NOiiCE· This material may be
by copyright law
Nov. 13, iB96.
. (Title 17 U.S. Code)
E N G I N E E R. 485

. ny Dr. C.\IIL or ltlnnirla.
in the of Jnnchincry hM always hccn
tlcpcnalcnt upon the nd\·n.ncc of physicnl science. This
is cspeciully t rue of nlnchines hRScd unon the trnnslnrllu>·
tion of ellergy. 'l 'he dc\·elopmcnt of such machinery has
followed step by slop the prcsrcss of this science. U is
thus n nnturnl result thnt, in tho following, UJL-cbnnical
upplinnccs cnn he described which render the liquefaction
or nil SRSca-not excepting those unUI rcccoUy desis:nnle<l
"pcrmMent "-lc88iblc 11od by tho application of
t hn latest disco,·erics in tho renlm of experimcntallhenuo·
dy111unics. As t he conditions lor the liquefaction of the
lcnst condensible gn£cs nrc now recognised, it mny be
btRlcd :-Tho diOlculty of li<Juclying such gases nriscs
from the necessity of redncins their t emperature below
the "critical" temperature, and I rom the \'cry low point
of the lnttcr - lor ntmosphcric air nt - H O de g. Cent.
C -220 des. Fill •. )
CrilirnL lempemlurt.-For lhe purpose of explninins
this more fully, it may be well to examine more closely
the lll\ture of tho criticl\l temperature. Fis. 1 represents
Fl&. I
-so s
- 400
vapour so lo?s .ns tempcm,nre ,,;n. be nbo,·e - 1-19 des.
No. ol v.olume, no mcrcnso o! pressure,
Will pcnru' t he hquclnction to be accomplished unless
'his condition be complied wi,h. Bu' ii tho crilicnl tem·
pcmturo shoultl bo attained, then lor obtninins lique·
ln.ction. t.?Me ";n be no nisher pressure necessary tbn.n
the cntJca! L'':Casure, atmospheric air lhirty·nine
nhnosphereA \\'Ill be su01c1ent. Should n lower prcasurc
only bn nvailnblc, then we hM·e to descend to thn tem·
pcmture coJTcspondins to t his pressure. ll i' be desired
to lique!y atmospheric nir nt atmospheric pressure then
we IIIUSt rcfrigMate the samn to - 101 dcg. Cent. '
We hnvo here the conditions clearly dctonnincd which
nn apparatus desisncd lor the liquelnction ol air lma to
Prn•io11• mclhocl• 11t1tl "J'PIImlu•for I he li'jurjirc/iou
of • mechanical processes airnins 1\t the
rednction ol tcmpcrnturc nrc bRSed upon U1e e:<pcnditurc
ol " internal" or "CJCIMnnl "-mechnnicnl-work accom·
!lanied by su.ch thenno·dyno.ruic chnogea of which
!llvolve an mcrcase of Tho cquivnlent ol U1is
mtcroal or extemnl work Is nbetrncted !rom the bod\·
subjected to lhe working process in the form o( heni.
engineer !runi!inr ";lh the ol ref rise·
rating mnchioery mto "e\·aporntl\'e mnchloes" and
"CQid·air mnchioea," Wilh the former kind is princi·
pnlly lhc equivalent ol the internal work-Intent hcAt.-
which is nbstrncted; with the lnttcr ncnrly exlcrnnl
hcat alone . is eliminllted. lt will, in the course of the
present article, be clemonstrllted also in cold·nir
machines n small ruuount o{ internal work must be taken
ncconot; e.od tltllt, by utilising only t his inconsidcr·
able e.od hitherto disregarded · fl'8Ction of the work
ClCpQndcd, the new mnchloe lor air liquefaction constitutes
tho intcnnediate link between t ho cold.vapour nnd tho
coJd.nir machine.
-- ----
--- ·--
- - - --(
- 'lSO
- 9.P,
<- '-'p.t.e. Uc.f. __,.
A • of the .lines followed hitherto by
physiCJ&ts, m order to 1\rn\'e a' or below the crHicnl
tempcrnturo of the gRSCS most difficult to condense will
show lhat nlmost in\'nriably commencement hf\s 'been
mf\de by the compression and condensnt ion ol n gl\s such
_ ns carbor•ic anhydride, the eritienl li!mpcrnture of which
is ntt&innblc by ordinary means- by well water for
instance. Dy subsequently allowing tbiA liquid to
rnte nt low _Pressure, nn.d to expand to n large specific
,·olume, a prunary recluot1on of temperature Wl\8 secured
which then gcncrnll,r employed to perform the
cyclo mth a more ,·ol .. til.n gns-lor inut.nnce, ethylene-
whereby a second reduction of temperature wns effected.
In this me.oner the descent to tho desired or nttnlnnhlo
wns b.l;' so,·ernl series of cycles
n.n<i w1th gases .or mcrensing volatility.
n number of eur\'OB, each of which refers to a particular
gns. The ordlnntes Cor 1\JI these curves denote the
tompornturo, whilst the nbaciee1c represent the specific
•• the volumes of the nolt or wclgM-eorre.
BlKIDdlng to these tompnrnttircs, more. C&pecially the loft.
lumd parl of tho cbno relcni to gas in it.e liquid st.nto,
and tho right.he.od to ps in ita saturn ted condi ,
Uon, the latter possessing the well.Jmown property, thnt
C\'Ory reduction of ita volume without change of tempera·
lure is &ecompnoied by partialliquelnotion of the \'I\ pour .
If wo foll ow t he pnth or any 'one curve from its left. band
origin, it '1\ill be noticed to RSccnd quickly in correspoo·
dance to the increftllc of \'Oiume of the liquid at rising
t emperat ure. Following the cun •c from its right-hand
end. it is seen to rise at first. sr"duRIIy, then more rnpidl.'·
i.n nccorde.oco with lhe di1uinution of volume or the
,·apour nt increasing temperature-nod rising pressure.
At 8 certain point, t herefore, both branches ol lhe cun·e
of ' 'olumes must meet, nod it is thls point which is
designated aa "critical point." To it belongs e. definite
"critical temperature," n definite
critical pressure,"
Md • definite "critiCB! volume.'' The thcnliO·dynnmic
state of r. Sl\8 can now bo completely che.racterised by n
point situated inside or outside o{ this cllr\'e, in pnrticu Jnr
1\ fourfold position will be possible lor it :-{1) '!'he point
lul\y lie upon tho left.hand branch, in which eMc the gas
will be entirely in the liquid state; (2) it may lie upon
lhe right·ho.nd bnmcb, then It will be in the condition o{
sntumted vapour ; (8) it may lie between both branches,
i.e., the ge.s will be present pnrtly ft8 liquid nod partly as
saturated \'apoor ; and laatly, the point mny lie outside
the right curve branch, that is to &Ry, tho gM will be in
lhc superheated condition. With an iocreRSing distance
of the point from tho cun·c, tho gas will increasingly
uppronoh t ho condition in which it follows lhe Jnws
rclnting to " pcnonncot gases."
Now tho criLicnl tcmpemturo Cor \'nrious gRScs lies nt
\'cry different points. following table indicates its
posiUon · for some liqui<id ol speclnl interest, ns well 11s
\ heir critical preuure, lheir boiling points nt atmospheric
pressuro, and t heir frcezins point:-
J ,\IU. t: i.
I l!' I
ii Crlllol lctnr<·
:: ! i nture.
a - -
-----__ :_• 1 C•nt. _I ··•h.
Cent. fah. Ccut.
dt:i•_ deg. I dtg
WAter ... . .. :.!GO ' Cid6 100 212 1 0
Ammonia .. . , 116 t 130 266 ._- 33
, _-
7 ii
Nitrous oddo.. i6 t3.S 00
76 31 58 - so -112 - 50
Ethylene .. .I 1,2 10 LO !-l rtl ' -169
Nitricoddo ... 71 .- 93 - 13.5 -1M j -2M - 16i
...... (.1 •-110 - 182 - 182 -29il
Ataiooph oric
nlr ... ... , - 140 -v -191 -312
J\irrcgon . ..1 3!i f: -140 -231 - lll4
... , :!0 r -23'1 -3511 -!!43
• CallloltL f llowor. : Ul.ne,..l<l.

