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2.5 A steel is being considered from the design of a pedestrian bridge over busy street.

The steel has a Kic value of 80 ksiin at 0F and a yield strength of 100 ksi.
Prepare a curve of allowable design stress versus crack depth for an edge notch
in a 40 in widw plqte loaded in tention.

Diketahui
Kic =
100 ksiin
2b =
30 in
b=
15 in
ys =
40 ksi
Untuk design sama dengan ys
a
2
0.3249188
0.33196803
0.33193805
0.33193817
0.33193817

a/b
0.13333
0.02166
0.02213
0.02213
0.02213
0.02213

K(a/b)
0.88395
0.87452
0.87456
0.87456
0.87456
0.87456

acr
0.3249188
0.331968
0.331938
0.3319382
0.3319382
0.3319382

Untuk design sama dengan 0,75 ys


a
2
0.57763341
0.58825745
0.58817738
0.58817798
0.58817798

a/b
0.13333
0.03851
0.03922
0.03921
0.03921
0.03921

a/b
0.13333
0.08665
0.08743
0.08741
0.08741
0.08741

75 ksi

K(a/b)
acr
0.88395 0.5776334
0.87594 0.5882575
0.876 0.5881774
0.87599 0.588178
0.87599 0.588178
0.87599 0.588178

Untuk design sama dengan 0,75 ys


a
2
1.29967518
1.3113903
1.31119346
1.31119677
1.31119671

100 ksi

K(a/b)
0.88395
0.88
0.88006
0.88006
0.88006
0.88006

acr
1.2996752
1.3113903
1.3111935
1.3111968
1.3111967
1.3111967

50 ksi

Untuk design sama dengan 0,25 ys


a
2
5.19870073
4.98993416
5.00330008
5.00244328
5.0024982
5.00249468
5.00249491

a/b
0.13333
0.34658
0.33266
0.33355
0.3335
0.3335
0.3335
0.3335

K(a/b)
0.88395
0.90226
0.90105
0.90113
0.90112
0.90112
0.90112
0.90112

25 Ksi

acr
5.1987007
4.9899342
5.0033001
5.0024433
5.0024982
5.0024947
5.0024949
5.0024949

Sehingga dapat dibuat hubungan antara tegangan design dengan panjang


retak,
seperti dibawah :
acr
design
0.3319382
100
0.5881780
75
1.3111967
50
5.0024949
25

Hubungan Tegangan design dan depth crack

Tegangan design

120
100
80
60

Series1

40
20
0
0

2
acr

2.6
Plot a stress-flaw-size, Kic curve for an edge crack in plate of infinitife width for
the following three steels. Plot all graphs on the same sheet of graph paper.

Material
A
B
C

Kic (ksiin)
80
110
140

ys (ksi)
260
220
180

Jawaban :
Kic
=
1,12 x (3,14 x a)x K(a/b)
dimana pada kondisi infinite width harga K(a/b) adalah 1
Untuk design sama dengan ys
Material
A
B
C

Kic
80
110
140

ys
260
220
180

a
0.02404
0.06347
0.15358

Untuk design sama dengan 0,75 ys


Material
A
B
C

Kic
80
110
140

ys
195
165
135

a
0.04273
0.11284
0.27304

Untuk design sama dengan 0,5 ys


Material
A
B
C

Kic
80
110
140

ys
130
110
90

a
0.09615
0.25388
0.61434

Untuk design sama dengan 0,25 ys


Material
A

Kic
80

ys
65

a
0.38458

B
C

110
140

55
45

1.01553
2.45734

Sehingga dapat dibuat hubungan antara tegangan design dengan panjang


retak,
untuk masing-masing material seperti
dibawah :

300
250
200

Materila A
Materila B

150

Material C

100
50
0
0

2.7
KIC = 55 ksi-in1/2,
ys = 100 ks
des = ys/4
a. edge crack, KI = 1.12 (a)1/2
b. through thickness crack, KI =
(a)1/2
c.

surface crack KI = 1.12 (a/Q)1/2 Mk for three conditions a/2c= 0.1; 0.25 and 0.5.
KI

a (in)

0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
2
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
3

edgethrough thickness
15.69
22.19
27.18
31.38
35.08
38.43
41.51
44.38
47.07
49.62
52.04
54.35
56.57
58.71
60.77
62.76
64.69
66.57
68.39
70.17
71.90
73.59
75.25
76.86
78.45
80.00
81.53
83.02
84.49
85.94

14.01
19.81
24.26
28.02
31.32
34.31
37.06
39.62
42.03
44.30
46.46
48.53
50.51
52.42
54.26
56.04
57.76
59.43
61.06
62.65
64.20
65.71
67.18
68.63
70.04
71.43
72.79
74.13
75.44
76.73

Mk
0.46
0.52
0.58
0.64
0.70
0.76
0.82
0.88
0.94
1.00
1.06
1.12
1.18
1.24
1.30
1.36
1.42
1.48
1.54
1.60
1.66
1.72
1.78
1.84
1.90
1.96
2.02
2.08
2.14
2.20

a/2c = 0,1
Q
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.10
1.10

KI
6.88
11.00
15.03
19.15
23.42
27.85
32.46
37.24
42.19
47.31
52.59
58.04
63.65
69.41
75.32
81.38
87.59
93.93
100.42
107.04
113.80
120.69
127.71
134.85
142.12
149.51
157.02
164.65
172.40
180.26

