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PADMABHUSHAN VASANTDADA PATIL PRATISHSTHAN'S COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

The Boeing 787


20th October 2008

PADMABHUHAN VASANTDADA PATIL PRATISHSTHAN'S COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

A Report On

The Boeing 787


Prepared by
Ajit K. Nikita J. Nitesh G. Sameer G. Sanket D. Saurabh D. Saurabh S. Subodh B. Tejas G. Ritesh V. Rutvij T. Vikrant P.

Under guidance of Prof (Mrs.) Ozarde

All rights are reserved. No part of this report can be reproduced in any form or by any means without the permission of the writers.

20th October 2008

To, Prof (Mrs.) Ozarde Subject: Acknowledgement of Completion of the Project and Delivery of this Report. Madam, The following report is about Boeing 787, an Airplane that will revolutionise the way Airplanes are Designed, Manufactured and flown today. The Information used in this report was searched & drafted from renowned Aviation related sites like those of Boeing, Airbus, Flight Global, Flight Blogger as well as some other Magazines like Aircraft Commerce, Flight International and Airline Business. We hope this report will prove beneficial to the Readers. Yours Sincerely With Regards, Group Leader (Rutvij Talavdekar)

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Working on this Presentation Report was a truly engrossing experience for our group. Timely gathering of valuable Information by each member of our group ensured that this report was drafted well in time. We profusely thank our Professor (Mrs.) Ozarde for guiding us in making this Report a success.

PREFACE

Rarely has a new aircraft attracted - or deserved - as much attention as the Boeing 787. From its thrusting nose, via flowing lines, to the delicately-rising wingtips and swept-back tail, there is nothing about this machine that isn't going to change the way airliners are designed and built. New technologies, new materials and new construction techniques have been brought together by a design and production process that is set to change the relationship between Airframers and Suppliers. If Boeing's Dreamliner is as successful in operation as its pre-launch Orderbook suggests it will be, Airline Industry will never be the same again. In this 787 special, we deliver the inside track on the 787 programme.

CONTENTS
1. Introduction
Background Evolution 9 10

2. Revolutionary Design
Aerodynamically Efficient Infrastructure Compatibility 11 12

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3. Going Composite
What are Composites? How are they Manufactured? Composites on Old Aircraft? Advantages of Composites On Powerplants? Long Term Perspective 13

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13 14 14 15 15

4. Going Electric
Electric Engines Electric Brakes Keeping it Cool

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5. Engineered for Performance


Advanced Design Interior Construction Engine Efficiency Noise Footprint

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19 19 20 21

6. Breathe Easier
VOC Control High Relative Humidity Environment Control Lower Cabin Altitude

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7. More Comfort in the Sky


Dimmable Windows Electrochromic Property Transmittance Capability Biggest Airplane Window Ever Plush Interiors Overall Comfort Point-to-Point Convenience

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8. More Greener 9. Facts and Figures


Program Milestones Worldwide Support

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CHAPTER 1

Introduction
With more pre-flight orders than any widebody in history, the 787 has transformed Boeings fortunes. But the twinjet is a game-changer in other ways, from its technology to its design and engineering process, with the US giant integrating systems of systems from dozens of global partners.

Background
In the late 1990s, Boeing began considering a replacement for the Boeing 767 when sales weakened due to the competing Airbus A330. As sales of the Boeing 747 were also slowing, the company proposed 2 new aircraft viz. the Sonic Cruiser and the B747X. The Sonic Cruiser would have achieved higher speeds (approx Mach 0.98) while burning fuel at the same rate as the existing 767 or A330. The 747X, competing with the Airbus A380, would have lengthened the 747 and improved efficiency by using a composite supercritical wing. Market interest for the 747X was tepid, but the Sonic Cruiser had brighter prospects. Several major airlines in the US initially showed enthusiasm for the Sonic Cruiser concept, although they also expressed concerns about the operating costs. By decreasing travel time, they would be able to increase customer satisfaction & Aircraft utilization. The September 11, 2001 attacks upended the global Airline market. Airlines could not justify large capital expenditures and increased petroleum prices made them more interested in Efficiency than Speed. The worst affected airlines, in the US, were considered the most likely customers of the Sonic Cruiser. Boeing offered airlines the option of using the airframe for either higher speed or increased efficiency, but the high projected airframe costs caused demand to slacken further. Boeing canceled the 747X once Airbus launched production of the A380, & switched tracks by offering an alternative product, the 7E7. The 7E7 later became the 787.