- 69
- 369
Alter what h&a been cxpll\incd, it is impossible to
uep&rnte, lor Instance, atmospheric nir into liquid nod
Whilst only the nbatract1oo of Intent bent wns thus
mostly ?lilisc.d n manns lor r educing the tempernturc,
lhe relrtgc.rntlon 10 some of t he better known liqucrnctlon
CJCperime;"ts consisted in comp,rossi!Jg tho gns to bo coo·
deose.d . m .n \' e&sel 1\ high preseuro (p
) nnd in
porm1tt mg 1t, niter hems coofed by the method just
mentioned-carbonic nobydridc or nitrous oxide-to T

to expnod against a low count-er· pressure (p
). Retrigern:
tioo may lhen result in a threefold mnoner :-
(! ) Within tho ,·esse) ndiabntic expiUisioo tnkes plllcc
acc_ompnnied a decrease of t emperature,
whtch-neglecting tho inJluenco of the surrountliog walls-
is determined lor the correspondins pressure by t ho well.
known relation :-
Tl • .
T Jl
(2) The issuing jel possesses il adiabatic work of
expansion in the form of dynamic energy, the equh·nlcnt
of which has been nbstraded from the gl\8 during its accc·
!oration, and 1\8 a result n decrease of temperature is11ro·
duced at lhe point of maximum velooity ol the jelsubJect
to the r elntion :-
_! = (L)
0 Po
(3) Whilst lhe reduction o{ temperature just dealt '1\ilh
- which may be termed
dyonmic " rdrigerat ion-is
merely quite transitory, and not any more perceptible
niter the jet hnving como to rest and its energy baYing
been re·tra.nsformed into bent , a pcnnancnt.-&latic-
re(rigcration may en&lro by reason o{ t he increBBios
volume, owing to llie resist.e.oce of the allmcUvc forces
acting between the molecules, e.od " internal" work
may be expended, equivalent of which is nbstmcted
!rom the heat cont nincd by the gns.
Cnilletet reported on U1o 24th December, 1877.' to the
Pnris Acndcmy tbaL bu hntl obl .. incd, throush ndinbntic
cxpn.n!ion of oxygen, previously hishly compressed Md
relrigcmtcd to - 20 deg. Cent. by sulphurous ncid, in n
glass tube, uJisL.like precipitat-es of this sns. Simul·
t.J!Jleously n lclesrnpbic commnniel\tion from Piclol wns
read, according to which he hnd l!uccccdrd in causing jets
of liquid oxygen to issue from n \'esse). He hnd by
double eYapomtioo-of sulphurous dioxide and c.nrbonic
anhydride- cooled oxysen to n temperature, not
meRSure.d, nt which, in his opinion, liquolncLion h11d
taken place, nt .. statio" pressures exceeding 200 ntmo·
spheres. We know to·dny thnt this is not tho cnse-tho
crilicnl pressure IUnounting only to 60 1\lmospbcres-aud
thnt, on tho contrary, the origin of t he liquid jets
obscn-ed must be nttributed to expe.osion during the
Although t hese primary cffo1 ta bnd to r. certainty
proved the possibility of littuelying o:r:ygen,lhe phenomena
of liquefaction hntl so lnr only bean tmnsitory-dynnmic
-nnd, ftB it was expressed by Jnmin In tho meeting ol
24th December, 1877, "the llnnl experiment had yet to
be demonstrated; oxygen must be obtained liquld nt its
boiling point, ns alrendy accomplished for nitrous oxide,
or in a solid stole, like cnrboolc anhydride." Although
Cnillete' Clnployed for cooling t he oxysco subsequently'
ethylene, Md obtained by its eYaporation at Rtmospheric
I Compt. lleod., M, UUl. : Compt. Read., 91, I !I'! I.
? CMn·rt. Ren•t, C'O, l HS, And W'lffiem. Ann., Y"Ot 2U.

pressure or - 105 tics. Cent., he Wt\G
uosncccsslul in his "finn! experiment," because at this
lemperntnro he hnd not set nm,·c<l n' the critical point
of oxysen, nolwithKlnnclins l hnt he had Rpproached it.
ln 188iJ there nppcnrcol the report in which,., Wroblewski
and Olv.owsld pulrlishcd their hl\\ing succeeded in pre·
ducins li'jnelicol nitros;en, ru1<1 cRrbonic o:ridc
in a static COIIIlition lay clc,·cloping the methods nnd
oppnmtua Clllplo.' cd Cnillelel; they hnd, more
cspcc.illlly, obtttinc<l lor the rcfriserntion of oxysen 1\
tmnpemture ol - l U:I,Jcs;. Cent. by e'"nJKimting ethylene
nt llprcssurc of 2· 5 em. n1crcury. Also Cnillclet himself
described' in the &lUlie .''''"r his •· continuonEiy nclins"
opparnlus. The henceforth in usc were bRSed,
exception. upon tho condcosnlion nn<l
e\'aJKirl\tion of \'olntilo substRnecs- cnrbonic n.nh\'dride,
ethylene. oxysen nnd rcnderc<l il to ronducL
lhe numcrous 1m·cstil:"lions on the p •y&icnl properties of
liquefied ,SRSes, lor which we 11rc cMpccinlly indebt<d to
Ols7.cwakl , nod lnrthcr to Dewar, which 11\llcr had loJ.
lowed since 188-1 upon the nbo,·c·mcnlionccl expcri·
mentors, and hnd probnbly brought tho liqnclyinc
appnrntus-construclccl on the principle juat referred !o
-to the srcntest cOiciency hitherto ntt.nined.
I mn; be penuill-cd lo reproduce n drnwing nnd 1\
descripl1oo of these nppnrntus pubUshcd by Dewnr in
188-1'-Fig. 2. .. The oxyscn or nir reser\'oir C is mrulc
FTc. 2
-· r
of iron ; It conlnins gns compressed, for com·cnionco, to
l GO atmospheres. A Is the stop·cook lor reg\IIRting the
preuurc of the S<IS In the glans tube F, and D is the
pressure·mMomeler, the fine copper t ube which connect&
the g1111 resen·oir anti the slr1ss tulre F bein" shown at I.
The nir·pmn!' S'"IJ:!C is 111nrked J, the tube fending to the
double oscil nllns BirUlchi bcins nttno.hed at n. The
slasa t eKl tube G, which contnios the liquid etbylcoe,
carbonic ncid, or liquid nitrous oxide, which is to be
boiled in \'ftCUO, is plnced in the middle of 11 larger tube ;
it hns boles, shown nl E, in the upper part , 10 thnt the
cool ''apours In t heir course to t he air pump are forced to
pass round the outsiale of the venel 11.0d help to guard il
{row external radiation. When t he pump baa reduced
tho pressure to 2!i 111111. the ethyle.ne hl\8 a l4mpei'ILture
of about - J.IO aleg. Cent., n pressure of between 20 and
30 atmospheres is t hen to liquid oxygen
in the t ubo F."
Subsequently in June, 1886, Downr described 110
improi'CIIJICnl of lhia apparatus in thit .. Proceedings .. or
lhc Roynl Institution: "The npp1U11.tus is illuetmted in
the accompn.nying diagram, where " copper l)U:e is seen
pusing throush a \'e5sel kept constantly fulfof elher and
solid cMbonlc nciu. Elhylcoc is cent through thiR lube,
and Ia liquefied by the intense cold. • • A continuous
copper l obe about 4Git. Ions;. coo,·eying oxygen, passu
through tho outer ,·esscl, nod then through t hnt contain·
iog t ho liquid ethylene. The lntter c,·nporntes lhrcush
the spnce between the two \'O&scls, nnd thus intense cold
is produced, whorcby is liq_ucficcl in the t ube to
tho extent occnsionnlly of 2'2 cubic ccnUmelrcs nt ooo
Lit no.''
Since 18lll Dewar h11S eu1ployed lor his demonslratioos
nnd in,·cslisnliona nn nppnrulus of still srenler efficiency,
ol which photosrnphic oxlcrnnl representations ba\·e been
published in the " Proceedings .. of the 11oylll J natilution,
ldii., 481
l\JIU wi1.h which he is uule tO proOIICc llifuid
oxygen " in pinlt.''
The IBtest prosrea&iYe step in using the nbo,·e·descril:ed
Bppnratus lor G1lllliquolnctlon hl\8 been accomplished by
Olncwski In 1895,• who nlrcndy previously h!Ui deter·
mined from t rnnaitory mist formnlioo of hydrogen its
critical pressure. nnd who suhscqucnlly demonstrat-ed ill
critical temperature, nod i!R boiling point.-sec Table I .
- by cxpnodlng hydrogeu-coolcd to - 211 des. Ceot.-
lo this presstlr<:, 1\nd down to ntmospbcric pressure. n
wns, howe,·er, to produce liquid hydrogen in
n static state.
The problem of gns liquclnction 111\s thus, wilh lhls
single exception, been effected in the physicnllnborntorics
by sucb methods, with nuch npplianccs, nml by such
mensurements thnt n repetition of the experiment Is
possible lor nny expert with the requisite. mel\ns at his
disposnl. It will, bowc\'Cr, hnrdly require nny spccinl
troof tbnl t hese by tbeir complicRtion and cost.
ineas, lUG Wl&uit-nblc lor introduCing lhe liquclnclion into
general Md lnduslrinl I•mcticc. The 11ppnrntus ns
• . .


