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Benazir Bhutto Tribute Benazir Bhutto Photos Benazir Bhutto Biography Benazir Bhutto (June 21, 1953--- December 27, 2007

Former Prime Minister of Pakistan and Chairperson Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP) Benazir Bhutto was born on June 21, 1953 in Karachi, Pakistan to a prominent political family. Bhutto was the first woman elected to lead a Muslim state, having twice been Prime Minister of Pakistan (1988–1990; 1993–1996). Early Age She was the eldest child of former premier Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, a Pakistani of Sindhi extraction and Shia Muslim by faith, and Nusrat Bhutto, a Pakistani of IranianKurdish extraction, of similarly Shia Muslim by faith. Zulfikar Ali Bhutto founded the Pakistan People's Party (PPP) and was prime minister from 1971 to 1977. Her paternal grandfather was Sir Shah Nawaz Bhutto who came to Larkana Sindh before partition from his native town of Bhatto Kalan which was situated in the Indian state of Haryana. He was one of the most high profile Sindhi politicians under British India and also served as a ‘dewan’ or the Prime Minister of the state of Junagagh. Education Benazir attended the Lady Jennings Nursery School and then the Convent of Jesus and Mary in Karachi and later the Rawalpindi Presentation Convent. Her education continued when she was sent to the Jesus and Mary Convent at Murree where she passed her O-Level examinations at the age of fifteen and her A-Levels were then taken at the Karachi Grammar School. At the Age of 16 Benazir’s higher education saw her moving to the United States of America to the Radcliffe College and ultimately at Harvard University where she earned a Bachelor of Arts degree cum laude in comparative government between 1969 and 1973. Bhutto would later call her time at Harvard "four of the happiest years of my life" and said it formed "the very basis of her belief in democracy". As Prime Minister, she arranged a gift from the Pakistani government to Harvard Law School. In June 1972 summer before her senior year of college with her father, president Zulfikar Ali Bhutto of Pakistan, she went in India. Zulfikar Ali Bhutto and India's Prime Minister Indira Gandhi sign Shimla agreement which adjusts cease-fire line between the two countries and creates new Line of Control.

The next phase of her education took place in the United Kingdom. Between 1973 and 1977 Bhutto studied Philosophy, Politics, and Economics at Lady Margaret Hall, Oxford. She completed a course in International Law and Diplomacy while at Oxford. In the meantime in Pakistan New constitution goes into effect; Zulfikar Ali Bhutto becomes prime minister.

In December 1976 she was elected president of the Oxford Union, becoming the first Asian woman to head the prestigious debating society. In 1977 she returned to Pakistan at the age of 24 where her father, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, had been elected prime minister, but days after her arrival, the military seized power and her father was imprisoned. General Mohammad Zia ul-Haq proclaims martial law. In 1978 she wrote the book "Foreign Policy in Perspective". Zia becomes Pakistan's sixth president. In April 4,1979 Zulfikar Ali Bhutto was hanged by the military government of
General Zia Ul Haq in the Rawalpindi District jail,where he had been confined since his conviction in 1978 on charges of conspiring to murder a political opponent four years earlier. She said her father’s death vigil prepared her for her political career. Bhutto herself was also arrested many times over the following years, and was detained for three years. Ms Bhutto was eager to avenge her father’s death and people who knew the family predicted that she wants nothing less than to be Prime Minister, no small feat in a male-dominated Islamic country. In March 8, 1981 Ms. Bhutto and her mother were arrested in a roundup of political dissidents after government opponents linked to her brothers hijack a Pakistani airliner.Ms. Bhutto spended the summer in confinement , then is transferred to house arrest before finally leaving the country in exile in 1984. In 1983 Zia announces that martial law will be lifted, says army will retain key role in future governments and In 1984 Finally she allowed to leave country. she suffered long periods in detention, during which her health deteriorated. Benazir provided a detailed account of this traumatic period in her acclaimed autobiography Daughter of the East (1988) In July 1985 Benazir Bhutto’s younger brother Shahnawaz killed in cannes France. The family insisted he was poisoned, but no charges were brought. In August 29,1985 Ms. Bhutto was placed house arrest, eight days after returning to Pakistan from self –imposed exile. she had returned to try to assume leadership of her father’s party, and to mark the death of her younger brother. she returned to Pakistan for his burial, and was again arrested for participating in anti-government rallies. She returned to London after her release, and martial law was lifted in Pakistan at the end of the year. In April 10, 1986 Ms. Bhutto returned to Pakistan from London to take the reins of the party her father had founded . Tens of thousands of supporters lined the streets chanting, “Welcome daughter of Pakistan” and “Benazir brings the revolution”. The public response to her return was tumultuous, and she publicly called for the resignation of Zia Ul Haq, whose government had executed her father. She was elected co-chairwoman of the Pakistan People's Party (PPP) along with her mother. Marriage

