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COAL QUALITY - ITS INFLUENCE ON THE DESIGN & OPERATION OF MODERN COAL-FIRED SHIPS. Paul Holbrook
Lloyd's Register of Shipping, U. K.

Introduction THE FIRST of the new generation of coal-fired ships has now entered coast carrying bauxite from Weipa to Gladstone. service on the Australian

The initial feedback of information from the ships' trials appears to support the decision by Lloyd's Register of Shipping to assign the operational class notation UMS (Unattended Machinery Spaces). These ships, however, will be employed a consistent grade and quality of coal. on a dedicated route and are thus able to bunker

It is fortunate that marine engineers are familiar with most of the critical components of coal-fired power plant and the ability of the crews to operate the mechanical systems is not in doubt. It should, however, be realised that the ability to operate the vessel with an unattended machinery space and sophisticated combustion control system does require adjustment of combustion control set point parameters to meet each prevailing condition. It is anticipated therefore, that, where a vessel is intended to trade worldwide and accept a variety of coal as bunkers, a higher degree of operator skill will be required particularly in the areas of handling and combustion of coal, owing to the natural indigenous quality variations which occur. In addition to the important consideration of the control surveillance and alarm systems to achieve operational efficiency, indigenous coal quality variations also impose machinery design restraints. The continued technological advances in boiler and stoker design and related improvements in bulk coal and ash handling equipment on land, allow the marine design engineer several alternatives to achieve the high environmental standards demanded of modern ships. Coincidentally, this latter aspect was the primary reason why coal as a marine fuel was in favour of oil during the late 1940s and early 1950s.

dropped

It is also realised that the use of coal as a marine fuel does present other fundamental operational and technical problems which may be broadly categorised as follows:-

Day One -

Paper No.2

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1. Worldwide coal bunker logistics. costs. and machinery

2. 3.
4.

Higher investment

Cargo payload penalties due to the much larger coal bunkers space requirements. Lower thermal efficiencies.

Whilst recognising the collective importance of the above, they embrace political, economic and technical subjects of such a diverse nature that it would be impossible to deal with all of them in one paper. Therefore, this paper discusses the effects of the indigenous combustion of the fuel and the design of the machinery. coal quality variations on the

Classification

of coals according

to rank

Coal quality variations occur naturally temperature effects during formation. The Seyler's coal chart reproduced wide range in coal characteristics.

between

areas as a result of differing

pressure and

in Figure 2 overleaf gives a visual appreciation

of the

Various authorities have developed different systems for classifying coals. For the purposes of this paper, it is convenient to use the United Kingdom, National Coal Board's Coal Rank Code Number Classification (Ref. No.1) which was devised some years ago as a simple means of classifying coals. The classification is based on.the volatile contents expressed on a d.m.m.f. (dry mineral matter-free) basis and the caking properties of the clean coals (defined as less than 10 per cent ASH).

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Using the volatile matter criterion alone a division into the following group is obtained:VOLATILE MATTER RANK CODE NUMBER

Anthracites Low-volatile steam coals .. Medium volatile coals High volatile coals

Up to and including 9% 9.1 - 19.5% 19.6 - 32% Over 32%

100 200 300 *

For coal rank Nos 100-300, i.e. in coals of volatile matter up to 32 per cent, there is a close relationship between volatile matter content and caking properties. As the volatile matter increases the caking property increases. * Certain coals have been affected by heat from nearby igneous intrusions, with the result that their caking properties are generally subnormal compared with other coals of similar volatile content. These affected coals are distinguished by the use of sub-groups. In the fourth group, i.e. with volatile matter of greater than 32 per cent, there is a wide range of caking properties at any given volatile matter content and subdivision has been made on the basis of caking power. Six ranges of caking power are recognised:Very strongly caking Strongly caking Medium caking Weakly caking Very weakly caking Non-caking
CODE NUMBER

400 500 600 700 800 900

Each of the main classes 400- 900 can be further subdivided according to volatile matter content. [1] in the third figure of the code number means that the volatile matter content of a coal lies between 32 per cent and 36 per cent and a [2] means that it is over 36 per cent A more comprehensive list of main and sub classes is shown in Table 1.

