEFL). 8 The foreign language lesson = learn a language Most initial teacher training courses include an input session where trainees are taught a foreign language. When going to a new country it can be really useful to learn the language. Email: nick. then it’s likely that both parties are going to benefit in the long term. the provision of flights. Egypt. examples of new material you’ve created. I know of schools that offer their new teachers free language lessons during the first month of employment so that they can learn the basic ‘survival’ exponents needed to get a taxi. • Set up a Facebook page to include teachers on your initial training course. the owners and managers of EFL schools worldwide need to focus on what they can realistically provide to ensure that their teachers are provided with concrete opportunities to move forward. Slovenia. 2007) by Scott Thornbury and Peter Watkins lists the basic components of the Cambridge ESOL CELTA. • Upgrade related skills such the ability to use a computer or exploiting teaching technology such as Interactive Whiteboards (IWBs) if they’re available in the school.uk 72 Modern English Teacher Volume 21 No. order a beer and ask for directions. Bahrain. It’s important for individuals to prioritise. the occasional social event for all staff. One option for newly qualified EFL teachers is to reflect on what they’ve found most useful on their initial training course. Since 1997 he’s worked on courses in the UK. exploiting technology in the classroom or using cuisennaire rods. 1 . *The CELTA Course Trainee Book (Cambridge University Press. In addition. To conclude there are plenty of things newly qualified teachers need to consider when deciding which school or organisation to work for. The association’s magazine includes details of local and This doesn’t mean that teachers should expect everything outlined above. • Record or video a lesson (or part of a lesson) to consider the effectiveness of things such as your instructions and language grading. Nick Baguley Nick Baguley is a freelance CELTA trainer and assessor based in Cyprus. • Keep a professional development portfolio. Australia. establishing what the school provides to help teachers to develop professionally is also an important part of the process. consider their learning styles and then establish whether a potential employer can provide what is personally most useful for them.co. • Develop a particular interest or area of expertise in teaching such as teaching low-level classes. management should certainly be able to devise and then articulate some options for professional development. such as a summer barbeque or a Christmas party. Not only does this help a new teacher to settle socially but it can also raise their awareness of similarities and differences between the students’ language and English. Such attention to detail can go a long way to helping a new teacher feel welcome and secure. schools shouldn’t feel that they have to supply a vast array of developmental tools without any consideration to organisational and financial implications. Similarly. and employers have a list of set things they can provide.
the difficulty and the inaccessibility of many literary texts to non-native English speaking students and the lack of a consistent and suitable methodology for the teaching of literature brought about rather the opposite effect. racial and cultural borders. Although English literature by English native speakers is great. The gradual disappearance of literature teaching from the language classroom was an expected consequence. T he issue of teaching English literature in a non-native context dates back to the early years of the 20th century when literature was considered of high prestige in language study.LITERATURE Teaching English language and literature in non-native contexts Boutkhil Guemide puts the case for teaching literature. The approach was characterised by a concentration on the classics assuming that if students were continually exposed to the best uses of the English language. it should also have something to do with education as well?’’ (Widdowson 1981/1984. pp. which did not encourage students to develop a “feeling for language. and even negative responses can create an interesting classroom situation” (Long 1986). p. Non-native groups. Widdowson commented: ‘‘Literature. A sense of ownership of this language has grown. Surrogate literature replaced authentic texts in the form of situational textbook dialogues and short tales that were devised to carry structure only but none of the literary effect that characterises a genuine text (Short and Candlin 1984). crossing national. the Communicative approach during the 1970’s and early 1980’s emphasised the study of the language for practical purposes and since literature has no obvious practical uses it contributed nothing to the utilitarian objectives of language teaching. Language learning is surely not simply a part of training. The pedagogical interface of literature and language teaching should become the students’ responses to the text for the reason that: “…. 1 www. we might murmur wistfully.the teaching of literature is an arid business unless there is a response. Surely. However. p. On the other hand. It is therefore misleading as a model … it has no place in an approach to teaching that insists on the gradual accumulation of correct linguistic forms” (Widdowson 1984.com 73 . Brumfit 1985.42-45). Long and Carter 1991 among others) argued not only for the value of teaching literature in the language classroom but for the necessity as well of re-inventing a different pedagogical approach for non-native speakers of English.91). However.162). The inclusion of literature was “a potentially disruptive influence in the well-ordered world of the carefully controlled language courses” (Widdowson 1984. The literature class often consisted of an enthusiastic teacher-orator and passive students being ‘too busy writing in translations of unfamiliar words to respond to the text’ (Long 1986.onlineMET.161). It has a global and universal quality and circumstantial significance. an element in actuarial estimates and the calculation of manpower needs. Structuralism on the one hand. argues: ‘‘There is more to life than safe investment of effort. Long 1986. among the most dedicated supporters to the return of literature in the language classroom. p. it would in some sense ‘rub off’ on their own performance in the language (Short and Candlin 1989. literature produced in English by non-natives is of no less value. with its emphasis on correctness in grammatical form and repetition of a restricted lexis was incompatible with the teaching of literature. have been generating a kind of sensibility and yet a separate identity in the use of English and in creative writing. The importance of literature – its role in the syllabus The English language is no longer the property of native users or writers only. has a way of exploiting resources in a language which have not been codified as correct usage. p. during the 1980s there was a strong reawakening of interest in literature and language teaching. Widdowson.42). and access to literary works was assumed to be part of the purpose of language learning (Widdowson 1984). Volume 21 No. of response to texts” (Long 1986. The place and the role of literature in the language classroom was further questioned by ELT approaches during the period 1960-1980. p.161). and poetry in particular. Linguists and ELT scholars (Widdowson 1984. and thus it had no place in the language classroom.
” (Narasimhaiah 1995. This implies selecting appealing works to which students can respond linguistically and emotionally so that the process of reading is an enjoyable. Works of literature are the repositories of culture and through their ‘study’ students understand and appreciate cultures and ideologies different from their own in time and space. Its study is useful as it confronts the student with the opportunity of dealing with an endless stream of fresh and unpredictable experience. Narasimhaih. Literature enables learners. On the one hand. “Literature thus provides unlimited fields of experience. The model focuses on the use of literature as a resource and not on the study of literature. the use of materials like audio-video and sources like the 74 Modern English Teacher Volume 21 No. where anyone can feel a country belongs to him by right of vision. In the language model (Carter and Long 1991: p.179-180) ignoring the fact that: ‘…. If one learns literature with perception. then it seems axiomatic that it is the response to literature itself which is important’ (Short and Cadlin 1989: p. individual and collective experience for all (Carter and Long 1991: pp. the pioneer of Commonwealth literature studies and scholar-critic. The model focuses on the pedagogical role of the teacher as an educator and an enabler for the transmission of knowledge rather than as the infallible possessor of knowledge who gives his/her lectures in the name of the implementation of a syllabus. the language model and the personal growth model. a sacrosanct from and about which students accumulate descriptions of critical schools and literary movements. 1 . contributing to their emotional and psychological growth. The teacher has to train the minds of learners. the best that has been thought and felt within a culture” (Carter and Long 1991. responsive. “Marvels of creativity during past hundred years are seen which has slowly reversed the literary traffic from Euro-centric world capitals to the unsuspected nooks and corners of dark countries of Africa and densely peopled India. they will develop their language competence too. the teacher as an educator and a role model to the students is personally committed to and enthusiastic about the benefits of literature.179). Literature can be enjoyed for its great literary values and universality. proper selection and effective teaching can make the learning interesting and comprehensive. C. Modern techniques. The cultural model highlights the teaching of literature for its value in “encapsulating the accumulated wisdom.2) the emphasis is on language as the literary medium. which highlights the need for students’ personal engagement with the reading of literary texts. The training of emotion and intellect is possible through learning literature. It is an excellent preparation for later life. the teacher as an enabler ‘comes down from the pedestal’ and works with students. The study of literature develops a keen sense of value. ignoring or missing real communication with the students. The teacher must understand this relation and be ready to change traditional methods. universal appeal and artistic. A work of art worth the name awakes nine principal emotions (sthaibhav) in us and any number of fleeting emotions through its causative imagination and ultimately generates ’rasa’. if students are exposed systematically to works of literature.D.2). The teacher has to become a good communicator. Literary texts are exploited for the teaching of vocabulary or structures or language manipulation. Since literature is made from language. There is a close relation between language and literature.LITERATURE In the view of Prof. it transcends any cultural or linguistic level. The utility of literature The study of literature can be used to extend the range of perceptions of all the senses. The third approach outlined by Carter and Long (1991) is an attempt to bridge the gap between the previous two models. The text is seen as a product. p. In fact. An example of the model’s implementation was post-war English teaching overseas which was marked by a consistent ‘flight from the text’ (Short and Cadlin1989: pp. p. literature can make a fundamental contribution to sensory and motor activities. for example. As to teaching practices the model has been associated with a more teachercentred. or as Carter and Long (1991: 3-4) put it ‘the knowledge of and the knowledge about literature’.if literature is worth teaching qua literature. literary qualities that it needs no exact knowledge and information of the culture or the society it belongs to. literature is such a phenomenon with its wonderful. It may be seen that ’Alhada’ (pleasant experience) is the immediate purpose of literature and then the reader reaches to transcendence. linguistic and psychological arguments put forward for the teaching of literature as three models which are associated with specific pedagogic practices: the cultural model. p. Real works of art.16-19).” (Narasimhaiah 1995. This is the personal growth model.8) Carter and Long (1991) describe the main educational. The reader of Coleridge’s Ancient Mariner does not need go to sea or to the South Pole to see the albatross.7). On the other hand. when teaching Daffodils by Wordsworth. readers to develop their feelings in an appropriate way. Even if the daffodils are not seen by people from other countries. In the field of drama. biographical facts about authors and various synopses. The argument behind the model is that the students will enrich and develop their language input since literary texts offer contact with some of the more subtle and varied creative uses of the language. encouraging them to read and appreciate literature thus. the legitimate end of work of art.” (Moody: 1971: 13) Above all. one can learn even more. “The real great work of art achieves a higher result and acknowledgement by readers and learners. transmissive pedagogic mode. Literature preserves cultural and artistic heritage and because it is characterised by this ‘human sense’ it possesses a central place in the study of the humanities in colleges and universities of the western world. if humanity is the subject matter of literature. through which the human body can be trained to express itself. the gaiety and the scene of golden flowers dancing merrily can be shared by anybody.