In December 18, 1987 Ms . bhutto’s mother arranged her marriage to Asif Ali Zardari. In line with the Pakistani and Muslim traditions Mohtarma Benazir Bhutto's married Mr. Asif Ali Zardari in 1987. Mr Zardari was a prominent businessman and hails from Nawab shah in Sind. After both the families finalized the relation, engagement was announced on 29th July 1987, and the couple were married on December 18, 1987 in Karachi. Mr Asif Ali Zardari has been a Member of Parliament as well as served as a government minister. He also spent a considerable time in jail on politically motivated charges. Speaking about her marriage, while speaking to Los Angeles Times, Mohtarma Benazir Bhutto said,

" For me the choice was not between a love marriage or an arranged marriage but between agreeing to this or not getting married at all ... An arranged marriage may seem traditional, but what is not traditional is the fact I'm not abandoning my identity or my career. If I had thought it might hurt my political career, I know I would never have taken this step. I would never have gotten married at any stage. I would have never sought personal happiness at the cost of my country. If people have given their lives for the cause of freedom and constitutional rule, then I surely could have sacrificed marriage and children." Source: Tyler Marshall, "Political Maverick Bows to Muslim custom", Los Angeles Times, 08/07/1987.
The Couple have three children, and the eldest being their son Bilawal, who was born in September 1988, followed by two daughters Bakhtwar, and Aseefa respectively. They are pursuing their education. In August 17, 1988 General Zia,along with the American ambassador to Pakistan and 28 others, died in a plane crash. In December 2, 1988 Prime Minister Bhutto was sworn into office, becoming the first woman and youngest prime minister of a Muslim nation at the age of 35. In August 6, 1990 Ms. Bhutto’s government was dismissed by the president of Pakistan after only 20 months in office .The President , Ghulam ishaq Khan ,accused her administration of corruption nepostism and other acts “I contravention of the Constitution and the law”. Ms. Bhutto blamed the military for her ouster. In October 25, 1990 In an election that Ms. Bhutto had hoped to win to vindicate herself after her dismissal , her opponents, the Islamic Democratic Alliance , won a clear majority.The party was led by Nawaz Sharif, the chief minister of the province of Punjab.

In 1993 after more than 2 years of political battling, Ms. Bhutto’s Pakistan People’s
Party captured the most seats in parliamentary elections. In November 5, 1996 Pakistan’s president dismissed Ms. Bhutto as head of the government, justifying the action with a proclamation that depicted her administration as incompetent , corrupt and defiant of constitutional restraints on executive power. Ms. Bhutto was placed under house arrest, and her husband ,

