G - The New Generation Coal-Fired Ships River Boyne - 1982 - Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd, Japan

THE NEW GENERATION COAL-FIRED SHIPS "RIVER BOYNE".

Minoru Sakata

&
Hiroshi Koga
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Japan

THE "RIVER BOYNE" generation. She has been Industries Ltd. (MHIl, for DRiver Embley" at present

is the world's first automatically-controlled coal-fired ship of the new built by Nagasaki Shipyard & Engine Works of ~.~itsubishi Heavy the Australian National Line (ANL), together with her sister ship under construction.

The ship was designed to transport bauxite on the Northeast of Australia, from Weipa to the alumina refinery of Queensland Alumina Ltd. (QALl. in Gladstone, and it adopts many new ideas developed jointly by ANL, QAL, and MHI on the optimum ship size, most modern coal-firing system, safety at sea and complete engine automation. The construction of the "River Boyne" progressed smoothly, with launching taking place in April 1982 and ignition of the coal-fired boiler in May 1982, and after completion of adjustment work and confirmation tests of equipment on sea trials, the ship was delivered on September 17th, 1982 on schedule. Although an outline of the ship has already been presented in the reports mentioned in the references on the last page, the actual detail design, mainly of coal-fired systems, is introduced here including the result of sea trials.

Bas ic desi gn The route between Weipa and Gladstone on which the ship will run is mostly the coastal area between the Great Barrier and the seashore, where there are many shallow waters and narrow waters. The ship was designed to have the maximum deadweight tonnage taking: into account the conditions of the route and the restrictions imposed by port facilities upon length overall, breadth, depth and draught. The main engine was designed by the operating programme, to develop an output large enough to produce a ship speed allowing for the reduced speed operation which may be

required

Day One - Paper No. 6

necessary because the ship runs in shallow water on most of the route. As a result, the main engine of this ship is larger in output than that of a specialized carrier of the same deadweight tonnage. As main boilers, stoker-fired boilers were adopted as a result of overall evaluation of reliability, safety and maintainability. The ship is equipped with two Mitsubishi-CE V2M-9S boilers jointly developed by MH I and Combustion Engineering, Inco of U.S.A. ' The main turbine is a Mitsubishi MS-21-2 turbine of 19 000 PS. use

The ship is provided with two turbo-generators of 1850 kW each, one for ordinary and the other for standby, and one 700 kW diesel generator for emergency use.

The ship is the first coal-fired ship in the world to be assigned the notation UMS of Lloyd's Register of Shipping, and all operations from coal feeding to ash disposal as well as boiler cornbus-: tion control will be automated or remote controlled in accordance with the Classification Society's guidance note for the coal-fired ship. For boiler control, Mitsubishi Coal ment The equipment performs automatic quantity and combustion air quantity, and on the grate by regulating the speed of the MACCS is used, which is electronic boiler control equipcombustion control functions of controlling coal feed also automatically controls the thickness of coal layer travelling grate.

It is generally said that hull vibration is greater when a ship is running in shallow waters. The owner and MHI examined the relation between water depth and vibration level on the MIS "Yarra River" which was in service on the same route. MHI conducted not only model tests in its own experimental tank but also propulsive performance tests and manoeuvrability tests in the experimental tank of NSMB of Holland, in which tests can be made in shallow waters. The results of vibration measurements and model tests were useful in the evaluation of manoeuvrability of the ship and in designing a low exciting force propeller. The ship is provided with a tunnel fin and a highly skewed propeller of 7800 mm in diameter which is probably the world's largest fixed-pitch propeller. This is one of the measures taken to reduce the exciting The following Vibration force of the propeller. was very effective -

results of sea trial show that the counter-measure level

15 gals (500 cprn) at maximum in way of aft part structures and accommodation space 41 - 54 dB (A) in cabins in normal sea-going condition

Noise level

General arrangement The ship has three cargo holds with a total of eight hatches three each in No.2 and No.3 holds - as shown in Figure 1. - two in No.1 hold and

The coal bunkers are located aft of the engine room, and the main boilers in the forward part of the engine room. This arrangement is one of the points which was given the most careful consideration in developing the ship design. Unlike an oil-fired ship or a diesel-engined ship of a comparable power, the most difficult problems in designing a coal-fired ship are a large space required for main boilers, special boiler support structure, and a large bunker space.

