Hyundai Mipo Dockyard Co. Ltd., Korea

THE HYUNDAI Mipo Dockyard Co., Ltd., (HMD) from Ulsan, Korea, is pleased to announce that we are approaching completion of the two conversions of 125000 m3 LNG carriers with oil and LNG gas-fired boiler into 128000 dwt bulk/oil carriers with oil- and coal-fired boiler. The conversions were commenced on July 14 and September 4 and will be redelivered to their owners by December 15, 1982, and February 5, 1983, respectively. The original LNG carriers M/V Cove Point and M/V £1 Paso Savannah, which were initially owned by EI Paso Company Inc., Houston, and were renamed M/V Jade Phoenix and M/V Golden Phoenix right before delivery to our yard owned by a new owner Phoenix Bulkship I Inc., and Phoenix Bulkship I nc., members of the same Falcon Shipping Group. The vessels were built by Avondale Shipyards Inc., U.S.A., for subsidiaries of the initial owners. These two of the three sister vessels, when initially built, were reportedly determined to have been unsuitable for their original intended employment as LNG carriers, due to some technical deficiencies of the cargo insulation and the secondary barrier system. Accordingly, their potential utilization for another purpose was investigated by owners, including the possibility of a modification of the existing power plant for energy conservation. This conversion project was initiated and ordered by Falcon Shippino Group, U.S.A., the concept design study of which was done by John J. McMullen Associates Inc., U.S.A., an engineering consultant of the owners for this project.

Criteria and work range of the conversions These ships are being converted to meet the requirements of ABS U.S. flag.

+ ACC and USCG as

Ship's speed at draft of 57' -0" is designed to be 14.5 knots with a 15 per cent of service margin at maximum rating, while ships' orioinal speed was 19.5 knots at a draft of 37' -6". The vessels are intended to carry dry bulk and light crude oil cargoes after the conversions. A stowage factor of coal and grain is based on 46 and 45 cubic feet per long ton, respectively.
n .,_ .,

Port condition coal.

of Hampton

Roads, Virginia,

U.S.A., has been considered

for bunkering

Loading cases are developed for full load conditions oil at specific gravities of 0.8 and 0.9.

with coal and grain and with crude

Hull structure In evaluating the suitability added for the intended services:(1) of the existing structure, the following was modified and

Longitudinal hull girder strength was evaluated on the basis of satisfying of bending moment of A.B.S. for bulk and crude oil carrier.

the requirements


A detailed three dimensional finite element analysis was carried out to evaluate the structure adequacy of the existing cofferdam transverse bulkheads and the ability of the bulkheads to resist unsymmetrical loading when oil is being discharged or when highdensity bulk cargoes are carried. To make the hatch opening for bulk cargoes, the existing longitudinals in upper portion required reinforcement by fitting intercoastal rider plates to flanges and also the topside wing tank was required to be strengthened longitudinally by fitting additional new sloped plates. Considering damage stability, the vessels were designed to have a total of eight cargo holds by providing four newly subdivided corrugated transverse bulkheads in addition four existing cofferdam-type transverse bulkheads.





The coal storage bunker was arranged aft of the engine room to avoid the loss of existing cargo hold volume, and top side void tanks and the heavy strut were added as a method of reinforcement for deficiency of structure, especially for vibration problem due to elimination of the existing deck plates. The forward fuel oil deep tank was modified required than that of LNG carrier. to use the slop tank since less capacity is



To improve turning radius by USCG requirements the rudder was modified increase rudder area and large fins were installed additionally. A pump room was provided an oil tanker. forward of the engine room as conventional

in order to





Except for the above, the removal of the five 909 tons aluminium cargo tanks per vessel and insulation system on hold interior surface were successfully carried out by removal of main deck structure in way of the LNG cargo spaces. A 2000 tons floating crane built by Hyundai was mobilized heavy aluminium tanks of 909 metric tons each. for removal of these extra

