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AS 35461996

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Australian Standard
Wool Method for measuring average yellowness of raw wool

This Australian Standard was prepared by Committee TX/12, Testing of Wool. It was approved on behalf of the Council of Standards Australia on 4 April 1996 and published on 5 August 1996.

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The following interests are represented on Committee TX/12: Australian Council of Wool Exporters Australian Wool Exchange Australian Wool Processors Council Australian Wool Research and Promotion Organisation CSIRODivision of Wool Technology Department of Defence, Australia Lincoln University, New Zealand National Association of Testing Authorities, Australia National Council of New Zealand Wool Interests New Zealand Council of Wool Exporters New Zealand Wool Board New Zealand Wool Brokers Association Telarc, New Zealand Testing Interests, Australia Testing Interests, New Zealand University of New South Wales Wool Council of Australia Wool Research Organization of New Zealand Wool Scourers and Carbonisers Association of Australia

Review of Australian Standards. To keep abreast of progress in industry, Australian Standards are subject to periodic review and are kept up to date by the issue of amendments or new editi ons as necessary. It is important therefore that Standards users ensure that they are in possession of the latest editi on, and any amendments thereto. Full detail s of all Australian Standards and related publi cati ons wil l be found in the Standards Australi a Catalogue of Publications; this information is supplemented each month by the magazine The Australian Standard, which subscribing members receive, and which gives details of new publi cati ons, new editi ons and amendments, and of withdrawn Standards. Suggesti ons for improvements to Australi an Standards, addressed to the head offi ce of Standards Australi a, are welcomed. Notif ication of any inaccuracy or ambiguit y found in an Australi an Standard should be made without delay in order that the matter may be investigated and appropriate action taken.

This Standard was issued in draft form for comment as DR 95048.

AS 35461996

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Australian Standard
Wool Method for measuring average yellowness of raw wool

PUBLISHED BY STANDARDS AUSTRALIA (STANDARDS ASSOCIATION OF AUSTRALIA) 1 THE CRESCENT, HOMEBUSH, NSW 2140
ISBN 0 7337 0554 5

AS 3546 1996

PREFACE
This Standard was prepared by the Joint Standards Australia/Standards New Zealand Committee TX/12 on Wool to supersede AS 3546 1988 Wool Method for the measurement of average yellowness of greasy wool. It sets out a method to be used to measure average yellowness of samples of raw wool prepared for mean fibre diameter measurement in accordance with AS/NZS 1133 Wool Determination by the airflow method of the mean fibre diameter of core samples of raw wool. The method is not suitable for identifying the contamination by individual coloured fibres. This Standard is the result of a consensus among representatives on the Joint Committee to produce it as an Australian Standard.
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The revision of AS 3546 was needed to enable combination certificates to be calculated and to allow as is colour to be determined. Because of the difficulties in defining preparation procedures for the measurement of both lightness and yellowness of cleaned greasy wool, this Standard for measuring yellowness only has been produced. The lightness value of wool is needed to calculate average yellowness in combination certificates, but is not reported on individual test certificates. However, it is hoped that further research work will resolve these difficulties and allow a more complete specification of the colour of wool. The method describes the preferred apparatus for the measurement. A statement on the precision of the method is given. This Standard is one of a series of Standards for the sampling and testing of wool. The term normative has been used in this Standard to define the application of the appendix to which it applies. A normative appendix is an integral part of a Standard.

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AS 3546 1996

CONTENTS
Page FOREWORD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 4

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SCOPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 OBJECTIVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 APPLICATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 REFERENCED DOCUMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 PRINCIPLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 DEFINITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 APPARATUS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 PREPARATION OF TEST SPECIMENS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 CALIBRATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 MEASUREMENT OF TRISTIMULUS VALUES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 PRECISION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 COMBINATION OF YELLOWNESS MEASUREMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 REPORT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

APPENDICES A SPECIMEN HOLDER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 B CALIBRATION OF COLORIMETERS AND SPECTROCOLORIMETERS . . 14 C CALIBRATION OF SPECTROPHOTOMETERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

Originated as AS 3546 1988. Second editi on 1996.