cmtrloycd by Cnillclot, nnd l.lcm1r In u herein p 1 -ll: denotes the difference between tho prossurcn
of \'nricd plll'lection, canslal.ti,ll conlinuouu production 011 expressed in ntuiOSJihcres Wld T tho nbsoluto tclll(lcmture
u. l11rgo scale be contcwpluterl, or three e\'llllorntivc or the jet. 1L is UJlOD this, fi rst oight ntiJlllrenUy \'cry
1'1:lrigcrnling ms':hinc.s, or which tho cruploys cnr· insignilicuot dccre1111u of .t cleg. Cent.
bonic rmhydritlc, tire sccoull ruul the thiru per ntruospbcre nL or.linnry teurpcrnturoa ol wntcr-Urnt
oxygen; no tilt !1cellnat be llcmu!l&trntcll Jnstnl· the relr!gemti\·e nction ol tbc new Ia oxcluoi\•cly
la.tion lllld workmg of such nmcluncd woulll IJc 1nsepa.r. bused. Although rcCrigcriiUon cnpnblo ol being par·
nblo from cxpcrue nnd cllillcultics to exc.ludo fanned by n single c11aebnrgc, even uodor n very grcnt
their nr.tioMl al•l•licntion for lmlustrinl Shoulrl difference ol pressure, nppe11n1 \'cry aUght, It
such 1111 llppllcnlion be inlerulcd, then crm only. be is to nc:cumulntc affect or nny
11.nh·cd nL by flU' •lnttrlcr nntl chen1•er clc,·iccK. desired number of dischnrgcs by trnnslerrinu-

- -·- . ..,

"' ... ...
Nov. 13, 1896.
mente br, this nppnnr.tua hn\'c been porfonncd la Mny,
18Ur.. 'lho com1Jrea&ar of nn cxJatlog cnrhoolc ncld cold·
' 'npeur cogino served "' nlr compressor, bringing per
hour nbout !!0 oubio motrea !rout nn n\'OfOQO ol 22
nbuo&(lhorea to na 11\'emgc ol OG ntmoopborca. Fig. 4
represents tho doorenaing tompernturco down to UrlUO·
lw:Uoo. ln thla co.sc tho lube Bll{lu.rnlua H conal.lltcd
of t wo iron cacll of 100 wetrea length, 1111d of U
n n• 1
' . . ' •' r
• • ,. ...
l.llstini:Uiahcd CDboincc rs hn,·c: intlccll nttemptcd to in tbo way fln;L iodicnted by Sil!lllcua-cnch
aoh·o thiS problem. The ciTorto Willie: in this cllrection reduction o{ 1111 is produced by
hA\'e, howe\·er, noL become gcncr.11ly known, nod up ,t o one dlacbnrge to t ho com1Jrcsscd nlr pre\·ioua
the lnst lew wonlha hn\'O bccu relcrrcrl to in Ut.ern· to ita subsequent disebnrge, nod so Ia obtllln
tnre, piobnbly by rtllSOO ol Urcir rcmnincd entirely " nn inllefimtc reduction or t cmpemturc." If
fruitless. now nrise.s the objection that tlio worl1 rcqul-
. . .
In 1855 n WM grnntctl to .J::rne»t Soh·ny for nn aile for compressing t ho air nt vory blsh proS·
nppo.nr.tus {or producing extreme (elnpemturca." Uy 5ure WQ.)' pro\'e La bo disproportionnLcly grent ,
it Soh·ny propoJes, owongat other to employ the IL mny be meL by the consldcmtlon, thnt
colllproduced " to Uqul!r\' nny ljBS whnt3oe,·c:r, nod wore tho difference ol pre&ouro 11
- p,
ututaspbcric nfr." The 1•roccsa which must intlced be tbo ol corn-
he hero Gdopto J.s idcntic:nl wit h thnt for which Willi 11m (Jrcssive work docs noL depend UJIOO tbla
Sicwen.s htld nlrc.:1dy in 185i clc:positet!
"pro\'iliioonl tllffcrc.nce but frorn the rntio of prcsaurc.a 1!.!
speclficoUon" cont!Uning the !ullowin:; I'Blllnscs:-" Tbc J'•
in,·enUon rclnks to uml rclnccrutlnJl by t he nnd It is pouiblc to l!eap this rntio amnU
CXllllll!loo of nlr or clu.stic The: nir Ia COlli· e\'Cil lorn lnrse dilTercoce o( rrcssurea.
· prc11scd by n cyliot!cr or puurpa or nny uuitnblc construe. UcrcwiUc the lundruuentn were
lion, by which the is rnlscrl, nnd IL Is coolerl l:i\'cn for the const ruction of t bo nc:w mnchine.
while ln the compressed stnte, nod it is then ..!lowed to The ao.we is roprcscntd rli!lgro.tlllllGLicnlly by
cxpnnd in n cyllodcr or cncluu ol nny Nuitnblc cooalruc. Fie. lJ. Tho ga.s to bo mny pro·

. . . . .
• •
. . • •

• •

1' •

. . .