The teacher must have an ability to connect the non-native aspect in the content and language with the real-life situation. and the bombastic language use of classic writers may create aversions to English literature in an inexperienced foreign learner. Native English Literature is considered essential and important as part of the learning process of the English language. social values. and ideologies. selflearning. he faces difficulties following meanings and usages at the syntactic. if his linguistic ability is not very Changes in learning focus Globalisation has made the objectives of teaching English skill based. within the total field of education.LITERATURE internet. a philosophical mode of thinking. Much is left to the imagination of the teacher and the students. he may find all such references strange and even out of his range of understanding. teachers and institutions must have a new perspective and vision. frozen ponds. British or English cultural references are not familiar to the learners and hence many times they do not understand the subject as it is viewed by the author. history. Literature is something more than language. climate. It was wisely said in Uganda some years ago. well developed. Difficulties and problems The reason for studying English literature may possibly be its increasing reputation as the literature of the world language. Then the question arises as to how. moral codes. and the obscurity and clumsiness of expressions in the literature prescribed become an impediment. snow. Sometimes the huge size of the original work. Likewise the biblical references and Latinized words and allusions in Milton’s poetry. Racial prejudices about the writer or about his country may become an obstacle to the proper understanding and learning of English Literature or the literature of any non-native language. attitudes. problems arise and teaching English literature can become a challenge in non-native contexts. such methods are to be followed to remove cultural and linguistic barriers and make learning more fruitful. Moreover. to the interpretative ability of the students. topography. teachers and learners face certain difficulties and problems due to cultural. Students in developing countries are now willing to cross cultural and linguistic boundaries in the process of globalisation. an ethical and moral literary outlook and a holistic view of life. Literature produced in the distant past with past references and ideas may create misunderstanding in the minds of learners as to the relevance of such materials. For this. Works of art of higher quality have the power to remove these boundaries and enable people to think about literature. “Through the great writers you will inherit more fully the spirit not of white men or brown men or black men but the spirit that has no colors. the inability of teachers to deal with the prescribed book hinders the process of comprehending and so learning it properly. approaches and the beauty of language as well as the use of new words. racial and linguistic differences. 1 www. he requires such new skills. verbal. a new approach and readiness to change. races. Next is racial difference or difference of attitudes and of certain assumptions. Therefore. they give a holistic view of life. The teacher has to train the minds of the learners to grasp the writer’s vision. In new methods. the teaching of literature is a must.onlineMET. habits of thought.com 75 . if possible. though the functional and technical aspects of the English language are considered of greater significance than the study of literature. For all these reasons. learning and selection of works for study. live interactions. and. At other times. For example. Teaching literature can develop language skills and perceptional ability in learners if it is taught properly and with a willingness to change methods as per new demands. the social and royal occasions of 18th century England in Pope’s poetry. the inclusion of literature in courses of higher education is essential from both a literary and linguistic point of view in both native and non-native contexts. In order to create and promote human qualities. In this world of mixed cultures. religion. if the learner is not familiar with the history or social upheavals of the country (England). Teaching thus can become easy and interesting even in non-native contexts. the raw material of literature is language itself. sports and entertainment and so on. participation in seminars. the teacher’s skill in making the learner feel the experience of the writer contributes to effective Volume 21 No. and colonial societies Teaching methods and the teacher’s role The traditional methods of teaching are through lectures where we find onesided discourse from the teacher and passive response or blind acceptance by the students. arts. But in teaching English Literature in nonnative contexts. professional and unicultural. The teacher has to have the ability to apply new techniques suitable to the learning of English literature in content-oriented and languageoriented aspects. cultures. developing the skills of synthesis of knowledge. winter and the craze for spring are common in descriptions in English literature but are not shared by Africans. Such works are seen to be outdated topics to learn. The processes of creating new icons in different languages and of developing new connections between countries. Literature thus has all the functions that can be performed by language. learning. on the part of learner. lexical and stylistic levels. social and personal relationships. provided certain precautions are taken and improvements are made in the methods of teaching. This cultural aspect includes all factors such as geography. the spirit of man” (Warner: 1990). In addition. Thus. teaching language skills at a practical or commercial level alone is not sufficient. can the study of literature make its maximum contribution? How far is the study of literature significant and relevant in the process of education? The answer can be positive. preparing students for diverse sources of information on their own.
I shall impact in each child the desire to fulfill his or her dream. Slater (1987) Literature in the Language Classroom.LITERATURE have been started. W.) (1984) English syllabus design. Grundy (1993) Language through Literature. Long (1991) Teaching Literature. However. They will supply humanity with music and beauty as it has never known. This new perspective on the teaching of literature in the language classroom. London: Longman Carter. Prediction activities. forging a society without class discrimination. R. Oxford: Pergamon Press Brumfit. The overall philosophy of this pedagogic approach can be summarized as follows: • Literary texts should appeal to the students’ interests. and N. • Literature in the language classroom should be explored in the light of a learner-centred pedagogy. and P. S. London: Longman Brumfit. Through their aspirations they will save the world. London: Longman Carter. while-reading and after-reading activities. and Conclusion I think there would be no better way to conclude this article than quoting Henry James: ‘To believe in a child is to believe in 76 Modern English Teacher Volume 21 No. in terms of both the content and the form of instruction. ELT documents. P. This global perspective of learnercentredness on language teaching is implemented through the learnercentred curriculum (Nunan 1988) which is expressed by the view that language education has the potential to lead to the students’ empowerment. teaching which is centred on the students’ communicative needs. In K. Oxford: Pergamon Press Byrne. M. H. goals. matching activities with beginnings and endings of texts. The exploration of texts comes closer to the students’ personal experience and to what relates to their life through teaching techniques and activities divided into pre-reading. (ed. D. Morrow (Ed. I will attempt to outline what constitutes good pedagogic practice. which aims to develop skills in critical and creative thinking. thus bringing them the pleasure and enjoyment which comes from making the text their own. A new role and responsibilities for the teacher are established. • Literary texts in a foreign language context should be approached as a resource not only for the students’ language and literary enrichment but as a motivating and a fruitful opportunity for their education and their personal growth. and P. London: Longman Canale. (1984) Texts. London: Longman Benson. The teacher is not anymore the unquestionable ‘authority’ in the language classroom. this is attained through language-based classroom practice where literary texts are explored as a resource for literary and linguistic development and serve the students’ personal growth and not any examination purpose. (1981) Integrating skills. jigsaw reading and listening. contributes to the students’ personal growth and fosters their autonomy first as language learners and then as individuals. The aim is now to have an ideal and holistic view. After consideration of the above. I shall teach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Cook. 1996). C. Holt-Saunders International Editions: New York Bassnett. London: Routledge Carter. Tudor (1996) sees it as: ‘‘a broadly-based endeavour designed to gear language teaching. gap-filling exercises. and should aim to establish the conditions for autonomous language learning. an Introductory Reader in Stylistics. creative writing and group projects are some. G. and M. Towards these ends I pledge my life’s work. for any discriminating learner who values imaginative experience regardless of country or culture. (1985) Language and Literature Teaching: From Practice to Principle. He becomes an enabler and a coordinator in the language process who ‘reads’ both the diversity of needs of the students and the variables of the context they work in so as to adopt a broad range of pedagogical and course planning options. through the study of literature. the future. listening comprehension and oral presentation that lead to debates of issues. R. concerns and age. I will supply the children with tools and knowledge to overcome the obstacles.’ REFERENCES Abrams. (ed. (1983) From communicative competence to communicative language pedagogy. Extracts. and S. J.) Communication in the Classroom. In J. I will pass on the wisdom of my years and temper it with patience. With their combined knowledge the turbulent seas of hate and injustice will be calmed. Richards and R. 1 . C. They will endure. C. R. Johnson and K. As to the implementation of this approach in the language classroom. Voller (ed. it has to be pointed out that these language-based activities should seek ways to leave considerable space for the students self-expression and encourage critical thinking so as to foster critical awareness and enhance their political and social consciousness. J. • The teaching of literature in an EFL context should aim to elicit the students’ responses to the text. (1981) A Glossary of Literary Terms. M. Long (1987) The Web of Words. Schmidt Language and Communication. only then will they have the potential to bring motivation into the language classroom and instill in students a love for reading literature which goes on beyond the classroom. and to guide them to ‘a personal discovery’.) (1982) Language and Literature. N. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Collie. the approach to be used is a blend of Carter and Long’s (1991) personal growth model and Tudor’s learner-centred approach (Tudor. J. In essence. around the needs and characteristics of learners’’ (Tudor 1996: preface ix). aspirations and learning preferences.) (1996) Autonomy and Independence in Language Learning. They will champion the causes of life’s underdogs.
