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AS 4156.

11994

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Australian Standard
Coal preparation Part 1: Higher rank coalFloat and sink testing

This Australian Standard was prepared by Committee MN/1, Coal and Coke. It was approved on behalf of the Council of Standards Australia on 30 September 1993 and published on 17 January 1994.

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The following interests are represented on Committee MN/1: Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy Australian Chamber of Commerce and Industry Australian Coal Association Australian Coal Industry Research Laboratories Australian Coal Preparation Society Australian Institute of Energy Australian Mining Industry Council Bureau of Steel Manufacturers of Australia CSIRO, Division of Coal and Energy Technology Department of Resource Industries, Queensland Electricity Supply Association of Australia Institution of Engineers, Australia National Association of Testing Authorities, Australia Queensland Coal Board Royal Australian Chemical Institute Standing Committee on Coalfield Geology of New South Wales University of Newcastle University of New South Wales University of Queensland

Review of Australian Standards. To keep abreast of progress in industry, Australian Standards are subject to periodic review and are kept up to date by the issue of amendments or new editi ons as necessary. It is important therefore that Standards users ensure that they are in possession of the latest edit ion, and any amendments thereto. Full detail s of all Australi an Standards and related publications wil l be found in the Standards Australia Catalogue of Publications; this information is supplemented each month by the magazine The Australian Standard, which subscribing members receive, and which gives detail s of new publi cati ons, new edit ions and amendments, and of withdrawn Standards. Suggesti ons for improvements to Australi an Standards, addressed to the head off ice of Standards Australi a, are welcomed. Noti fi cati on of any inaccuracy or ambiguity found in an Australi an Standard should be made without delay in order that the matter may be investigated and appropriate action taken.

This Standard was issued in draft form for comment as DR 92171.

AS 4156.11994

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Australian Standard
Coal preparation Part 1: Higher rank coalFloat and sink testing

First publi shed as AS K205 1970. Revised and redesignated AS 1661 1977. Second editi on 1979. Revised and redesignated AS 4156.1 1994.

PUBLISHED BY STANDARDS AUSTRALIA (STANDARDS ASSOCIATION OF AUSTRALIA) 1 THE CRESCENT, HOMEBUSH, NSW 2140
ISBN 0 7262 8643 5

AS 4156.1 1994

PREFACE
This edition of this Standard was prepared by the Standards Australia Subcommittee on Coal Preparation, under the supervision of the Committee on Coal and Coke and the direction of the Multitechnics Standards Policy Board. Adoption of the recommendations on presentation of results, which follow in part the tabular and graphic forms developed within ISO/TC 27/SC 1, Coal preparation Terminology and performance, will aid in the exchange of information relating to the washability of higher rank coal, and in the assessment of the efficiency and performance of coal preparation plant. This Standard formed the basis for preparation of ISO 7936:1992. The term normative has been used in this Standard to define the application of the Appendices to which it applies. A normative appendix is an integral part of a Standard.
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Copyri ght

STANDARDS AUSTRALIA

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AS 4156.1 1994

CONTENTS
Page FOREWORD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SECTION 1 SCOPE AND GENERAL 1.1 SCOPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2 REFERENCED DOCUMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3 DEFINITIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.4 ANALYSIS AND TESTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5 SAMPLING AND SAMPLE PREPARATION . . . 4

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SECTION 2 DERIVATION OF TEST SAMPLES 2.1 SCOPE OF SECTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 SAMPLING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3 SAMPLE PREPARATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6 6 7

SECTION 3 GENERAL FLOAT AND SINK TEST PRACTICE 3.1 SCOPE OF SECTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 3.2 SEPARATING MEDIA, APPARATUS AND HYDROMETERS . . . . . . . . . . 9 3.3 BASIC FLOAT AND SINK TEST PROCEDURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 SECTION 4 DEVELOPMENT AND PRESENTATION OF RAW COAL WASHABILITY DATA 4.1 SCOPE OF SECTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 4.2 PRESENTATION OF TEST RESULTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 4.3 EXPRESSION OF EFFICIENCY OF A SEPARATION PROCESS . . . . . . . . 22 APPENDICES A DETERMINATION OF THE BULK SAMPLE MASS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B A SUGGESTED PROCEDURE FOR FLOAT AND SINK TESTING OF A SAMPLE OF RAW COAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C CALIBRATION OF HYDROMETERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D A GENERAL PROCEDURE FOR A CENTRIFUGAL FLOAT AND SINK TEST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E SIMULATION OF PLANT ENVIRONMENT BY WET TUMBLING . . . . . . .

35 36 39 41 42

AS 4156.1 1994

FOREWORD
In commercial practice, coal cleaning is conducted largely by processes that take advantage of a relationship between particle ash percentage and particle relative density. However, coal particles contain not ash but mineral matter, and the general relationship is therefore only an approximation. Float and sink testing is the standard laboratory method for determining, with respect to relative density, the washability characteristics of a wide range of coal samples, from bore core to mine production and coal preparation plant products. Data are derived for a number of different purposes and form the basis on which to (a) (b)
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establish limits theoretically attainable by density separations, often used as a reference base and in initial assessment of resource potential during exploration of coal deposits; predict and compare results of simulated plant operations for various types and combinations of processing equipment, facilitating selection of optimum process arrangement; design commercial coal preparation plant (in conjunction with appropriate non-density based washability data); and examine products from operating plant for routine control purposes, or to assess separation performance critically against established criteria.

(c) (d)

AS 4156.11994

STANDARDS AUSTRALIA

Australian Standard Coal preparation

Part 1: Higher rank coalFloat and sink testing

S E C T I O N
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S CO P E

A N D

G E NE R A L

1.1 SCOPE This Standard describes general practice used in determining the float and sink characteristics of higher rank coal (see AS 2096) and indicates procedures for deriving test samples. Methods for presenting the washability data obtained, and methods for establishing some conventional plant performance parameters, are included.
NOTE: For borehole samples, reference should be made to AS 2519, which sets out specific procedures and float and sink test schemes that have been developed for the various stages of an exploration program.

1.2 REFERENCED DOCUMENTS The following documents are referred to in this Standard: AS 1038 Coal and coke Analysis and testing 1038.20 Part 20: Higher rank coalHardgrove grindability index 2026 2096 2162 2418 2519 2617 2646 2646.6 3881 ISO 7936 Density hydrometers Classification and coding systems for Australian coals Code of practice for the use of volumetric glassware Glossary of terms relating to solid mineral fuels Guide to the technical evaluation of higher rank coal deposits Guide for the taking of samples from hard coal seams in situ Sampling of solid mineral fuels Part 6: Hard coalPreparation of samples Higher rank coal Size analysis Hard coalDetermination and presentation of float and sink characteristics General directions for apparatus and procedures

1.3 DEFINITIONS For the purpose of this Standard, the definitions given in AS 2418 apply. 1.4 ANALYSIS AND TESTING Where chemical analysis and testing are required, these shall be carried out in accordance with the various parts of AS 1038. 1.5 SAMPLING AND SAMPLE PREPARATION Samples for float and sink testing should be obtained and prepared according to the requirements of relevant Standards (AS 2519, AS 2617, AS 2646) and relevant sections of this Standard, as applicable.
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AS 4156.1-1994, Coal preparation Higher rank coal - Float and sink testing
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