. •
I, • I 'l •
:r 'I' ..
r . I· . -f
. .
I t


. ,..
• ••
•Iii "
Uou, by which ita tcwpcmluro is lowl!rcd. Tho nlr UIUs sently suppose It to be air - Ia brought by
cooled Ia brousM In couluct with the urticlcs to bo coolcll the cow pressor 0 from tho p reuure Jl• to tho .
or frozen, nnd Is then conducted throuch nn lutcrebnnger higher pressure 1'•· During Us pa.ssngo through n cooler nod 0 cent. lntcmnl dinmoter reapccUvcly, which wcro
or npp!lratud, by which It Ia runllo to cool tho cou1prencd Jt tbo bent of cow pression Is lmpnrtcd to wclJ.wntor or Inserted lata co.c:h olher, hcllcnlly coiled Md fitter! to
air which enters tbc intorchJUlSCrinthc oppoliltu direction. to nny other body nclupted for tho rccolllion of hca.t Mil timber supports, the rt!SpCCUvc lllm8 being cnrcfuUy In·
• • • Tho principle' of the irwcntiou Is nd11ptecl to 1•osscsslng n suitnblo tompernturo, tho COIII!>rcaacd lllr sulnted by rnw wool from eBCb olhcr, nnd townrda tho
produce nn BCcuwuh1ted or nn lmlelioltu reduction being thereby reduced to i.he temperature 1
• II, then, exterior. The uretnl wel!lhl of lbls tuba nppo.nr.tua with
of Lcwpcrnture." this nir be pmsscllllirecUy lhroua;h n throtUlug \'nlve, nnd tho collector nntl its fitting& nmountcd to 1800 kilos.,
We here combioa:ion ol n c;,ld·lllr nod tlria considen1blo CliU&ed n period of tcmpcrn .•
of t:s=l desisn "ith a he.:>: inten:l:nm:er. which tnnsle:;; Fo&:. :J l ure llecrcnse or liltcc.n Aftcr_eou.lllbtiwu-bcloc-
:dceUon o! .. Cram a.tli:>.ba.ti.:.-f--.- --- --·-- .----,·------ nuoi" thrca litrea o! liquid per hour wcro
- - =::- · :.... - ---· :Oing .:yirilucr loufc c:owprcsndli.lr o\Jtlllned. Tho nnnlysis of tbla Uquld-Jrnrt of which ba.d
Jl=eruus tD i!5 OI4'Il expntaioo, c:nusin;; the limil.a of 1'
1 1
C\'nporatcll onillg to tho reduction of prc&&urc !rom
• tcmpe:utnre for the working in the: e.xpa.usioo 22 to 1 nu uospherea-demon&trntcd the pres en co or obouL
cylinder continually to decrense. This princitrlo hns been 'iO per cent . oxysen. The liquid w1111 of crystal elcnrncll

or ncwh· diaco,·erecl, not onh· lly Soh·ny but ol'o nntl .Wowed n bluish colour. -
by , SC\' Cnr.l other putcoleca.' 'l'hc clfecti\'encn for the },'or lurtber t eal.a a Whitchetld COIIll'fCI&Or' Will
or • tcwprnr.turcs, down to t he liqucfGC· employed bringing nbout 80 cubic metres of nlr of
lion or the workiog gllH, is, In t heory, indiaputnblc. llul ntruoaphcrlc pressure to lllli1Venr.go of ':1"0
nothlag hu bc:cn liennl of its hewing been put into Tbe counter·euncnL nppnnr.Lua consists of t wo tubes,
· ?:D prGCticc, il we cxcet• t the by Sol\•ny ench SO m. long, poueaalog 10 mm. Wld ·10 mm. iot emnl
«:;:---9 referred to below. '.rile prncUcnl leo.silollity must indeed dlnmotcr re.spccti\·cly, nnd weighing liOO kilos.
bo doubtcll from tho lollowlua; rcnsons :- 11 we !mnginc Tho period a! tcmpernturo decreASe wna hero flvo hours, ns
tbc procc'6 to be CIU'ricd ouL \lit h atmospheric air down shown by Fig. li. In this c1111e t ho JiquciGCtion Ia

to tho temperat ures iuUllcdilltcly its li•JUelnc· In n c.losct! \'e&scl placed within the collector, Into which
l ion, we nrc obligcll to coullldcr nll foreign rnlditlons to nny kind of gns lliiY dealred pressure mny be
l'L- the nlr, na wnt cr, .\:c., nncl nil tncccs or introduced from without. By the lnLiocluetlon of air nL

xS ·_.1:2
I . \
i= -
tbc lubricnnl, reduct.od to o wolld eorulitiou. Hereby the
worldng of 1111 cxpnnsion c\·Jinrlcr with ILK ll!.stributing
gcnr Ia GCtunlly rendered· Those hn\'ing
dealt such low tcrupernturcs nrc IIWnrc of the
dillicaJUes nrislng merely from the mrtnlpulntion with 11
alwple atop·cock. Besides, it would be cxccedinsly
diilicult, il not illlJlOSSiblc, to prated the expnnslon
cyllotler, witb il.a dthing a;cnr, so perfectly ngninst the
in!lux or bc!lt, os is irnpcrnt h·e nt such low tumpern·
tu:c;. It will thu11 not ut nil IJc prncticnble to reneh
these latter. This nppcnrs t o l1e conlirruerl by the
cotnmunicntion laid by Solvny before l'nrls Aea.Iewy
in December, 1611.i,
Cuilletet, in which be ·
i lAI.u:-"The lowest t cmperGturc 1 succeeded l.u U1us be oxpnnded fro1n p, top,. t ho relrigcmt!oo 0 cone·
is-!15 deg., 118 bcyonll this point tin: losses or spending to the rclt1tion 1 will cn&uc. I n onlerto lmDlller
cold were in excc.a of the cold produccll." tho reduction ol obtlllned to ll1c air lntcnt!cd
nc1o • tl rc: end ol Mny, lSOG, presently to be dischnr,;ed nnd to effect u further rcfrigern·
the Author hAa explllloed und ahown nt work, bolero lion, u tube.avstcm R is betwce.n the cooler null
h . r b . . h I ll Uie Urrottling \'N\"1) r, t hrough which both Ute COWIICCIBcd
"' l)lll cnng
em , LH, nn encincerd, nt air is led to t he tbrotUio,. ,·aJvc, nnt! tho -• r J'ua' dla-
llnnich, 11 llll1:hioc conwtiug only or un ulr com- o "' •
(lreii<lr, au oruinMy cooler. null lwu hcut inter· nod cooled is caused to In no O(lposlto
chnn;cn;, null eopllblo of lltjltch·iug ('er hour &D\'cml dut. 'l!t ton to the cowttrcssor, tbua rcnc.lung tbo sruuu with
lit res of ntwospbcrie air. Thl• ui!lc.hhrc: "i'l'Cilri,
tho n ltmpc.ruturo 1., which will npproru:h t ho ruoro clo£c.ly
one: hn.nd. to bn,·e solwd the proiJic:ru ul uccOin(rlishiug tbc tcwtrcrnture 1,. tho wuro c.ourplctcly the lotcrehiWgo
!-be or air in llllY qua.nt.ity in
simple lllld or !rent I& uiTcetcd by tiro
luerpentil\'C lliiUlller, anrl,
tire otlrcr huud. to enublo The temperature I, of tbc nir nrri\·lng to tbc throttling
ono to rcnch in tbc