London: Modern English Publications Lazar. D.L. “Shakespeare in the Tropics”. Rowley. Inaugural lecture at Maharese University. Cambridge:Cambridge University Press Hill. C and W. Oxford: Oxford University Press Lott. In ELT Journal 48. A.) Literature and Language Teaching. A. D. and A. London: Longman Widdowson. R. Oxford: Pergamon Press Widdowson.2 Lazar. Carter Literature and Language Teaching: From Practice to Principle. Oxford: Oxford University Press Tudor. Short (ed. (1990) Past into Present. Short. Brumfit and R. (1992) Reading. Carter (ed. and R. Oxford: Oxford University Press Gardner. N. Voller (ed. R.onlineMET. and L.fr Volume 21 No. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Wallace. 1990 Widdowson. Soars (1992) Making Headway Literature. (1994) ‘Using Literature at lower levels’. (1995) Essays in Commonwealth Literature-Heirloom Multiple Heritage. (1986) ‘Can Stylistic Analysis Help the EFL Learner to Read Literature?’ in ELT Journal 40. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Yamashiro. Oxford: Oxford University Press Williams. and C. J.) Literature and Language Teaching. London: Longman Long. Benson and P. Jijel. London: Longman Narasimhaiah C. A. J. Lambert (1972) Attitudes and Motivation in Second Language Learning. C. Uganda.) Reading. (1984) Explorations in Applied Linguistics. M. (1980) ‘The Untrodden Ways’ In C. G. Carter (ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press Duff. D.com 77 . G.(1989) Using Literature in Language Teaching. (1996) Learner-centredness as Language Education.) Autonomy and Independence in Language Learning. G. C.2 Gower. A. Maley (1990) Literature.REVIEWS Stylistic Texture. M. H. B. London: Longman Soars. Alan. (1997) Responding authentically to authentic texts: a problem for self-access language learning. (1986) A Course in English Language and Literature.B. London: Edward Arnold Moody H. In Brumfit. Oxford: Oxford University Press Warner. D. J. G. and R. He is currently teaching at the Université Mohammed Seddik Benyahia. Massachusetts: Newbury House Gower. In M. (1993) Literature and Language Teaching. Email: boutkhil_guemide@yahoo. In P. R. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press Little. 1 www. Analysing and Teaching Literature. Algeria. H. (1975) Stylistics and the Teaching of Literature. I. H. Delhi: Penecraft International. Burden (1997) Psychology for Language Teachers. J. M. (1971) Teaching English Literature. (2011) Integrating Global Issues into High School EFL The Language Teacher Boutkhil Guemide Boutkhil Guemide has an MA in English and has been teaching English since 2001. In C. Brumfit and R. Candlin (1989) Teaching study skills for English literature. (1986) A feeling for Language: The multiple values of teaching literature.
etc. My guess is that we will get used to a mixed delivery when it comes to materials. Remember when people said that the video cassette would kill the cinema and it had the opposite effect? The cinema still exists despite multiple delivery systems and formats. this is what will be used. After the e-book we have reviews of two EAP books. This is followed by a book which examines the demands on teachers’ lives as they attempt to pursue careers in primary and secondary education. including the coursebook and all the audio and visual activities. In the Review section this time we have a review of an Australian resources book that is delivered to you by email but all the other books are in conventional print. CD-ROMs with extra materials come as standard with many printed books. an increasingly important area of study at university level. for the teacher to use on an IWB – but it does have a print coursebook and print teacher’s book. not everyone. In much the same way you used to hear that computers and language labs would reduce the need for teachers. and my guess is that in most classrooms around the world. I can remember a few years ago a publisher saying that shortly all teacher’s books (those that go with coursebooks) will only be available online. Although the working context of many MET readers will be different to those examined. our reviewer enthuses over a book that fascinated her by David Crystal on how English developed over time. the Book I’ve Used section opens with a review of a new course series with lots of electronic add-ons. needs teachers and skilled teachers as much as ever before. Well. I would like to have included a review of primary materials but primary teachers seem very shy of putting themselves forward as reviewers. 1 . Indeed. It’s a kind of coffee-table book with lots of lovely illustrations. no. such as IWBs.REVIEWS REVIEWS: A Book I’ve Used Reviews Growth in the electronic publishing of ELT materials is becoming significant.plus. Before that. like Kindle and the iPad. but that hasn’t happened. How long will it be before there are electronic versions of coursebooks and our students asked to turn to page 94 of their e-readers and asked to do Exercise 4? And yet print stubbornly hangs on. one a new edition of an established supplementary book to help with academic writing. the latest classroom technology. So. some electronic.com 78 Modern English Teacher Volume 21 No. and a digital version of the whole course. that’s not totally true. please get in touch. Roger Gower roger@rgowerely. That hasn’t happened either. something for everyone. and at least one publisher is offering an e-version of some of their methodology and linguistics titles for teachers to use on their e-readers. I think classrooms and students will always want print in some form or another. one a coursebook. Then in our A Book I Like section. the conclusions will surely resonate with all of us. (School directors please note: one conclusion is that teachers have more job satisfaction when they are trusted with a degree of classroom autonomy than when they are required to fit too closely into a system …) To close the section. whether a magazine-type publication or a book. some print. Are there any primary teachers among our readers who would like to give it a go? If so. Not yet. Well. we have a book which looks at the not-alwaysthought-of-as-very-exciting-but-very-important area of language assessment. Mainly. Background Books starts with a review of a resource book for students of applied linguistics in the area of intercultural communication. courses have their own websites with extra materials and workbooks. including material for use on your … eh … iPod/Pad/Phone.
1 www. business-like and includes some lovely pictures that are eye-catching and provide a good point of entry into the content. the reading material seems like an end in itself. rather than a means to an end. rising sea levels and tropical deforestation rates immediately caught the students’ imagination and prompted emotive discussion. These are nicely cross-referenced to helpful and informative grammar reference sections at the back of the book. the Indian writer Vikram Seth and poetry from Edgar Allan Poe. From its Astrolabe covers to the attractive and spacious design of each page. These were generally well-received by students and encouraged diverse interpretation and discussion. In the first three units of the book. texts about famine and disease. In addition. the layout of the coursebook has a clean. Another welcome feature of Global is the inclusion of literature and nonfiction throughout the coursebook. the students felt that these issues. in particular the environmental topics. Moreover. Units often begin with speaking activities that are designed to activate the students’ background knowledge. fresh look that is immediately appealing. as well as an additional two lessons focusing on writing and study skills. These are quite difficult to follow due to the grey print and would have been far easier to focus on in black.REVIEWS: A Book I’ve Used A Book I’ve Used Global (Upper Intermediate B2) Lindsay Clandfield and Rebecca Robb Benne Macmillan Education 2011 See page 92 for details are varied and the images of people throughout the book reflect the cultural diversity of the content. The arrangement of skills work is balanced but varied. The book also looks sophisticated. Landscapes “ … although the book contains brief sections of comprehension checking. These include extracts from both classic and contemporary writers from a wide range of countries.onlineMET. were ‘real’ subjects. In effect. as the coursebook clearly focuses on real-world issues and stories. The upper-intermediate coursebook is made up of ten units and each unit includes six two-page lessons. This is the only design flaw though and each section of the book has a clear and varied layout. such as the Nigerian novelist Chinua Achebe. although the book contains brief sections of comprehension checking. Its content includes a mix of cultural insights. the reading material is used to elicit a personal response to the text. inequalities in the rights of men and women. In effect. The Introduction and content highlights pages are a nice addition to the coursebook and these include a series of quotations as well as provide an interesting overview of the material. literary texts and real-world issues which reflect contemporary life. is interspersed with visuals and is actually far more helpful than the more detailed Contents pages. the reading material is used to elicit a personal response to the text. the format and sequencing of each unit is diverse.com 79 . global warming. This provides a clear move away from more procedural and contrived texts in other coursebooks ” Volume 21 No. The highlights page has an attractive layout. Each unit has a nice balance of skills and language work that is presented through a series of interesting and thought-provoking texts. subjects that ‘needed to be discussed’ and were meaningful on a personal level. This provides a clear move away from more procedural and contrived texts in other coursebooks that are often used to set up the grammatical sections of a lesson. which avoids the input-output predictability of some coursebooks. as well as prediction and discussion about each topic. The Global series is a new six-level course that offers an array of innovative coursebook and multimedia resources for English students around the world. Another main interest point is the subject matter.
