# Worked solutions Chapter 5 Newton’s laws

5.1 Force as a vector
1 a b Velocity and force are vectors so B, D. i 150 N up

ii

40 N west

iii zero

iv

∑F = √(102 + 102) = 14 N NW

2

a b c d

F ≈ 10 N F ≈ 10 N Assuming the mass is 5 to 10 kg, F ≈ 50–100 N Assuming your mass is 40 to 80 kg, F ≈ 400– 800 N
Heinemann Physics 11 (3e) Teacher’s Resource and Assessment Disk ISBN 9781442501249 1

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1 cm ≈20 N.5 cm) 1 N west 5 6 7 a b Magnitude of resultant force = √(602 + 802) = 100 N tan θ = 80/60 and θ = 53° F = 100 N 143°T 8 ∑F = 2 × 400 cos 40° (or use sine rule) = 610 N in a direction that bisects the two ropes 9 a b c FS = 100 cos 60° = 50 N south FE = 100 cos 30° = 87 N east FN = 60 N north FS = 300 cos 20° = 280 N south FE = 300 cos 70° = 103 N east Heinemann Physics 11 (3e) Teacher’s Resource and Assessment Disk ISBN 9781442501249 2 Copyright © Pearson Education Australia 2008 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) . magnitude of vector = 3 × 30 = 60 N i. True north is taken as 0°T.0 kN = 1.5 cm) 70 N down (vector ≈3.e. 60 N right 50 N up (vector ≈2.0 kN Tug-of-war team: F = 10 × 1.0 × 104 N The directions are identical in alternatives B. Then 40°T would correspond to N40°E. True north is taken as 0°T.5°T a b c Length of vector ≈3 cm. a N60°E = 60°T b N40°W = 320°T c S60°W = 240°T d SE = 135°T e NNE = 22. All angles greater than 0°T are taken in the clockwise direction from north. All angles greater than 0°T are taken in the clockwise direction from north.Worked solutions Chapter 5 Newton’s laws 3 4 Pulling on an anchored rope: F = 1. C and D.

6 × 105 N horizontal 10 Horizontal component Fh = 300 cos 60° = 150 N Vertical component Fv = 300 sin 60° = 260 N Copyright © Pearson Education Australia 2008 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 3 Heinemann Physics 11 (3e) Teacher’s Resource and Assessment Disk ISBN 9781442501249 .0 × 105 cos 30° = 2.5 × 105 N up Fh = 3.Worked solutions Chapter 5 Newton’s laws d Fv = 3.0 × 105 cos 60° = 1.

a passenger will continue to travel with the same velocity as before. In this situation there are no driving forces or retarding forces. a b c d a gravitational force of attraction between the two masses electrical force of attraction between the negative electron and the positive nucleus friction between the tyres and the road tension in the wire If the cloth is pulled quickly. 8 9 b 10 The fully laden semitrailer will have most difficulty pulling up. Using a full glass makes the trick easier because the force will have less effect on the glass due to its greater mass. Its large mass means that more force is required to bring it to a stop. usually the passenger will lose his or her footing and fall forward. This meant that any moving body would come to rest of its own accord. lift = 50 kN up. 4 5 6 7 When the car or aircraft slows suddenly. a constant force is needed to maintain a constant velocity so A is correct. According to Newton. then frictional force = applied force = 20 N. Constant speed. 2 c 3 No horizontal force acts on the person. so D. The purpose of the seat belt is to supply this force. so ∑F = 0. then frictional force = applied force = 25 N. This force does not overcome the tendency of the glass to stay where they is. so ∑F = 0. but it was Newton who explained that the moving object should continue to travel with constant velocity unless a net force is acting. until being acted on by an unbalanced force.e. 25 N F cos 30° = 25 N F = 29 N at an angle of 30° to the horizontal. In accordance with Newton’s first law of motion. the bus slows. and drag = 12 kN west. so ∑F = 0 in both vertical and horizontal directions.2 Newton’s first law of motion 1 Aristotle felt that the natural state for any object was at rest in its natural place.Worked solutions Chapter 5 Newton’s laws 5. the force on the glass acts for a short time only. the stopping force may be provided by the windscreen or steering wheel. a b c Constant speed. its inertia. Constant speed. The inertia of the full glass is greater than that of an empty glass. Newton is correct. Copyright © Pearson Education Australia 2008 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 4 Heinemann Physics 11 (3e) Teacher’s Resource and Assessment Disk ISBN 9781442501249 . i. but evenly spread across the body to reduce the effects of the force. Galileo introduced the idea that friction was a force that could be added to other forces that act on a moving body. To exactly balance the other forces. a b According to Aristotle. so D is correct. Without the seatbelt. an object moving with a constant velocity has zero net force acting on it. and the standing passenger will continue to move with constant velocity unless acted on by an unbalanced force.