In the case of this ship, the coal bunkers were arranged in the aft part of accommation without reducing hold capacity, and the main boilers were located in the fore part of the machinery space where vibration will be at the lowest level. Figures 2 and 3 show the machinery arrangement from which it will be seen that the port and starboard bunkers are located aft of the machinery space, whereas the two boilers are located at the forward part of the space.

Main boiler Mitsubishi-CE stoker coal-fired marine boiler, type V21\~-9S - the stoker and coal-firing equipment, including the automatic combustion control system and fan capacity, was designed to suit the burning characteristics of the callide coal to be used. The coal especially required a careful attention in designing the coal-firing equipment because of its inferior combustion characteristics and high friability. In this connection, a series of combustion tests were performed to accurately determine the actual burning characteristics of callide coal. Figure 4 shows the burning velocity of callide coal as obtained by burning tests of its small particles about 3 mm in size. It can be seen from this Figure that callide coal is characterized by a very slow burning velocity, about half of the burning velocity of taiheyo coal, which was tested simultaneously for comparison. Also, a series of burning tests were performed to obtain the effect of change in parameters such as the coarse-fine particle ratio of coal size, surface moisture, thickness of coal layer, undergrate air flow rate, overfire air flow rate and combustion air temperature. Combustion characteristics derived from the analysis of test data enabled us to calculate vertical upward burning velocity and burn-out velocity for a layer of coal spread out on the grate. The combustion characteristics of callide coal on the travelling grate of the stoker were determined quantitatively by these calculations in combination with the coal distribution rate per unit grate surface area measured separately. Figure 5 shows the results of calculation made from these analyses. It was predicted from this Figure that when the grate speed exceeded 3 m/hour and the excess air ratio was less than 40 per cent, the combustion of callide coal would be incomplete with a resultant increase in unburnt carbon content of bottom ash. In addition, these tests confirmed that an increase in percentage of fine particles would cause the unburnt carbon content to increase. Based upon the burning characteristics of callide coal determined through these tests, the following improvements were incorporated into the original designs of the stoker and coal-firing equipment. (a) (b) The lower limit of grate speed adjustable range was changed from 4 m/hour to 1 m/hour. with the slow

The effective grate surface area was increased in order to be compatible burning velocity of callide coal. The number of stoker under-grate air compartments

(c) (d)

was increased from 3 to 5. type in order

The grate bar key shape was altered from the "flat" type to "over-Iapped" to minimize uneven burning on the grate surface.

(e)

The material of grate bar key was altered from 1 per cent Cr cast iron to 4 per cent Si ductile iron in order to avoid the heat damage.

(f)

The number of overfire air nozzles under the coal spreader was increased from 3 to 7 per spreader. The forced draft fan and induced draft fan capacities were increased to meet with the excess air requirement of 40 per cent or more. Figure 6 shows the boiler assembly and Figure 7 the stoker assembly.

(g)

The result of the sea trials proved the good performance (a) (b) Boiler efficiency

of the boilers, as follows:-

satisfied the design figure 83.4 per cent in the specified coal condition. PS in the specified coal and plant

Fuel coal consumption was 488.3 gr/PS-hr at 19460 conditions. It satisfied the guarantee figure.

(c)

Even in the case of coal having a high moisture content (surface moisture about 12 per cent. total moisture about 20 per cent, and high fines content about 60-65 per cent through 6.4 mm round screen). the firing performance was satisfactory and unburned coal percentage of 5.2 in bottom ash could be kept by help of suitable excess air. Superheated steam temperature figure of 4800 C. was 4950 C on average which was higher than the design

(d)

However, since the temperature did not have any adverse effect on the reliabi lity and the life of the main boilers, main turbine, related auxiliary machinery, etc., no measures were taken to reduce the temperature.
(e)

Smoke and dust density were also maintained

at acceptably

low levels.