Fuel quality criteria for marine stoker-fired boilers The "as received" moisture should lie ideally between 12 and 18 per cent. Less than 12 per cent appears to be very dry and the carbon in fly ash losses becomes excessive. More than 18 per cent is too much moisture. The ash content on an "as received" basis varies with the moisture. So utilising the "dry" basis is the only reliable method. The dry ash content should lie between 8 and 12 per cent. Very low ash contents, and they frequently occur down to less than 5 per cent cause overheating of the ,grate. A dry ash content of 18 per cent would be considered the upper limit for a ship's fuel, due to the excessive volume loss in bunkers and the excessive amount of ash to be dealt with. Swelling index - this is most satisfactory at [1] providing the coal is not actually nonagglomerating, since this causes trouble with riddlings. On the other hand a high swelling index of above [4] can produce a light coke.that lifts off the grate. (Swelling index as per 8S1016 PART 12 1959 GRAY-KING Coke type).

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1

95

90

85
t

80
freeParr'

75 s basis:

70

Carbon % dry rninera

Fig.

2

Seyler's

coal chart

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An ideal analysis is therefore:Total moisture Volatile matter Fixed carbon Ash content Swelling index content

As received 15% * 30010 / 33.5% 45% / 52% 8.5% /10% 1 to 2

* Although

quoted as 15 per cent, the two considerations of energy loss in the boiler and increased probability of spontaneous combustion owing to high moisture content in large enclosed bulk coal stocks, would make an "as received" total moisture content of around 6 per cent for ship's fuel a much better proposition. It would be relatively simple for the ship's staff to use fresh water sprays to balance moisture content and fly ash carbon losses in relation to the actual combustion circumstances prevailing. and chloride contents have their part to play, but very little choice is available these days.

Sulphur

Sulphur

The objections to high sulphur content are obvious, but fortunately the prognostications with regard to ever increasing sulphur contents have not yet materialised, owing mainly to the restraints imposed by environmental pollution legislation. The absence of pollution legislation in the marine environment is to the advantage of coal as a marine fuel since stoker-fired boilers can be designed to accept quite high levels of sulphur.

Chloride High temperature combustion chamber slagging due to excessive chloride content of the coal is an old enemy of coal-fired boilers and every effort should be made to avoid bunkering coal with an ultimate chloride content above 0.5 per cent and preferably not exceeding 0.2 per cent. In addition sea water is rich in chloride based salts and every attempt should be made to avoid sea water contamination of coal fuel.

Ash fusion temperature A basic knowledge of the behaviour of coal ash is of great importance, as clinkering or slagging of the ash can cause severe operating difficulties and/or extensive damage to the boiler and stoker. The most common method of defining coal ash characteristic is by stating the "ash fusion temperature". Coal ashes are made up of mixtures of minerals each of which has an individual melting temperature which will combine to form low melting point eutectics. The make-up of these eutectics will vary throughout the material, resulting in great differences in ash fusion temperatures and in consequence making it difficult for the boiler designer to define a suitable design temperatu reo It is necessary to design the furnace with sufficient volume, tube spacing and radiant heat absorption surface to ensure that the gas exit temperature is lower by a safe margin than the ash softening temperature of even the poorest quality coal. This is however at the expense of the physical size of the boi ler.

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Typically the ash softening temperature of normal quality steaming coals ranges between 1100-12500 C. As far as the boiler is concerned, the ash softening temperature of the coal is the most significant limiting factor related to variations in coal quality. For a vessel which is intended to bunker coal anywhere there must be some compromise between the boiler design and the characteristics of the fuel being used.

The influence of coal quality variations

on boilers and stoking equipment

------~-~--~--~-----Figure 3 Although it may be possible in the future to adopt advances in boiler firing techniques for ships, e.g. fluidized beds and pulverized fuel firing etc. the preferred arrangement for marine use at present is the well tried and proven combination of marine water tube boilers and travelling grate rotary spreader stokers, with continuous ash discharge. Figure 3 shows a typical diagramatic cross-section of the arrangement. The relatively modest thermal efficiency of around 83/85 per cent and conservative steam conditions 60 kg/cm2 4900 C superheater outlet are offset by the distinct advantages of safe and reliable operation, good response to load changes and above all, the ability to accept reasonable variations in coal quality, as will be evident from the following actual service information:-