AS 3546 1996

FOREWORD
It is difficult for the human eye to make reliable quantitative assessments of colour and there can be considerable variability in the degree of accuracy with which observers detect differences in colours. Moreover, colour differences which are easy to see when the objects are side-by-side, are very much harder to assess when the objects are separated by time or distance. An objective measurement of colour is therefore desirable. A complete measurement of the colour of an opaque material such as wool is obtained by measuring the proportion of light reflected from its surface throughout the visible spectrum. It is, however, possible to obtain useful information by measuring the reflection in the red, green and blue regions. Under the conditions specified by the International Commission of Illumination (C.I.E.)*, these three readings are referred to as the tristimulus values X (red), Y (green) and Z (blue). The values provide sufficient information to describe colour for the specified light source and viewing conditions. They can be used directly, or they can be transformed, to provide information concerning particular aspects of colour. The colour of wool is influenced, not only by its inherent colour, but also by the grease, suint, dirt, vegetable matter and other impurities present. The colour of the cleaned wool is usually of interest since most of these impurities are removed during processing and generally do not affect the colour of the final product. This Standard relates to a measurement on the laboratory sample prepared for mean fibre diameter measurement according to AS/NZS 1133. For greasy wool a core sample is scoured and carded to remove most of the contaminants that will ultimately be removed during processing. The base colour measurement of either greasy wool core samples or commercially scoured wool is an attempt to determine the inherent colour of the wool. The as is colour (as defined) when compared with base colour, is an indicator of the effectiveness of commercial scouring. In this Standard only the aspect of yellowness is addressed, although in combination certificates, both the Y and Z values of individual components are needed. Y represents the lightness of the sample. Yellowness relates to the relative intensities of reflectance in the green and blue regions of the spectrum. The yellowness index given by this Standard is derived from the tristimulus values Y and Z as Y-Z. As an illustration of the range of this parameter for wool, the following values are given: Colour description Very white White Creamy Canary yellow stain Y-Z units -2 0 3 12

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Wool colours which are not well identified solely by yellowness measurement include brown, black and green.

* CIE Commission Internationale de lEclairage. See CIE Publication No 15 (E 1.3.1) 1971 .

AS 3546 1996

STANDARDS AUSTRALIA Australian Standard Wool Method for measuring average yellowness of raw wool
1 SCOPE This Standard sets out a method for measuring the average yellowness of a sample of raw wool cores taken from a lot by the method described in AS 1980. The procedures to be used to clean and prepare the sample prior to measurement are those set out in AS/NZS 1133 and are not described in this Standard. 2 OBJECTIVE The objective of this Standard is to provide the wool industry with an average yellowness measurement of greasy or scoured wool to indicate its processing potential. 3 APPLICATION The method is applicable to the determination of the average yellowness of greasy wool prepared for mean fibre diameter measurement in accordance with AS/NZS 1133. This is the base yellowness result after cleaning, drying and carding. The method may also be used to determine the as is yellowness of commercially scoured wool which may have been dried for a condition test in accordance with IWTO-33. Preparation procedures (e.g. drying and exposure to UV light) are known to influence wool colour. The method is not suitable for the detection of contamination by pigmented, urine-stained or coloured wools, e.g. brown, black or green. The method is suitable for measuring colour in scoured wool containing urine-stained fibres. 4 REFERENCED DOCUMENTS The following documents are referred to in this Standard: AS 1980 2001 2001.1 Wool Core sampling of raw wool in bales Methods of test for textiles Method 1: Conditioning procedures

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AS/NZS 1133 Wool Determination by the airflow method of the mean fibre diameter of core samples of raw wool IWTO 33 Method for the determination of oven-dry mass and calculated invoice mass of scoured and carbonised wool

5 PRINCIPLE Test specimens are drawn from the prepared sample and arranged so as to present a flat surface to the measuring instrument. The CIE tristimulus values Y and Z are measured, and the yellowness is reported as Y Z. 6 DEFINITIONS For the purpose of this Standard, the definitions below apply.

6.1 As is colour the colour of the wool sample, roving, top, scoured or carbonized product, as received at the laboratory.

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AS 3546-1996, Wool - Method for measuring average yellowness of raw wool


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