t he loweGt being rcd.uced by the ulr rcfrlscmted to '•
tcmpcrnturee mnttcr Ia nt nU currnble of ntt.uiniug. Ill consecJU<mce ol 118 dJschnrso, nod I, rcmlllning ulwny•
The uctlon of tbls new runcblne coru•i•ls in eliruinntlng below I, IJy lhc: nmouut ;;, lu plain tbnt., cowlucnclng
bent from tho gns to be lirtnofiell cxdudh·cly by e.x(rcnllJ. from tho setting to work or tho tunchino, both tcwpcrn·
t urc ol intcrunl work Wltil reduction below the criticnl lures ood I, must coll,tnntly dcercnse until c•JIIiHIJrium
pou1t null contlcnsaUon hru; been 'l'ho Is cstublishc!l either by 11 con'I'Ollllltinc untnmco of lrcnt
trrocess luucll oulbt: nttrncth·u rorcc11
betw.:ou I rom ouhllle, or by n libcrnt on of lntcrnnl bent . Tho
the ""allcst putidea, lor the of which lntter tnlics plru:c whrn liqucfuctlon ol ulr In ll>c
iuternnl work is coosuwcd. This
ny nppcnr surprising, collector G, thnt when tbc temtrcraturo or sa.turntion
115 contrnst ins with the n:riom by nil physicists corresponding to the pressure p, Is nttnincll. !•'or tho
• which thcsc_inturnnllnrcog (lllf(lCHe of Jilling tho 11111chiuo with 11ir, 1111d uuc!ntnininy
l---;nrc uuperccptibly Gmn\1 {or thu

lntlccrl, 'Liii: jlrt:dsureH P• Biiil P-,- rliirlag tbu decrcnsc or tom peru.
the: trut.b of Mnri?ttc'a unt! hlws dot•cuds unt! tho lirJuefnction, Ia neccHsnry to introduce
upon tbra nsauruption, nutl lrou
these 1
it btw been mto the cycle t he correspondins of nir by
is llcceptccl by nJI
1 atutcd by wca.ns of 11 sccourl comprclll!or or otherwise, nt u.
nil 0 coJil.nlr uraclunu not Iitteil with lUI !.luring tho t•eriod or dec:renswg tempcmLurco llown to
c:xpU116ion cylinder cnonot. proclucc coltl nt u\1. Still, It tcmpcrnturc of lir1uolnction, only lhu <IUrcntity of
was n wcll·kaown !net thnt t ho Iowa rcrcrrcd to were mr, !Jnt t1lso the lunas of tbo tubo·nplrunr.tuo 1111d of U1o
&trictly npplicnble to nlr, unt! it hnll bce.u llomon· coUector must be This period \\ill require n
6 tmtell wore thnn thirty yenra nso be· Tloow•on cwd lon:rr or shorter tiwc, nccorcllag to Uru mtlo bot weco t ho
Joule lh11\ nt t ho pnssing ol nir from n lii;;hcr to 11 lower col Jlroduccd and lhi& '
1151 Wld its apcclllc hcnt-
l'n:Jsurc & ccrtnln nruount of cool inc c)- intlt:[ICntlent of phyaicnlly tcnncd tbc o( tho appnnr.tua.
tin: dynnwlc rcfrigcrntlun, which currc• J•onrls to the II be n_cnbe ol dcnling with hifh preuurcs p
, ns It wiU
cncrsy ol the jot-is I•roducctl, for which t!Ju r elntloo Lc rerJuiutc lor n high o cllicicncy, t ho " 1rnter·
Let weco the LcmpCl'llturc norl pressure wns G.:lccrloluorl bccolucs ncccssnrrly con&ldcnr.blc. But I! p
by U1eao cxpcrimeoton; :- tnkcu 111 one ntmosplu:re, tho uutcr t ube of tho counter·
- = O·!!- ,tl ( J'• _ J•.J .. . (I) cun ent c::u: bol entirely dlapcnaed with, noll
rc(!lucct! b): eylli•dri.cnl oC \' cry awull wuter ·
--------------·=--------· Itrs thus (IDssrble t o reduco t ho tlmo rcquidite
c Ua lb.; ::lnJ.l!l'l,J•c:. II'Ulbw II>IIIJ-•u •I'J•hii,,J" "J•tvThlo""'l for the period of ti!JII(ICftltUro dccrCUC ucnrJy to uny
•J..::itc:ollua,· "TI:c '"''"' crcl• d ""''l'h' " '""· """""· ... tlcliircd liruiL, 111111 all tllo lllore tiD II port or t ho tcmJICrll•
C-1)\W.a.Jon., 1.a tu W Lt uaha6: all tbc a. -"'-• alter II• u:.suu•h4a w t d b 1 ·' b 1
uc.ulr .. J..-llolo lo u .. owu lcw
o:rJintu rlou "''"J•roo•o.l ..... nrc ccrensc c per onneu Y pre. iwlnury rofrlcomtlon
'-W<h u uu teo v•r w t.: uJ"UUI..t.- Urrough cnrbooic ucid or ot hcr\\isc. '
: t"owrt. llw<L, IS • Rr(Jrrimnrlnl rn u/t..-Tbe lln;t &ucee&slul CXJICri·

I II • '2.' 'l J s

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threo lltmospherco littlo more ll111n ana litre or llqui!l is
obtained per hour, BJI(Icnring nt first cloudy nnd whlllab,
but niter llltmtion dcnr, lllld possessing tl1c EO.WO con·
utitution 1111 tho ntnrospbere.
A third Kerics of experiments bns been mo.dc with n
Brotherhood compressor, which .brousht nbout 22 cubic
metres . oLnir. . •c. t-:- . a.n• n\'Cll'lcsc. n r_ -
100 ntwoaphcrca. The copper t uba nppa.mtua H,
po6sesslng n weight ol only llO kilos. , tho period or
tcml'emturo dccronae is reduced to two houn. The
llr(urd is collected in n gllllls botUa:-o·D lllro per llour-
nt ntmcsphcric preuurc, lllld allows nbout ·10 per ol
oxygen. Dy prcliminnry roCrl;;enr.Uon tbroucb cnrbonlc
ncld, tbc: period of tcmpc:roturc dccrcnso Ia reduced to
le&s thnu one hoar._·
(To k "'"lin•td.)
Oun reodCI'I! hA\'e probably aeon mentioned in tho dnily.
pa.pers tho pnrliamentary return of t ho fleets of tbc chic!
na,·nl powen presented to tho House of Collllllons llllt
scnlou, ortly reccotly printed nod publlahcd. In th],,
the tlects ol Grcnt Dritw.n, Frnucc, llnuiR, Oenua.ny,
ltnly, lllltl tbc United Sta.tca nrc clcnlt with, tbo t Wpa
bclng c.lassified la !epa.rntC llsto, na (1) bnttloahlpo,
nod buUdlag; (2) crullers, built lllld bulllliog; (U)
defence ships ; (4) torpedo veascla, e11tchers, Md boa.ta.
The inlonna.llon gi\'co is to bo found prncllc.a.lly la