Main turbine The main turbine culated double reduction 80 rpm. is a cross compound condensing type steam turbine with tandem artigear and produces 19000 PS at normal with the propeller turning at

The main turbine arrangement is quite conventional with the emphasis upon simplicity but incorporating the latest research and development results. Both HP and LP turbines are Mitsubishi's latest design impulse and reaction turbines, with proven high reliability, efficiency, and easy maintenance. The reduction gear is tandem articulated double helical double reduction gear and is made of a special material developed in our Nagasaki Technical Institute. The main condenser is of the under-slung type with the steam dumping system and the split type cooling water chamber. A special flash chamber integral with the main condenser receives dumping steam from the boiler, etc. A split type cooling water chamber was introduced in order to permit routine inspection and cleaning to be carried out without having to shut down both main boilers. Nylon inserts were fitted at the inlets of all condenser tubes to protect tubes from inlet attack. The main turbine unit designed in such a manner proved to be in satisfactory operating condition at sea trials. Both tu rbines and reduction gear were found satisfactory in efficiency, controllability, strength, vibration, and noise level not only in the running condition but also by inspection resu Its after sea trials.

The main condenser design and construction were also found satisfactory by measuring the characteristics of condenser, especially at main turbine tripping test and crash astern test The split type cooling water chamber proved to be quite easy in maintenance.

Coal bunker and daily hopper The main points to be taken into consideration hopper are as follows:in designing the coal bunker and the daily

(n
(2) (3) (4)

Structu ral strength Arch formation of coal Stagnation of coal Coal segregation

Unlike liquid material, the pressure distribution of grain-like materials such as coal is not so easy to calculate, but since the pressure has a great effect upon bunker strength and arch formation of coal, it is important to estimate the pressure accurately. Therefore, besides an analysis of static pressure taking into account the shape of the bunkers, the effect of their inclination and vibration was also investigated and tested. On the basis of the results of these investigations, the following measures were taken:(a) (b) (c) (d) Inclination angle of more than about 70 degrees for coal bunkers and daily hopper. Installation of slant plates at all the hopper corners. Installation of arch breakers (air blaster) near the outlet. Increasing the loading points for the coal bunker to reduce the extent of coal segregation.

During sea trial and on-board test, no arch formation of coal occurred in the coal bunker or the daily hopper. However, when the surface moisturewas 12 per cent or more, stagnation of coal occurred in way of the coal distributing trunk provided between the weighing machine and the boiler spreader unit, and it was broken by manual poking. Coal moisture and fines content should be severely controlled not only for boiler efficiency but also for prevention of such coal stagnation The total capacity of the coal bunkers is about 4000 m3, which is enough for about 4500 sea miles of navigation. After the ship is put in service, the coal quantity required for a round trip between Weipa and Gladstone will be bunkered at Gladstone.

Pneumatic coal transfer system The dense phase pneumatic coal transfer system was used for both the coal bunkering system from the shore facility to the ship and the coal transfer system from the coal bunker to the daily hopper, considering the saving of space for installation, coal dust prevention, easy maintenance, etc. Each of these systems was developed based on the manufacturer's standard (the former: SENDAI R CO., U.K., and the latter: MACAWBER CO., U.K.), taking the following points into account in their design:(a) Coal size specification:• 30 mm in maximum size • 95 per cent through a 19 rnrn- round- hole-screen • 50 per cent through a 6.4 mm-round-hole-screen

(b)

Adoption of independent coal transfer pipeline from each coal bunker outlet to the daily hopper (8 lines in all) having total transfer capacity of 16 t/h. Adoption of two (2) bunkering pipelines from the shore facility to the coal bunkers having capacity of 80 t/h in total. Minimizing of bends and horizontal runs in the piping arrangement Adoption of special pipe connections and bend pieces for reduction of friction.

(c)

(d) (e) (f)

Adoption of elastic supports for transfer piping to reduce the noise transmission to hull structure.