unit. reflective selfassessment suggestions and worksheets are also provided for the possible introduction of learner portfolios. and the Markbook itself can also be exported as a PDF file and shared with the teacher. notice and learn language in a contextualized way and also learn through the inclusion of real and thought-provoking material throughout the book. PDF video worksheets. The opening page of each unit also cross references the additional resources from the eWorkbook and teacher’s resource disc. In effect. The disc contains a series of diagnostic. This may be a case of previous learning experiences shaping expectations but it does indicate a slight mismatch between the aims of coursebooks and students’ perceptions. through short. both learning and teaching components are evaluated and there are a series of short. The “ The teacher’s resource disc is replete with helpful resources. they generally preferred to listen to a native-speaker model. ‘learn through English’ and ‘learn about English and its impact around the world’. The interface has a really clean and attractive look and the content is easy to navigate. structuring text and also using such language as contrast clauses and discourse markers. answer keys. It also has a Writing Tips section that offers suggestions for punctuation. though students sometimes felt that the inclusion of non-native speakers in the Global Voices section was not so helpful. videos. as well as an introduction from Lindsay Clandfield. Finally the Listen and Watch sections provide MP3 files for On the Move ” “ 80 The coursebook has three salient aims: to help students ‘learn English’. and activities are also available on printable worksheets for students who prefer to work away from the computer. The Teacher’s Book is excellent and includes a really helpful and full colour overview of the structure and layout of each unit. ” Modern English Teacher Volume 21 No. although they could see the rationale behind it. full teacher’s notes and CEF descriptors. which introduce helpful functional and situational language. while-. specialist essays from writers such as Jim Scrivener and David Crystal. Function Globally sections. and post activities. These include an abundance of printable worksheets. Clear and realistic models (sometimes from students themselves) set up an analysis of prototypical features of the text. These include an abundance of printable worksheets. ‘learn through English’ and ‘learn about English and its impact around the world’. The eWorkbook provides a wealth of supplementary resources and represents an evolution in self-study materials for students. and helpful teacher’s notes for pre-. The coursebook has three salient aims: to help students ‘learn English’. Furthermore. The efficacy of the Global English sections in the later stages of each unit was more difficult to assess. This is slightly different to the lower-level books in the series. which make a slight adjustment to learners’ needs and take a more deductive approach. informative contributions from David Crystal. the disc contains supporting video content. were generally well-received. 1 . offering clear aims. The students can also see their progress by clicking on the Test Results link. This final aspect offers a view of the impact of English and its implications globally. In effect. progress and endof-year tests with audio files. videos. Furthermore. audio scripts and helpful suggestions for mixed-ability classes. This is informative and helps teachers simultaneously provide a series of cohesive and theme-related activities through a variation of different learning styles. Grammar Help and a link to the online Macmillan Dictionary. the content is arranged so that students can improve through skills work. The teacher’s resource disc is replete with helpful resources.REVIEWS: A Book I’ve Used Global has a strong focus on writing and there are short and longer genrespecific tasks throughout the book. The teaching notes themselves are nicely and spaciously arranged. full teacher’s notes and CEF descriptors. offering Word Lists. the eWorkbook offers an element of choice. answer keys and notes. and a series of preparation sections also allow helpful thinking time before extended writing activities. Moreover. In addition. The grammatical content in the book is fairly similar to most titles and is presented in an inductive way that allows students to see things for themselves and complete their own portable rules in the grammar analysis sections. The book has a nice lexical focus and students immediately commented on the fact that they felt they were learning new words and developing their vocabulary.
16 weren’t suitable for my current students and 10 went on my ‘to try’ list. the activity didn’t have enough structure to keep my students engaged. role plays. the one that sits on my desk and doesn’t join those collecting dust on the shelf? And I must admit. The Global Digital content can be used with an interactive whiteboard or digital projector and provides teachers and students with an outstanding multimedia resource.com must sit down to read all 40 pages and bookmark any activities they feel they can use. Whether the series remains a one-off or is followed by a succession of bandwagonesque coursebooks remains to be seen. The flip side of this is that because each activity is presented on one electronic page. but Global is interesting. The activities include a mix of icebreakers. Hence. iPod and other mobile devices. The eWorkbook is innovative. guessing games. as well as audio and video activities. The listening material allows students to simultaneously read highlighted audioscripts and the video also comes with a subtitles option. This provides nice links between the digital book and teacher’s area.onlineMET. The coursebook is also available through the platform-neutral IWB component. Interactive Games and Activities for Language Learning was developed by Mastertalker. He has a Diploma and MA in TESOL and is currently the course director at TEFL Worldwide in Prague. an online forum which promotes global understanding and practical English usage and where members can coordinate chats. Every activity is explained concisely and is easy to understand. blogs and community events in cities around the world. while others were not suitable for my current teaching situation (either the language required was too high. or the activity would have been better suited for a multi-lingual class). one activity per page. a real reason to communicate and a real reason to learn about the world we live in. Not bad odds when one considers that one is adding something ‘new and flashy’ to a ‘tried and true’ repertoire that will be used repeatedly throughout a teacher’s career! The activities that intrigued me the most were ones that provided some The very title of this e-book sent my hopes soaring. with a table of contents listing only the names of each activity. 20 questions and I-Spy). although students sometimes felt that the coursebooks were a bit pricey. competitive games. while the Toolbox display enables teachers to insert and edit text and images and also create links to the digital book and the internet. The activities have not been grouped in any way. Hence. Some are tried and true staples for any EFL teacher (variations on charades. engaged students. Could this be the book that I end up carrying with me from class to class. easy to install on Windows and AppleMac systems and supports the coursebook content superbly.REVIEWS: A Book I’ve Used listening practice while the video files are available in different formats and can be downloaded onto the iPhone. my first point … it will never collect dust on your bookshelf! The book contains 40 speaking activities to enhance speaking fluency. audio and video clips are instantly accessible by clicking on the icons at the side of the page. the Czech Republic. the response from both teachers and students has been really positive. smiling. my first point … it will never collect dust on your bookshelf! ” 81 Volume 21 No. As such. Spain. “ This e-book is delivered via email. glowing students in the corner of every 4th or 5th page. a relaxed. with too much white space on every page and only random pictures of happy. At first I was put off by this. Of the 40 activities. Because I predate the internet. making it more accessible and less intimidating for the teacher. I came to appreciate the simplicity presented on each page. Reference pages. Interactive Games and Activities for Language Learning Mastertalker 2009 www. it truly has inspired both me and my students.mastertalker. and formats for stating opinions. relevant and authentic and provides a real reason to read. Visions of happy. In conclusion.com . Germany and the UAE. 14 I was already familiar with. so teachers really Terry Prosser Terry Prosser has been a teacher and teacher trainer for 15 years. or debating. although my expectations might have been at bit over-the-top at first. the description of each activity can be saved and filed directly into any lesson plan or course materials file. stress-free teacher all flashed through my mind. 1 www. my first impulse was to print off the entire e-book as a document. but after reading all 40 pages. This e-book is delivered via email. He has worked in England. It’s easy to use and allows teachers to add their own material. The layout is clear and the page organizer and navigation pane make it easy to select a page from anywhere in the book. the material comes across as pretty scant.