widely accused of enriching himself with kickbacks on government contracts , was said to have been arrested while trying to flee the country. In April 15, 1999 a Pakistani court convicts Ms. Bhutto of having taken kickbacks while in office. She was sentenced to five years in prison and barred from holding political office.The court also sentences her husband, already jailed and awaiting trial on separate charges, to five years, and fines them $8.6 million. Ms.Bhutto, in London at the time the sentences are handed down, denied all the charges but remains in self –exile. In April 6, 2001 Pakistan’s Supreme Court sets aside the convictions and orders a retrial for Ms. Bhutto and her imprisoned husband. In November 22, 2004 Ms. Bhutto’s husband, Asif Ali Zardari, was released on $16,900 bail after eight years in prison. In October 4, 2007 the Government of Gen. Pervez. Musharaf announced an American-brokered accord that includes amnesty for Ms. Bhutto, clearing the way for the general to run for re-election as president and for Ms. Bhutto to return to Pakistan for parliamentary elections. In October 18, 2007 Ms. Bhutto returned to a tumultuous welcome in her home city of Karachi. As hundreds of thousands of supporters lined the streets, two huge blasts exploded feet from the truck in which she was traveling. Ms. Bhutto was unhurt but the death toll climbs over 100, with hundreds more wounded. In November 13, 2007 after General Musharraf declared emergency rule, hundreds of riot police blocked Ms. Bhutto and her supporters from making a planned long march from Lahore to Islamabad. Police had also prevented a rally Planned in Rawalpindi four days earlier. In December 27, 2007 Ms. Bhutto, who was appearing at a political rally in Rawalpindi, was fired upon by a gunman at close range, quickly followed by a blast that the government says was caused by a suicide attacker. AWARDS AND HONORARY DRGREES Honorary Doctorate of Law, L.L.D Harvard University (1989) Honorary Doctorate of Law (Honoris Causa), University of Sindh (1994) Honorary Doctorate from Mendanao State University, Philippines (1995) Honorary Doctorate of Law (Honoris Causa), Peshawar University (1995) Honorary Doctorate of Economics, Gakushuin University, Tokyo (1996) Honorary Fellowship by Lady Margaret Hall, University Oxford, (1989) Honorary Fellowship by St. Catherine College, University of Oxford, (1989)

Honorary Professor of the Kyrghyz State National University (1995) Kyrghyzstan. Honorary Professor of Yassavi Kazakh Turkish University, Kazakh-Turkish International Language University, Kazakhstan, 1995. Honorable Member of OHYUKAI, Alumni Association of Gakushuin, conferred by OHYUKAI Tokyo (1996). Awarded the 2000 Millennium Medal of Honor by American Biographical Institute, Inc. in November 1998. Awarded American Academy Award of Achievement in London, October 28, 2000 Bruno Kreisky Award of Merit in human Rights, 1988. Honorary Phi Beta Kappa Award (1989), presented by Radcliffe College. Highest Moroccan Award "Grand Cordon de Wissam Alaoui" Highest French Award "Grand-croix de la Legion Honneur" (1989) The Noel Foundation Award, 1990 (UNIFEM). The Gakushuin Honorary Award, Tokyo (1996) Award by the Turkish Independent Industries and Businessmen Association (MUSAID) on account of providing assistance to the people of Bosnia. Golden medal Dragon of Bosnia awarded by President of Bosnia (1996) Key to the city of Los Angeles, presented by the Mayor of Los Angeles (1995) Presidential Medal, Paul Nitze School of Advanced International Science (1995) Medal by University of California at Los Angeles (1995) International Woman of the Year – in Dubai 2006 Books Mohtarma Benazir Bhutto is the author of two books "Foreign Policy in Perspective" (1978) and her autobiography, "Daughter of the East" (1989 and revised edition 2007). Several collections of her speeches and works have been compiled which include "The Way Out", Pakistan Foreign Policy, Challenges and Responses in the Post-Cold War era in "After the Cold War" by Keith Philip Lepor and Male Domination of Women offends her Islamic religion in "Lend Me Your ears: Great Speeches in History" by William Saffire. The most recent being "The Way Out" (1980). She has also contributed to many periodicals and to the books, "Predictions for the Next Millenium" by Kristof and Nickerson and "Book of Hopes and Dreams" published by Bookmaster Inc.