In addition, due consideration was given to maintenance of the transfer piping to specifically deal with possible coal blockage in transfer. Figure 8 shows the schematic diagram of the coal transfer system from the coal bunker to the daily hopper. In on-board tests and sea trials, this coal transfer system was very successfully operated even in the case of high moisture content and high fines content of coal, and its noise level also was negligibly low. Minor blockages which occurred in horizontal pipelines at their end parts could be easily broken by hammering or additional air blowing.

Ash handling system
The ash handling system on board, consisting principally of ash collection, transfer and storage equipment, was designed based on the proven system in use with the land-based boilers. Figure 9 shows the schematic diagram of the ash handling system. Two kinds of ash with the following ratio are treated separately:(a)

Bottom ash Fly ash

70 - 80 per cent by weight 20 - 30 per cent by weight

(b)

As shown in Figure 9, fly ash is separated from the flue gases in the multi-cyclone type dust collectors which are designed to maintain the dust density within the specified limit at the funnel outlet. Bottom ash is dumped continuously into the bottom ash hoppers and is sequentially conveyed to the ash transfer line through the feeders and crushers. Through the crushers, ash is crushed into fine particles appropriate for vacuum transfer. A pneumatic-vacuum ash transfer system using vacuum pump is employed for both fly ash and bottom ash, which is superior to the hydraulic transfer system in preventing environmental pollution. The ash transfer capacity is about twice the quantity of ash produced from boiler operation at the maximum load, the former being about 3 tons/hour and the latter about 1.5 tons/hour. As for shipboard ash lstoraqe facilities, one fly ash storage silo and one bottom ash storage silo are installed in the machinery space. Each silo is designed to have a capacity sufficient to store all the ash produced in a round voyage between Weipa and Gladstone with a suitable margin being provided. Ash is discharged overboard in slurry state by the pnaumatic vacuum transfer system using hydraulic exhauster and its capacity is enough to empty the silos within half day operation. Also,

ash disposal can be carried out in the dry state by way of shore connection vacuum equipment when the need should arise.

by using on-shore

In the many adjustments and on board tests of the coal-firing plant which were carried out on the ship, this system required much time and attention because it is relatively complicated and its operation for testing purpose could only be started at a late stage in the construction schedule. However, sea trial results showed that the sequential auto-operation was very smooth and that the capacities of ash transfer and overboard discharge systems fully satisfied the specified figures.

Safety devices against spontaneous combustion,

gas and dust explosion

One of the most important factors to be considered in the design of the coal-fired ship is the phenomenon of spontaneous combustion and also of gas and dust explosion. Therefore, a spontaneous combustibility test was performed using callide coal sample, and the rate of rise in coal temperature by oxidising reaction was measured; also explosibility of coal dust was investigated considering three factors for explosion, i.e. inflammable material, air that supports combustion and a source of ignition. From the results of these tests, the safety evaluation of callide coal reached the following conclusions:(a) (b) (c) (d)
(e)

Callide coal is relatively high in spontaneous

combustibility.

Callide coal releases only a negligibly small amount of methane gas. With callide coal, coal dust concentration form. is at a low level although dust cloud can easily

'I_lith callide coal, ignitability of coal dust is relatively low. Friction spark from hard objects coming into violent contact does not constitute a source of ignition. Callide coal is moderate in electrostatic charge characteristics when its total moisture content is about 14 per cent or more as specified. With callide coal, probability of gas-and-dust Explosion intensity is at a relatively low level. explosion is lowest.

(f)

(g) (h)

Necessary precautionary measures against the possible problems were taken into design considerations as shown in Table 2. For detection of spontaneous combustion, thermal sensors were employed.

Automation

and remote control

The control engineering incorporates UI\1S principles in accordance with Lloyd's rules and regulations. The design philosophy in this respect, therefore, remained the same as that upheld in designing the oil-fired ships except in areas where different approaches were required to use coal as a fuel. Based on many applications of Mitsubishi marine boiler Automatic Combustion Control System (MACCS) for oil firing boilers, a new type of automatic boiler combustion control system, "COAL MACCS" was developed specifically to perform the control functions for the stoker-coalfired boiler. The COA L MACCS adopts the direct digital control system which, consisting of a 16-bit micro computer, transmitters, controllers, etc., features the ease of adjustment.