REVIEWS: A Book I’ve Used structure.0 or the Common European Framework Level B1. while the two people who were not caught start up a conversation. some of the activities might require additional materials such as play money. One of my favourites so far has been the Yes/No game. Even so. or worksheets to be done effectively. For my students. Access EAP Foundations is aimed at intermediate students.5–7. for example. The winner is the one who didn’t say “yes” or “no” the whole time. 1 . and I am also reminded of coursebooks from the early 1980s which were set in mythical colleges of Further Education. and then they randomly went about the room conversing with their classmates. It was a great warmer and my students really got into it. particularly when they are designed for lower levels. If a student answers “yes” or “no” during the conversation. “The lessons”. The person with the most paper clips at the end of five minutes was declared the winner. All in all. I was eager to find out whether this book would be suitable for my classes. I think it is best suited for teachers of adult classes at an intermediate level or above. ” Modern English Teacher Volume 21 No. “The themes”. often in less than a year. contrary to what the author has stated. such as time limits.0. Also. where students all stand up and start to have a conversation with the person next to them. or debating. The idea that the themes relate to the early weeks of university study at ‘Gateway University in Summerford’ is not unlike the scenarios in the first listening exercise of the IELTS Listening paper. Although the author claims that it can be used at any level. Could Access EAP Foundations bridge such an enormous gap between reality and expectations? The author’s introduction asks the question “What is different about this book?” but the answers given (“It’s about university”. As an EAP teacher who frequently teaches students at this level or even lower. role plays. and formats for stating opinions. Access EAP Foundations Sue Argent and Olwyn Alexander Garnet Education 2010 See page 92 for details Hilary Livingston Hilary Livingston is currently teaching at the College of the North Atlantic in Qatar. which the authors define as being IELTS levels 4. Additions to the number of books written for EAP courses are always welcome. I don’t really agree for most of the activities. Other activities that I am eager to try are ones that develop critical thinking as well as fluency. I also found myself thinking about ways I could adapt and extend certain activities to morph them into writing practice. If any student said “yes” or “no” (and head nods and ‘uhhuh’ and ‘yehs’ counted as well!). competitive games. Our Year-Round Pre-Sessional students at Durham are expected to meet entrance criteria of anything from IELTS 5.0–5. “The progress”) are not especially radical. pens. I would recommend this book for teachers looking for ideas to enhance speaking fluency and add a little fun and interaction into their class. involved the students guessing a correct answer. guessing games. I believe these types of activities with current topics are a great way to start or finish a class because they engage the students and quite often get them fired up and challenge them to think outside of the box. when you read through this book you are guaranteed to find a gem or two that will make that vision of happy engaged students a reality in your class. or had students acting as judges. I adapted this a little by giving each student seven paperclips. then they would have to give the other person one of their paper clips. the Access EAP Foundations reverts to one of the oldest techniques of coursebook writing “ 82 The activities include a mix of ice-breakers. I can see how this activity could be easily adapted to suit a variety of different classes and abilities. Ideally. or present the advantages and disadvantages of a given topic within a set timeline. Far from being a radical departure. or had a tally of points at the end. they then move to chat with another student who also ‘lost’ (said “yes” or “no”). where students have to present an argument and support it.
making it ideal for yearround Foundation courses where the students are about to embark on undergraduate degree programmes in the UK. A large amount of grammatical ground is covered. but I am not convinced that it is possible to write academic English without a sound command of both. Guy and Maysoun. The biggest issue for our students when they are writing is producing accurate grammar at the sentence level: in my view. which could be used by the teacher as a basis for homework tasks. I do not know how much control the authors had over the overall book design. However. which deals with the writing of formal definitions. with plenty of support for teachers and students alike. but more headings and a clearer unit and lesson numbering system would have been easier for the target users to handle. 1 www. though individual lessons could perhaps be picked out. Access EAP Foundations is definitely a book which is designed to be used in its entirety. 1. and there are Study Smart boxes to give study skills tasks and Self-Study boxes. Lesson aims appear in brown boxes at the beginning of each unit. This well-organised approach to lexis is a refreshing change after the apparently random selections made by many contemporary skills-based general English coursebooks. The three lessons in question cover both the language exponents and the question of content. that I can recall: the book contains three ‘characters’. the Access ” need to be isolated and practised. Past Simple and the future with will. the concept of collocation is introduced in Unit 1 Lesson 1 and is reinforced throughout the book. Guy and Maysoun make it difficult for teachers to extract individual lessons. Chen.com 83 . Every lesson contains tasks which focus on word formation: a key issue for students at this level. a teacher’s book is also available for this series to provide further guidance and there is also a free answer key download available online. Lesson 2 rather than as Unit 1. this makes it a difficult book to navigate. The ‘characters’ are meant to make the book more engaging. not to mention mature students. Unit and lesson numbers are provided on each page in very small print as footers. Lessons 2-4. with different colour boxes representing different tasks and lesson objectives. however. Present Continuous. It could also be very useful to schools and colleges outside the UK preparing students for CLIL courses. is a different issue. There are ten units and each unit is subdivided into five lessons. besides. however. However. She has worked in Germany and Japan as well as the UK. A thorough package. As the individual page layouts are all rather similar (and perhaps best characterised as ‘bitty’). and I am not entirely convinced that the approach taken is appropriate for low-level students.2. and the semi-modal have to. in other words.onlineMET. This area of academic English requires careful step-by-step teaching in order to make sure that students do not produce definitions which are too broad or simplistic. Even better. it would be difficult for even the most meticulous teacher to use every task in the book. Grey boxes like sticky notes list the key words of the lesson: these are ideal for prediction tasks or for dictionary training. some young adult learners. Most of the unit themes. A minor annoyance: the sub-divisions of the units are designated as Lesson 1. headers are only used at the beginning of each unit. for example in Unit 1: Present Simple. Tasks are short and snappy. There is clearly an emphasis on the noun-phrase rather than the verb-phrase in this book. whose interactions provide a narrative framework for the units. etc. I particularly liked Unit 5.REVIEWS: A Book I’ve Used EAP Foundations reverts to one of the oldest techniques of coursebook writing that I can recall: the book contains three ‘characters’ … “ Far from being a radical departure. Grammar. the constant references to Chen. this is a tightly-integrated progressive course which is not really designed for dipping into. Volume 21 No. presumably in order to keep the lesson pace moving and to keep students focused and motivated. making it unsuitable for short courses. there is little point in teaching academic skills if students cannot handle the basics. might feel patronised by this form of presentation. and some (if not all) of these forms will Terri Edwards Terri Edwards has been teaching English since 1986. This is a hefty book of 229 pages. and some (but not all) of the target language. and the material is very well-staged. The bittiness of the page layout clearly is a deliberate authorial policy. are presented through dialogues. Luckily. and at the same time there are some tasks which I fear might be underdeveloped in the hands of an inexperienced teacher. This is a lot for students at IELTS Level 4 to take on board at once. Mid-course and end-course reviews are provided after Units 5 and 10 respectively. and is now a Teaching Fellow in the English Language Centre at Durham University.1.
There is one notable section (section 2. Writing good academic English is a great challenge to the majority of university students. Unlike many other published materials on the same topic. The book’s strengths lie in its practicality. REFERENCE Spack. explicitness. userfriendliness. these parts need to be adapted sensitively because students with good formal knowledge of English are likely to find some sections and tasks tedious and boring. All are presented in a clear and easy-to-understand manner. making group work successful (2. and EFL teachers keen to enter the global discourse community can use this book as a resource to sharpen their academic skills. 1988. Thus. Those who cannot take a formal course can use it as a self-study kit. and editing. the students are guided step-by-step to full competence. Le Van Canh is a senior lecturer at the University of Languages and International Studies. where he teaches the graduate programme in Teaching English as a Foreign Language.3) is a special feature of this new edition. planning. p. Modern English Teacher ” Volume 21 No. the section on how to avoid plagiarism (section 1. Parts 3 and 4 focus respectively on accuracy and the discourse of the literature review. this book does not require students to write whole pieces of academic discourse by imitating models. drafting. and accessibility to students of varying proficiency levels in English. Elements of Writing. Vietnam. All are explained in detail and practised in specifically designed tasks. academic English is no longer a nightmare to international students. argument and discussion (2. Particularly helpful are sections on developing critical approaches to reading. charts and numbers. which may be a barrier to their success in the academy.6). The Writing Process. and referencing. visual information (2. 22(1). Instead.11). and who had very limited experience in academic writing. and research reports.12). cause and effect. (1988) Initiating ESL students into the academic discourse community. 1 . They highly valued the sections on critical thinking (1. is divided into 12 short sections which guide the students through the processes of selecting suitable sources. Part 2. and designing and reporting surveys (4. essays. effective note-taking (1. Answers to all the tasks in the book and extra practice exercises are downloadable from the companion website. style (2.2B). With this excellent new edition of Academic Writing. How far should we go? TESOL Quarterly. pp 30-52 Le Van Canh Dr.4). be they native or non-native speakers of English. dealing with graphs. I used this book with a group of 25 Vietnamese in-service teachers of English who were studying for a Graduate Diploma in TESOL. students need to become better readers” (Spack. Part 1.12) which presents the strategies that students can employ to achieve the maximum benefits of cooperative learning for academic purposes. definitions and academic style. R. “ 84 With this excellent new edition of Academic Writing. Therefore. revising.REVIEWS: A Book I’ve Used Academic Writing: A Handbook for International Students (3rd edition) Stephen Bailey Routledge 2011 See page 92 for details The book is structured into four main parts. comparison. and exemplifying. I therefore strongly recommend that the book be used as a core academic writing coursebook for both undergraduate and graduate students.1). note-making. includes sections on crucial areas such as argument. Hanoi. notemaking. paraphrasing. for either classroom use or self-study. In addition. However.10). reading. The result of the end-of-course survey shows the students expressed great confidence in their academic English after using the book.5). explanations and tasks. 42). Each part presents examples. all tasks in these sections are aimed at developing the skills of understanding precisely the author’s style and purpose. This part is based on the belief that “to become better writers. academic English is no longer a nightmare to international students. it helps them acquire useful strategies by deconstructing the provided inputs before they complete a range of different tasks. which are transferable to academic writing. paraphrasing (1.