The aluminium tanks are being stored on the mud of shallow sea near the yard at the moment and specialists are investigating to re-use those tanks for LNG storage base or other suitable purpose. Also, the outfittings for the cryogenic the conversions. (See Fig. 1 and 2). system were removed to the extent required by

Coal-fired propulsion system The original boiler was made by Forster Wheeler Boiler Corporation in U.S.A. and all the design and engineering of the boiler conversion and the coal/ash handling system were developed by the boiler manufacturer together with Detroit Stoker Co. Ltd. and Dynamic Air Corporation in U.S.A. The conversion to coal firing has been achieved by derating and applying spreader stoker and the cinder reinjection and an overfire air system. a travelling grate

The two criteria mostly affecting the changes of design between oil and coal-fired are the larger furnace and the lower gas velocities required for coal burning. The boiler can be operated either with oil or coal.


Modifications of existing structures, were inevitable. Therefore, close attention design.

arrangements of machinery, equipment, piping, etc., had to be paid to these to minimize the changes in

The propulsion machinery and associated auxiliary equipment turbines, feed water system, and shafting remained as it was.

such as main and generator

Boiler A coal-fired boiler with the same evaporation rate and steam conditions as a comparable oil-fired boiler would require about three times the furnace volume to ensure proper burn-out of the coal and to provide a furnace temperature safely lower than the ash softening temperature of the coal in order to avoid slagging on the tubes. For these reasons, conversions of the boilers were required by dropping the furnace floors by 7 feet, and the lower furnace water wall and screen headers were lowered to align with the stoker, which runs parallel with the boiler drum. Therefore, the existing superheater headers and convention banks were entirely removed and replaced by new in-line type superheater headers and new convention bank tubes of same diameter as original, installed at every other transverse spacing to minimize tube erosion by highly. abrasive fly ash. Unused tube holes in the transverse direction were plugged. The screen header, the side and rear lower waterwall headers were replaced by new ones and their position was modified as required to properly align with stoker grate. The waterwall tubes were extended by welding on an extension piece to the lower section and rolling into the newly relocated headers. The front waterwall header was adjusted slightly from its original location to match the stoker front plate. All downcomers between the steam drum and lower water wall or screen headers were with new ones and arranged outside the boiler while original downcomer was positioned the boiler inner and outer casings. into a mechanical

replaced between

The gas exit was re-arranged on the side wall of the boiler to exhaust dust collector, while original gas exit was located on the boiler top. The new economizer of an in-line arrangement with extended surface down-stream of dust collector to achieve a proper stack gas temperature.

tubes was installed

The coal feed is to be done from the forward from the furnace top, as original.

side of the boiler, while oil feed is done

A new pilot burner was provided on boiler side wall to ignite coal on stoker because the distance from the main oil burners to coal bed is too Qreat.

grate bed,

The boiler is supported at mid-position by saddles in four locations minimizing the stress imposed by ship movement and also minimizing the downward expansion of the furnace. The supports are of the standard design under the water drum, the other two supports are at the furnace sidewall above the stoker feeders, A system of beams and trusses is used to brace and reinforce the front and rear wall inner casings. The erection procedures are illustrated in Table 3 (see Fig. 3).

Coal handling


Coal storage bunker capacity is 4500 metric tons based on coal consumption of about 7.7 tons/hour total for two boilers. This capacity is suitable for a round trip trans-Atlantic voyage of 8000 to 10000 miles. The coal conveying system was provided with two main lines, each is capable of conveying 16 ton/hour to each boiler and cross-connected to each other for stand-by use. Below specifications of bituminous coal are design base:Hip-her Heating Ultimate Carbon Hydrogen Sulphur Nitrogen Oxygen Water Ash Value 11 420 BTU/LB Approximate 63.4% 4.3% 2.3% 1.3% 7.6% 12.4% 8.7% Moisture Volatile Fixed carbon Ash Coal Size 50% 30% %" to 2" .. Analysis 12.4% 33.14% 45.76% 8.7%


%" to 28 mesh
28 mesh to 0"

Coal conveying system in the coal handling and other factors.

