N - A Coal-Fired Option for Far East Feeder Vessels - 1982 - Hong Kong Polytechnic - Hong Kong

A COAL-FIRED

OPTION FOR FAR EAST FEEDER VESSELS. D.A. Taylor
Hong Kong Polytechnic, Hong Kong

Synopsis

The use of a steam-reciprocating engine in conjunction with a coal-fired boiler provides a technically feasible and economically viable propulsion system for small bulk carriers. Two bulk carrier designs are considered and evaluated, one at 3000 dwt and the other at 5000 dwt They are both intended for shuttle or feeder services in Far East countries and the statement of operations used in the evaluation takes into account various local conditions and factors. Comparisons are made with similar diesel-driven vessels. The economics are very much in favour of the coal-fired vessel and, together with the independence from imported oil and its problems, present an attractive option to shipowners and Qovernments alike.
Technical concept

The technical concept seeks to replace the conventional diesel drive with a coal-fired boiler and a steam motor. This introduces the need for a separate boiler room and additional storage capacity for the coal bunkers. The result is, for an equivalent deadweioht, a longer or deeper draught coal-fired vessel. Also during operation the larger quantity of coal bunkers will affect the trim and stability of the vessel. As specific examples a direct comparison study was made between diesel and steam motor powered ships of 3000 dwt and 5000 dwt.
Bulk carrier 3000 dwt

A general arrangement of the bulk carrier design is shown in Figure 1. The particulars of the vessel are:Coal-fired Diesel ........ Length O.A. Length B.P. B (mid) D (mid) ..... .... Draught (loaded) Deadweight .. Speed Range ........
,

92.83 88.00 15.25 5.00 3.97 3000 12 2020

80.83 m 76.00 m 15.25 m 5.00m 3.96 m 3000 t 10 knots 2000 miles

The vessel is single-decked with a full length double bottom and has two holds with folding steel hatch covers. It is broad and of shallow draught with a bulbous bow, transom stern and all aft machinery and accommodation.

Coal-fired

arrangement

Two units of a Baumgarte corner tube package boiler are installed in the boiler room. Steam production is 5500 kg/hr, 25 bar, 3300 C per boiler using coal of 19 MJ/kg with a consumption of 1.38 tonne/hour. The furnace construction is of gas ti['ht all-welded fin tubes (monowall) with large downcomers circulatinq water between the lower headers and the steam drum. The upper headers are arranged to enable steam and water separation to take place prior to entering the drum. Firing is by a coal fed travelling grate. The boiler arrangement, gas flows and the location of the superheaters and economizers can be seen in Figure 2. When automatically fired the grates are fed from a ready-use hopper which contains enough coal for about two hours operation. The ready-use hopper is filled by a large bucket which is swung over the top. The bucket is filled when in the lowered position by conveyor belts carrying coal from the side bunkers. This arrangement is shown in Figure 3. Ash is collected in hoppers below the furnace and removed pneumatically. Itis then wet cyclone cleaned and either discharged overboard or stored onboard. Soot and ash in the exhaust is controlled by suitable filtering arrangements to meet the particular requirements when in port or at sea. The main engine is a 6 cylinder Spilling steam motor of 1000 kW output. The construction is shown in Figure 4, where it can be seen to be made up of 6 engine blocks. These are of identical construction and separately exchangeable at any time. The eccentric rod guides, cylinders, liners, piston rods and even the camshafts can all be easily exchanged. The crankshaft, however, is in one piece. The camshaft control eccentrics can be adjusted individually to operate against different backpressure requirements depending upon the installation. Engine details are 1000 kW output, 126 mm stroke, double acting, running at 900 rev/min, steam consumption is 8200 kg/hr steam at 25 bar, 3300 C. Continuous speed control is provided in the range 150 - 900 rev/min by a Spilling hydrogovernor with 0.3 per cent sensitivity. The engine drive is provided throuoh an elastic coupling and clutch to a reduction gearbox. A fixed pitch propeller takes up the final drive. Coal-fired ship operation requires no more service personnel than a comparative vessel using heavy oil. Coal is fed seml-autornaticallv to the travelling grate of the boiler and requires attention only about once an hour. For in-port operation one boiler on 30 per cent load can supply all the ship's needs through a 120 KVA steam driven generator. A diesel generator unit is also provided for stand-by duties. It can also be used for a fast start-up of the boiler after it has been shut down for some time. The normal start-up period for the boiler is about 90 minutes. Depending upon the calorific value of the coal a cruising ranee of about 2500 nautical miles is feasible.