form theories and adopt strategies to avoid miscommunication. classes. Each of the three main sections mentioned above is itself divided into three themes. it follows a standard organisational structure. Throughout the book there are many figures and tables to visually represent key points.onlineMET. and then analyse and deconstruct its constituent elements in order to develop greater insights.xxi) that “it is a tenet of the book that the disciplines that are presented in Section A [Introduction] and applied to research tasks in Section C [Exploration] are usable in all intercultural contexts”. this Iranian woman might be labelled as ‘westernised’ and one who does not conform to the behaviours of Middle Eastern women Like other books in Routledge’s Applied Linguistic series. and an index – mostly of authors cited in the book. which encourages the readers to develop research responses and activities. The second is Othering. many suggestions for further reading. occupations. showing how to avoid over-generalising and stereotyping people we communicate with.com . The central concepts of essentialism and non-essentialism are presented in this introduction. to which all members of that culture adhere. ” 85 Volume 21 No. Martin Hyde and John Kullman Routledge 2010 See page 92 for details theoretical perspectives and texts from a wider range of perspectives than the original. such an attitude leads to cultural stereotyping. In each of the units of this Section. and Exploration. This second version updates the 2004 edition not only with more recent “ This second version updates the 2004 edition … with a new. Also like the others. The authors’ major belief is that “intercultural communication should grow from an understanding of people. healthcare. The book is divided into three sections: Introduction. It might have been helpful if a glossary of key terms could also have been included. The third theme is Representation. they suggest that the way to achieve this is to consider an experience or situation. The definitions and key terms of intercultural communication are established in the introductory pages of Section A. healthcare. 1 www. which prepares readers to analyse their own intercultural interaction stimulated by examples of other people’s experiences. covering the ways in which culture is represented in society through the media. and very relevant.REVIEWS: Background Books Background Books Intercultural Communication: an Advanced Resource Book for Students (2nd edition) Adrian Holliday. genders. Intercultural Communication is intended for senior undergraduate or graduate students of applied linguistics and their teachers.1). The authors point out (p. a specific domestic setting – and so on. A nonessentialist view is more complex because it recognises that an individual may belong to various groupings within and between cultures. To illustrate this distinction there follow several short case studies of people from various nationalities. an aesthetic culture which prefers certain movies and arts forms. The first case is of a female Iranian lecturer working in a British university. A non-essentialist position is that she may be associated with various cultures: a middle class social group. law and education. which establishes the key terms and themes of the topic. an academic community in which a woman need not be afraid of voicing her views. ethnicities and other factors. law and education. and very relevant. Extension. emphasis on intercultural communication in the workplace – especially business. There is a set of references. but also with a new. An essentialist perspective is one that presumes that there is a universal essence in a particular culture. everyday language and professional discourse. The first of these themes is Identity. culture and society generally” (p. emphasis on intercultural communication in the workplace – especially business. To an essentialist. intended to develop the readers’ critical awareness of these topics through a range of reflective tasks based on key texts.
which tend to overgeneralize an individual based on the culture or groups that he or she ostensibly belongs to. sexism and any number of other -isms. international. The following 15 units offer various practical ways to undertake exploratory research into issues relating to Identity.4. Others. helping the readers – especially those currently studying in unfamiliar cultural contexts – to evaluate the way they relate to people who do not share their own cultural values. Such essentialist attitudes are still very widely held today – even in universities. the authors point out that “not only do we rarely question the ‘Western’ model of personality.185). and be a useful mechanism for understanding individuals in all cultures”( p. Burr and Hampton. and longest. section of the book. The framework suggested by the authors in analysing intercultural communication is very detailed and thought-provoking. The elements of intercultural communication are displayed in the figure above. leisure. – and Holliday himself.. Readers are advised not to focus on the content of intercultural communication itself but to take into consideration the processes involved. such as Giddens. societal. institutional. are better known in sociological circles. The wide range of texts in the second section are intrinsically interesting. There are eight introductory texts which aim “to provide a ‘state of the art’ snapshot of intercultural communication. especially advertisements. seeks to help readers to apply non-essentialist concepts when conducting ethnographic research in relation to the three key themes. but this 86 Modern English Teacher Volume 21 No. which shows how the key factors interconnect to build experience about how to communicate. The last section of the book. (Holliday et al. After each extract. too many case studies and readings for them all to be fully digested.1 Format for intercultural research. 232) applied to. Othering and Representation and several are written by authors very familiar to the critical applied linguistics community – Pennycook. needs to be willing to accept a non-essentialist perspective and adopt appropriate strategies to communicate effectively in the increasingly multicultural world of the 21st century. domestic) D Cultural Circumstances (e. The final text in the section presents a case study and a proposed strategy for teaching intercultural competence. work. Pavlenko & Lantolf. 2010. Othering and Representation Overall. study. Exploration.g. The second. In their introduction to the final theme. are also blamed for encouraging messages that contain elements of racism in their treatment of other cultures. business. personal) B The actors (The people Involved – may include yourself) A Intercultural Communication event E Social or Linguistic angle (from current unit in Section C) G Observations And strategies (what happened or is happening: How this should be addressed) F Disciplines (from Table A3.61). Kumaravedivelu. the thirteen texts in this section explore how identity can be variously interpreted and socially constructed in the media. There are. etc. Representation. The case studies and tasks given in this book are contemporary and critical. Thus the authors view essentialism as an ‘easy’ answer for culture and argue that it is necessary to problematise such simplistic cultural responses by considering ‘thick descriptions’ of the interaction between individuals and the various cultural settings in which they find themselves.REVIEWS: Background Books who are perceived to be oppressed and passive. and intercultural training. Mass media. comprises short extracts from 49 published texts written by leading authors in the field of Intercultural Communication. In the theme of Identity.1) H Build experience about how to communicate Figure C0.g. or even the expectations of the ‘superior cultures’ over the other cultures. The process could be moulded by personal preference to be identified with a certain group. this is a thought-provoking book which challenges the reader to reflect and re-evaluate conventional concepts of intercultural communication. 1 .1. Extension. The authors make it abundantly clear that everyone. by highlighting current perspectives in the field and relating these to previous approaches” (p. professional. The essentialist could fall into traps of racism. the authors have added comments and/or reflective tasks to assist readers to be more critical of conventional stereotyping and steer them towards a nonessentialist perspective. the influence of globalisation. and perhaps especially students and their lecturers. The Othering theme includes examples of how Arab TESOL students have been discriminated against in the United Kingdom for being Muslim and associated with terrorism. The approach adopted in the final section will be particularly applicable to graduate students who are just starting to undertake empirical research in this area.. perhaps. Thus. p. and should lead students – and their lecturers – to follow up the original sources from which they were taken. but we often assume that it can be universally C Setting (e. the selected texts provide various explanations of how people form their identity. The other texts are grouped in the three themes of Identity.