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N.C.B. Rank No. 100

Mechan ical stokers

Is very difficult to ignite and slow in burning. Burns without flame and produces a heavy "carry-over" of high carbon grit. Grates run hot as almost all the heat release is on the grate. '
The main difficulty is due to "carry-over" of high carbon grit The burn off is good but slow and a low ash content gives rise to overheated grates. Small graded sizes are expensive but can be used very efficiently. The first two groups are extremely satisfactory provided that "f nes and smalls" are not excessive. The rapidly increasing caking power causes some 204 coals to give a high carbon in ash loss due to swollen coke formation. These are moderately satisfactory. The carbon loss due to swollen coke is balanced by reduced grit loss and the higher proportion of heat released in the form of volatile constituents. These are very unsatisfactory. The strong caking characteristic formation of large coke masses which will not burn out. leads to

201

202/3/4

301

400

500/600/700

The two latter groups are excellent fuels. The caking properties are sufficient to hold the "fines" in the fuel bed. Less primary air is required and the coal can be fired at very high loadings per square foot of grate. The strong caking nature of the 500 rank could lead to an excessive "Carbon in Ash" content at high grate loadings. These low rank coals can give rise to rrit "carry-over" but secondary air can be used to retard this tendency. Grits carried over are low in carbon and these free burning coals give a very low carbon in ash.

800/900

Boiler design Discussion of the design of the steam generator parts of the boiler is best left in the hands of the boiler manufacturers and a considerable number of papers have recently been published on the subject However, it is of interest to note a few of the limiting criteria affecting the design and efficiency of a marine water tube rotary spreader type boiler which may not be generally appreciated. The accepted method of obtaining the efficiency of large boilers is based upon the "Iasses Neglecting those due to radiation, the remaining losses may be ~rouped as follows:Losses due to chemical sulphur in the fuel. combustion characteristic such as: moisture, hydrogen and

method". (a)

(b)

Losses due to physical combustion

characteristic

such as: carbon grit "carry-over" . stoked

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I

Solid fuel boilers produce a variety of ash which in the case of rotary spreader boilers, have the following approximate proportion:bottom ash: 78% riddlings: 4% fly ash and grits: 18%

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Carbon in grit losses without provision for refiring would represent a serious reduction in efficiency. In marine practice one or two heavy grit hoppers are arranged within the tube banks to .collect the unburnt carbon for refiring. It is not extended to cyclone fly grit refiring owing to the practical difficulties and the laws of diminishing returns.

(c)

Losses due to the elevated temperature

of flue gas and ash.

The temperature losses in flue gases may be partially recovered by the use of rotary air heaters but this is also limited by the maximum permissible air supply temperature below the grate: of 1750 C to avoid overheating.

The influence of coal variations on combustion control
The alarms and safeguards specified in Classification Rules for particular items of machinery are a matter of enoineerino [udoernent related to the severity of failure and their development has been based on service experience and eood enpineerinp practice. Buxton J. L. Ref. No.2. In general, the philosophy of a ship's control systems continues to evolve and the regulations have now developed to the stare where machinery protection corresponds to five levels:-

1.
2. 3. 4. 5.

Control

of operating

parameters deviatinc from the normal conditions to meet prevailing abnormal conditions operating

Alarm for conditions The restoration Adjustment

of abnormal

of machinery

operations

Shut down of machinery

in the event of critical conditions into two inter-related

It will be evident from the above that the five levels fall naturally but separate parameters of operation and protection. With regard to the operational considerations, remote and automatic controls for machinery are:the objectives

of installing a hirh degree of

1.
2.

To optimise To enhance

the machinery plant supervision

efficiency and operational

r rocedures

In land based practice, it remains usual to employ some degree of operator supervision for coal-fired boilers. Thus the service experience with advanced automatic surveillance and monitoring techniques, to effect combustion control of coal spreader stokers is limited. The natural desire by shipowners to retain UI\;S operation fired ships, poses the design problems of:Either on the new generation of coal-

to try and establish a sufficient level of monitoring to enable combustion control systems to automatically cater for any service condition and coal quality variation, using equipment for which little or no service experience exists at sea; to accept a simplified approach, using operator experience to establish the set points for the various combustion parameters in order to cater for coal quality variations.

Or

It is considered that the best arrangement will be a combustion of sophisticated control systems and operator skill. Since variations in coal quality are unpredictable, it is important that the ships' staff have the facility to adjust the essential machinery parameters necessary for good combustion.

