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The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster headquartered at Broadcasting House in the City of Westminster, London. It is the largest broadcaster in the world, with about 23,000 staff. Its main responsibility is to provide impartial public service broadcasting in the United Kingdom, Channel Islands and Isle of Man. The BBC is a semiautonomous public service broadcaster that operates under a Royal Charter and a Licence and Agreement from the Home Secretary. Within the United Kingdom its work is funded principally by an annual television licence fee, which is charged to all British households, companies and organisations using any type of equipment to record and/or receive live television broadcasts; the level of the fee is set annually by the British Government and agreed by Parliament. Outside the UK, the BBC World Service has provided services by direct broadcasting and re-transmission contracts by sound radio since the inauguration of the BBC Empire Service in December 1932, and more recently by television and online. Though sharing some of the facilities of the domestic services, particularly for news and current affairs output, the World Service has a separate Managing Director, and its operating costs have historically been funded mainly by direct grants from the British government. These grants were determined independently of the domestic licence fee and were usually awarded from the budget of the Foreign and Commonwealth Office. As such, the BBC's international content has traditionally represented – at least in part – an effective foreign policy tool of the British Government. The recent BBC World Service spending review has announced plans for the funding for the world service to be drawn from the domestic licence fee. The Corporation's "guaranteed" income from the licence fee and the World Service grants are supplemented by profits from commercial operations through a wholly owned subsidiary, BBC Worldwide Ltd. The company's activities include programme- and format-sales, magazines including the Radio Times and book publishing. The BBC also earns additional income from selling certain programme-making services through BBC Studios and Post Production Ltd., formerly BBC Resources Ltd, another wholly owned trading subsidiary of the corporation. The BBC is sometimes referred to as "Auntie" and "the Beeb". The former is also used to refer to the BBC's sister corporation, the Australian Broadcasting Corporation.Contents . History of the BBC The privately owned BBC was the world's first national broadcasting organization and was founded on 18 October 1922 as the British Broadcasting Company Ltd. The original company was founded in 1922 by a group of six telecommunications companies—Marconi, Radio
renaming the existing service BBC1. upon resumption of service. The Light Programme was split into Radio 1 offering continuous "Popular" music and Radio 2 more "Easy Listening".Communication Company. The motto is generally attributed to Montague John Rendall. former headmaster of Winchester College. The first transmission was on 14 November of that year. including the motto "Nation shall speak peace unto Nation".. the decision was taken to award the BBC a second television channel.. The Home Service became . However. everybody. and an expanded service (now named the BBC Television Service) started from Alexandra Palace in 1936. and forced the British government finally to regulate radio services to permit nationally based advertising-financed services. and British Thomson-Houston (BTH)—to broadcast experimental radio services.. the BBC monopoly on radio services would persist into the 1970s. the Corporation adopted the coat of arms. The British Broadcasting Company Ltd was created by the British General Post Office (GPO) and John Reith applied for a job with the existing company and later became its employee general manager. Starting in 1964 a series of pirate radio stations (starting with Radio Caroline) came on the air. from station 2LO. BBC2. Experimental television broadcasts were started in 1932 using an electromechanical 30-line system developed by John Logie Baird.?" The European Broadcasting Union was formed on 12 February 1950. To represent its purpose and (stated) values. announcer Leslie Mitchell started by saying. in Torquay with the BBC among the 23 founding broadcasting organisations. and was joined by BBC 1 and ITV on 15 November 1969. Jasmine Bligh . The "Third" programme became Radio 3 offering classical music and cultural programming. and ITV was very heavily criticised for not providing enough quality programming. The company was wound-up and on 1 January 1927 a new non-commercial entity called the British Broadcasting Corporation established under a Royal Charter became successor in interest. in which the BBC was praised for the quality and range of its output. Western Electric.. As a result of the Pilkington Committee report of 1962. and member of the first BBC Board of Governors. Metropolitan-Vickers (MetroVick). The motto is said to be a "felicitous adaptation" of Micah 4: 3 "nation shall not lift up a sword against nation". BBC2 used the higher resolution 625 line standard which had been standardised across Europe. BBC2 was broadcast in colour from 1 July 1967." In fact. Limited regular broadcasts using this system began in 1934. A widely reported urban myth is that. Post WW2 Television broadcasting was suspended from 1 September 1939 to 7 June 1946 during the Second World War. "As I was saying before we were so rudely interrupted . The 405 line VHF transmissions of BBC1 (and ITV) were continued for compatibility with older television receivers until 1985. The superiority of the electronic system saw the mechanical system dropped early the following year. London. General Electric. Competition to the BBC was introduced in 1955 with the commercial and independently operated television network of ITV. How are you? Do you remember me. in 1964. alternating between an improved Baird mechanical 240 line system and the all electronic 405 line Marconi-EMI system. located at Marconi House. In response the BBC reorganised and renamed their radio channels. the first person to appear when transmission resumed was Jasmine Bligh and the words said were "Good afternoon.
