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For many years the scholarly community has turned its back on Science Fiction banning it to the ―real‖ of sub literature, of mass literature or even to genre writing often without reading sufficient texts to make a proper easement, in the words of my former theory of literature professor ―Dea bea avem timp de capodopere/ We barley have time for masterpieces‖. From such a view point only masterpieces of literature are important for academic study, and all the rest should be left in the hands of ―common readers‖. There are, at least, two problems with such a view point. Firstly if we are to study only works written by consecrated writers we end up with researching only a narrow niche of literature leaving many authors in the dark and also we could on an road that been trembled on several times. It is increasingly difficult, today, to produce something important about the classics. Trying to dig into something that has already been dug trying to make a new way on path already taken is of course an admirable gesture but there comes a time when the roads that have not yet been trembled on need to be taken. Secondly we cannot ignore the place of literature in certain subcultures. Steampunk began, after all, as a literature movement then it turned into a social subculture. In these days of social change we must try and see what part does literature take in what is becoming a culture of cultures. This paper aims to study such cultural phenomena. What is steampunk? How it shaped a subculture? Where it originated? What authors can be considered part of the cannon? Or if there even is such a thing as steampunk cannon? These questions, as well as others, will be answered in what is to follow.
shorn of all the fossilized crap encrusting the medium. For now all that is needed is to understand that the 2 .The Steampunk Common Core Literary works that belong to a certain genre/subgenre need to have a series of common traits that unite them.‖ But there isn‘t uniformity at this level either Paul di Filipo does not share this kind of aesthetic in The Steampunk Trilogy. However such histories should not be reduced only to the Victorian period as even in Moorcock‘s The Nomad in Streams of Time trilogy is situated chronologically in the 20th century arriving even in the 70‘s when the books were written. (Stefania Forlini Neo-Victorian Studies 3:1 2010:73) In this view steampunk in only reduced to the world of alternative histories. they think of brass goggles and copper gears. The technologies employed are. But we will discuss his trilogy in detail in another chapter. (Ashley. In many respects his efforts represent towards generation/wave of steampunk. it imagines alternative Victorian pasts in which technological advances (such as those imagined by H. either those employed in the Victorian period or they might be just similes but then again they could employ materials used in the Victorian era or simply have a certain Victorian fell to them as Natasha Harrington puts it ―When someone hears the term ‗Steampunk‘. it explores the difference an object can make. though. Steampunk is the adolescent SF genre dreaming of the adult it hopes to grow up to become. Wells and Jules Verne) radically alter the course of history and open up possible future techno-cultural worlds. As a sub-genre of science fiction. Steampunk is science fiction‘s subconscious attempt to have – or to re-have – a happy childhood.G. For Paul di Filippo steampunk is: Steampunk is science fiction‘s age thirteen. Paul de Filipo uses steampunk to ridicule certain Victorian mentalities such as racism or the debate of whether or not the world of created or it appeared out of chaos. Steampunk is no different but unlike many other subgenres where there is a rather rigid line the boundaries of steampunk are quite blurry. The need to have certain things: First and foremost. One element of the core seems to have shaped steampunk even before there was a conscious effort to write in a steampunk style. steampunk is about things – especially technological things – and our relationships to them. 2010:6) Indeed steampunk is one of the newer incarnations of SF being born only in 1987 and as such it still is maturing and changing making the task of finding the common core of features ever more difficult.
Their ideas. remain at the level of though most of their creations. But the atmosphere should not be given any boundaries as Wild Wild West has shown. In the movie viewers can feast their eyes on the heavy and complicated machinery used among which we can enlist rather tall spider-like mecha powered by steam which has become has been talked about on a number of steampunk articles. Also the various steampunk artists utilize this kind of aesthetic in their work. There are even modern pieces of technology like an iPhone. a laptop or even an electric guitar that can receive steampunk ―makeovers‖ by drawing on etching cock designs on them or Victorian ornaments there is even an electric etching tutorial available in the steampunk magazine as to demystify the process. No matter where or when the situation takes place the atmosphere does generally tend to be that of the 19th century. only to some extent. do largely. on the Victorian. Most of them might not have seen the developments brought to the steampunk common core let alone what lies outside the common core. Also there are a number of patterns in the magazine as how to make your own steampunk attire which is based. For most steampunk artists cogs. The movie is also important in other respects as it brought steampunk to the television in a time when most people did not know about the subgenre. As far as clothing is concerned most people from the real Victorian Era would feel ashamed to wear what steampunks do at their conventions and would find them utterly ridiculous. even if they do have a certain messages. an iPod. The spider does resemble to some extend the Well‘s walkers but the creation is not the only interesting contraption another one is a device that can project the last sight a person has seen. a time of innovation of the ―do-it-your-self‖ thinking mode when even those who did not poses a bachelor‘s degree could have contributed to science to some extent. do tend to remain at the level of ornamentation. steampunk can also cross the boundaries and go into the western genre. oil and brass constitute the working materials for their creations all of which have a strong reuse and a kind of central idea of reclaiming technology.common core of steampunk may also contain other elements besides the highly retro technologies mentioned above. Each steampunk ―maker‘‘ has 3 . gears. But cosplay is not the least part of the steampunk subculture but not all the people that do actually make steampunk art are necessarily also caught up in dressing up in fact most steampunk authors of the first wave probably did not even see this kind of effect of their work.