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Typically
(a)

these would include:trajectory grate speed combustion and overfire fan air flows plate position speed

(b) (c) (d)

rotary spreader

Once optimum combustion has been established, the system would be switched from manual to automatic control, by burnpless transfer and the operator set conditions maintained in the automatic mode, for unattended operation. It is accepted that further variations in coal quality, due for instance to seprecation effects on coal feed, could alter the set parameters. Abnormal combustion conditions with rotary spreader stokers are likely to develop slowly and this allows sufficient time for the operator to intervene and correct the condition before damage can occur.

The influence

of coal quality variations

on bunker design

The use of lump coal as a marine fuel imposes certain desicn constraints on the naval architect. Operational considerations dictate that the coal must be accommodated in bunkers discharging into the transfer machinery by mechanical or gravity flow. The main safety considerations arise from the tendency combustion and the emission of methane gas. of bulk coal stocks to spontaneous

Spontaneous heat.

combustion with the air absorb oxygen in a chemical reaction which cenerates

All coals in contact

The rate of heat ~eneration depends on the type, size, moisture temperature and the length of time the coal is left undisturbed.

content,

ambient storaoe

As a peneral rule, freshly mined coals having the same relative physical characteristics and storage arrangements, exhibit an increased tendency to spontaneous combustion as the RANK No. increases. Normally if temperatures within the bulk coal stocks can be maintained below 250 C (althouoh some Authorities state temperatures up to 550 C) oxygen may be absorbed without serious consequences. If, however, the temperature rises to 1000 C, an exothermic reaction commences and changes take place as shown in Figure 3. The rate of chance can vary tremendously from a few hours to over a year.

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Rate of increase Rate of Increase in COI02 ratio In coal oxidation

~ 01 ~ ~ ~

600

300..§ e :s; 500
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CO/02 ratio
Figure 4

2,0

3,0

4,0

5,0

It can be seen that the reaction is accompanied by the formation of pases including hydrogen and carbon-monoxide. This latter product can be used as an extremely precise method of monitoring the self-heating of coal stocks, since it can be detected at very low concentrations with tube bundle sampling. Such a system is relatively simple to install and superior to temperature monitorinq, where, because of the high thermal insulation properties of coal the measurement of temperature in laroe enclosed bunkers is too inaccurate to detect localised overheating. Carbon monoxide is an extremely toxic gas and entry into closed coal bunkers should be attempted only with the utmost caution.

Methane emission The tendency of coals to emit methane pas does not exhibit a similar relationship to the coal Rank Number, but appears to be influenced by the initial formation and subsequent dormant periods. Although some mines and their products are termed "gassy" or "non-qassv", this description is largely academic as far as ships are concerned, since the very small amounts of gas necessary to form an explosive atmosphere can occur in most bulk coal stocks accommodated in enclosed bunkers. The acknowledged explosive range of methane in air is between 5 and 15 per cent with the maximum violence occurring at about 9 per cent. However, it should be noted that the lower explosive limit can be further reduced if coal dust is present in the atmosphere. Bunkers must therefore be arranged for efficient ventilation. Such ventilation must however be of low capacity since a high level of air flow could promote spontaneous combustion. It is possible for a deep seated fire arising from spontaneous combustion to exist within the coal mass at the same time as a methane rich explosive atmosphere is present in the ullage

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space. Great care must be exercised in the use of carbon dioxide (C02) estinguishing systems as there is a distinct possibility of it generating a high energy static electricity discharge as dry ice is formed by the release of CO2, This phenomenon does not, however, preclude the use of CO2 as a fire smothering system. If the bunkers are well ventilated, and tested for methane before releasing the gas. Several of the Classification Societies accept water flooding of coal bunkers as an alternative method of fire fighting. Although this conflicts with IMO (Ref. No.3) and National Authority recommendations such as the U.K. Department of Trade which state that "water should never be used to combat spontaneous combustion in coal cargoes at sea". It is, however, considered acceptable for relatively small capacity coal bunkers where rapid floodinp with water can be effective. Water sprays or fire hoses should not be used due to the danger of water gas formation with such low water volume sprays.