which was modified later on in its life to offer documentaries. BBC Alba. In 2008 another channel was launched. BBC Choice launched as the third general entertainment channel from the BBC. and BBC Radio 7 became BBC Radio 4 Extra in 2011. following the success of the Radio 4 service to cover the 1991 Gulf War. BBC 6 Music specialised in alternative music genres and BBC7 specialised in archive. The BBC was also responsible for the development of the NICAM stereo standard. including Radio London. a Scottish Gaelic service. This led to resignations of senior management members at the time including the then Director General. but developed into a news and information service. In addition. the BBC's teletext service. Ceefax. In the early days it carried out essential research into acoustics and programme level and noise measurement. which was renamed BBC Parliament. BBC Knowledge launched as a multi media channel. a rolling news channel. with new programmes to supplement those broadcast on Radio 4. As well as the four national channels. In 1999. CBBC. and digital television services. dramas and plays. In 1978 BBC staff went on strike just before the Christmas of that year. launched on digital television services and the following year.The following few years resulted in repositioning of some of the channels to conform to a larger brand: in 2003. The BBC Research Department has played a major part in the development of broadcasting and recording techniques. a series of local BBC radio stations were established in 1967. In 1997. The BBC also purchased The Parliamentary Channel. readings. BBC Choice became BBC Three. In January 2007. new digital radio stations were created: 1Xtra. The 2004 Hutton Inquiry and the subsequent Report raised questions about the BBC's journalistic standards and its impartiality. BBC 1Xtra was a sister station to Radio 1 and specialised in modern black music. created initially to provide subtitling. In addition to the television channels. 6 Music and BBC7. with programming for younger generations and shocking real life documentaries. the BBC has faced increased competition from the commercial sector (and from the advertiser-funded public service broadcaster Channel 4). The channel had an educational aim. Unlike the other . was split into CBBC and CBeebies with both new services getting a digital channel: the CBBC Channel and CBeebies Channel. Greg Dyke. but was replaced in 1994 with Radio 5 Live. a number of new channels and stations were made: BBC Knowledge was renamed BBC Four and became the BBC's arts and documentaries channel. the BBC released minutes of the Board meeting which led to Greg Dyke's resignation. BBC News 24 became the BBC News Channel in 2008. BBC News 24. Since the deregulation of the UK television and radio market in the 1980s. In recent decades. which had been a programming strand as Children's BBC since 1985. speech and children's programming.Radio 4 offering news. thus blocking out the transmission of both channels and amalgamating all four radio stations into one. with services available on the newly launched BBC Text digital teletext service. and on BBC Online.In 1974. a number of additional channels and radio stations have been launched: Radio 5 was launched in 1990 as a sports and educational station. cable television. The new station would be a news and sport station. was introduced. and non-musical content such as quiz shows. especially on satellite television. 21st century In 2002.
however the BBC have stated that the cuts are essential to move the organization forward and concentrate on increasing the quality of programming. BBC HD launched as an experimental service. including 1. Also. following the licence fee freeze in October 2010. Three and Four as well as repeats of some older programmes in HD. more repeats in schedules. a HD simulcast of BBC One launched: BBC One HD. . BBC Director General Mark Thompson announced a controversial plan to make major cuts and reduce the size of the BBC as an organisation. On 20 October 2010. more commonly known as the Foreign Office or the FCO. The Foreign and Commonwealth Office. sharing of radio news bulletins. Details include cutting staff by 2000 and sending a further 1000 to the MediaCityUK development.Further cuts were announced on 6 October 2011.800 redundancies. The new channel uses HD versions of BBC One's schedule and uses upscaled versions of programmes not currently produced in HD. with BBC Three moving in 2016. reducing programming output by 10% and selling off the flagship Television Centre building in London. For me and I think also for our country is a honor to have the right to have among our channels also the BBC channels and to watch their interesting shows and programs. and became official in December 2007. To conclude I want to say that BBC is one of the biggest TV channels in the UK and worldwide which include radios stations and has the higher raiting because of the interesting shows and moderators. consolidating news operations. the BBC World Service is funded by the Foreign and Commonwealth Office. the BBC has experimented in high-definition television. Two. The same announcement revealed that the BBC would take on the full cost of running the BBC World Service and the BBC Monitoring service from the Foreign and Commonwealth Office. including the whole of BBC Two daytime and for some original programming to be reduced. The plans included a reduction in posts of 2. In 2010. and will part finance the Welsh broadcaster S4C. who have threatened a series of strikes. is the British government department responsible for promoting the interests of the United Kingdom abroad. so the BBC could reach a total reduction in their budget of 20%.500. other channels and full funding for CBBC and CBeebies would be retained. however flagship programmes. In 2006. because it is an opportunity for us to see another type of programs and shows which not include the political campaign and which is for us an opportunity to learn English and to hear and to correct our pronunciation in British English. the Chancellor of the Exchequer George Osborne announced that the television licence fee would be frozen at its current level until the end of the current charter in 2016. In the past few years.departments of the BBC. On 18 October 2007. the BBC HD channel would be closed and replaced with an HD simulcast of BBC Two. the sharing of more programmes between stations and channels.These plans have been fiercely opposed by unions. The channel broadcasts HD simulcasts of programmes on BBC One.
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