This is taken up in the opening chapter of Part Two. 25). the second looks at the needs and concerns of teachers as they enter specific career stages. The first deals with the contexts of teaching. Prior to 1995. New Zealand. These illustrative examples allow the writers to move from the general to the specific very smoothly. The New Lives of Teachers Christopher Day and Qing Gu Routledge 2010 See page 92 for details In each section. and comparing these with those of the students. but it is never just a job. but combine this with examples from some of their own research – in particular.onlineMET. Volume 21 No. language teaching. as exemplified in the case studies. Nonetheless. describing the various influences on teachers’ professional lives. but also in the frequent citations. all studies since are indebted to Huberman. this is probably the heart of the book. he worked in senior ELT positions in Britain. Europe and the Middle East. and that without emotional well-being teachers will be unable to fulfil their potential. 51). The opening chapter sets the tone for the book. this self-elevation to a semi-religious status is neither helpful in understanding teaching as a career. and the state of education at time of writing. In Chapter Two.REVIEWS: Background Books merely points to the comprehensive coverage of the field. 1 www. the section which probably draws most heavily on Huberman’s work. or even a calling. and is currently (co) editing two volumes of case studies and co-authoring several articles. with a historical overview of some of the changes teachers have had to adapt to in recent decades. Nevertheless. One of the limitations of this book is that the case studies and readings provided are too much to bring the point across to readers. and the markers they might encounter along the way. and provides one of the central themes for the book as a whole. For me. Roger Barnard is a Senior Lecturer in applied linguistics at the University of Waikato. New Zealand. Her research project explores Malaysian lecturers’ beliefs and practices about giving feedback on students’ written assignments. a vocation. unique in the way they hone their craft. Certainly. Teachers tend to think of themselves as a breed apart. but this book builds on his work and adds a great deal to our understanding of what makes teachers tick. teachers in any context will encounter some of the same issues. To be fair to the authors. although the authors claim there are commonalities in educational reform worldwide (p. The authors are keen to stress the difference between critical incidents and critical influences – the former being the events themselves and the latter being what these events reveal (p. Huberman’s influence looms large over this book. Michel Huberman’s huge study of school teachers in the Swiss education system (1993) looked at the many variables which affect teachers’ career pathways and mapped out a number of directions teachers could take. and provide a real sense of humanity. It makes for a well-balanced read. Influences include government initiatives. This conclusion wraps up the opening section. we would highly recommend this book to students and teachers working in applied linguistics. readers can select from the wide menu those issues that are particularly relevant to their own intercultural contexts. the quality and availability of in-school support and work/life balance management. and the third posits conditions for success. In reality. Teaching may be a profession. for better or worse.com 87 . The book is well organised into three parts. Chapters Four. a number of case studies focusing on teachers at various points throughout their careers. nor unique in the world of work. the authors outline existing research. and teacher development studies have proliferated since the 1960s accordingly. the authors suggest that the personal and professional selves cannot really be separated. He prefers to research and write collaboratively. not least in the title. and as a result there is a tendency for Judy Ng and Roger Barnard Judy Ng was a lecturer in English at a private university in Malaysia before starting her doctoral research at the University of Waikato. others on career cycles over longer periods. Many have focused on how novice or early career teachers develop. The main focus is clearly on ‘mainstream’ state education in the UK. teachers do occupy a special position in society. Many teachers who leave teaching tend to do so early on in their careers. and communication studies. so although primary and secondary education in England is at the centre of the book I believe people working in education elsewhere will recognise many of the situations described. mid-career teachers and ‘veterans’ respectively. Five and Six deal with early career teachers.
These issues can continue into late career. or burn-out. they say. and to help them. to trust them. Language Assessment in Practice Lyle Bachman and Adrian Palmer Oxford University Press 2010 See page 92 for details REFERENCE Huberman. 141). is one of the key factors in keeping teachers happy. managers and policy makers to focus on retaining ‘young’ teachers. sub-titled New lives. and the authors argue that the best leaders manage their schools as communities centred on people. and that without emotional well-being teachers will be unable to fulfil their potential. I would suggest Huberman’s book as the starting point for anyone interested in teacher motivation and development (and if you are involved in education. Darren Elliott Darren Elliott has been teaching and training teachers in Japan and the UK since 1999. and as the authors point out: “Many research studies of teacher retention focus too narrowly upon ‘attrition’. the belief that ” Volume 21 No. 1 . the subtitle is Developing Language Assessments and Justifying their Use in the Real World. 84). Indeed. but “there is relatively little research on teachers in the middle years of their professional lives” (p. 103) The problem being that teachers can become trapped in their careers. and learner autonomy. applied linguists and administrators. and thus committed. lacking commitment yet too far committed to leave. This is certainly important. The final section of the book is entitled Conditions for Success. institutions and societies. Yet many of those involved in developing and conducting language assessment do not always have an adequate understanding of the principles underlying this activity. If we want ‘Teachers who make a difference’. In Chapter Eight leadership is under the spotlight. He maintains a blog at www. and they form one sector of the target readership of this book. Three common misconceptions are described: the belief that there is one ‘best’ way to assess. who tells us that “Most jobs which do not expand our talents make us into parttime slaves” (p. the burdens of greater responsibility. you should be interested). Old truths. London: Cassell. but one which they are able to back up convincingly – and not without a degree of passion themselves. (1993) The Lives of Teachers. and often retain a sense of commitment. Director of the Institute of Community Studies. (p. This final chapter. such as teachers. Whilst teachers in the 8–23 years of experience range are less likely to quit. The introductory chapter sets out the authors’ rationale for “why we need another book about language testing”. and ‘real world’ is a recurrent phrase in the text. This is bad for teachers and students alike. He has published on teacher development. they may also experience doubts over their future or their choices (the proverbial mid-life crisis applies to the mid-career too). and in Chapter Ten the authors tell us why all this matters. affording them more autonomy in their own classrooms. rather than systems into which people have to fit. Modern English Teacher Language assessment is used by various professionals. and is comprised of four chapters.REVIEWS: Background Books researchers. rather than upon the ways in which wellbeing and commitment may become eroded”. Chapter Nine emphasises the need for resilience in teachers. but this new volume is a very welcome addition to the field. Another sector is those who are knowledgeable about the technicalities of language assessment but who lack experience in applying this knowledge to the uncertainties and constraints of particular assessment contexts. asserts that passionate teachers get better results. the externally assessable result of loss of commitment. Greater trust in teachers.livesofteachers. technology and language education. A key element of the competence and professional responsibility which the book aims to develop is accountability: the ability to demonstrate to all stakeholders that the intended uses of an assessment procedure are justified. in order to gather information that can be used as a basis for making decisions which may have far-reaching consequences for individuals. It’s a commonsense assertion. Although I have never taught in the contexts this book describes. Probably the neatest summation of these conditions comes via Geoff Mulgan. the personal voices of the teachers quoted throughout certainly resonated. M.com “ 88 … the authors suggest that the personal and professional selves cannot really be separated. we need to look after them.
a parallel is drawn with the process of constructing a convincing case to present in a court of law. 1 www. and a related website provides a number of other assessment development projects from the work of the authors and their students. the lack of bias in the assessment process. test design and the intended and actual consequences of assessments. The importance of collaboration between stakeholders is emphasised. writer and translator based in Poland. Part III. whether it would be preferable to use an already existing assessment or to devise a new one. The back cover blurb of this compendious volume claims that it “enables the reader to become competent in the design. developing actual assessment tasks. a framework for describing assessment task characteristics and a set of principles and procedures for justifying the uses of assessments. and the belief that a test is either good or bad on the basis of only one criterion. “ The division of language ability into four ‘skills’ is rejected in favour of identifying specific tasks and their characteristics. Part II is devoted to Constructing an Assessment Use Argument. collecting feedback. rather dry terrain is enlivened by examples. and the bidirectional links between test takers’ performances. Each chapter includes exercises and suggested readings. intended and actual interpretations of language ability. Parts II and III build on the ‘conceptual foundations’ laid down in Part I.onlineMET. development and use of language assessments. … tasks which reflect non-assessment ‘real world’ language use tasks – target language use (TLU) tasks … Volume 21 No. developing a Design Statement (“a document that states what one needs to know before actually creating an assessment”). enables convincing and well-supported claims to be made about such things as the beneficial effect of an assessment. and the relationship between the latter two – each with numerous subdivisions. and so on. in fact. while others allow readers the chance to practise creating the missing components. Describing these characteristics is important in choosing or designing assessment tasks which reflect nonassessment ‘real world’ language use tasks – target language use (TLU) tasks – as well as in interpreting test results and in making generalisations from them. starting with a consideration of real world conditions and constraints. starting with the questions of whether an assessment is even necessary in order for the intended decisions to be made and. Part I. but it certainly sets out in great detail what is required. justified. it is not sufficient (understanding of the context is also required) and it can be acquired by those who do not consider themselves to be experts. described in great detail. This part of the book provides extremely detailed guidance for the many aspects that need to be taken into account in embarking on devising language assessment procedures. He is the co-ordinator of the IATEFL Pronunciation Special Interest Group. for some readers. some are complete. anecdotes and the occasional touch of humour. Conceptual Foundations. introduces a framework for thinking about language use and language ability. Jonathan Marks Jonathan Marks is a teacher-trainer. and provides opportunities to go through the key thought processes and procedures. preparing effective instructions. which derives from a chain of logical reasoning. the meaningfulness and generalisability of the interpretations to be made. An AUA.com ” 89 . An Assessment Use Argument (AUA) is proposed as a principled means of providing evidence that the intended use of an assessment is. The chapter Describing Characteristics of Language Use and Language Assessment Tasks offers a framework for studying the degree of correspondence between characteristics of assessment tasks and TLU tasks with respect to setting. developing a Blueprint (“a set of specifications for the assessment as a whole and for the individual tasks within the assessment”). allocating and managing resources and using language assessments responsibly. Two extended and contrasting examples are used to show how AUA principles can be realised in practice: a low-stakes kindergarten formative assessment and a high-stakes summative university assessment. recording and interpreting testtakers’ performances. assessment records. Developing and Using Language Assessments in the Real World.” This is perhaps over-ambitious. These projects are referred to throughout the book. if so. expected response. The chapter Justifying the Use of Language Assessments elaborates on the key issue of the accountability of language testing professionals to test takers and other stakeholders. since competence will need a great deal of practice and experience. The division of language ability into four ‘skills’ is rejected in favour of identifying specific tasks and their characteristics. rubric. Because the context and characteristics of each assessment are unique. each will require its own specific AUA. The meticulous progression through what will inevitably be.REVIEWS: Background Books language test development should be left to testing specialists. and that although competence in language testing is necessary. guides the reader through the process. The authors suggest that all tests have strengths and weaknesses. input. At the end of the book three assessment projects are described.
If you want to know what sort of smutty jokes they made in 1000 this is the chapter for you. Among the more enjoyable works illustrated in this section are the Dictionaries of Slang from both 1809 and 1937 which give us a snapshot of the types of slang words being used at those times (e. For example we are able to see with immediate effect just what exactly a ‘hornbook’ is (a study primer dating from the 15th century). pays tribute to this fact. including Scottish and American. As mentioned earlier. giving the reader a richer and more detailed understanding of how the language evolved over time. such as the influence of Shakespeare on modern English. Here. differing occupational varieties of English. A fun detail in this chapter comes in The Book of St Albans. Some old favourites are in here as well. Each of the texts is presented with a commentary which both explains details within the text. there are seven ‘stories’ of English demonstrated through the works shown in this book. The first one. as well as contextualising it within the framework of the history of the English language. It shows wordplay from Anglo-Saxon times until now. The final chapter – English Anyone interested in the history of the English Language should get their hands on a copy of this book. which to my mind gives the subject its unending fascination” (p. You can also find a lot of the details you would expect in a book like this. It covers a period of approximately 400 years (around 1400 to 1800) and shows us a lot of the who. The next story of English. We can also find examples of different types of English.REVIEWS: A Book I Like A Book I Like Evolving English: One Language Many Voices David Crystal The British Library Publishing Division 2010 See page 92 for details to samples of modern English from around the world. One of the things this chapter shows is how orthography started and evolved in this period. As this book shows us the photographs of the texts. which gives us some fantastic collective nouns such as a non-patience of wives.g. ranging from Old English inscriptions 90 Modern English Teacher Volume 21 No. gives us an illustrated indication of where the standard form of written English comes from. English at Play. like that of the Tyndale Bible and the history behind it. pickpockets were known as divers in the early 19th Century). It is the accompanying book to an exhibition held at the British Library in 2010–2011. It contains a collection of over 150 texts from the British Library and an examination of each one by Crystal. The second chapter. 1 . rather it draws its sources from a much wider field. shows works ranging from runic inscriptions in the fifth century all the way up to the Middle English of the 15th Century. This is a chapter I personally found particularly interesting as it relies less on the well-known canon of literature and more on how people actually used and use language in their everyday lives. who states in his introduction that “the study of the English language relies on an accumulation of tiny details . are shown. The book of cookery on page 61 not only gives us an insight into what people ate in 1440.. The third story of English is that of Everyday English. including a list of the idioms and innovations he introduced into the language. People who love language love to play with it. In this book. but acknowledge and tell what David Crystal has categorised as seven separate stories of English. and the chapter ends by showing some of the influences on spelling which have lasted until this day (including -ed as the past tense ending on verbs). What makes this book stand out compared with a lot of the work I studied at university on the history of the English language.8). we can see exactly how this looks in each case. The works contained within the exhibition ranged from Anglo-Saxon times to the present day and the joining together of these works tell not just one story of English. which pays homage to an area of English which is often neglected in favour of Standard English. In the English at Work chapter. Setting the Standard. These are set out in different chapters of the book. This book is one to treasure and dip into over time. which is unrivalled anywhere else in the world. one has laid out in glossy colour pages a history of the English language with facsimiles of the texts. Accents and Dialects is another fascinating chapter. including well-known works like Beowulf and Sir Gawain and Green Knight. how and why of the standardisation of English spelling and grammar. English Comes of Age. What made this exhibition unique is the fact that it drew on the full range of the exceptional collection held at the British Library.. is that it does not just focus on literary texts. we can find the origins of Received Pronunciation. There are also fascinating stories to be read in here. which were not only linguistic but also unique in terms of the way the texts were designed and laid out on the page. like Alice in Wonderland. These are beautifully presented and also show some of the lavish illustrations which existed within the original manuscripts. but also shows the heavy influence of the French language and French vocabulary at the time.
Saudi Arabia and the UK. Elizabeth Hollis-Watts Elizabeth Hollis-Watts has been working in EFL as a teacher. you can find podcasts which include talks which contain some examples. She is currently working in London. A contrast of some of the great varieties of English that have been and can be found all over the world can be seen here.onlineMET. Japan. 1 www. the experience of reading this book is greatly enhanced by listening to these podcasts and I would thoroughly you recommend do so. One thing that the book lacks that could be found by visitors to the exhibition is accompanying audio material.REVIEWS: A Book I Like Around the World – brings us to where English is now as well as where it might be going in the future. I would have liked there to be an accompanying CD to enable us to hear what English sounded like 1000 years ago. Volume 21 No. Indeed. several places in Africa and Jamaican English.com 91 . They range in time from 1608 to 1985 and in place from America and Australia to New Guinea. However. if you go onto the British Library website. teacher trainer and manager for the past twelve years in Australia.
SUMMARY Summary of Books Reviewed Title Global (Upper Intermediate) Coursebook Coursbook + e-Workbook Workbook Teacher’s Book Class CDs Digital (Single User) Digital (Multi User) Access EAP Foundations Coursebook Teacher’s Book Academic Writing Hardback Paperback Intercultural communication Hardback Paperback The New Lives of Teachers Hardback Paperback Language Assessment in Practice Evolving English Hardback Paperback 88 90 Bachman/Palmer Crystal OUP British Library 978-0-712-35099-0 978-0-712-35098-3 87 Day/Gu Routledge 978-0-415-48459-6 978-0-415-48460-2 978-0-19-442293-2 85 Holliday/Hyde/Kullman Routledge 978-0-415-48941-6 978-0-415-48942-3 84 Bailey Routledge 978-0-415-59580-3 978-0-415-59581-0 82 Argent/Alexander Garnet 978-1-85964-524-6 978-1-85964-571-0 Page 79 Author Clandfield/Robb Benne Publisher Macmillan 978-0-230-03318-4 978-0-230-03294-1 978-0-230-03321-4 978-0-230-03325-2 978-0-230-03322-1 978-0-230-03326-9 978-0-230-40773-2 ISBN 92 Modern English Teacher Volume 21 No. 1 .
BOOKS FOR TEACHERS Digital Play Computer Games and Language Aims Kyle Mawer and Graham Stanley Delta Publishing 2011 Talking Trinity (Grades 1-3) Talking Trinity (Grades 4-6) Jeremy Walenn Garnet Education 2011 Delta Academic Objectives: Reading Skills Louis Rogers Delta Publishing 2011 A coursebook designed to prepare students for academic reading. How Idioms Work Yvonne Clark Garnet Education 2010 A photocopiable resource book. Oxford English Grammar Course (Basic and Intermediate) Michael Swan and Catherine Walter Oxford University Press 2011 PRONUNCIATION Rhymes and Rhythm Michael Vaughan-Rees Garnet Education 2010 A poem-based course for English pronunciation. Helen Huntley and Bruce Rogers Heinle Cengage Learning/National Geographic 2011 EXAMINATIONS IELTS Advantage: Writing Skills Richard Brown and Lewis Richards Delta Publishing 2011 IELTS Target 5. 1 www.com 93 .00 Macmillan Little Explorers Phonics Little Explorers B Teddy in Bed Macmillan Education 2011 Chris Gough Garnet Education 2010 Aimed at pre-intermediate students wishing to prepare for IELTS.onlineMET. tutorials. READERS Macmillan Explorers Phonics Little Explorers and Young Explorers (selected titles) Macmillan Education 2011 ENGLISH FOR SPECIFIC PURPOSES Financial English (Second edition) Ian Mackenzie Heinle Cengage Learning 2012 GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY Using Phrasal Verbs for Natural English Elizabeth Walter and Kate Woodford Delta Publishing 2011 ACADEMIC ENGLISH Building Skills 2 Terry Phillips and Anna Phillips Garnet Education 2011 Aims to improve competence in English skills for college or university study. SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIALS Reading Explorer 5 Nancy Douglas.WHAT”S NEW What’s new GENERAL COURSEBOOKS FOR ADULTS/YOUNG ADULTS Real Life (Upper intermediate) Sarah Cunningham and Jonathan Bygrave Pearson Education 2011 Progressive Skills in English 2 Terry Phillips and Anna Phillips (with Nicholas Regan) Garnet Education 2011 Aims to build the skills required for lectures. Volume 21 No. reading research and written assignments.
INDEX TO VOLUME 20 94 Modern English Teacher Volume 21 No. 1 .
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