Electrical Power and Machines EPE491

DC Motor
Introduction  There are 2 types of DC machines:- DC generator and DC motor  At present its use as a generator is limited because of widespread use of AC power.  The machine is therefore, extensively used as motor in industry.

Construction  The machine consists of 2 parts:o Stator o Have poles The poles are excited by DC current to produce magnetic fields

Rotor Has a ring-shaped laminated iron-core with slots. Coils with several turns are placed in the slots.
Field Rotor

N

S

Brush

Stator with poles

DC Machine Construction

It has 2 types of windings:-

DC Machine Winding

D. Johari, FKE UiTM

1

low voltage DC machine o Field winding Carry dc current to create magnetic field Mounted on the poles (stator) Subdivided into:a) Separately excited winding  No direct connection between field & armature windings b) Self-excited winding   Has a direct connection between field & armature windings It can further be subdivided into: shunt. low current DC machine b) Lap connection   For a p pole machine. has p parallel path Suitable for high current. 2 basic possibilities:- The armature winding arrangements (a) Wave winding (b) Lap winding a) Wave connection   2 parallel paths regardless no of poles Suitable for high voltage. Johari. FKE UiTM 2 .Electrical Power and Machines EPE491 o Armature winding Voltage is induced on it Placed on the rotor Winding arrangement depends on how the coils are connected to form a closed winding. compound excitation D. series.

a) How many current paths are there in this machine? b) What is the generated armature voltage of this machine? c) What is the generated voltage if the machine now has lap winding? D. the stator becomes an electromagnet). (Hence. The induced voltage is called counter emf because its polarity always acts against the source voltage. Its flux per pole is 0. the field winding is also connected to a dc power supply. Since armature is within a magnetic field. FKE UiTM 3 . As the rotor rotates.Electrical Power and Machines EPE491 Principle of Operation   DC motor converts electrical energy into mechanical energy Its operation can be described as follows: o The armature winding is connected to a dc power supply o o o o o o Current flows through the armature winding At the same time. EMF Generated  The emf generated on DC motor is given by the following equation:- EMFgen  Where Z p c Zp N  k g  60c = No of conductors in the armature circuit = No of poles = No of parallel path @ no of current path (c = 2 for wave-winding. a force is exerted on the windings. its winding will cut the flux causing emf to be generated on the armature winding.05 Wb. Johari. This force causes the rotor to rotate. The armature is turning at a speed of 200 rpm. c = p for lap-winding) N Φ = Speed of armature rotation (rpm) = Useful flux per pole (Wb) =  2N rad / s 60 Example 1 A 12-pole dc generator has a wound armature containing of 2880 conductors.

The armature winding will provide the current to create the magnetic field.Field winding is connected in series & parallel with the armature winding D.Field winding is connected in series with the armature winding b) Shunt excitation . Separately Excited Winding    When the dc field current is supplied by an external source. Johari. It may be classified as: a) Series excitation .Electrical Power and Machines EPE491 Types of DC Motor  The type of dc machines is classified according to the way in which their fields are excited: separately excited and self-excited.Field winding is connected in parallel with the armature winding c) Compound excitation . the machine is said to be separately excited. FKE UiTM 4 . There is no direct connection between field & armature circuits Equivalent circuit for a separately excited dc motor is given as below: Stator Rotor Separately excited dc motor E A  VT  I A R A Self-Excited Winding    There is a direct connection between the armature and the field winding.

1  armature resistance. Johari. FKE UiTM 5 .Electrical Power and Machines EPE491  The equivalent circuits for self-excited DC motors are given as follows: E A  VT  I A ( R A  R f ) Series DC motor E A  VT  I A R A Shunt DC motor E A  VT  I A ( R A  R f 2 ) Compound DC motor Example 2 Find the armature current and the counter emf for a shunt motor running at 1500 rpm at 51A with a 120 V source. 120  field winding and 0. D.

FKE UiTM 6 . Pin = Pout + losses and the losses are given as follows: Losses in DC machine  The power flow diagram Power flow diagram of series motor Power flow diagram of shunt motor Power flow diagram of compound motor D.Electrical Power and Machines EPE491 Power Flow Diagram  Illustrates power flow from input to output  Represented as a fishbone. Johari. The branches indicate losses  In general.

FKE UiTM 7 . -  For load torque (or shaft/net/load torque): Tout  60 Pout 2N  For loss torque: TL  60 P 2N Tm  60 Pm 2N  For mechanical torque (or induced torque): Efficiency  It is given by:  Pout Pm  P  Pin VT I L Speed Regulation   Speed regulation in a motor is good if the speed of the motor is relatively constant over its normal range. Johari. P. It is usually expressed as a percentage of full-load speed given by: SR  N nl  N fl N fl x100% D.Torque (Nm). N.Power (W).Speed (rpm).Electrical Power and Machines EPE491  Power equation for DC motor:- Pin  Pout  losses Total losses = Pca + Pcf + Pμ Pin = VTIL Pconv = EAIA  input power taken from dc supply  developed mechanical power Pconv = Pμ + Pout Motor Torque  The general equation for torque is defined as T P 60 P   2N 2N rad / s 60 Where T.

Electrical Power and Machines EPE491 Example 3 A 150V shunt motor has the following parameters:Ra = 0. the line current is 19. FKE UiTM 8 . Determine: a) The developed power b) The output power c) The output torque d) The efficiency at full-load D. Johari.5A and the motor runs at 1400 rpm.50Ω Rf = 150Ω rotational loss = 250 W On full-load.

The armature current could then be very high which can blow fuses & disconnecting itself from the supply. So. full voltage is applied at this moment. It is therefore necessary to insert some resistance in series with armature circuit to limit this current.Electrical Power and Machines EPE491 Starting of DC Motor     At the instant of start-up. Manual starter for shunt motor Automatic starter connected to a shunt motor D. such as manual starter and automatic starter. Johari. counter emf is zero because the armature is not rotating. This practical arrangement is known as starter. FKE UiTM 9 . There are several types of starter.

- b) Solid-state Speed Control In recent years. The voltage control method lowers the speed in a similar fashion as the armature circuit resistance speed control method. The converters used are controlled rectifier or choppers. The field current is decreased and the speed increases with a reduction in flux. Johari. By adding a resistance means increase losses. so we will be overloading the motor. the speed of the motor that has resistance in the armature circuit is always lower comparing to the motor that do not have resistance in the armature circuit. This results in a reduction of the steady-state speed. Terminal voltage control This method of speed control is by changing the terminal voltage of the motor. By using this system. Armature resistance control Adding a resistor in series with the armature effectively increases the armature circuit resistance. However. This method also has some disadvantages. Field control This method of speed control is by changing the flux. Another disadvantage is that the speed is increased without a corresponding reduction in shaft load. we can only raise the speed at which the motor normally runs at a particular load. D. There are various ways to obtain a variable DC voltage: a) Ward-Leonard System In this system. 2. the armature voltage is controlled by varying the field current of DC generator. solid-state converters have been used as a replacement for Ward-Leonard system. The method is relatively simple and inexpensive. To do so we connect a resistance in series with the field winding. FKE UiTM 10 . One of that is. The most frequent method at least for shunt motors where the field winding is separately excited. The no-load speed and full-load speed can be reduced all the way down to zero if desired. the speed of DC motor can be smoothly varied.Electrical Power and Machines EPE491 DC Motor Speed Control  There are three basic methods of controlling the speed of a DC motor: 1. Therefore. I2R and reduce the motor’s speed. there are some drawbacks. 3. Other advantage of the system is it allows the DC motor to run in either direction by reversing the field current. However it does not have its drawbacks.

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