a culture. It is what lies outside the brass common core that is most interesting. as it's a prime piece of evidence in the great debate as to who in "the Powers/Blaylock/Jeter fantasy triumvirate" was writing in the "gonzo-historical manner" first. genre. culture. I think Victorian fantasies are going to be the next big thing. as long as we can come up with a fitting collective term for Powers..2.W. In the first issue of the Steampunk Magazine we are given the following explanation: Steampunk is a re-envisioning of the past with the hyper technological perceptions of the present. a subculture and aesthetic and often there are few explanations as to why exactly steampunk should belong to any of these categories. Something based on the appropriate technology of the era. The word steampunk was first used by K. Steampunk should simply use the past for the benefit of the future even if we are to look at the origins of the word steampunk we are going to see just how important the past realy is but a past that never was. I'd appreciate your being so good as to route it Faren Miller.brought his/her own contributions enriching steampunk giving shape to it. Indeed there has to be certain amount of nostalgia since but that nostalgia should not be too excessive.. —K. Jeter in a letter towards Locus magazine in 1987 in which he wrote Dear Locus. Jeter 4 . (steampunk magazine issue 1 200) If steampunk is nothing but a re-envisioning of the past then it would not be any different than a novel in which the action is simply shifted back in the ninetieth century with the social economic context. aesthetic. Personally. This kind of sepia toned yesteryear is more appropriate for Disney and suburban grandparents than it is for a vibrant and viable philosophy or culture. The nature of steampunk is under dispute. Though of course. Unfortunately most so-called ―steampunk‖ is simply dressed up reactionary nostalgia: the stifling tea-rooms of Victorian imperialists and faded maps of colonial hubris. Steampunk has been said as being a genre. subgenre. What follows is an attempt to clarify the position steampunk has. perhaps. I did find her review in the March Locus to be quite flattering.W. Steampunk. Blaylock and myself. 1. If we cannot clearly classify phenomena studding it becomes increasingly difficult. subculture. Enclosed is a copy of my 1979 novel Morlock Night. like "steampunks".
Voyages Extraordinaire and Gaslamp Fantasy‖ (Steampunk Magazine. the mind and the body. Regardless of how we choose to name steampunk we should not try and limit it to anything as steampunk is anything but limited. Steampunk is not seen by Jeter. Industrial Age Science Fiction. Scientific Romance. Some of the authors of the first incarnations of steampunk also wrote cyberpunk. as being any kind of ―sub‖ but rather as nothing more than a collective term that could unite his work and that of his contemporaries. while there are robots in cyberpunk we have automatons in steampunk. cyborgs (half human. Industrial Fantasy. in steampunk we have very complicated machinery that acts as if it was a computer in fact The Difference Engine has at it center a kind of analogous computer. Jeter wrote three sequels to blade runner and there are some similarities between the two. half machine creatures) populate the world of cyberpunk steampunk has individuals enhanced with various ―clockwork devices‖ from bra limps and 5 . Since then there have been other terms found to describe what he called steampunk.In the beginning steampunk was meant to be another kind of literature and no mention is made of any cultural trends however Jeter was right in acclaiming that Victorian fantasies would be ‗the next best thing‘ but it would take around fourteen years for them to take hold. Blade Runner as well as the anime movie Akira can be considered good examples of cyberpunk as Cavalaro points out: Cyberpunk foregrounds the provincial status of all definitions of values. rationality and truths in a radical rejection of the Enlightenment ethos. The movies Terminator. Meant originally as the tongue-in-cheek for cyberpunk which was the exact opposite of what steampunk was going to become. Cyberpunk as a subgenre of SF (literature and movies) is quite well defined and there are few other terms that are used to describe the tone and fell of cyberpunk SF unlike steampunk which not only is quite difficult to describe but there are also several names used today to describe more or less the same thing such as ―Victorian Age Fiction. by integrating the hyperefficient structures of high technology with the anarchy of street subcultures. A subgenre of SF that has its action usually placed in a dystopian future with all kinds of futuristic technologies available and often going wrong showing the darker side of technology. Gross Issue #1: 61). We have extremely efficient computers in cyberpunk. the new and the old. It amalgamates in often baffling ways the rational and irrational. in his letter. K.W. Even if such terms may be found they have a low frequency compared to the overwhelming use of steampunk as an all in compensating term and that is the term that we shall use as it is the only one necessary.