Diesel-driven

arrangement

The diesel-driven vessel would use two medium speed diesel engines each developing 540 kW at 800 rev/min for main propulsion. Two diesel driven generators each producing 37.5 KVA would also be installed.

Economic

evaluation

In performing an economic evaluation of the two ship designs, a life cycle costing over 11 years was used. The capital cost was based for the steam vessel on the construction of two units in West Germany. Two diesel vessels were likewise considered but built in Japan. Both types of vessel are considered built to classification society requirements. In the calculations an estimated statement of operations was made. Certain assumptions were made with respect to the cost of fuel, expenses and revenues. These mainly assumed an inflation rate of about 15 per cent, fuel oil cost was estimated at 25 per cent .. Off-hire was set at 90 days per year for dry docking, repairs, etc. For gross reve~ue a deadweight of 3000 tonne was assumed, a speed of 10 knots, coal is the cargo carried, on one leg of the 400 nautical mile round trip, and 1Y2days are taken for loading and also discharging. Expenses were made up of voyage, fixed and financial accounts. Voyage expenses included port charges, fuel and various taxes and commissions. Fixed expenses included crew salaries and benefits, stores and supplies, drydocking and maintenance, insurance and administrative charges. Financial charges were related to the costs of financing the project The results of this evaluation are shown plotted as graphs in Figure 5. An examination of which clearly shows the cost increase and net profit development over the considered period. After about 6 years the diesel engine will require a complete overhaul costing perhaps 2/3 the cost of a new engine, hence the drop in net operating profit for th is vessel. The steam motor can however operate for about 15 years without requiring such an expensive overhaul. The coalfired ship is seen, from the outset, to give better net profits during the total period considered.

Bulk carrier

5000 dwt installation

The general arrangement of th is larger vessel is similar in all but the machinery and is shown in Figure 6. The vessel particulars are as follows:Length O.A. Length B.P. B (mid) D (mid) Draught (loaded) Deadweight Speed Range . 102 m 96 m 16.6 m 8.3 m 6.1 m 5100 t 11 knots 2900 miles

.

Coal-fired

arrangement

A single unit of Baumgarte corner tube package boiler is installed in the boiler room. Steam production is 18 000 kg/hr, 25 bar, 3300 C, using coal of 22 MJ/kg with a consumption of 2.12 tonne/hour. Construction, coal feeding and firing are as previously described. The main engines are two 6 cylinder Spilling steam motors of 1000 klJlJ output each. They are coupled through a twin-input, single output reduction gearbox to a controllable pitch propeller. The gearbox provides additional power take-off for a shaft-driven Qenerator and an input from the auxiliary diesel take-home motor. The auxiliary diesel is a Cummins KT A 1150/M 6 cylinder turbo-charged 360 kW diesel operating at 1800 rev/min. When at sea, electrical power is provided by the 160 K VA, 60 Hz, 440 volt shaft generator. In port electricity is provided by one of the two 250 KVA, 60 Hz, 440 volt Cummins NTA 855 M diesels installed.

Diesel-driven arrangement The diesel-driven vessel would use two medium speed diesel engines each developing 1000 kW for main propulsion. Two diesel-driven generators each producing 250 KVA, 60 Hz, 440 volts would again be used and a 160 KVA, 60 Hz, 440 volt shaft-driven generator.

Economic evaluation Unlike the 3000 dwt vessel study above, only direct fuel expenses were considered for the larger vessel. Revenues, fixed and voyage expenses were considered about the same for the coal and diesel powered vessels. The statement of operations considered an annual stearnino time of 190 days, 108 days for port loading and unloading operations with 58 days remaining for dry-docking, repairs, etc. Fuel costs were those prevailing in rv'!anilain July 1982. Diesel fuel and lubricating oil prices were then escalated at 25 per cent annually and coal at 15 per cent. The results are shown as a graph in Figure 7. Construction costs for the coal-fired version would be about 18 per cent greater according to quotations obtained in September 1982. This would take about 4 to 5 years to recoup from the reduced operating costs.