Two kinds of conveying systems are employed coal storage capacity, the existing ship's configuration The equipments for coal conveying


in view of the

system were supplied

by Dynamic

Air Inc., U.S.A.

One is a mechanical screw conveyor system for coal transferring from the coal storage bunker to the pneumatic dense phase transporter to maximize coal storage bunker capacity because the screw conveyor requires less head-room below the bunker hopper than those for installation of pneumatic dense phase transporter and can reduce investment cost sign ificantly especially with 26 outlets from the coal storage bunker. A transverse screw conveyor can serve 3 or 4 outlets. The other is a pneumatic dense phase system to the coal day bunker with the air booster on coal conveying line for prevention of coal clogging in the convevino line. This arrangement is easier to route through existing arrangement especially in the engine room. With these arrangements, modification to the existing arrangements was minimized.

For the pneumatic dense phase transporter, a new transporter room was made below the screw conveyor in the previous aft peak tank at the aft engine room bulkhead. Two air compressors and two air reservoirs were added in the transporter room. These will only be used for coal transfer. Coal storage and day bunker The coal storage bunker was built aft of the engine room to avoid loss of existing cargo hold volume in the space previously assigned to bosun stores and steering gear room. Consequently, the portion of the former stabil izer tanks at forward engine room was converted to a ballast tank, considering trim control at the arrival condition following fuel burn off, the main deck was extended from engine room aft bulkhead in way of new coal storage bunker and vessel's were accordingly extended upward from the existing second deck to the main deck level. Accordingly, the existing mooring system equipments were properly re-arranged at aft of the coal storage bunker and the lower portion of the coal bunker was provided with a pyramid-shaped hopper. A coal storage bunker with sixteen hoppers and no lining with 70 decrees of slopping angle was designed at the first stage. However, the configuration of the coal storage bunker was changed to the twenty six hoppers with 45- 55 degrees of slope angle to increase coal storage bunker capacity. Consequently, a low friction liner, UHMW pe (Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethelene), was fitted to the hopper interior to meet ABS requirements. We also arranped hopper outlet unsymmetrically for the angle of hopper slope parts to prevent any bridQing of the coal by the symmetrical force of coal itself, and, furthermore, we fitted two air blasters on each hopper so as not to have any problem with the coal flow to screw conveyor. The day bunker is located immediately above the coal feeders. The bunker capacity is equal to sixteen hours of full load steaming requirement per boiler. The day bunker was fitted with stainless steel liner on the inside of the hopper part. This allows coal to be fed to the stoker feeder without trouble. To avoid dust laden air going into the engine room, a vent filter was provided on the top of the day bunker. Other features of the bunker are level indicators, explosion panels, isolation and fire prevention.

Coal feeding to boiler from day bunker The coal is burnt on a rotograte stoker made by Detroit Stoker Co. Ltd., U.S.A. rotograte stoker consists of two major components: the coal feeder and grate. The

The coal enters the small storage bin on the feeder from the day bunker by gravity through the conical distributor. The conical distributor is supported on the feed spilling plate. The reciprocating fuel feed plate pushes the coal off the spilling plate into the rotor housing, where the rotor blades throw the coal into the furnace. The stroke of the fuel feed plate is controlled by the combustion control system for load regulation. The rotor runs at a constant speed after being field adjusted for optimum performance. As the coal is thrown into the furnace, the fines will burn in suspension before hitting the grate, the large coal pieces will be thrown to the rear of the grate with rrogressively smaller sizes falling more forward. Thus, the entire grate area is uniformly covered and proper burn-out time is ensured.