Evolution
Early concept images of the B787 included rakish cockpit windows, a dropped nose and a distinctive "shark-fin" vertical stabilizer. The final styling of the aircraft was more conservative, the fin appearing visually similar to those of aircraft currently in service. The cockpit windows were also changed to a more conventional form. Final Design of the 787 was frozen in 2005. The Shark-Fin tail was replaced by a conventional Tail & the Nose was redesigned. The 787-3 and 787-8 will be the initial variants, with the 787-9 entering service in 2013 despite industry rumours that it would be delayed. The B787-8 Dreamliner will carry 210 - 250 passengers on routes of 7,650 to 8,200 nautical miles (14,200 to 15,200 kilometers), while the 787-9 Dreamliner will carry 250 290 passengers on routes of 8,000 to 8,500 nautical miles (14,800 to 15,750 kilometers). B787-3 Dreamliner will accommodate 290 - 330 passengers and be optimized for routes of 2,500 to 3,050 nautical miles (4,600 to 5,650 kilometers). Boeing initially priced the 787-8 variant at US$120 million, a low figure that surprised the industry, and it has since been increased twice. As of 2007, the list price was US$146151.5 million for the 787-3, US$157167 million for the 787-8 and US$189200 million for the 787-9. Customer-announced orders and commitments for the 787 reached 237 aircraft during the first year of sales, with firm orders numbering 677 by the 787's premiere on July 8, 2007 (07-08-07) and well before Entry Into Service (EIS). This makes the 787 the fastest-selling wide body airliner ever before EIS.

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CHAPTER 2
Revolutionary Design
Rarely has a new aircraft attracted - or deserved - as much attention as the Boeing 787. From its thrusting Nose, via flowing lines, to the delicately-rising Raked Wingtips and swept-back Tail, all designed to increase this Aircrafts Efficiency to an all new level. This Aircrafts Fuel Consumption, Passenger & Cargo carrying capacity & Less Maintenance Expenditures are all advantages that have contributed to it being the fastest selling Aircraft in the World.

Aerodynamically Efficient
The B787 comes with a Design that was developed from scratch. So as to make the Airplane more Fuel Efficient, Boeing deflected away from Conventional Aircraft Designing Process. New Features came in. Raked Wingtips, with a slight upper curvature, were incorporated. This not only reduced the Wingspan (Linear Dimension from One wing end to the other), but also led to reduced Drag Forces. Reduced Drag improves Fuel Efficiency, as the Airplane consumes much less fuel to fly the same distance. The B787s nose was aerodynamically designed in 2003. Lots of simulations were done in Boeings Gold Care Programme, to extract proper data so as to make this Aircraft aerodynamically efficient. Because of the sleekly designed 787 nose, Drag reduces. Reduction in drag results in less fuel consumption. In these days, with Oil becoming totally volatile, any effort in reducing Fuel Consumption is widely appreciated. The 787 design has been incorporated from the Sonic Cruiser program and induces some of the advanced design features developed while examining the Sonic Cruiser concept.

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Infrastructure Compatibility
Just at a time when the B787 was under Design phase, Airbus was already into manufacturing the A380. The A380 was well on its way to become the Worlds biggest Aircraft, surpassing the Boeing 747 (or the Jumbo Jet). However, the A380 wasnt compatible with Airports around the world, mainly due to its sheer size. Issues like the A380s Wingspan (Cross-Sectional Length between the 2 Wingtips) being too big than the Runway width meant that the A380 could operate only to a handful of Airports. Other causes for concern were: The size of the Aircraft Parking Bays was smaller than the A380s size. The A380s wing could peep into the neighboring Aircrafts space while parked at the Terminal. Airport Ground Equipments like Catering Vehicles, Pushback Tractors werent designed for the A380. This meant that Manufacturers of these Equipments had to bring in new models that could be compatible with the A380 Unlike the humongous Airbus A380, the B787 was designed taking into consideration the present Airport Infrastructure. Hence, Airlines all over the world had no problems whatsoever in integrating the B787 into their present Aircraft Fleet. Dimensions of the B787 were comparable to competitive aircrafts; hence there were no cross compatibility issues with miscellaneous airport infrastructure like Aircraft Parking Bays & other Ground Service Equipments (GSD).