Figure 10 shows the principal diagram of COAL MACCS, which has the following additional control functions as compared with the ordinary automatic combustion control system for oilfired ships:(a) Steam dump control to take care of load variations below the minimum turn-down capacity. Smoke density control looped with combustion air control. Grate travelling speed control-so as to minimize the unburnt carbon content in the bottom ash. Furnace pressure control to maintain a slightly negative pressure in the furnace. Overfire air pressure control. monitoring is

(b) (c)

(d) (e)

Apart from the above automatic combustion control system, the grate temperature provided to protect the grate bar key from damage due to local overheating.

The coal and ash handling control systems are designed for the unmanned operation, by incorporating the latest automatic and remote control system. The coal transfer from the bunkers to daily hoppers is automatically done by detecting the coal level in daily hopper and coal feed to coal distributor is automatically done by coal feeder linked with automatic combustion control system. Fly and bottom ash transfer from hoppers to respective ash storage silos are automatically initiated by timer and automatically stopped by detecting the ash level in each ash hopper. This operation is continued sequentially until all the hoppers are empty, and upon completing one cycle the system returns to the starting position to repeat another cycle. The start and stop of the overboard discharge of ash from the storage silos are remote/manually controlled. All the propulsion plant operations, including the operations of the coal handling and ash handling systems, are monitored and controlled in the central control room in the machinery space. During a continuous 6-hour UIV:Soperation test on a sea trial, this ship achieved an outstanding record for the new generation of coal-fired ship: - there was no malfunction alarm for any part of the plant installed on this ship including all new coal firing systems such as coalfired boilers, coal convey system and ash transfer system. In the quick load change operations such as crash stop astern ahead test, the ship was smoothly controlled and operated as well as an oil-fired ship with the help of the coal MACCS and excess steam dump control.

Chemical and physical properties of callide coal In Table 3, the properties.of callide coal determined by laboratory analysis are shown together with those of taiheiyo coal, a typical Japanese coal for reference. Through this analysis, callide coal may be declared suitable for the stoker firing in terms of calorific value, ash content and ash fusion temperature. It does, however, contain some undesirable properties for stoker firing, i.e. very hiqh fixed carbon content as against relatively low percentage of volatile matter and high grindability.

The former

suggests

poor combustion

characteristics

in the furnace

of stoker-fired

boiler.

The latter suggests a considerable size degradation during its handling and transfer which affects the boiler efficiency and increases the coal dust in the coal bunker, daily hopper and transfer piping.

Conclusion In the design and construction stages of this new generation of coal-fired ship, we encountered many previously unexperienced problems. However, our staff overcame them with renewed interest and enthusiasm for the revived energy source and also for the honour of building this coalfired ship. Behind their achievement, there was strong technical support from members of our Technical Institute and many equipment manufacturers. We would especially like to express our sincere thanks to the people of the Australian National Line and Queensland Alumina Ltd. for their understanding and for the cooperation extended to us over a long time.

References

1.

A. Fukugaki "COAL-FIRED
presented at the 1980. (*) SECOND

SHIPS, HOW TO MAKE THEM REALL Y VIABLE"
INTERNATIONAL COAL-FIRED SHIPS CONFERENCE,

2.

G.C. Beggs "COAL BURNING BULK CARRIERS FOR AN AUSTRALIAN TRADE", Transactions I, Mar.E., 1981, Vol. 94, Paper 15.

COASTAL

(*)

PROCEEDINGS of both FIRST and SECOND INTERNA TlONAL CONFERENCES available upon request.

COAL-FIRED SHIPS

TABLE Class Length, overall Length, b. p. Breadth (moulded) Depth (moulded) Designed draught (moulded) Scantling draught (moulded) . .. .. .. .. ..