Stock) Still. Not all steampunk is light in tone there is another kind of steampunk that has at its base 6 . recreating the Age of Discovery and redrawing all of it in a modern light. Recapturing the spirit of a past time. at its core. good literature is believed to be that which either stands out by the author‘s poetic strategies. The first one states that steampunk literature be about anything as long as it situated in the 19th century as such there is no limit as to the themes and motives used by the writers. To be fain when a piece of literature cannot fit clearly into a genre. can be applied and reimagined in any number of settings. Steampunk is. the trappings of era fiction and the wonders of industry. It would make sense to integrate elements of steampunk and not any other kind of SF into fantasy since in both genres the action takes place in the past. The tropes and themes commonly associated with it. literary steampunk can run the gamut from straightforward Neo-Victorian adventure to imaginative alternate history to the wildest flights of high fantasy.eye lenses that make their wearer see what they could not before but steampunk should be seen just as an offshoot of cyberpunk. Who can read them and not start daydreaming into unknown lands in their airship? After a long day of work or school.(Gatehouse Gazette #13:7. free of today‘s corruption and toils. Sometimes it is easy to forget about what it is that draws all these people together. There are even more people in favour of this kind of light steampunk who would find their steampunk nothing more than nostalgic romance aimed to make the reader escape into a world in which no antihero exists and the good is always triumphant. the themes and motives that exist in it or when both the themes and motives are good. steampunk is a versatile subgenre. should be. having elements from more than one it forms a ―hybrid‖ subgenre or even a genre into itself. As Trubetskoy points out in his article from the Gatehouse Gazette (7:7): For the most part. From this point of view steampunk may also have lighter side but it also states that even fantasy could be steampunk. Today. what is better to curl up with that book that lets you relax and have a little adventure? That‘s what certainly drew me to it in the first place. fun! Fictions spun in the steampunk style are escapism at its best. The subgenre is so divers it has sparked at least two different opinions as to what should be about today. Creating a past world that.
Victorian hypocrisy have to fill such novels. The sound of this newer movement was ―raw‖ and aggressive. a British Empire upon which the sun never sets.‖ Brass. many performers would make albums fast not paying too much attention to melody. but you don‘t have steampunk. The Clash and to these we also have to add Pattie Smith. it just woul‘t work wouldn‘t work. the grit of factory-workers down on their luck. It is quite difficult to see how such ideas could find their way into literature since nobody likes reading novels written to hastily 7 . The Sex Pistols. There is even a voice that would go so far as to say that only these kinds of novels should be regarded a steampunk: The first element. chummer. dirigibles. but no gilt snuff box. What gets forgotten amn is that key second syllable―punk. Taking the punk out is like taking the steam out. the machine (often literally) against which one rages. what everyone thinks of when they hear ―steampunk. but not mine Punk music appeared because of economic and social conditions present in that time. They didn‘t feel the need to listen or see the polished look and energetic sound that existed before since unemployment rates had risen making good jobs scares. Punk is itself subgenre of rock a counter movement to the glam rock present in the early 70‘s. What distinguishes steampunk from pseudo-Victorian capers and gas lamp romances is the oft-neglected punk. Victorian styling and coal-fired steam power combine. mechanical computers. right? Close. It would be like taking the mega corporations or ubiquitous computing out of William Gibson‘s Neuromancer (1984). you‘ve got shiny brass or gritty realism. and of course steam. Their massages where often political but could also be religious the best know examples are from the Sex Pistol‘s God Save The Queen from which we have the famous lines: God save the queen The fascist regime And from Pattie Smith‘s Gloria : Jesus died for somebody's sins. (Gatehouse Gazete #4:13) From this point of view steampunk must have a social side since it does have punk in its name. It‘s the smog. Child labour.the Victorian dark side. so is steampunk. Singer as well as listeners could not identify any more with the glam movement. emulating everything through silic technology but with a nice ―antique‖ patina. the swearing. Punk appeared towards the latter half of the 70‘s with bands such as The Ramones. is self-explanatory. gears. the greedy politicians who inspire countless be goggled Robin Hoods. steam. women before feminism also the rising intellectual community the rise of science. In these conditions steampunk literature will show the terrible side of the industrial revolution.