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CHAPTER 3
Going Composite
The use of composite material in Boeing's 787 Dreamliner is benefiting manufacturing, the environment, and, ultimately, the entire air travel industry. It is the first commercial jet ever to have the majority of its primary structure including the tail, wing and fuselage made of advanced composite materials.

What are Composites?


Composite materials, or composites, are in a class of materials that includes Glass, Kevlar, Spectra, Vectran, and carbon fiber, which are held in shape by a hardened resin like Epoxy or Bismaleimide. Today, one can find composites in cars, golf clubs, snowboards, and medical devices, in addition to aircraft.

How are they Manufactured?


Building the Barrel Piece (including Stringers), starts with computerized lay-down of composite tape on a huge barrel-shaped mold made from interlocking mandrels. The tape is comprised of super strong carbon fibers pre-soaked in epoxy. The large mold is rotated as the tape is applied. The uncured composite material is then wrapped with caul plates and polymer bags and placed in an autoclave for curing. The autoclaves heat triggers a chemical reaction that turns the uncured composite material into a toughened, reliable and high-strength structure. The final step is unwrapping, inspection and tool removal. Dreamliner engineers ran numerous tests to verify structural integrity and have discovered that the composites are tougher than they initially predicted. Because composite materials are more durable than aluminum, government regulators may call for fewer inspections. The corrosion and fatigue benefits of a composite structure apply well for 787 operators also.

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Composites on Old Aircraft?


The Boeing 777 is comprised of 50% aluminum and only 12% composites. While Composites were used by Boeing way back since 1950s when the first ever Jet (Boeing 707) came out, never were Composites used in such proportions for the construction of primary fuselage structure. The B787 Dreamliner is surely a Gamechanger in this respect. For its part, the 787 Dreamliner, will be composed of 50% composites, 20% aluminum, 15% titanium, 10% steel, and 5% other materials. Specifically, carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) will be the primary composite for the majority of the 787's structure with titanium graphite composites also being integrated into the Dreamliner's wings.

Advantages of Composites
The use of composites in the 787 Dreamliner is bringing benefits to every stage of the aircraft's life. Starting with the design of the airplane, Boeing can develop larger, more integrated structures because of the way composites are manufactured. In the build of the airplane, significantly less waste, fewer hazardous materials, and shorter manufacturing cycle times will be an added Advantage. The composite barrel fuselage section, for example, will be manufactured in one piece, resulting in 1,500 fewer aluminum sheets and 40,000 - 50,000 fewer fasteners being used. This represents an 80% reduction in fasteners over a non-composite barrel structure.
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Moreover, the 787 Dreamliner series will be 30,000 - 40,000 pounds lighter than the comparably-sized Airbus A330-200. This will enable the 787 to use 20% less fuel, resulting in 20% fewer emissions. The lower weight will also result in up to 45% more cargo revenue capacity as well as cost savings for the airlines. Airlines will see lower cost because of fewer repairs and lower landing fees, which are often based on weight. Using Composites has many other Benefits as well. Due to 787's Low weight Advantage, Boeing has designed a much larger Airplane in size and integrated different systems onto it, which were absent in older Aircrafts due to weight Issues. Big size has also resulted in Longer Range than similar sized Aircrafts, namely the B767 and A330. Due to this, Route Planning has become much easier and more City-Pairs can be generated. The 787's Carbon Re-enforced structure has also allowed Boeing to decrease Cabin Altitude and increase Humidity levels for increased Passenger comfort.