The second major component is the grate consisting of three sections, which is made up of grate bars pinned to a chain at each end. The coal is burnt on the grate in a thin fuel bed, the grate is bare at the rear and, therefore, a wedge-shaped layer of ash will build up from rear to front (See Fig. 4). Ash handling system The equipments for ash handling system were supplied by Detroit Stoker Co. Ltd. Ash enters the conveying system from sifting hoppers below the grate and fly ash tank below the dust collector or the bottom ash hoppers, which receive ash from the stoker employing a clinker grinder to prevent any clinkers from entering the conveying system, and then ash will be conveyed by vacuum to overboard or the ash storage tank. The conveying can be sequenced automatically or manually. The ash storage tank will store ash in dry condition to protect the bin from corrosion when the ship is in port, where ash is not allowed overboard and can store ash from 6 days' full load steaming. A hydrovactor before the ash overboard discharge line, is provided to create the necessary vacuum for producing air flow to convey dry ash, and the ash or dust laden air drawn through the hydrovactor will be mixed with water and then discharged overboard. To supply the motive force for the vacuum system, the hydrovactor requires a new sea water pump of 1060 GPM at 150 PSIG and a cross-connection from main fire pump has been provided for stand-by purposes. In the ash pneumatic system, erosion is controlled by spin casting the pipe of high-hardness material with wear-resistant crystals arranged radially. Bend or directional changes have fittings with integral or replaceable wearbacks. Ash conveying lines were impacted to other existing piping and steel outfitting due to low flexibility by special material pipe. (See Fig. 5).
Air and flue gas flow

Combustion air is supplied by an existing forced draft fan and heated by existing steam air heaters, and then directed either to the burner windbox or undergate air plenum and new pilot burner depending upon the operation mode. New induced draft fans suck gas from the boiler through dust collector and economizer, and discharge the flue gas up the stack. Inlet vanes of both fans are regulated by a control loop maintaining constant pressure in the duct work upstream of the combustion control dampers for the forced draught fan, and by a constant pressure in the furnace for the induced draught fan. An overfire system was provided in order to enhance the combustion. A separate overfire air fan delivers air at about 24" H20 to two rows of nozzles in both the furnace front and rear walls. Of the total required combustion air, 85 per cent is delivered by the forced draught fan and 15 per cent by theoverfire air flow. The overfire air fan also provides the motive power for the cinder reinjection system. The cinder reinjection system was provided to increase boiler efficiency by reinjecting unburnt carbon. Unburnt carbon is fed by gravity into the reinjection line from the three boiler downspouts located after the main generating bank, and from two of the three dust collector hoppers. Five cinder reinjection nozzles are fitted near the grate level on the boiler side wall. Flue gas leaving the boiler enters a mechanical cyclone-type dust collector located between the boiler outlet and an economizer. The dust collector is partitioned into three sections; two of the sections have dampers at the inlet side to control velocity of [las through the dust collector,

because the efficiency of the cyclone collector is dependent upon the pressure drop across it. At low boiler loads, one of the sections will be closed off to maintain a hioher pressure for higher efficiency. The first and third section of the dust collector will inject continuously and the second section will always discharge to the ash handling system. to the boiler furnace

A new duct was installed at the rear of boiler for undergrate and at the side of the boiler for the pilot burner. An exhaust duct was added between boiler exhaust gas exit on the side wall of the boiler and dust collector. Thirty expansion joints had been added due to cornplicatec boiler duct arrangement.


system system

The control system was modified partially and added for the coal and ash handling based on the same philosophy as an oil-fired steam ship in the requirements of ASS. Special ( 1) (2) features Automatic in the automatic selection control system include the following:-

of either adjustment


or coal. value variation for smokless

An air/oil or air/coal operation. The furnace pressure

for fuel calorific



loop to prevent

ash discharge



Each bed of coal deposited on stoker burns for 3 to 5 minutes. To avoid impact of the thermal inertia on stoker grate by slow reaction to changing load requirements, an existing steam dump system is maintained.

Other additions

in engine room

All piping including steam piping around the boiler, the boiler duct route, ash storage tank, etc., was rearranged and other parts were modified accordinplv. A thermal stress analysis was newly carried out for main steam piping system based on the new arranrernent, the result of which required the rearrangement of most of the main steam pipino around the boiler. Other modifications, in addition to those above, were requ ired to meet the vessels' conversion features. In addition, an engine room webframe will have to be cut due to space limitation caused by the boiler bottom ash hoppers when withdrawl of propeller shaft is required.

