Ultrafast Conversion of Graphite to Diamond in Gravitational Pressure Apparatus

Fran De Aquino
Maranhao State University, Physics Department, S.Luis/MA, Brazil. Copyright © 2012 by Fran De Aquino. All Rights Reserved.
Currently the artificial production of diamond is very expensive because it consumes large amounts of energy in order to produce a single diamond. Here, we propose a new type of press based on the intensification of the gravitational acceleration. This Gravitational Press can generate pressures several times more intense than the 80GPa required for ultrafast transformation of graphite into diamond. In addition, due to the enormous pressure that the Gravitational Press can produce, the "synthesis capsule" may be very large (up to about 1000 cm3 in size). This is sufficient to produce diamonds with up to 100 carats (20g) or more. On the other hand, besides the ultrafast conversion, the energy required for the Gravitational Presses is very low, in such a way that the production cost of the diamonds becomes very low, what means that they could be produced on a large scale.
Key words: Modified theories of gravity, High-pressure apparatus, Graphite, Diamond. PACS: 04.50.Kd, 07.35.+k, 81.05.uf , 81.05.ug

1. Introduction After the discovery that diamond was pure carbon, many attempts were made to convert various carbon forms into diamond. Converting graphite into diamond has been a long held dream of alchemists. The artificial production of diamond was first achieved by H.T Hall in 1955. He used a press capable of producing pressures above 10 GPa and temperatures above 2,000 °C [1]. Today, there are several methods to produce synthetic diamond. The more widely utilized method uses high pressure and high temperature (HPHT) of the order of 10 GPa and 2500°C during many hours in order to produce a single diamond. The fact that this process requires high pressure and high temperatures during a long time means that it consumes large amounts of energy, and this is the reason why the production cost of artificial diamond is so expensive. The second method, using chemical vapor deposition (CVD), creates a carbon plasma over a substrate onto which the carbon atoms deposit to form diamond. Other methods include explosive formation and sonication of graphite solutions [2,3,4]. In the HPHT method, there are three main press designs used to supply the pressure and temperature necessary to produce synthetic diamond: the Belt press, the Cubic press and the split-sphere (BARS) press. Typical pressures and temperatures achievable are of the order of 10 GPa and 2500°C [5]. Diamonds may be formed in the Earth’s mantle mainly by direct transition, graphite to diamond or by systems involving carbon dissolved in molten metals. The classic high-pressure, high-temperature synthesis of diamond utilizes molten transition metals as solvent/catalysts. Converting diamond from graphite in the absence of a catalyst requires pressures that are significantly higher than those at equilibrium coexistence [6-12]. At lower temperatures, the formation of the metastable hexagonal polymorph of diamond is favored instead of the more stable cubic diamond [7, 10-12]. These phenomena cannot be explained by the concerted mechanism suggested in previous theoretical studies [1317]. However, recently Michele Parrinello, Professor of Computational Science at ETH Zurich, and his team have developed a method by which they have successfully simulated this phase transition accurately and adequately using computer models [18]. Instead of happening concerted, all at once, the conversion evidently takes place in a step by step process involving the formation of a