a subgenre itself could further be divided into other subgenres then the term itself is not appropriate. Boilerpunk focuses on the working classes and their toils in a steampunk setting. Literature does not operate on the same principles as music where the listener sees ―the maker‖ in person. some of which can be traced to science fiction either we could simply call those subsubgenres since all of them represent a kind of steampunk focussed on a particular element. mannerspunk is on the other end of the social spectrum being based on the rituals of the upper classes on their endless formal dances. clockpunk. they have to be. We must simply take into account both sides of the ―camp‖ and simply accept that steampunk can be diverse. Yet there are some who would believe that steampunk is disintegrating due to the rise of other subgenres that have split from steampunk. If we are to think about the fact that originally steampunk was just another term for ―Victorian fantasies‖ with no desire to emulate punk knowing too well that such an endeavour would lead nowhere due to the inherit differences between music and literature. The only aspect of punk that could ―go‖ into literature is the political and the social yet steampunks would not like to be bound by any conventions. A subgenre should be the last dividing unites of genre. clockpunk focuses on clockwork technology as it could replace or supersede steam power and stichpunk is represented by the efforts of the doit-yourself (DIY) community emphasising the role of weavers. to be able to active the senses only by the printed words he offers. mannerspunk and stickpunk situated in the 19th century and there is also a subgenre who‘s actions take place in the interbelum era namely dieselpunk.and out of all the rock movements punk is the less narrative. namely boilerpunk. In such a situation steampunk should either be called a genre of literature apart from science fiction with its own characteristics. we have science fiction and steampunk and cyberpunk are parts of it then if we are going to say that steampunk. The issue here is that while these can be seen as varieties of steampunk it is hard to call them subgenres as that would have some other repercussions. tinkers. and darners in 8 . with literature ―the maker‖ is absent the writer has to find ways of giving life to his/her work inside the reader‘s mind. the least theatrical the entire point of punk music is to be as raw as possible to bring rock back to its garage roots. . All SF novels are plotty.
one layer of dust neatly settled on its back and its own community. perhaps in the future one would even invent the term gramophonepunk that would focus on the issue of recorded music and as such there could be an entire ―alternative‖ history to music.steampunk. its own subculture guided by several principals chief among them is Victorianism. already has. Unlike steampunk which is situated in the 19th century diesel punk is situated in the begging of the 20th century more exactly the time span between the two world wars diesel and nuclear power replace steam power in these new kinds of alternative histories: At first it was accepted as a later adaptation of steampunk. at least. Jeff Vandermeer (author of the steampunk bible) even made an equation to illustrate what steampunks have in mind when they think about steampunk . Steampunk on the other hand. Dieslepunk on the other hand has become a subgenre in its own right and it hard to say of what exactly. Such terms are representatives of the diversity of the steampunk experience however they should not be taken too seriously. coined by game designer Lewis Pollak. set in the years following the Roaring Twenties. It is yet difficult to say if there is a true dieselpunk community or not. after all the term has only been around since 2001. Perhaps out of this need other movements might arise. This new kind of alternative history is even harder to classify into the spectrum of SF since for instance in the Gatehouse Gazette there are articles in which they would simply have a nostalgic look at the interbelum period with no actual SF present. So far is that the movement can be attributed to the larger need of a ―retroexistence‖ of escapisms into past times. However many users and individuals pointed out the discrepancy of the technology and distinct ―feel‖ of the environment being more relevant to the technology prevalent of those times and thus the term fallowed adopting a new subgenre to define a sub-category of post-steampunk and pre-cyberpunk. STEAMPUNK = Mad Scientist Inventor [invention (steam x airship metal man/ baroque stylings) x (pseudo) Victorian setting] + progressive or reactionary politics x adventure plot 9 . The best example of dieselpunk is the movie Sky Captain and the World of Tomorrow. ( Pieckraft Gatehouse Gazzete #5:3) The status of dieselpunk is still uncertain.