On the Powerplants?
Even the engines on a portion of the 787 fleet will be constructed using composites. GE Aviation's GEnx Engine is the world's only jet engine with a front fan case and fan blades made of composites. Composites give this engine greater durability, weight reduction, and lower operating cost. The blades are made with GE90 composite technology which has performed well with no routine on-wing maintenance required and which has had no service issues in more than a decade, according to GE. The fan contains only 18 blades, 50% fewer than GE's CF6 engine and has noise levels lower than any large GE commercial engine.

Long Term Perspective


It is a widely known fact that Composites don't corrode easily. With Composites comprising majority of the Fuselage & it being a one-piece structure, Maintenance hassles are expected to reduce dramatically. Periodic Maintenance Checks viz. A/B/C/D Checks will now be required to be carried out on the B787 after much longer intervals, thereby enabling very high Aircraft utilisation. Also, less Maintenance Hassles means high manpower utilisation on other Aircrafts. Thus, Composites are widely expected to cut Operational Costs on all fronts.

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CHAPTER 4
Going Electric
What Boeing calls a more electric architecture for the B787 primarily involves the use of much larger starter generators than were possible in past years. This was again possible due to reduced weight of the B787.

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Electric Engines
The 787 engines will be started electrically, a radical change that initially concerned airlines. Jetliners are not nearly as efficient as they could be. More pneumatic power, for eg, is created than is required from a systems standpoint. This power comes from huge amounts of Bleed Air diverted from the jet engines. It not only makes the engines less efficient but some of the bleed air is dumped overboard before it can be used, adding to the overall inefficiency of the plane. Carried by a network of ducts through the plane, the bleed air must go through check valves and pre-coolers before it can be used. Even then, it is not used as efficiently as electrical power. On the 787, Boeing will eliminate this bleed air, other than a tiny amount to help with engine stability at idle settings. As a result, there will be no need for the network of titanium ducts, which are expensive to make and add hundreds of pounds to a plane's weight. Systems once powered pneumatically will use electricity, supplied by two 225-kW generators attached to each of the 787's 2 Engines. The Auxiliary Power Unit [APU] in the plane's tail will also have two of these generators. Part of the idea of going to a more electric airplane is that, all components that are used to generate pneumatic power are eliminated and power developed is only sufficient to the needs of the Aircraft. Plus, miles of piping, for the Bleed Air, is eliminated which reduces weight as well as costs. Today's jet engines always operate at higher thrust settings to create bleed air, even if it is not used.

Standard Electric Interface


The two types of engines compatible with the 787 (namely the Rolls-Royce Trent 1000 & GEs GEnx) will use a standard electrical interface, potentially allowing any aircraft to be fitted with Rolls-Royce or GE Engines at any time. This flexibility will allow an airline to switch from one manufacturer to the other in the event of technological developments which conform more closely to their operating profile. Boeing's goal is to make changing engine types as simple as a standard same-manufacturer replacement. Boeing says that 24hrs remains their goal for an Engine change.

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Electric Brakes
Another innovation on the 787 is the first-ever commercial application of Electric Braking in place of the more conventional hydraulically actuated brakes used on all previous commercial aircraft. Electric brakes were a candidate from the start as they suited Boeing's 787 weight and efficiency targets, as well as fitting better with the company's modular assembly plans. By helping dispense with the need for installation and test of hydraulic systems, Boeing believed electric brakes would contribute to significant time savings during assembly and test. The system was also deemed more advantageous to operators because of its inherent monitoring and self-checking capabilities, as well as the improved reliability of the components. The modular design of it enables operators to replace specific parts on the ramp without necessarily having to remove an entire brake assembly. The brake control is a system that detects wheel speed and pressure data, and combines it with information from the rudder pedal positions, throttle position and other sensor and avionics data to instruct the brakes what to do. This system is far more effective and accurate at very low speeds. The absence of hydraulic brake fluid avoids the risk of leaks and possible fire hazards. When the pilot brakes, Electrical signals are sent to an On-Board Computer. This converts the Electrical signals into Electro-Mechanical signals that are sent to the Brake Actuators. The Actuators then deploy the Disc Brake Assembly, which slows down the Airplanes speed and eventually stops it.