g1 = χ 1 g 2. Eq. the ceramic cube ("synthesis capsule") can be very large (up to about 1000 cm3 in size). g n = χ 1 χ 2 χ 3 . due to the enormous pressure that the Gravitational Press can produce (>>80GPa). In a generalized way.e. On the other hand. July 31. i. When Δp is produced by the absorption of a photon with wavelength λ . In addition. which is then transformed completely at high pressure. 2008. what means that they could be produced on a large scale. we can make particles acquire enormous accelerations. [19]. In quantitative agreement with the ab initio calculations of Tateyama at al. Here.2 diamond seed in the graphite. This effect shows that in this region the gravity acceleration. where χ 2 is the value of the ratio m g mi 0 for the second gravitational shielding. after a second gravitational shielding. will be given by * De Aquino.. (2008) Process and Device for Controlling the Locally the Gravitational Mass and the Gravity Acceleration.Gravitational Shielding effect . It has been shown that there is an additional effect . This is sufficient to produce diamonds up to 100 carats (20g) or more. we propose a new type of press based on the intensification of the gravitational acceleration * .χ n g (3) The limit is basically determined by the compression resistance of the material of the piston and anvils of the Gravitational Press since it can produce pressures far beyond 1000 GPa. where mi 0 is the rest inertial mass of the particle and Δp is the variation in the particle’s kinetic momentum. g n . † This possibility shows that. the energy required for the Gravitational Presses is very low. up to a certain distance from it (along the central axis of gravitational shielding). this is the basis to the conception of the Gravitational Press. This press can generate pressures several times more intense † than the 80GPa required for the ultrafast transformation of graphite to diamond.000K graphite reaches a lattice instability point and undergoes an ultrafast transformation to diamond as was previously observed in ab initio simulations by Scandolo et al [20]. it is expressed by Δp = h λ . g 1 . c is the speed of light. besides the ultrafast conversion... (1) becomes 2 ⎡ ⎤⎫ mg ⎧ ⎛ h mi 0 c ⎞ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ = ⎨1 − 2 1 + ⎜ ⎟ − 1⎥ ⎬ ⎢ ⎥⎪ mi 0 ⎪ ⎝ λ ⎠ ⎣ ⎦⎭ ⎩ 2 ⎧ ⎡ ⎤⎫ ⎛ λ0 ⎞ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ (2) = ⎨1 − 2 1 + ⎜ ⎟ − 1⎥ ⎬ ⎢ ⎥⎪ ⎝λ ⎠ ⎪ ⎣ ⎦⎭ ⎩ where λ0 = h mi 0 c is the De Broglie wavelength for the particle with rest inertial mass mi 0 . In practice. Theory From the quantization of gravity it follows that the gravitational mass mg and the inertial mass mi are correlated by means of the following factor [21]: 2 ⎧ ⎡ ⎤⎫ mg ⎪ ⎛ Δp ⎞ ⎪ ⎢ ⎟ (1) χ= = ⎨1 − 2 1 + ⎜ − 1⎥⎬ ⎜ ⎟ ⎢ ⎥⎪ mi 0 ⎪ ⎝ mi 0 c ⎠ ⎣ ⎦⎭ ⎩ χ 1 = m g mi 0 and g is the gravity acceleration before the gravitational shielding). by means of a battery of gravitational shieldings. Consequently. BR Patent Number: PI0805046-5. The effect extends beyond substance (gravitational shielding) . the gravity will be given by g 2 = χ 2 g 1 = χ 1 χ 2 g . In this case.produced by a substance whose gravitational mass was reduced or made negative [22]. the stability of diamond relative to graphite increases with pressure whereas the barrier separating two phases decreases. we can write that after the nth gravitational shielding the gravity. F. . is reduced at the same where proportion. in such a way that the production cost of the diamonds becomes very low. Parrinello’s work shows that at a pressure of 80 GPa and temperature between 0 and 1.

1 – Modified Electromagnetic Wave. then the total number of atoms reached by the radiation is N = nS f ξ . When an electromagnetic wave incides on the lamina. φ m is the “diameter” of the atom. given by [23] ε μ c 2 (4) nr = = r r ⎛ ⎟ ⎜ 1 + (σ ωε ) + 1⎞ ⎠ ⎝ v 2 If σ >> ωε . The wavelength of the electromagnetic wave can be strongly reduced. D . then the total momentum transferred to the lamina will be . it carries out ncollisions with the other atoms (See Fig. nr λ = c/f Thus. 1) becomes λmod = (6) atom Sm Wave v=c v = c/nr Fig. of the radiation on the lamina can be expressed by D= P P = S N f Sm (9 ) We can express the total mean number of collisions in each atom. the total number of collisions in the volume Sξ is λmod = v/f = c/nr f Ncollisions = Nf +ncollisions =nl Sφm +(nl Sξ −nmSφm) = =nmSξ Fig.3 From Electrodynamics we know that when an electromagnetic wave with frequency f and velocity c incides on a material with relative permittivity ε r . 4 ( ) μrσ nr = 4πε0 f v c f λ = = = f nr nr 4π μfσ (5) After these collisions. by means of the following equation n1 = ntotal photons N collisions n= N0 ρ A N (10 ) (7) Since in each collision a momentum h λ is transferred to the atom. n1 . where 2 Sm = 1 πφm is the cross section area of one atom. the wavelength of the incident radiation (See Fig. Thus. but its frequency remains the same. is given by The power density. the electromagnetic wave incides effectively on an area S = Nf Sm . ρ is the matter density of the lamina (in kg/m3) and A is the molar mass(kg/kmole). it strikes N f front atoms.2). Eq. Thus. n . S f . If it incides on the total area of the lamina. Thus. then the number of atoms per area unit is nξ . 26 where Nf ≅ n Sf φm .02 × 10 atoms / kmole is the Avogadro’s number. relative magnetic permeability μ r and electrical conductivity σ . The number of atoms per unit of volume. (4) reduces to where N 0 = 6. ω = 2πf . 2 – Collisions inside the lamina. if the electromagnetic radiation with frequency f incides on an area S of the lamina it reaches nSξ atoms. its velocity is reduced to v = c nr where nr is the index of refraction of the material. (8) If a lamina with thickness equal to ξ contains n atoms/m3.