which shut out the modern world and create immersive but illusionary Steampunk environments. In respects to the place where steampunk world exists the author completely forgot steampunk conventions.As explicit as the equation is it should not be taken as entirely truthful but rather a tongue-in-cheek still it does show in a very schematic way what the steampunk subculture is all about. The closest that we might come to the imaginative epoch of Verne and Wells are those constructed environments of Disneyland Paris Tokyo DisneySea. politics and the like . Steampunk is forever relegated to a sub-genre of fiction whose most particular ardent fans may dress up in costume to emulate. if that was their only desire then they would have needed to make the costumes only as good as they were in the respective fiction but they have managed to elevate steampunk clothes to an art form on to its self with many steampunks making their own blend of pseudo-Victorian clothes outside any historical context. (Gross. places where like-minded people can meet and exchange ideas. One view is that the steampunk subculture came into existence because of the themes and motives found in steampunk literature. Steampunk Magazine 1:61) Perhaps. philosophy. behaviour. There are two views on the matter. aesthetic values. More so what the author of the article neglects are the pains some steampunks go through to create their attire.it can never truly come to pass because the fundamental percept of Steampunk – the Victorian Era of Jules Verne – does not exist and never did. But just how did such a community come into being. Where some steampunks forget their given name a adopt new one creating an entirely new steampunk identity in a role playing world of their own making and we shall discuss these issues in detail in the next chapter. A fact that shows that they aren‘t simply emulating what they read in the novels. due in part that her article focuses mainly on Verne and Wells. Another aspect that Gross forgot. role play and simply having a good time. décor. aesthetic. Along with this attitude came what could be called competiveness to outperform or to simply be different from the other steampunks around you and in several years‘ time the steampunk fashion was born. Gross is a bit too harsh in her description specially since many of the today‘s steampunks exist in absence of steampunk literature. is that steampunk is not about Verne or Wells who 10 . Though there pushes to develop Steampunk into a complete subculture and lifestyle – with its own music.
People have not yet set up steampunk stores and more so steampunk has yet to be industrialized unlike other subcultures. and others develop interest as steampunk is an amalgamation of a vast number of cultural areas. Steampunk as a subculture could have been developed out of other subcultures since there are some elements of steampunk that could be traced to Goth such as the use of corsets in steampunk clothing heavy make-up in some cases or even the use of antiquated technology. Goth.]However it is speculated that due that due to the Internet. people could focus on the jubilation of discovery. and DIY hobby groups. no true steampunk would walk in an attire made by an industrial firm this does not exclude various influences steampunk can have on the mass production of goods.. In this kind of free atmosphere older goths can feel more like they did in their youths when subcultures did not come already and filled with limitations they had to be manufactured. Some Goths could have turned into steampunks getting bored of their former teenage identity most subcultures are youth cultures as well as Bulloff points out: Many people who self-identify as or are actively involved in the goth/industrial/punk scenes are currently taking an intense interest in steampunk. steampunk evolved from a background of alternative and countercultural movements such as Punk. Bulloff also touches another important aspect that sets steampunk apart from any other subculture manly the diversity of places where a steampunks can meet. The other view is that the steampunk subculture took shape independent of literature as Christi points in her article: [. Industrial. rather than from a background in science fiction. steampunk has the DIY attitude at the core of its believes.we are only accidental SF writers but it is mostly about the true steampunk writers. (Steampunk Magazine #4:46) Bulloff is right unlike other subcultures steampunk is indeed still fresh and unlike other subcultures it has yet to have been marketed as strongly as goth. Yet again since 11 . Also we could count the anime/manga Fullmetal Alchemist which has its own followers who cosplay. SF This hypostasis is also feasible. The reasons for wanting to be part of an emerging subculture when one already takes part in a previously established community are varied – some latch on to steampunk simply because it is seemingly trendy thanks to Boing Boing and Wired. Still others seem to be exhausted by regulations implied by their personal subcultures and find steampunk to be a breath of fresh air so to speak.com. Finding ways to emulate the romanticism of the Victorian era without the negative social ideas attached to the historical period and doing away with harmful schemas like racism and misogyny.