Keeping It Cool
Another system where Boeing adopted a more-electric approach is Wing Leading Edge De-Icing System, which traditionally has been performed using hot bleed air from the engines. An Electro-thermal system will be the 1st commercial aircraft application of Technology previously used on the blades of military rotorcraft. The system will be based on electrically heated elements contained within a sprayed metal matrix held in place on the leading edges by a polymer composite material.

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CHAPTER 5
Engineered for Performance
Low Weight of the Engines, mainly due to the use of Composite Material, has allowed Boeing to incorporate many new Technolo gies into the B787s Powerplants.

Advanced Design
The scalloped chevrons, evident on the secondary nozzle on GE's GEnx test engine, are a new feature on the 787. It reduces Drag, thereby increasing Fuel Efficiency. For reduced weight and noise, GE designed the GEnx with just 18 fan blades, compared with 22 on the GE90 and 36 in the CF6 family. The case itself is made of a Composite-fibre braid, unlike all earlier Engines. The composite fan case introduced as a way of reducing weight, save around 350lb (160kg) / Engine. Besides, in its 111-inch fan blades and the engine's forward fan case, GE employs composites for the engine's variable-bleed valve ducts at the exit of the booster stage.

Interior Construction
The GEnx blades follow the GE90 design methodology, the engines currently flying on the 777s. They are made with 400 plies of pre-pregged tape, with the plies thinning out from the base to the tip. Since sharp-edged composite materials tend to fray, the blades use replaceable titanium cladding for the Leading, Tip and Trailing Edges. This edging also spreads the energy of Foreign Object Damage (FOD) into the fan's composite material. After a decade of performance and 6.5 million engine flight hours, the GE90 has experienced only 3 Composite Blades removed from service due to bird-hits or FOD.

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For the B787s, as fan sizes grew bigger to improve engine bypass ratios for quieter operation, so has the weight of engines. Ironically, advances in cooling technology, improved Hot-section Materials and better Aerodynamic Loading are reducing Engine Core sizes. The result is a growing shift between the weight of the engine core and the fan and its casing. The fan for a CF6 series for A330s, 767s and 747s produces a 5.3 bypass ratio and accounts for 21% of the Engine's total weight. The GEnx-1B for the 787 has a 9.5 bypass ratio, and the Fan accounts for 33% of the Engine's weight. The Composite Fan Case grew out of development work GE did on the Boeing Sonic Cruiser, a 787 predecessor. More than 100 ballistic impact panel tests were conducted to validate the design. The tests demonstrated that a Composite Case was more resistant to ballistic FOD damage than Aluminum Cases.

Engine Efficiency
The Engines on the B787 are believed to have a higher By-Pass Ratio, increasing Efficiency both on Aerodynamic & Fuel Consumption front. GE also implemented a combustor technology it has been maturing for the past decade. This Twin Annular Pre-Mixing Swirler (TAPS) system uses 2 swirlers, adjacent to the fuel nozzles, to pre-mix Fuel and Air prior to burning. This swirl creates a more homogeneous and leaner mix of fuel and air that burns at lower temperatures than in previous designs. One result is a significant reduction in NOx Emissions. Estimates show that the GEnx Engines have 50 % lower NOx emissions, than comparable CF6 Engines. Other types of emissions and particulate levels fall, too. TAPS may have a maintenance benefit, as it creates a more uniform temperature profile, which is a friendlier environment for the engine components. The TAPS combustor, which pre-mixes the air and fuel before they are burned, allows the combustion process to be more complete at lower temperatures and is expected to produce a 30% improvement in emissions over the CF6 Series Engines. The combustor incorporates a pair of Annular Fuel/Air swirlers that premix the two before funnelling the mixture to the relatively conventional combustor. The inner swirler is used for low-thrust requirements in Idle and Taxiing, while the outer swirler engages for Higher Thrust Settings.

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Noise Footprint
For years now, Airports all over the world have faced Noise Restrictions when operating to Airports surrounded by Communities. These restrictions meant that aircrafts cant descend below a certain Glide-scoped Altitude so as to reduce Noise footprint. European Union imposed even more Stringent Regulations which forced Airport Operations at Night time to a screeching halt. This meant that Airport Operators had to sandwich (or shift) the entire Airline traffic of the night onto Day time. When General Electric Aviation (GE) began designing the B787s GEnx Engine, reducing the noise footprint was one of the most important factors that made it to switch to less Fan Blades in the Engines. Heavy Engine testings showed GE that composite fans run more efficiently--and are quieter--with fewer blades. Besides cutting weight, lowering the Blade count reduces scrubbing -- the drag of air as it slides over a blade's surface. Hence, the GEnx is 30% quieter than a baseline CF6.