Therefore. considering that the lamina is inside an ELF electromagnetic field with E and B . (17). (14) results mg(l ) S = N f Sm Note that E = E m sin ωt . (11) yields 2 ⎧ ⎡ ⎤⎫ ⎡⎛ P ⎞ λ0 ⎤ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎟ ( = ⎨1 − 2 1 + ⎢⎜ nl Sξ ) ⎥ −1⎥⎬ (13) 2 ⎜ ⎟ ⎢ ⎥ mi0(l ) ⎪ λ⎦ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣⎝ hf ⎠ ⎪ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦⎭ ⎩ If the electrical conductivity of the lamina. (1).e. considering that m i0(l ) = ρ(l )Sαξ . (13) gives 2 ⎧ ⎡ ⎤⎫ ⎡⎛ N f SmD⎞⎛ n Sξ ⎞ 1 ⎤ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎢ ⎜ l ⎟ = ⎨1− 2 1+ ⎢⎜ ⎜ f2 ⎟ ⎟⎜ m c ⎟ λ ⎥ −1⎥⎬ (14) mi0(l ) ⎪ ⎢ ⎢ ⎠⎝ i0(l ) ⎠ ⎥ ⎣⎝ ⎦ ⎥⎪ ⎣ ⎦⎭ ⎩ ⎢ Substitution of Eq. λ = λmod = 4π μfσ (19) Substitution of P given by Eq. we get ntotal photons N collisions ⎛ P ⎞ =⎜ ⎜ hf 2 ⎟ ⎟(nl Sξ ) ⎝ ⎠ (12) 2 ⎧ ⎡ ⎤⎫ 2 2 2⎞ ⎤ ⎡⎛ nr(l )nl3Sα Sm E φ ⎪ ⎢ 1 m ⎟ ⎥ −1⎥⎪ (18) = ⎨1− 2⎢ 1+ ⎢⎜ 2 2 ⎜ 2μ0ρ(l )c f ⎟ λ ⎥ ⎥⎬ mi0(l ) ⎪ ⎢ ⎠ ⎦ ⎥⎪ ⎣⎝ ⎢ ⎦⎭ ⎩ ⎣ mg(l ) Substitution of Eq. the following expression Since Eq. . and the equation above can be rewritten as follows χ= mg (l ) mi0(l ) = D= n r (l ) E 2 2μ 0 c (16 ) 2 6 2 4 4 4 ⎧ ⎡ ⎤⎫ nr ⎪ ⎪ ( l )nl Sα Smφmσ (l ) Erms = ⎨1 − 2⎢ 1 + − 1⎥⎬ (21) 2 4 3 ⎢ ⎥⎪ 16πμ0 ρ(l )c f ⎪ ⎣ ⎦⎭ ⎩ Substitution of Eq.. is such that σ (l ) >> ωε . (15) gives Now consider the system (Gravitational Press) shown in Fig. then the value of mg (l ) λ is given by Eq. (6). (12) into Eq. we obtain from Eq.3. σ (l ) . (9) into Eq. (18) gives 2 6 2 4 4 4 ⎧ ⎡ ⎤⎫ nr ⎪ (l )nl Sα Smφmσ(l ) E ⎥⎪ 1 = ⎨1− 2⎢ 1+ − ⎬ (20) 2 4 3 mi0(l ) ⎪ ⎢ ⎥⎪ 16 πμ0ρ(l )c f ⎦⎭ ⎩ ⎣ mg(l ) mg(l ) Substitution of N f ≅ (nl S f )φm and into Eq. On the other hand.The average value 2 for E 2 is equal to 1 2 E m because E varies sinusoidaly ( E m is the maximum value 2 ⎧ ⎡ ⎤⎫ 2 2 ⎡⎛ nl3S 2 Sm φ ξ D⎞ 1⎤ ⎪ ⎢ f m ⎟ ⎥ −1⎥⎪ = ⎨1− 2⎢ 1+ ⎢⎜ ⎬ (15) 2 ⎟ ⎜ mi0(l ) ⎪ λ ⎥ ⎥⎪ m cf ⎢ ( ) 0 i l ⎝ ⎠ ⎣ ⎦ ⎢ ⎥ ⎦⎭ ⎩ ⎣ where mi 0(l ) = ρ (l )V(l ) . (19) into Eq. then we can write that [24] for E ). (16) into Eq. 4 rms Consequently we can change E by E . in accordance with Eq. i. Now. E rms = E m 4 2. we can write that 2 ⎧ ⎡ ⎤⎫ λ0 ⎤ ⎡ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ = ⎨1− 2 1+ ⎢(n1 N) ⎥ −1⎥⎬ = ⎥⎪ mi0(l ) ⎪ ⎢ λ⎦ ⎣ ⎦⎭ ⎩ ⎣ 2 ⎧ ⎡ ⎤⎫ λ0 ⎤ ⎡ ⎪ ⎪ ⎢ = ⎨1− 2 1+ ⎢ntotal photonsNcollisions ⎥ −1⎥⎬ (11) ⎢ ⎥⎪ λ⎦ ⎣ ⎪ ⎦⎭ ⎩ ⎣ 4 2 ⎧ ⎡ ⎤⎫ 2 2 2⎞ ⎤ ⎡⎛ nr(l )nl3S2 Sm φ ξ E 1 ⎪ ⎢ f m ⎟ ⎥ −1⎥⎪ (17) = ⎨1− 2⎢ 1+ ⎢⎜ 2 2 ⎜ 2μ0mi0(l )c f ⎟ λ ⎥ ⎥⎬ mi0(l ) ⎪ ⎢ ⎪ ⎠ ⎦ ⎥ ⎣⎝ ⎢ ⎦⎭ ⎩ ⎣ mg(l ) mg(l ) In the case in which the area S f is just the area of the cross-section of the lamina (Sα ) . (8) gives N collisions = nl Sξ .Δp = (n1 N ) h λ .