. -


20, 1896. THE ENGINEER. 5(,!)
· ··- ·-· --
Dr llr. I.ISIIK, or )lunltl!.
(C011rl•olrd/ro• J'09< 4E11)
· Spuifie of nir.-In onler to C!Xplnln tho (ollon;ng
ln\·esUsntlonK concerning tho eflicioncy of the new
it Ia noccssnry to refer to ccrto.Jn concluRlons
resulting from the proeoaa ltcro performed nnd henring
u;,n the apeclfic hent of nlr. It Is stnteolln text-hooks
o pbysic1, to experiments by Rcsnnult nnd
others, tbnt r, is entirely or nearly Independent of
pressure nnd Lcmpcrnturo. Although this Rtntcmcnt mny
within tho onllno..ry limits of prcuure nod tempcrnturo be
sufficiently correct, it loUon'A from t ho Inn· cxpruncol by
lormuln 1, thnt tbls in no lons;cr the Cl\80 lor hiRhcr prco-
lillreJ nod lower tompcmture11. U Is truo t hnt Thomson
nod Joulo bn\'o detennincd this formuln from
menls mndc only wllhin ntu'TOW litnlb, but the tcmpern-
turo Cllr\'CB roprcsenLccl by ll nntl 4 pro\·e thnt Ute
rclrigerntion li a I, - 1,, lncreBBes nctnnlly, down to very
low tcmporntnros, in n mnnncr proportionnl to
the aqunro of tho nbsoluto tempcrnturo, AA rcgnrds tho
dependence of p 1 - p,, our experiments alto\\' thnt u p to
pressures olnboot 'iO ntmoaphmcs tho IISIIUmption o! its
being proportioned to & Is nt leut nppro:dmntdy correct,
whnst ot higher oh1oluto }lreuurcs, 0 nppenn to !ocrense
moro a! owly thnn p1 - p,, n !RCt which Ia nlao enpo.blc of
thcorolicnl dcmonstmtion.
II wo lmll£ino tbnt In the tube nppnmtua II (cxchttling
ol·cry other lntcrcho.ngo of energy), t ho qunntity of hent
W bo obaLrnoted from the nlr-corrcnt plll!aing down\\'nrds
o.t U.o pressure p
so thnt Its tempcrnture ho rcducccl from
I, to 11 , nntl further, tbnt by its pDURRO throush the
throttling-\'rui'C it is cooled to 1,, ADd t.hnt it rcceh·cd
during ill rcLum the tube oppa.rntue n ngnin tho
nrcc amount of he:>t W which hns JUSt been nbstrndcd
··r:,.rc it. the :estllling temperature 1
most be the
u if t.!:e c::: -' "·' L;_ ·• "l.- • ...... __ .,:..,.L. _
... - ·· - ·• Uoo.4 •• - ..;:;l:
i§al==t C'1 the ;Obci app:u-atus li),
lisa hem cmecUy • to tlie prcasuro P:· W c
Obtain thUJ-
W - c,1 (11 - 1,) = <',: (1
- 1, ) • • f-)
wherein <',1 <',1 roprcacnts tho R\'orngo of tho apccilic hcnt
hetweno lbe corresponding limits of tompcmturc.
'According to (ormuln 1, t ho difTcrenco of tcmpcrnturea
- t, being greo.ter thnnl
.- 1
, It foUowa undoubtedly
thnt Lbo spcelllo bent of n1t inerenses with tho prcnurc nnd
deercnsca with tho Lcmpnmtnro. If tho correct l'nloes
o! tho 1pecl6e bent ahn.ll bo determined, It Is ncce&snry
to know tho cortCCt \'tlluea of tho rolrigcrntlon ii nnd
tho correct \'lilac o( t', for n dolinlto p'ronuro •
,. Ualng tho lonnuln of Thomson nnd ' .Tonia lor 1i In the
{ . ·· a..:; •.
.. ., :: •
; T T p,-p
t\ c:r • - , = n T.. • • • .•
it lor nn Indefinite tmnll difTarcnco or rrr ... surc-
11 T = " . . , , , (·I)
1\nd by
• '
T.- '1',= II'' fp,-pJ • • •
• (ii)
I! ulculatc frorn (G), the ncton.l nrnounls or cooling,
we nrril'e, hu;crting the l'ruUCR obtnincd into rclntion (2),
a! the rcrpecti,·e ratio of lipCclfic bent for t ho two pres·
sores p, nnd p.. .
Frean on C.llpcrimentnl ln\'cstisnUon by Witkowski'
(betwecD - 170 des. nnd +

Cent.), there rt!sults,
that c, poueucs for infinitely prc11ures p, n con-
tilant l'G.Iue which Is independent of U1o t.cmpomlure, nnd
approximately \'ezy closely to O·!!!li. II this \'n.lue ho
em{:laycd, we obtnln lor l'o.rious pressurca nnd tompern-
tarcs tho ''nlues of t ho bent, nccortllng to t bo
T.lOLT. H.
would nccortlincly rise quickly nt clccreBBinJl temp ern· Assuming 1
= T
• l'i tlcs. Cent. , 1: ..,· a·u Cenl.
hireR. WhiiKt, lor lor T = 17 + !!ill tlog. 1111tll, = - 1·10 Cont .; nnd, B!lsumlng the (onnuln of
Crnt. the 1•cr nbnoKphcre nmounta TltomFun nnd .louie beinl( nppllen\Jlc for pressl\"res until
only to O·!!Jj deg. Cent., t ho onmc will lor 200 ntmoo:phcreJI, we lint! Ute \'nluca of '1. 1\ntl • eon.

i.t'., for 1 • -1!!.'1 dog. Cent.tncreMe nlrctuly lniucd In the following:-
- T.•nr.r. Ill. .
to 1 deg. Cent. lJcaldes, the fipccllic hCAt r, incrCAl!cs nt l'rcuurv. l t'c = iO ... 100 ... ...
t]ccrCM1ng tempcrnturcs, AtncCHph. I 1': - ... r.O ... •·' ... w
It l.ld 1 I I I I = D·1i ... 0•.!-1 ... ... O·H
wou. , 1011'0\'CI', 1e crroneDIItl to en cu nto t tc • = O•O!ol ... O'Oi4 ... O'!!.il ... 0·:110
rclriQcrnti\'O effect nt tlisposnl from these \'nluco. In Sr.l'•mtlill!l •:1' cor!I!JCII.-Tn llt)ttelylng o.Jr It hnd

ordor thnt the compreasccl nlr nrrh·lng to tho throttlins been ohecn·ctl by ph\'SiclKts tlmt.
tho one bnncl, IL•
\'nh·o. mny bo depr!\'cd of the <rt (t, - 1,) tlte return- conslilncnta- we slmli eon•icler in the nitm:;cn
lng nu-ns abo"'" m tlto preccthng cuo.ptcr-ruusl rccci\·c nnol OXYRCn Rimultoneously into the liljni<l
the 1111110 nmaunt of hcnt r,, (1
- IJ, RO thnt on the atRlc, Ute balling poinL of nr,l
bent c,., (1, - I') rcmninA n\'o.Jloblo ns rclrlgcmlh·e duh·, below tbnt of oxycen, nnd on thl!
i.e. , only thia cnpnblc of being pcnnnncntly nbatrnctcil. other hnml, the more I'Olntile nitrogen lir<l
Thin <tu<tilnble cluty IR <}llito ln•lapon•lcnt of the temper>l· cluring re·C\'1\]tOrnlian; t he llcJttid ia t huQ
t urcR I, nnd 1,, tbiR ternpcrnturo only lnRoenclng the nd d • 1 · tl 1 tl t'
nmounl of JoaMC8 which ia to La dcduoLctl from the nvo.JI. r: nc
In oxygen tC ongcr
° lOll
ohio duly in order to fincltbc <tclunl relrigcmU\·o onlcicncy. In tltil' the hl\'nrinbh· toc-lc
Thoro a.ro cspecil\lly two Rnch loasca to be lnkcn In can- plncc In
ch n mnnner tlmL nlr nt