Conclusion In the result of the conversion, the superheated steam temperature has fallen by 1000 F to F at the same pressure and the steam flow has been reduced by 49 per cent of its oriqinal rating to 70 000 Ibs/hr. Sy these reductions, the converted vessels mark 43 per cent of its original propulsion power with steam cycle modifications. 8550 As the vessels are expected to get 75 per cent of the original speed even though vessels' draft increased by 19 feet 6 inches to 57 feet, we can hopefully predict rather economical service of the converted vessels as bulk and oil carriers in terms of energy saving. Main particulars Tables 1 and 2. and boiler performance before and after the conversion are shown in

In the course of the conversion, boiler system and refitting of a new system only in the limited space of engine room, not installation of a new boiler, have somewhat driven us to a continuous alert in keeping the work process, manpower control and further budgetary plan of the yard. Through this valuable experience on a series of the two vessels, we have accumulated invaluable knowledge of technical concept in design team and economical performance in engineers and technicians. Thus, it is our frank hope and feeling as a ship repair yard, who have carried out this unfamiliar field of conversion project, that when another opportunity appears in front of us, a great deal of money and time saving may be possible by means of improvement of productivity and elimination of unnecessary work process from the previous experience.

References: • • • "Retrofitting for Coal Burning Propulsion Plants", by John R. Burns. Foster Wheeler Boiler Corporation, Raub W. Smith. General Electric Company.

Finally, when we are requested by any party who are interested in this kind of project, we are willing to join them to develop a new technology for a more economical performance in the future.




Table of Ship's Main Particulars





LNG 931' 6" x 140' 6" x 94'0" 31 640 L T 68000LT 37' 6"


34200 128000 57' 0"





with sea 19.4 knots approx. 14.5



6100 L T

3280 L T 4300 LT 17700 SHP ABS 70 000 Ibs/hr Normal rating 875 j:sig x 8550 F

41000 SHP ABS 1373201bs/hr




875 psiq x 9550 F

Comparison Table of Boiler










137 320 1 100 875 955 282

70000 1 100 875 855

70 000 1 100 875 855 285 1 940 327 88.12 4 833 3 203 29 050 11 950



(0 F) (%)

1 830

320 88.5 9 890 2 102 ·89 915 8 820

330 86.0 7 214 3 203 29 500 11 950



366600 366600

420000 54800 474800

420 000 54800 474800

24' 8" 11' 3" 16' 3"

24' 8" 11' 3" 16' 3"

14' 8" 11' 3" 16' 3"


41 000






CONDITIONS 18 500 Btu/lb 11420Btu/lb





Erection Procedure
The following is an erection sequence suggested for these particular boilers by the Forster Wheeler Boiler Corporation. 1. Assess boiler piping and remove any external piping which may interfere with dismantling and/or re-erection of boilers. All piping deemed clear of the work area and being part of the revised system should remain intact. Terminal ends of all removed piping should be marked or tagged to facilitate re-piping after boiler erection. Remove existing ductwork and air heaters for the installation of forced draft and induced draft systems. Remove air heaters, clean and store. Remove all soot-blowers from boilers and economizers. NOTE: Remove soot-blowers in such a manner that units will not be damaged and mating surfaces remain intact.


Clean and store soot-blowers. Remove six (6) burner registers (3 each boiler) and associated equipment, clean and store. Remove, clean and store all boiler doors except economizer and lower waterwall header doors. These doors may be discarded. Remove economizers and rear casing walls of both boilers. NOTE: Removal must be done in such a manner that casing to drum seals are not damaged in any way. Remove, clean and store urper and lower drum internals.