the air density is the tube (D). The two sets of plates (D). than and the intensity of the electric field. which are given by Eq. inside the tube. is E( D )rms = V( D )rms d = 1.64kV at f = 1Hz . are subjected to V( D )rms = 1. intensifying the gravity acceleration produced by the mass M gs of the Aluminum sphere. which passes through the 36 cylindrical air laminas (each one with 5mm thickness) of the two sets (D). The tube is filled with air at ambient temperature and 1atm. Sα = πα 2 4 = 2 . with 18 GCC each.5 Inside the system there is a dielectric tube ( ε r ≅ 1) with the following characteristics: α = 60mm . inside the dielectric tube.e. Since d = 98mm . According to Eq. while the central set of V( A )rms is subjected to = 19. placed on the extremes of the tube.16×1025 atoms/ m3 AN (23) The parallel metallic plates (p). Thus. whose average value is −14 σ air ≅ 1 × 10 S / m [25]. 6 2 4 4 ⎧ ⎡ nr2(air) nair Sα S mφmσ air E(4A)rms ⎤⎫ ⎪ ⎪ χ = ⎨1 − 2⎢ 1 + − 1⎥⎬ = 2 4 3 16πμ0 ρ air c f ⎢ ⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎣ ⎦⎭ ⎩ E( A)rms = V( A)rms d = 2. 3 has 3 sets of GCC. (21). For example. Thus. this gravity. The objective of the sets (D). if the base BS of the system is positioned on the Earth surface. it is increased to χ d ρ air = 1 . then the intensity of the electric field. They work as gravitational decelerator while the other set with 7 GCC (A) works as a gravitational accelerator. then the gravity acceleration on 7 18 −18 2 the sphere becomes χ χd gext = 2.480× 10−17 E(4A)rms − 1 { [ ]} (24) . In this case. 2 kg .67 × 104 V / m this value is much smaller g sphere = GM gs rs2 = 2. is given by The electrical conductivity of air. The two sets with 18 GCC each are positioned at the extremes of = 1 − 2 1 + 1.m −3 (22 ) The number of atoms of air (Nitrogen) per unit of volume. after the set A.6 ×10 m / s . the value of the external 18 gext .. (21) and r0 = 35mm is the distance between the center of the Aluminum sphere and the surface of the first GCC of the set (A).5 .(7). which passes through the 7 cylindrical air laminas of the central set (A). is given by nair = N 0 ρ air = 5.7kV at f =1Hz. plates (A) by χ 7 .26 × 10−8 m / s 2 . shown in Fig.83 × 10 − 3 m 2 . is reduced by the factor χ d where χ d = 10−2 . n air . 7th GCC after the becomes 7 2 g 7 = χ GM gs r0 .81m / s 2 is reduced 18 gext and. gravity. the system shown in Fig. (3). g ext . is to reduce strongly the value of the external gravity along the axis of the tube. where χ = mg (l ) mi (l ) given by Eq. then gext = 9. i. according to Eq. Inside the tube there is an Aluminum sphere with 30mm radius and mass M gs = 0.30536kg . is equal to the electrical conductivity of Earth’s atmosphere near the land. This value is of fundamental importance in order to obtain the convenient values of χ and χ d . The objective is to turn each one of these laminas into a Gravity Control Cell (GCC) [22].012 × 105 V / m Note that the metallic rings (5mm thickness) are positioned in such way to block the electric field out of the cylindrical air laminas. Two with 18 GCC each and one with 7 GCC. Since the system is designed for χ = −308 .3 are subjected to different drop voltages.