Mk
0.46
0.52
0.58
0.64
0.70
0.76
0.82
0.88
0.94
1.00
1.06
1.12
1.18
1.24
1.30
1.36
1.42
1.48
1.54
1.60
1.66
1.72
1.78
1.84
1.90
1.96
2.02
2.08
2.14
2.20

surface
a/2c = 0,25
Q
1.45
1.45
1.45
1.45
1.45
1.45
1.45
1.45
1.45
1.45
1.45
1.45
1.45
1.45
1.45
1.45
1.45
1.45
1.45
1.45
1.45
1.45
1.45
1.45
1.45
1.45
1.45
1.45
1.45
1.45

KI
5.99
9.58
13.09
16.68
20.39
24.26
28.27
32.43
36.74
41.20
45.81
50.55
55.44
60.45
65.60
70.88
76.29
81.82
87.47
93.23
99.12
105.12
111.23
117.45
123.78
130.22
136.76
143.41
150.16
157.01

Mk
0.46
0.52
0.58
0.64
0.70
0.76
0.82
0.88
0.94
1.00
1.06
1.12
1.18
1.24
1.30
1.36
1.42
1.48
1.54
1.60
1.66
1.72
1.78
1.84
1.90
1.96
2.02
2.08
2.14
2.20

a/2c = 0,5
Q
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4
2.4

KI
4.66
7.45
10.17
12.96
15.85
18.85
21.97
25.21
28.56
32.03
35.61
39.29
43.09
46.99
50.99
55.10
59.30
63.59
67.99
72.47
77.04
81.71
86.46
91.29
96.21
101.22
106.30
111.47
116.72
122.04

K1 vs a
200
edge crack

180

through thickness crack

160

surface crack (a/2c=0.1)

140

surface crack (a/2c=0.25)

K1

120

surface crack (a/2c=0.5)

100
80
60
40
20
0
0

0.5

1.5

2.5

2.4
a/b
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1

k (a/b)
1
1.03
1.07
1.15
1.22
1.35
1.5
1.69
1.91
2.2
2.55

y = 0.9052x3 + 0.3473x2 + 0.2954x +


0.99973
KIC =
ys =
2b =
b=
*)

Untuk des =
=
a
(inch)
0.5
25.008476089
0.574073254
24.929299402
0.582341686
24.920417805
0.583277331
24.919412219
0.583383370
24.919298246
0.583395390

100
40
30
15

ksi. in 1/2
ksi
inch
inch

0.25 ys
10 Ksi
b
(inch)

a/b
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15

0.033333333
1.667231739
0.03827155
1.661953293
0.038822779
1.661361187
0.038885155
1.661294148
0.038892225
1.66128655
0.038893026

k (a/b)
1.007566081
6.650181472
1.009164853
6.602801076
1.009344669
6.597503118
1.009365034
6.596903491
1.009367343
6.596835532
1.009367604

acr
(inch)
25.008476089
0.574073254
24.929299402
0.582341686
24.920417805
0.583277331
24.919412219
0.583383370
24.919298246
0.583395390
24.919285327

*)

Untuk des =
=
a
(inch)

0.5 ys
20 ksi
b
(inch)

0.5
6.252119022
4.086236692
5.043232785
4.634410956
4.812559679
4.735513187

*)

Untuk des =
=
a
(inch)

*)

a/b
15
15
15
15
15
15
15

0.033333333
0.416807935
0.272415779
0.336215519
0.30896073
0.320837312
0.315700879

b
(inch)

a/b
15
15
15
15
15
15
15

Untuk des =
=

1 ys
40 Ksi

0.5
1.563029756
1.487365084
1.493107204
1.492673486

1.007566081
1.246308044
1.121844467
1.170280279
1.148415627
1.157720257
1.153654499

acr
(inch)
6.252119022
4.086236692
5.043232785
4.634410956
4.812559679
4.735513187
4.768950201

0.75 ys
30 Ksi

0.5
2.778719565
2.465312123
2.514169859
2.506679647
2.507830975
2.507654075

a
(inch)

k (a/b)

b
(inch)

0.033333333
0.18524797
0.16435414
0.16761132
0.16711198
0.16718873
0.16717694

a/b
15
15
15
15
15

0.033333333
0.10420198
0.09915767
0.09954048
0.09951157

y = 0.9052x3 + 0.3473x2 + 0.2954x + 0.99973

k (a/b)
1.007566081
1.069694944
1.059250288
1.060831681
1.060588143
1.060625551
1.060619803

k (a/b)
1.007566081
1.032876439
1.030888433
1.031038192
1.031026873

acr
(inch)
2.778719565
2.465312123
2.514169859
2.506679647
2.507830975
2.507654075
2.507681257

acr
(inch)
1.563029756
1.487365084
1.493107204
1.492673486
1.492706258

Dari perhitungan di atas diperoleh :


des
10
20
30
40

acr
24.91928533
4.768950201
2.507681257
1.492706258

TUGAS
Kelelahan dan Mekanika Kepecahan
(Fatigue)

Nur Fuadi Afif Zaisiyah


(4308 100 108)

JURUSAN TEKNIK KELAUTAN


FAKULTAS TEKNOLOGI KELAUTAN
INSTITU TEKNOLOGI SEPULUH NOPEMBER SURABAYA
2012