Sling upper steam drum. Slings shall be in such a manner that existing drum to casing seals will not be bent or damaged in any way and holes in roof casing are kept minimal. Cut and remove existing boiler bank, superheater support, superheater and screen tubes. Do not cut or remove tile retainer tubes at each end of the boiler bank. Cutting and removal of tubes may proceed from both furnace side and gas uptake side. Cut tubes from inside may be stored on furnace floor until there is room for removal out of rear wall. Remove all tube stubs and clean all tube holes in both upper and lower drums in preparation for classification inspection. The stub removal and tube hole cleaning must be done under the supervision of the FWBC erection consultant. Remove the superheater cavity refractory floor, lattice bars, superheater header box doors, bridge panel and insulation. Remove, clean and store superheater handhole plugs and plates. Support superheater headers. Cut headers free of casing and remove. Set temporary




internal tube wall fixture.

This fixture should act as:-

Oi) (iii)

a tube spacing fixture; a guide for tube cutting; a fixture to maintain configuration

of boiler walls.


Weld temporary stiffening angle in place and remove outer sidewall casings from corner and portion of front wall, and casing trusses. Remove all stiffening members from inner sidewall casing plate in way of new truss and cut front wall casing panel to suit installation of new front support members. Remove as much of existing stiffeners, both front and sidewalls, without damaging the inner casing plates. Stiffeners in way of new trusses and front wall stiffeners should be ground flush to existing casing plates. Install new trusses and new front wall stiffeners in place per contract drawings. Support boiler from new front supports permitting access to complete boiler modification. Install four (4) temporary support lugs on casing at roof and support to steel above. Provide temporary support. And for support of roof and side-walls. Care should be taken not to damage handhole seating surfaces when rigging and supporting. Again holes in roof casing shall be kept minimal. With the exception of the drum to drum downcomers, remove all existing downcomers. Remove remaining wall casings. Do not remove floor pan and headers at this time.


9. 10. 11.

12. 13. 14.

Removal of tiles two rows of tiles below the casing cut outs dcwn to headers to be removed. Start with tiles one at a time and immediately weld in the tile retainer to support the vertical row of tiles above the one resolved. Repeat until all tiles are removed and tile retainers welded in. Remove now the last row of tiles above headers after the whole tile wall is fully supported from tile retainers. The tube walls below casing cut outs will notbe exposed. This procedure is similar for both side walls and the front wall. At this stage all the casing and tiles above cut outs will be fully supported from the customer's steel, by means of the new truss and tile retainers arrangement Remove all floor tiles and corbells. Cut off all bottom feeder tubes from headers (floor tubes). Cut off all front and side wall tubes. Remove all headers from brick pan and remove brick pan and front wall header supports. Cut out floor area below boiler to permit installation of lower section of modified boi ler and stoker. Install new boiler bank tubes. Tubes should be installed outward from each side of the longitudinal centreline of drums. Install superheater side wall casing panels. Temporarily support superheater headers in place weld support section. Remove temporary supports.

15. 16. 17.





Install bridge wall in place and then install refractory on superheater and complete casing and refractory work in way of new superheater supports.

sidewall panels and superheater


Install superheater


tubes in place but do not expand

into drums.


Install superheater (a) (b)


into header and roll into place making sure as you go to:engagements of superheater support lugs.

Check for proper

As superheater platens be installed also.

are installed

the superheater

lattice bars must


As superheater platens are installed, the support tubes must be positioned and the support lugs welded in place and the support tubes expanded into drums.


Install temporary screen headers.

frame to support/position

side water walls, front water walls and


Install refractory

on bridge wall.


Install front wall, side walls and screen wall tubes.


Install furnace

tube wall tie backs.


Check furnace lower header locations against dimensions given. If minor adjustments are necessary, relocate furnace alignment frame down to the tor of the header and set as required. Leave frame in until downcomers are installed.


Install lower furnace




Install inner casing on furnace side walls, see refractory reinjection along with overfire air system installation. Install downcomer Complete system. of the casing work.


for ash and cinder

31. . 32. 33.

the remainder

.lnstall permanent fixtu res.

front support

steel, and remove all temperature

rigging, supports



Install stoker and auxiliary econ om izer, etc.).


(This includes


flues and ducts,


Re-pipe boiler steam and water


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