Conclusions These two designs of coal-fired bulk carriers are both technically and economically viable. The technology offered is not new, all items are well proven, tried and tested designs from long established manufacturers with no uncertainty about their performance. The economic evaluation indicates an increasing net profit for a coal-fired ship, well in excess of a similar diesel-driven vessel. It should be noted that the differences in net operational profits would be much higher if the annual steaming time were longer, since the coal-fired ship costs less to operate. The statement of operations was however established to take into account the local conditions prevailing in Far East countries, i.e. slow discharging, inter-island service, bad weather, etc. Another significant advantage, for Far East countries with available steaming coal supplies, is the political economy of independence from imported fuel costs and all that they entail. The economies and advantages are evident, the risks, if any, are small and the potential considerable for coal-fired vessels in the Far East. Any country with coal reserves should therefore be seriously considering their coal-fired option.

.-

_j

011'_1''' nOfll!

s((rlU

[-C

.- --,

---=~==-------------------~
0'

--------~IIIlUIDOM--...J

FIGURE

1

3000

DWT

BULK

CARRIER

FIGURE

2

BAUMGARTE

CORNER

TUBE

BOILER

a:
:IE

o
CD

1&1 ..I

~ II) > II)

1&1

e
Z
Q

1&1 ill U. ..I

~

o ()
M 1&1
;:)

a:

e

u.

10£'---'-------------'

'"

11('~i
,

a:

II · ,
II Jl_1
I

o > w > z o o

d:1~.::---_
i., -

I
I

I

__ . __

------

I
~ .

"
;-

: ~[
Q T

~
::J

~;_
,; Q.

; - " g= ~n _
• 0 ,,-

a... C1I

.
0

n . -c
0

@
v
0

(~

;;:0

~ ~~ Z cZ~
a

o.
C!)

::J

·•~· 3::J
0 0

,

~

!i ~

, ~•
-

::J
C!)

~-

.

;, o .,_

.f ~
o o

~

ft~
t ~ .~ ~
r 0 0

~

··
g

3 .., ~l~ ,... Q ~
,

3!

CD

~Z ~~
r

; s,

aCD

"
Q

·g ·
f

0

Q

!
;

m CO
::I ::I CD
()

a

~, E~ z,

::!~

i

2.~

c ;;

~~
;I

to

.-

~

.g
i

~
-

· ·0 · .-· 3 ~i· : ·0 ~ · i ... ;~ ~~
~j
v

:a

- ..
0 r 0

;;

~

:.~ ,

;-

"0

!
Q

0 <

~

;~

~
Q

:
a

H~
~ ~~ ~ ~~
; I!~ •0 :;

~! :

~
0

,

::I CD ::I
1/1

c

C')

'" '"

~

In

"
1/1

!
~
!

0

~
Q

~

I

,,.. .. "
z
C')

-I In

1/1

~

a: a:
0 0
-I II

· I
n
~

g. g
C!)

o

c:tl

0 0

5

0

· ·
i

·
"

o

o~ ::J a...~ C!) 3 C!)

~ ;;

'"

:r

US MIUION

DOLLAR 10

TOTAL REVENUE

/
6 4

2

4

6

8

10

12

YEARS

TOTAL EXPENDITURE

US

DOL.LAR
MIUION

8

DIESEL
/ / /

.4

COAL

FIGURE

5

(CON

'T )

NET PROFIT
US DOlLAR
MIWON 8

6

COAL

4

..... DIESEL

..... 2

.....

---

... -

2

4

6

8

10

12

YEARS

US

FUEL COST

DOLLAR
MILLION 8

6

__

.

.

. -y-_
\
\!:
~

/' .

U.S. DOLLAR MILLION 3

DIESEL

2

COAL

o~------~------+-------+-------~------~------~------~ 2 3 4 5 6 7 1
YEARS

FIGURE

7

FUEL

COST

5000

DWT

VESSEL

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful