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PEKA - Form 4 - PENDULUM Aim of the experiment: To investigate how the period of a simple pendulum varies with its

length.

Hypothesis: The longer the length of a simple pendulum, the longer the period of oscillation.

Variables: Manipulated: The length of the pendulum, l Responding: The period of the pendulum, T Constant: The mass of the pendulum bob, gravitational acceleration

Apparatus/Materials: Pendulum bob, length of thread about 100 cm long, retort stand, stopwatch

Setup: Procedure:

The thread is tied to the pendulum bob. The other end of the thread is tied around the arm of the retort stand so that it can swing freely. The length of the pendulum, l is measured to 80 cm as per the diagram. With the thread taut and the bob at rest, the bob is lifted at a small amplitude (of not more than 10). Ensure that the pendulum swings in a single plane. The time for ten complete oscillations of the pendulum is measured using the stopwatch. Step 3 is repeated, and the average of both readings are calculated. The period of oscillation, T is calculated using the average reading divided by the number of oscillations, i.e. 10.

T2 is calculated by squaring the value of T. Steps 1 to 6 are repeated using l = 70 cm, 60 cm, 50 cm, and 40 cm. A graph T2 versus l is plotted. Data: Analysis :

Discussion: The graph of T2 versus l shows a straight line passing through the origin. This means that the period of oscillation increases with the length of the pendulum, with T2 directly proportional to l.

Conclusion: The longer the length of the pendulum, the longer the period of oscillation. The hypothesis is proven valid.

Precaution : The experiment was carried out in an enclosed room to avoid the influence of wind.

Number Pg. Title 20

Activity 3.1 (Experiment)

The movement of substances across a semi-permeable membrane To study the movement of substances across the Visking tubing

Aim / Objective of the Study Problem Statement membrane? Hypothesis the molecule Variables

What factor influences the diffusion of substances through a semi-permeable

The diffusion of molecules through a semi-permeable membrane is based on the size of

Manipulated variable: Size of the solute molecules in the Visking tubing Responding variable: Colour of the solution in Visking tubing Fixed variable: Time, volume of solutions and surrounding temperature Material Benedicts solution 1% starch suspension Iodine solution 30% glucose solution Distilled water Apparatus Visking tubing Cotton thread Test tubes Beakers Water bath (Bunsen burner, tripod stand & wire gauze) Technique used Test for the presence of starch and glucose with iodine and Benedicts solution respectively

Number Pg. Title 23

Activity 3.2 (Experiment)

Studying osmosis using an osmometer To demonstrate the process of osmosis using simple osmometer

Aim / Objective of the Study Problem Statement

What substances can diffuse through a semi-permeable membrane?

Hypothesis Osmosis takes place when water moves from a region of low solute concentration to a region of high solute soncentration across a semi-permeable membrane Variables Manipulated variable: Concentration of solution Responding variable: Increase in the level of sucrose solution / The level of sucrose solution in the capillary tube Fixed variable: Concentration of sucrose solution, surrounding temperature Material 30% sucrose solution Distilled water Apparatus 25 cm capillary tube Visking tubing Retort stand and clamp Cotton thread Ruler Marker pen A pair of scissors 250 ml beaker Syringe Stopwatch

Technique used Measure and record the increase in the height of sucrose solution with a ruler.

Number Pg. Title 9

Activity 2.1 (Observation)

Preparing and examining slides of plant cells To prepare and study slides of plant cells

Aim / Objective of the Study Material Onion Hydrilla sp. Leaf Iodine solution Distilled water Filter paper Apparatus Light microscope Glass slides Cover slips A pair of forceps Scalpel Dropper Mounting needle

Technique used Prepare and stain wet mount of specimens. Observe and draw the structures of plant cells using a light microscope.

Number Pg. Title 10

Activity 2.2 (Observation)

Preparing and examining slides of animal cells To prepare and study slides of animal cells

Aim / Objective of the Study Material Methylene blue solution Iodine solution Toothpick Distilled water Cheek cells Filter paper Apparatus Light microscope Slides Cover slips Forceps Dropper Mounting needle

Technique used Prepare and stain wet mounts of specimens. Observe and draw the structures of animal cells using a light microscope