altlomtlon•• :- Jcrcaauro 1\'RS into eoutnct with aurfnccs, which
(I) '!bo loss, "" resulting from nn imperfect Inter- were, on their other Ailh:, lo tho
clmngc of !tent. The returning nir docs not cxchnngo in .te
cmturc by e\'nporntion _of oxygen, far inRt.nnce.
tho countcr-cummt nppnmtuK Ita tompernturo pcrlcotly Tho 6111110 r esult wns oht.nincollty tho cxpctimcntR nbo,·c
to Ito but lcn\'ClH the confer n·llh nlowcr tcmpcrnturo 1., mentionccl with t he new • ClB Ions ns the
"·hence conditions for li!jucfnction were idenLicnJ.II Such expcri
V, = G "•' (1,- 1,) • • · • (ij) mcnts, howe\'cr, "ith the new In which tlm
II I, = 1
, then t ho enUre Al'o.llnblo coltl woulcl be con- ICJtnmtlon of, the liquid \\'llA effected from the
Wncdln tho n.lr current returning to the com presser, nnd current or ntr pcrlonning the cycle, demonalrnted t ho
no colt] nt nil could be impo.rlctl to tit a interior of tho ccf n consitlcmhlo ourplns of oxyscn. It thus
oppnrntuA; tho tl!icicncy wonlol be • 0. becnmo oll\·iouM thnL licJ11Cfnd!on nncl ro.o\·npornllon of
12) Tho loss, \' :• cnusctl by tho lnRux of hcnt lr"u n1t woultl conRtitute n wctltotl lor scpnmtlng it
outside by comlnct!on nnd rndintlon, which CAreful mcchnnlcnl 'It is nat less e\·ident thnt , if n
mo.y ne,·er ljDitu prc\'ont; will , r11tionnl proccRs be o.Jmod tho scpnrntc
other ct.n:umstnncCR hctng be dependent upon '!'us.t nat be nllowetl to leo.vo the nppnrnt us clU1cr in U1cir
I, nnd 1,. II we dc&lgnnte tlus lo'R hljulll atntc or nt the low tcmpcrnture.R which hn.-e beEou
V, = 0 t',: (1,- 1:) • . , • (Ill nttnincd for l.i•tue!nction. Doth t he nnd nitrostn
(whcreiu-f, - 1: cnn determined C.llpcrituentnUy only hy be clc!ch!\r£c•l !rom the
JUCe:'J!ioing the dl!Te.-cnce_ of E_:-«inrc- 1\t. which- equili- to rclnm wtlcnl.-1 -
b::i;;·n cic ma•nmmeal t.hen the totnl lorRcs tho nppnrntns the entire 1\mount o! cold which wo9
will be ' neccuory lor their nnd
Y .. \"
+ Y, • G r.,.. (I, - h) , • • (10) IL Is pouible to cnrry tbiR out in the mnnncr
In order tho.t tho totnl losses ml\y ba co\·ercd t here Is -ropruontctl dinr;rarnmlltienlly by Fig. 0. The cern·
ncces;nry n difTorcnco In prcs;sura (npprox!mntcly) nir Is (nt 11) into two connLcr-c.urrent
R(l(lllt:lLUB (N nntl 0), it
p1 - p, o
1 -
• ('!r•)' , , , . , (11) "''· o iR ngnln united nL /,,
0·2iG 1 Oaw• the coil
Only by further incrcBBing tho olifToronec cl prcuuro It is S plnccd n;tbin the
ponlblo to produce no nctual (uaolul) coltl-ciTccl. eolrccllns \'esse!, nnd
· In the CXJ!Criment tleseribcd in Fis. 4, t here c... cl. is ultlmntcly
Willi found (fortho lowest Lcm)lorntures obi.Aincd) 'lt.. 1- ::l 0. through the
11 - I, • 2-2 dcg. Cent., nnd I, - Is _ G clcg. · h r' rcguiAUns \'Rit'c r,into
Cent. For n tcmpernturo 1
• 10 Cent. there • 1=1 r.-: the collecting ;
reRnlta limA 1\ toLnl 1oM of 1'1 - F: "' ·I ana pnrl.-mninly
(2•!! + G·O) .. 28·!1 ohnoa. • ·
gon-\11 hcrchy II que
Tho mlio of tho nclun\ to the nmllnhle cooling ofTcct iR d ··-····- lied, whiiAt tho olhcr
0 - . y a ll - 1
- 1': - 11: • • • (12) :..;:S-::-"Q: (!t pnrt-ehlolly nllrosc•
W W 1, _ I' J'• _
,, -relun1" t.hc
tuba npp1'mlns :\ntl
nnd t ho annul will lorn gi1·cn mncltlno incrcnso with in- the IURCitine nt
crensing difli
, The
• nr 118 nnce, J't - 1': - II lllRB, te 1111• c- nlr, Ly of t he
DDIIICtl, Ut ure r csu(LM fnr J'z = 70, nncl }': a 20 $ . .Ji.. coil S subnter"C<) in
· ntmos. W,: W .. Ll ' "
the lic1uitl,
It will bnrdly be ncccssnry to 11oint out pnrlicuiArly tbnt /. J_ bent to the Jntter, nntl
the refriccmtive effect lncrenacs with n -..; %: l!!lu
thus the et>op·
of tho templclrnllurei l,.t h k I th om l ion of II lo.rser or
, or na nncc, w en cop ng c pressures IIIDnllcr portion of the
just rclcrrccl to, tho compressed nlr ho rolri· .
nmo _ primnrily of
(lemted (by enrbonlc neltl) t o 11 tcmpcrnturc the nitrogen still pre·
11 <i - 'iO cleg., t here reaults from lormuln 0, Jt-l sent. Tho rcgnlntln:;
11 - 1
.. 27 dcg. Cent., nnd front lormuln !!,
r I ) .:>¥"5 vn.l\'C r, pennlt
.r.,. a 0·!!!1, RO thnt the rclrigerotl\·o effect, W
, • ;: ndjuatmcnt of the
here n\'o.lldo.blc Clnstc)on
tmsf tccldnith loS =:o:::;s ootOow of the li!jnid,
11 ::o JG eg. CD • K OUn to C t : \t -· ) &O thnt itS Jo\'eJ CAD
- O·!l!l. !!7 : 0•287 • I2·1i • !!·22. The rntio of bo
·nricd nl mU, nne!
tho ofTcclh·e cold production Ia n.lLcrctl st ill morn thnt conscljuently U.c nmount of ncth·o coil lillrfncc
rn\'oumbly hecnusc the loHsca rcmnin t he !lllrno. of s mny be RCcommodntcd to t ho nmoant of hcnt
Wo lind W,
: W, .. O·Oii, i.e., In pro\-lou1ly re· 1 ito r • rt 1 rtt t t1 the
frigomting tbo COntprOIIOll nlr under tho dolor· lCC)II I or ICCIIMOfl R CC 1\ D pu f 0 10 OXfJlCD ;
mined eondltloaa, tlto cfTcoU\·o cold production llquld ltMins; p:w;ccl t hroucb .r.--maro or c.ss pure
- - Oltjgen-cntcrs the counter-current nppa.rntas 0, nnd
"'-••rc(Aim.) 1. 10. • _ •o. ;o. too. . becomes U·G5 tlmCR srcntor Utnn without such there recci\'Cs from Ute compressed nir flomnc in tho
Ttmp. + !OC.' c. 0-:!408 o•..!.'ol:.! o•..!!.S.1 pre\'ioua relrigerntlon. opposite direction the bent which is requirctl both lor
o• '23;G '2UO '.!9SG In order to pnss from tho cold production to U.o "clll· omporntion·nncl lor the tcmpcrnturo.
- r.o• '2465 '.!Si:! -r.as ·:1319 clancy" of tho mncblnc, it is noccssnry to determine U1e Tho diHtribution of tltu compressed nir nt 11 Is ciTcctctl
: -2359 -:!SS!i '!!.S-1-l •3007 ·SUll CtJnh·nlcnt of the warlt of coruprc&Rion. by mcnns of tbe two \'Rh·cs c nnd 11 in such wise t hnt the
, ·5046 : if T1 - T: tho increo.sc of tcmpcrnturo during temperatures of Ute exit of the Clllle.a nl n nnd 0 o.rc cqunl
_ _______ ...:_ __ :._ _ _;_ __ .!-_._..:. 1_ _ tbc-ndinbnUc-comJlrcssion, U1c equh·nlent of the corrc- to ench other, cuul only " few desree.l lower t hnn the
A glnnca ot this tnblc u;n ahow how tho \'nlue al t>, •pontllnf: wo,\k/ll-G ( J originnl inlUnl tempcrnt11re of the c.ornp.res&ro nir. I n
lnetenaes mlh rising pruaures nnd dceteuiDS LcDipom•
= c, -;_· ' " ' .. ;n ' ' (JU) this f;DM11Cr is noceUIU'Y the by_ t?c
turu, nnd cnnblea ua to pnrcci\'O thnt quito erroneous JL 1ft well kna\\'llthnt !- !1 n (El) (rom which IDRClnnc of lim: of_ cold \\hlelt Ia
results wonld bo a.rrivcd nl II tho worldns proccu o( thn 2i8 + T: Pz .:' ! -t