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CHAPTER 6
Breathe easier
A focus on human factors, such as air and water quality and humidity levels, should ensure that the 787 cabin offers passengers a new level of comfort.

VOC Control
The 787's cabin is the focus of intense development work. Boeing says it is real hard science. They worked on human factors as well as areas like cleaner water and air and improved thermal control. Through various studies, Boeing has learnt that control of volatile organic compounds [VOC] is more important than humidity. VOCs are found in a wide variety of materials that find their way into a cabin from paints and coatings to under-arm deodorant, and have become a major concern of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). They have been found to be a major contributing factor to ozone, a common air pollutant, which has been proven to be a public health hazard. So with the suppliers, Boeing developed a gaseous air purification system to scrub out VOCs. It's not new, but the system is around 99% efficient and integrated with a HEPA [High Efficiency Particulate Air] filter, the cabin will have some of the cleanest air in the world. The new system will filter out gaseous irritants and odours as well as bacteria and viruses. The system will work in conjunction with a set of cabin air purification filters as part of the overall air management and environmental control system. The filters will be used in the cabin as well as the electronics bay, cockpit and lavatory and will include HEPA filters, electronic equipment cooling filters, heat exchanger filters as well as galley vent filters. Each 787 air management system requires 15 filters.

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High Relative Humidity


Relative humidity, nonetheless, remains a major selling point of the 787 cabin. Due to its largely composite construction, Boeing believes it will be able to offer a significantly more comfortable humidity level of around 14% for cruise, compared with average values in the single digits in current long-haul aircraft. The average home, by contrast, has a relative humidity in the 50% range.

Environment Control
To offset the effects of this higher cabin humidity, plus the usual high levels of cold-induced aircraft skin moisture, Boeing is also providing a Zonal Drying system, as a standard on each aircraft. Each unit consists of a fan, heater and glassfibre rotor coated with silica gel. The system takes air from the cabin & removes the moisture using the silica-coated rotor, before blowing the air (80% of which is now dry) into the space between the cabin lining and the aircraft's outer skin. The Zonal Drying system will pump dried-out Air into the space between the cabin lining & the aircraft skin. The remaining air, which has been warmed by the heater, is passed through the rotor reabsorbing some moisture and drying out the rotor at the same time. This moist air is then recirculated into the cabin.

Lower Cabin Altitude


Another passenger environment feature will be a lower cabin altitude of 6,000ft (1,830m), compared with the more traditional 8,000ft. According to a Boeing-Ohio State University altitude study, the percentage of passengers reporting overall well-being improves dramatically with a decrease in cabin altitude. At 8,000ft the level of happy passengers was just over 80%, with this increasing to over 95% at 6,000ft. To do this in the aluminium world would have required several thousand pounds more weight (to reinforce the structure), but with composites this isn't an issue. Boeing & Hamilton Sundstrand (the AC Unit provider on 787) believe that the Air Conditioning Technique will be the most closely controlled environment ever provided on a commercial aircraft. The PCU at the heart of the system uses advanced processing features to acquire data from several types of sensor, including pressure and temperature, as well as providing accurate and real-time control of its motor control outputs.

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CHAPTER 7
More Comfort in the Sky
When the 787 takes flight, flying as an experience will never be the same again. Passenger will be the king. A focus on spacious Interiors, such as bigger windows, Wider Seats & expansive Aisles & Galleys will ensure that the 787 cabin offers passengers a new level of comfort.

Dimmable Windows
Another of the most advanced B787 cabin systems will be the electrochromic windows. According to Boeing, traditional pull-down plastic shades are prone to sticking and are a maintenance headache. Boeing will develop a variably dimmable cabin window that will allow the passenger to select up to five different levels from dark to clear. The windows will also have a manual override for use by the flight crew.