Bunker volume From a design point of view, it is unreasonable to make a direct comparison of ship arrangements for fuel oils with those for coal bunkers, because of the unique design constraints attached to the latter as previously mentioned. Two principal aspects dictate the volume required for a particular voyage pattern. Firstly, the actual design adopted, which may in general be divided into mechanical or gravity flow concept, and secondly, variations in coal characteristics. scraper

Cargo scrapers There are several excellent cargo scraper systems available which make it possible to utilize the full volume of the traditional bulk carrier hopper sided hold desicn. But while these systems have the advantage of avoiding the volume loss associated with gravity flow bunkers, their main disadvantage lies in the fact that they ore rate on the "last-in" - "first-out" principle and since any ship must maintain some reserve bunkers, this allows ideal conditions for spontaneous combustion owing to the fact that the bottom coal will remain undisturbed for considerable periods. Such systems are therefore ideally suited to either duplicate bunker arrangements, which may be completely emptied alternately, or as supplementary bunkers used as a top-up supply for gravity flow main bunkers. In addition a scraper system using the whole beam of a large vessel may have problems with over capacity if used to supply direct to daily storage hoppers in the engine room, since these are unlikely to have a capacity in excess of 200 tons.

Gravity flow bunkers The design of gravity flow bunkers is a complex but intrirueinr subject which combines experience and science. The subject has greatly benefitted from the work carried out by J EN IKE (Ref. No.4) in America and WRIGHT (Ref. No.5) at the British Steel Research Laboratories,

U.K.
Gravity flow bunkers may be designed to achieve either core flow or mass flow. Under core flow conditions the flow of material is restricted to a narrow central zone and according to the particular properties of the bulk material may achieve a stable "rathole" resulting in little "live" storage capacity or may experience no flow conditions due to the much higher coefficient of friction between the bulk material interface, causing "bridging" or "arching". It is clear from Figure 5 that core flow bunkers are unsuitable for use aboard ships because of the volume loss related to the 'dead' coal.

I
FLOW FROM BUNKERS

h.... (ie • racomes out first ·:; solid thol inq' occurs) .
Build-up of bulk solid 011 the walls

Centra I core of bu Ik

(b) Core flow

CORE FLOW
Fi g. 5

MOvement at the wa lis

(a)

Md~S

ll ow

MASS i=LOW
F; g. 6

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In mass flow bunkers shown the entire stored volume of material design parameters of minimum wall particular characteristics of the bulk In addition various methods low friction cladding, etc.

in Figure 6, the flow of bulk material takes place throughout and no 'dead' areas exist. This is achieved by relating the slope (or valley angle) and dimension of the outlet to the materials being handled. of flow improvers may be used, such as vibrating bin dischargers,

In all cases the bunker design is related to the type, size and power of the take off machinery. Mass flow bunkers give an ideal "first in" - "first out" ability which has definite advantages in avoidance of spontaneous combustion.

Bunker volume related to coal characteristics The relative thermal heating ratio of normal quality steaming coal to oil fuel is approximately 0.6/1 with a corresponding stowage ratio of 0.9/1; thus for similar energy the space and weight requirements for coal bunkers are considerably greater than for oil fuel bunker tanks. However, the above relative thermal heating value is related to coal on a dry 10 per cent maximum ash basis and the bunker volume will be adversely affected by ash content, which to quote extremes, can range from typically 3 to 4 per cent for good quality steaming coal to 35 to 40 per cent for some coals available from the sub-continent of India.

The influence

of coal quality variation

on transfer

machinery

In the introduction to this paper, it was stated that the continued technological advances in bulk coal transfer machinery for land use allows the marine design engineers several elegant solutions to achieve the high environmental standards demanded on modern ships. It is also true to state that the two most preferred systems for shipboard use at present, the mechan ical chain "en-masse" or the "dense phase" pneumatic, have been developed to the extent that they are largely unaffected by any coal qual ity variation, bar physical size restraints. Each will tolerate extreme variations in moisture content and fines with little or no reduction in efficiency. Despite the almost universal colliery washing and grading techniques now in use, some oversize lumps will always occur. Any ship which is intended to bunker coal worldwide must be provided with a simple screening and crushing plant to isolate and deal with oversize lumps. The physical size of the coal has an important effect on the chosen type of combustion system and care must be exercised in the choice of crushing plant to limit the degradation of the coal. In this respect it is pertinent to note that slow speed roller or jaw crushers can cause greater attrition than corresponding high speed mills or granulators. From a safety aspect the coal transfer system poses several problems due mainly to two considerations. Firstly, the redundancy or stand-by requirements demanded by regulatory bodies for ships essential machinery and secondly, the inability to physically scale down the sizes which result in over capacity of shipboard svstems, All coals include a percentage of fines heaps within transfer machinery. If stand-by undisturbed small coal provides ideal sites for therefore arise during start-up of coal transfer or small particles which tend to collect in undisturbed machines are shut down for extended periods, such spontaneous combustion. The most critical conditions machinery which has been idle for long periods,