• ·
J( - - - h -
a·,_- k , \) - ibl - ·t iUJM 111>\'C t 10 pDSSilcllit:y ol liepnra.!DI:
( t' f ,_ , ·n)
t o ow11 t m - a on uo cp. no smn llll pon e. per ltorRo•powcr nncl hour 1.1 that wny more tbnn o.-e
IOD o n cona. .. n.' uc o c,. 1'• bl t I . t k t I h lc n enure nntl
'l'lttrmorlynnntict'fficicncy.-Ithas nlrcndybecnpoinLed Now t he nl'nllnble efficiency Is- cu c rnc
ntr- n en n n molp cr , .r
• that tbe machine onder dl!c!U!ion represents tho W r • {I _ I') IlL orcllnnry Lcwpemturc.
inLennediate link between t he cold nir nnd tho cold AL .. r''t/ - T-l • • • • • • (1·11 ============
l'apour 'When considering its working cycle '
• • l::<tTto ST.\Tt.' Tont·ttx•r-'1.-Tho X•• York Tn1.••• .,.
, tbd
ns of 11 relrigcmting mnchinc, tho principo.l If wo the of
Camot tho Unilod n••·n1 nuthoriti .. huo tutr<l nnd found high1J. ·
ljUC&tion Lo be tlctcnnincd rclcrs to t ho rntia between formccl bet\\ con llnnts
• IIR to_bc the th.earol>_cnl ctatl.tlc>r:torr nn inoJ>ro<ed llowoU torpodo. 'I'ho no w torp<do I!
tbe cold produced nnd tho equi'I'Rlcol of the work of 111nxit!mm of c.O•clcnc-1' obtnrnnblo b) n re!t•gernllng lArger than •nr ol \hal typo r"'•loUJir tri•d, ••=•.of ita dimtn·

compression Cllpnnded, i.e , to the "cfficleooy." machmc, for winch effic•ency holds good tho lonnuln- aio"' boiog "" follow.: - • • 1togth, Hit. Gon.: lfT"'\lut
'V T diameter, lifn.: net weight of gun-eottoo in c.barge, \7·tlb. ; nel
II n dctcnnined weight of air Gat t he temperature I - ) = . •- ••ight of <h"rgo, 43 iHb.; ott wdgbt of dry
and p is dlschnrged from an orifice, and thereby A L '1', - 1', rot too in rrim<r, :! ·35lb.; immened dioplaccmonl In M> orat<r,
is cooled by
, then tbe cold produced is e1·idently equo.J then we obt.nin the tlccrmodynnmir cOicicnc.'' of the ne''" 1Ho0lb.; 1ounching weight ol to.,.do, U301b.;
to the hCllt necessary lor ro.l&inn the tempemture or the mnchine- 201b.; mea.o opecd o••• range or 400 1-'nb, 331tnot..; onr WI 1 . •·
h " 30 knot.· our COO van!•, 2S·S knott. The eatremo dTcc:1no
air again to I. This en,Vt is fo
und to be {") ( I, - I') 1,- I, • . , • . ( Hi) n.ogo, u'.,djuoted Cor rtgu1aroer<lco, ;1 1000 tho dcfl..,
. . = • • • .· • ' ... r,(.,.,-,,J '1, +27ll from boacn ftroalo•bipwllhooJ>eCd ollilioot.
6dcg.; • •
It w11l ro!ldtly occur to lnserL.mto tbls rclaltoo for nnd the efficiency (rcspccling the lorecs In the of lly-whoo1, 3011,.; mot\ efficient fly. whcol op<f<l ro:D
new mnc.hmo that rclrigcratton /i • 1,- 1, resnltm" •ppn-tus)- ro•olutlocu .,., minute; pilch of ocr•• at otart., Hen.; pttcb !'r
D p o p ..,.,. al ftnlib, 2!lin.; dU.mour of "'"'"• lOin. Tho toW dCJ·
from tho respeeli\'O before tiDd after the (I I')
1 1
piAccmoot ••lflht of a • tnbo l• 2:.!031h.: th&l
throt tling vn.l\'e-see Fisa. 8 nnd 4. The efficiency = ;,'(.,.,• = ... J . '• ';
; il • • • • . (10) of tho tubo proper 11531b.; of" <arrlafle, 4:tllh.; or !lSib.;
o( lhomolor 3301b.; or to owi••l, 20011o. 'I'ho wolgbt
tin lho lollo•lDR,IbO abtolulo l<mrt"'"'"' '"''" bo "PRA<Ot<>llofT, - -· - - --- - I -;:- nr a powdor '1••tc'n tb· -rt d"'O · ---· i• Got. - -··-··:--:--"
tho tttnrtnhlrH 'nbot'a Jltllnt of qtor 1,,. t T - :r.":li.JC$f 10 t
C'an 'Lc!,·orne hlgl1t r th:'" lain 08Clhf'l ua;t" tue tJ ""·- D ...
Ccat. f'Ountcr•Cllnvnt "1'1"""'"" U ptcvlon,tr c:c)Oird to 1\ t tlrnpcr:shuc ' •· whlrh -c:-:::c:-:-:- ·- --
, .
I 1 I I 1
n 11
1, ll.) .t t ....,.u tin· r::a.!t" lu the fl \ reJin.'ft nt,.,l ')' ,.-g.:...
' DutJ. de l'A..ad. •lc Cr:u-o..-t,., Ottol.oer-SO\' tmber. '' C'OU•1dfmWy owl'r t L'n t u: ttmtK' r:.t\\tc n t 1t toom •

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