Electrochromic Property
Electrochromic windows center around special materials that have Electrochromic properties. "Electrochromic" describes materials that can change color when energized by an electrical current. In these materials, electricity kicks off a chemical reaction (like any other chemical reaction) and changes the properties of the material. In this case, the reaction alters the way the material reflects and absorbs light. In some electrochromic materials, like the one used in the B787, the change is between Transparency (not reflecting any light) and Dark colours (reflecting light of some color). Like other smart windows, electrochromic windows are made by sandwiching certain materials between two panes of glass.

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Here are the materials inside one basic electrochromic window system and the order you will find them in: Glass or Plastic panel Conducting Oxide Electrochromic Layer, such as Tungsten Oxide Ion Conductor/Electrolyte Ion storage A 2nd layer of Conducting Oxide A 2nd Glass or Plastic panel A low electrical charge will darken a conductive medium between the layers, with transmissibility or lightness increasing with reduced voltage (or Darkness directly proportional to Voltage of the Layer). The window systems will not only provide light control, but also enhance the coolness of the interior of the aircraft.

Transmittance Capabilities
The new windows are also designed to reduce light and heat transmittance into the cabin, even when on the most open setting. This is expected to reduce the load on the heating and air conditioning system. This will ensure that the Interiors will remain pleasant.

Biggest Airplane Window Ever


The actual windows for the 787 which will be 50% larger than typical aircraft windows and will use specialist coatings more akin to the advanced coatings applied to fighter aircraft canopies, giving the airline passenger solar protection as well as containing the IR transmissions given out by the new in-flight passenger communication systems installed in the 787. The B787s Window Dimensions measure 10.7 x 18.4, a whopping 30% more than Airplanes flown today. These windows will be a laminated sandwich design, rather than the more typical air gap construction, which it says, will alleviate the condensation seen by passengers in many of today's cabin windows.

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Designers were able to create bigger windows because of the lighter composite materials used to construct the Dreamliner. There is a size limit on what Boeing could do with metal fuselage in earlier planes, because of the Weight and Structural Limitations.

Plush Interiors
Interior will feature repeated sweeping arches, dynamic lighting and electronic window shades whose transparency passengers can change during the flight. Cabin lighting will include a 'simulated sky' ceiling effect produced by arrays of Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs) which can change in colour and brightness.

Overall Comfort
The 787's Bigger Size has allowed Boeing to offer an unprecedented level of Comfort on-board. Bigger & more comfortable Wider Seats, more Stowage Space & Wider Aisles are surely going to redefine the concept of Flying. The 787 will have larger centre-mounted overhead luggage bins that descend for easy loading and then pivot upward.

Flexibility for Airlines


Also, for the kind of Range the B787 has (15,000nm), more City-Pairs have popped up. Markets which were unserved due to Range constraints have been erased. More Point-to-Point Connections are now possible, eliminating the 'Huband-Spoke' headache. Long-term testing showed GE that composite fans run more efficiently--and are quieter--with fewer blades. Besides cutting weight, lowering the Blade count reduces scrubbing" --the drag of air as it slides over a blade's surface. Hence, the GEnx is 30% quieter than a baseline CF6. Studies show that quieter the engines, the happier the people are!

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CHAPTER 8
More Greener
As forecasted, the B787 is slated to become the most Environmental friendly Aircraft ever, considering its huge size. A revolutionary Design, Composite structure, a more Electric Architecture, advanced Engines and its high Fuel Efficiency make this any Airlines choice on any given day. Lower Emissions of this Aircraft will also help Airlines globally in containing operating costs. Besides, as and when the European Union decides to impose Carbon Trading on Airlines in its region, which shouldnt happen for God sake, the 787s liabilities will be the least. Besides that, a lower Noise Footprint will also help it gain advantage over competing Airplanes in its class. It is also expected to revolutionise the way airplanes are designed and manufactured. The advantages of Composite structure are already tempting many Airframers to make the switch. Its just a matter of time before this happens!