since at this stage sufficient dust may be introduced into the atmosphere within the conveying machinery to form an explosive mixture which is then readily ignited by the high temperature generated by spontaneous combustion. Inerting the machinery while undoubtedly effective, must be considered expensive, since all the machinery would either have to be continuously inerted or inerted just prior to start up on each occasion. Similarly, explosion suppression using HALON for example would also be impractical due to the confused nature of the internal structure. However, coal which is self-heating under such circumstances produces detectable amounts of carbon monoxide (CO) which can be monitored, alarmed and, if necessary, arranged to interrupt the machinery start sequence. Such an arrangement is, of course, complimentary to the bunker monitoring system.

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Training Coal-fired ships in service prior to the new generation did not have sophisticated control systems. Therefore, little operator experience exists in relating coal quality and automatic combustion control. Certain authorities and industrial firms connected with the shipbuilding industry recognising the initial lack of educational and in-service experience necessary for the efficient operation of coal-fired ships have developed trainino aids to meet this need. For instance I\f.itsubishi Heavy Industries have developed a boiler simulator for training crews and for the adjustment and testing of automatic equipment. The Mitsubishi "Coal MACCS" (Ref. No.6) system uses integrated programmes having the following features:1. 2. Integral optimum air- coal ratio curves One touch bumpless auto/manual changeover mechanism Stabilised performance over a wide load range Self-diagnosis / alarm system Increase reliability with dual electric power source a direct digital control (DOC) unit

3.
4. 5.

The simulator has been designed to complement installed on the coal-fired ships.

To date more than twenty DOC sets have been installed on conventional have proved reliable and effective at sea.

oil tankers and

Conclusion Much has been written recently on the design and application of fuel bunkers and machinery arrangements for coal-fired ships. Since the concept of coal firing is just re-emerging after a period of some 30 years neglect, several of the papers have been somewhat conservative and have questioned the ability of the marine industry to operate with the variations in coal quality which are experienced worldwide. This paper has outlined the influence of the variation in coal quality and has shown that the modern approach to the storage and transfer of bulk coal, the marine water tube rotary

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spreader stoked boiler design and combustion control systems, will tolerate a reasonable variation in coal quality necessary for vessels operating worldwide. This view is supported by the imaginative conversion of two ships at present taking place in EI Ferrol Bazan for Empresa Nacional'Elcano' de la Marina Mercante S.A. for worldwide operation. Lloyd's Register of Shipping, in common with other classification societies, continues to review and develop its Rules in such a way as to maintain high standards of safety, freedom of design and assimilation of new technology, particularly in vessels which depart from the accepted standard design. The author is indebted for the help and advice given by boiler and coal transfer machinery manufacturers during the preparation of this paper, and to Lloyd's Register of Shipping for their permission to publish it The views expressed are the author's own and should not be interpreted as implying acceptance by the Committee of Lloyd's Register of Shipping.

References 1. 2. NATIONAL COAL BOARD: Coal Rank Classification Publication. Ships".

BUXTON, J.L.: "The Development of Classification Regulations for Automated Lloyd's Register of Shipping. ISSOA - 82 Genoa, Italy, September 1982. I,M.O. LONDON 1980: "Code of Safe Practice for Solid Bulk Cargoes".

3. 4.

JEN IKE, A. W.: "Flow of Solids in Bulk Handling System" Bulletins 64 (1954) and 123 (1964). University of Utah. WRIGHT, H.: "An Evaluation Col. 46 No.3, June 1973.

& "Storage and F low of Solids".

5.

of the Jenike Bunker Design ~~ethod".

Iron & Steel International

6.

NAGATA, S. et al: "The Automatic Combustion Control System and Advanced Boiler Simulator for Advanced Coal-Fired Ship". Presented at the ISSOA - 82 4th International Symposium, Genoa, Italy, September 1982.