1-

PRINCIPAL lloyd's 255 m 248 m

PARTICULARS

OF SHIP

Register of Shipping

+ 100 A 1 "Ore Carrier" + LMC & UMS

35.35 m 18.30 m 12.20 m 12.80 m 75 517 metric tons .. 80469 67507.1 . metric tons m3 51 994.30 tons 4422.2 m3 16.87 knots at trial ballast condition abt. 16.1 knots at full load condition 4500 sea miles Mitsubishi MS-21-11 x 1 set 19000 PS x 80 rpm

Deadweight (designed draught) Deadweight (scantling draught) Gross tonnage (British) Cargo holds capacity Ship speed Endurance Main turbine (grain) Coal bunkers capacity (grain)

Main boilers

Mitsubishi-CE V2M-9S x 2 sets Max. evaporation 35 t/h each Steam condition 61.5 kg/cm2 G x 4800 C Back pressure type turbo-generator x 2 sets 1850 kW x 1800 rpm each Radiator cooled diesel generator 700 kIN x 1800 rpm Pneumatic dense-phase type From coal bunker to daily hopper From shore facility to coal bunker x 1 set

Main generators

Emergency generator

Coal transfer

16 t/h 80 t/h

Ash transfer Ash discharge Kind of coal

Pneumatic vacuum (by vacuum pump) type - 3 t/h Pneumatic vacuum (by hydro eductor) type Callide (Queensland) coal 25 t/h

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2

SAFETY ~OUNTERMEASURES

AGAII-JST COAL DISASTER

position Coun termeasures Fire Prevention Fire Detection Exhaus t through Bag Filter Natural Vent Temp. Sensor Fire Alarm CO2 Flooding
via

Coal Bunker

Daily Hopper

0

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0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

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TABLE

3

CHEMICI..L AND

PHYSICAL

PR:lPERTIES

OF

"CALLIDE

COAL" Japan

Production Name High of Coal Calorific Moist Inherent
Ul

Value(Moist.Eq.) Moist kcal/kg wt. wt.
%

Aus tralia Cal1ide 5,360 5.5 10.2 50.5 24.3 15.0 2.08
7'J.9

Taiheiyo 6,480

Surface
(lJ

5.5 38.6 44.2 11.7

wt. %
%

ro·.-1 Fixed Carbon E Ul . >-. .-1 Matter volatile XM o ro Ash ~c
o...:t
Ul

.JJ

wt.% wt.%

Fuel Carbon

Ratio

wt.
%

o . B7
74.9 6.2 16.9 1.2 0.06 0.i9 72

Q} .JJ

>..

~

.~ ~
Ull>.
>,
.-i.e

(lJ

(lJ

Hydrogen Oxygen Nitrogen Sulphur Sulphur Chlorine (Combustible) (Uncombus tib Le )

wt. % wt.% wt.% wt. % wt.
%

4.2 16.6 1.1 0.06 0.11 122 121 B6 1,636 0.90 NA
1, 460 > 1,500 >

0..

~

0. 0

ro Ul
C.::::
(lJ

.:t
.JJ III

'1J

.-i

0 U

III

c, ro .-1

.~ .JJ .JJ Ul
.-i .

E

mg/kg mg/kg HGI

:E: Fluorine ~ Grindability

=:J 0

107
42 1,477

Specific volumetric Caking
.~ tTl ::I

Gravity GJ;avity Factor Softens Melts Fluids Si02 Fe203 CaO MgO

CSN °c °c °C wt. % wt. % wt. % wt. % wt. % wt. % wt. % wt.% wt. % wt.
%

NA

0

C

.
E
(lJ

I

1,185 1,295 1,305 45.3 6.3 10.4 2.6 24.6 4 .2 1.1 0.7 O.~ 0.3 191

0.,

"-'E-<

1,500 43.1 15.4 1.8 1.2 30.9 2.0 1.8 0.3 0.5

>, .JJ

~

C .JJ

(lJ

0., l-.< 0.. tTl

.~

0

A~203 S03 Ti02 P205 rJ.3.20 K20 C£

0

. .-1
Ul 0
0.,

.r:
.:t

u

E 0

O~2
9

mg/kg Gravi ty Gravity

Specific Volumetric

-

2,878 0.56

-

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