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CHAPTER 9
Facts & Figures

Program Milestones

Authority to Offer late 2003 Assembly start 2006 1st Flight in fourth quarter 2008 Certification/Entry into service in 2009

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Worldwide Support

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Summary
In addition to bringing big-jet ranges to mid-size airplanes, the 787 will provide airlines with unmatched fuel efficiency, resulting in exceptional environmental performance. The airplane will use Less Fuel for comparable missions than today's similarly sized airplane. It will also travel at speeds similar to today's fastest Wide Body Aircrafts. Airlines will enjoy more Cargo Revenue Capacity. Passengers will also see improvements with the new airplane, from an Interior Environment with higher humidity to increased comfort and convenience. Experts were given the freedom to bring all the cutting-edge technologies to bear on the new B787 Dreamliner, Boeing served as a large-scale integrator, creating a far-reaching Global Network consisting of Interdisciplinary Design Teams and a supply chain of more than 70 companies. Airline Orders and Commitments for the B787 have surpassed more than 800 units, ever since bookings began. This makes the 787 the fastest-selling wide body airliner ever, before Entry Into Service [EIS]. The 787's Premiere on July 8, 2007 (07-08-07) was a huge success. It revealed Boeings plans to redefine the way how aircrafts are designed, manufactured and flown. If initial findings are anything to go by, the B787 has surely addressed some concerns by Environmentalists, towards reducing COx and NOx Emissions. These recent developments in Boeings strategy to go Greener has further prompted and encouraged other manufacturers to think beyond Conventional Aircraft Manufacturing. If Boeing's Dreamliner is as successful in operation as its pre-launch Orderbook suggests, Airline Industry will never be the same again.

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Appendix

Boeings Impression of Sonic Cruiser

Earlier Conceptual Design of the B7E7 (Now B787 with changes)

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Boeing 787 Design

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B787 Manufacturing
787 Dreamliner Structure Partners

747 Dreamlifter used for 787 Structure Delivery

At Boeings Paine Field, Seattle

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General Electric GENX Powerplant

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GENX Testing

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Breathe Easier
VOC Control

Zonal Drying System

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B787 Cabin Mock-Up

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B787: Whats Different?

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LED Mood lighting Onboard the 787

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Miscellaneous

787 Operational Range, from Seattle

Noise Footprint, at Londons Heathrow Airport 42

References
Sites
o o o o o Boeing.com Geae.com Google.com Flightglobal.com Flightblogger.com

Magazines
o o o o o Flight International Airline Business Aircraft Commerce Aircraft Interiors Air Finance Journal

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Glossary
In Aviation Terms
Airframers - Aircraft Manufacturers Aisle - Gangway Bleed air - Hot Air from Engine Conform - Adapt / Adjust Dim - Darken Drag - Retarding Aerodynamic Force Duct - Channel / Passage Fray - Scratch Fuselage - Body Galley - Stowage Space Humongous - Large Extract - Draw out Pneumatic - Gas / Fluid driven Piston Assembly Rakish - Smart Resin - Organic Compound Slacken - Slow down Swirler - Mixer Thrust - Driving Force Twinjet - Twin Engine Airplane Variant - Variation Volatile - Inconsistent

Abbreviations
EIS EPA FAA FOD HEPA TAPS VOC - Entry Into Service - Environmental Protection Agency - Federal Aviation Authority - Foreign Object Damage - High Efficiency Particulate Air - Twin Annular Pre-Mixing Swirler - Volatile Organic Compounds

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Index
747 9 Aerodynamic 11 Airframers 6,9,27 Aisle 24 Barrel 13 Bleed Air 17 Brakes 18 Comfort 15,22,23,24,26,39 Composites 13,14 Dim 24 Drag 11 Duct 20 Emission 15,20 Engine 13,15,17,19,20,21,22 Fray 19 Fuselage 13 Galley 24 GEnx 15,19,21,26,36,37 Greener 27 Interior 25,39 Mood Lighting 41 Noise 15,19,21,27 Pneumatic 17 Raked 11 Rakish 10 Resin 13 Sonic Cruiser 9 Swirler 20 Thrust 17 Twinjet 9 Variant 10 Volatile 11 Window 10,24,25,26,40 Wingtip 6,11,12 EIS 10 EPA 22 FOD 19 HEPA 22 TAPS 20 VOC 22,38

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