the gravitational acceleration upon the piston of the Gravitational Press shown in Fig. 2 Sm = πφm 4 = 1. 3 is equal to the value of the gravitational acceleration after the 7th gravitational shielding. i.48×10−17E(4D)rms −1 where n r ( air ) = { [ ]} ⎤⎫ ⎪ −1⎥⎬ = ⎥ ⎦⎪ ⎭ (25) ε r μ r ≅ 1 . 012 × 10 V / m 4 and E ( D )rms = 1.67 × 10 V / m .6 χd = ⎨1− 2⎢ 1+ ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎡ ⎢ ⎣ 6 2 4 4 nr2(air)nair Sα SmφmσairE(4D)rms 2 4 3 πμ0ρair 16 cf = 1− 2 1+1. 4) is p= F m piston g 7 = = 2 × 1012 N / m 2 = 2000GPa 2 S π (0. and 5 nair = 5.e. we get χ = −308. However. .1) It is important to note that the pressure can be easily increased by increasing the value of χ . Since E ( A )rms = 2 .16 ×1025 atoms/ m3 .55×10−10 m . the pressure limit is basically determined by the compression resistance of the material of the piston and anvils of the Gravitational Press since it can produce pressures far beyond 2000 GPa. φm = 1.5 and (26) χ d ≅ 10−2 (27) Then.. g 7 = χ 7 g = −χ 7 GM gs r02 ≅ 4.4 × 109 m / s 2 (28) If the mass of the piston is m piston = 15kg with 20cm diameter then the pressure upon the cubic-anvil apparatus (Fig.88 × 10−20 m2 f =1Hz. since (σ << ωε ) .

31 2008. PI0805046-5) . 3 – Gravitational Press (Developed from a process patented in July.4) Fig.7 d = 98 mm α=60mm Dielectric tube εr ≅ 1 Air 1 ξ = 5 mm Metallic ring (5 mm thickness) Parallel plate capacitor (p) Electric field of capacitor Aluminum sphere (60 mm diameter) Air 1 atm 300K Air 2 Air D 17 ED(rms) 18 Mg E Air r0=35mm 1 Air Air 2 A 6 7 g7 1 2 g7 = χ 7 g = −χ 7 Air GM gs r02 D Air 17 18 Piston of Gravitational Press (Tungsten Carbide) To Cubic-Anvil Apparatus (Fig.

Note that. due to the enormous pressure that the Gravitational Press can produce (>>80GPa). which contains graphite and is pressed by the anvils made from cemented carbide (e. – In the center of the apparatus.g. tungsten carbide or VK10 hard alloy).8 Gravitational Press Piston (Tungsten Carbide) Anvils (Tungsten Carbide or VK10 hard alloy) Fig.4 . This is sufficient to produce diamonds with up to 100 carats (20g) or more. the "synthesis capsule" can be very large (up to about 1000 cm3 in size). .Diagram of Cubic-Anvil Apparatus for the Gravitational Press. is placed a ceramic cube ("synthesis capsule") of pyrophyllite ceramics..

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