Similar to the way in which biologists would study wild animals and just like them when they considered that one species was studied enough they moved on to another one mainly to style based youth cultures such as Teddy boys. Much of this versatility can be attributed to steampunks young age or simply to the fact that steampunks already know what has happened to other subcultures and they do not want the same fate for their movement. the Victorian epoch they will go to places that feel as they belonged in the 19th century like coffee houses. to a certain extent. The first issue when labelling something as a subculture is that the term has come to be used so widely that almost anything goes. Only time will tell what steampunk will morph into. The first studies were conducted in the unprivileged neighbourhoods where they would. What is now considered a stable subculture is nothing more than ―a series of temporal gatherings characterized by fluid boundaries and floating memberships‖ (Bennett 1999: 600). certain. 12 . mainly. clubs. mods. rockers and skinheads for whom ―dressing up‖ was an integral part of their life and then they dropped the model of ―youth culture‖ for the Chicago model according to which ―subcultures provide the key to understanding of deviance as normal behaviour in the face of particular social circumstances‖ (Bennette . analyse their behaviour. The current view of subcultures has its roots in the Birmingham Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies. Their behaviour was seen as being a social and cultural construct. pubs but they will not limit themselves to those avenues. Regardless of how many voices there are who would say to what steampunk is there are few that have tried to truly take steampunk and to show if it does indeed fit into the general framework of subcultures or does it fit better as a neo-tribe. The initial studies where focused on youth delinquent groups in the early post war period and they noticed that their behaviour was somehow ―passed down‖ from one generation to another. Some learned how to eat properly others learned how to bully but as the studies discovered that some aspects of this behaviour would pass away with age.steampunks try to emulate. they will constantly search for new places to meet up even virtual ones if they must unlike goths that usually gather in. What they noticed was that as the higher social classes passed down their ―etiquette‖ the lower social classes passed down their ―delinquency‖.
There was even the female version of the Teddy boys the Teeny boppers. Clark is of similar opinion for him skinhead subcultures are an attempt ―to recreate trough the mob the traditional working-class community as a substation for the decline of the later. initial research neglected its cultural impact. McRobbie continues her argument that female dancing has ―enormously pleasurable qualities for girls and women which frequently seem to suggest a displaced. Also another fault of the initial research was that it was done by people of older generations who might not have understood the newer ―cultural‖ trends in the same way the youths did and. Only what happened out there on the streets mattered. their environment was mostly situated inside the house while for the other gender it was the outside.Fallowing thins line of thinking the CCCS saw rising style based subcultures as resisting trough ritual. To this we might add that the same feelings could also be found in men after all dancing is a collective act. female beat music fashion from the 1960‘s ―issued a strong sexual challenge to the spick and spick and span gingham-clad domesticity of the moment‖( apud 1994:143). The difference however was not so much a cerebral one as it was a cultural one since in the pre-feminists 50‘s and early 60‘s young women were not allowed to go out as much as the young men. especially. There are several issues with this line of interpretations first of all the focus was largely on young men while young women where ignored. Clark 1976:99). (apud. 1984:134). if they came from a pre-second world war world with its limitations and with a structuralist background. shared and nebulous eroticism rather than a straightforwardly romantic. Readhead (apud 1990:25) states that: 13 . heavily heterosexual ―goal-oriented drive‖‖(apud. (apud. McRobbie 1980:68) Since dancing was also an indoor activity. According to Cohen the latent function of subcultures is to ―magically resolve‖ the contradictions that remain hidden in the parent culture. As McRobbie points out. Their limitations where too rigid for subcultures when the investigated phenomena did not affect greatly the overall all lives of the people involved in subcultures. Only the streets mattered: while sociologists of deviance and youth where blooming in the early seventies the sociology of the family was everybody‘s least favourite option… few writers seemed interested in what happened when a mob went home after a week-end on speed. as nothing more than the reaction of the working classes against the structural changes that took place in the post-war period.
As time progressed and the mass-media began to grow further questions began to 14 .‗Authentic‘ subcultures were produced by subcultural theorists. popular music and ‗deviant‘ youth styles never fitted together as harmoniously as some subcultural theory proclaimed. the gangs of teens did not see themselves as forming a subculture nor they did intially even know such a term existed after all most of them probilly did not read sociology papers in the 50‘s or 60‘s when the initial reasearch was conducted. not the other way around.‖ Subculures where intially a sociological construct. In fact. The term was did not enter mainstreem imidiatly after it was coined.
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