3 × 103m s–2 ΣF = ma = 0.8 = 490 N ΣFh = 45 N south + 25 N north = 20 N south ΣF = ma 20 = 65a a = 0.6 = 16.5 kg shot-put is the larger of the two masses.6 = 5.6 × 103 N in the direction of travel a b c d 50 kg Fg = mg = 50 × 9.75 = 210 m s–2 at 141°T 4 c 5 Net force acting on the car = 900 × 2.5 kg.0 kg ball.93 = 1. so forces are balanced: B. its acceleration will be lower.5 × 3.4 N. This means a lower speed on leaving the athlete’s arm. 60 km h–1 = 60/3. The weight of the hammer on Mars is Fg = mg = 1. Constant speed means acceleration of zero.060 × 4300 = 260 N 2 3 The 1.31 m s–2 6 7 8 The mass of the hammer remains constant at 1. a = Δv/Δt = +30/0. so forces are unbalanced: U.93 m s–2 ΣF = FB = ma = 1200 × –0.25 θ = 51° south of east = 141°T a = ΣF/m = 160/0. a b ΣF = (1002 + 1252)1/2 = 160 N tan θ = 125/100 = 1.0 = 1800 N ΣF = force applied by motor – 800 N Force applied by motor = 2.0070 = 4300 = 4. and so for the same applied force. so forces are unbalanced: U.72 + 2 × a × 150 a = –0. and so it cannot be thrown as far as the lighter 1.3 Newton’s second law of motion 1 a b c d a b The netball is accelerating. Bus is stationary with acceleration of zero.1 × 103 N opposing the motion Copyright © Pearson Education Australia 2008 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 5 Heinemann Physics 11 (3e) Teacher’s Resource and Assessment Disk ISBN 9781442501249 . so forces are balanced: B Cyclist is accelerating.7 m s–1 v2 = u2 + 2ax 0 = 16.Worked solutions Chapter 5 Newton’s laws 5.

10 a ΣF = Fg = mg = 0. his or her weight will be the net force acting.50 × 9.5) ! v = u + at = 0 + 1. the drag force (air resistance) opposing the motion also increases until it equals the weight. At this point in time.3 = 0. the net force will be zero and the parachutist will travel with a constant speed.8 m s–1 ΣF = ma = Fg – Ff so ΣF = 4.Worked solutions Chapter 5 Newton’s laws 9 As the parachutist leaves the aircraft.6 m s–2 m (2.5 + 0.6 × 0. accelerating at 9.8 = 4.20 m s–2 and a = m 3 Copyright © Pearson Education Australia 2008 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 6 Heinemann Physics 11 (3e) Teacher’s Resource and Assessment Disk ISBN 9781442501249 .6 = = 0.5 = 0.8 m s–2.6 N !F 0. But as the speed increases.9 N a= b c 4.9 – 4.9 !F = = 1.

!F 140 a= = = 3. so the acceleration will also become smaller (a = g sin θ). An equal 20 N force will also act on the astronaut.Worked solutions Chapter 5 Newton’s laws 5. Reaction: force of attraction (gravity) that the Earth exerts on the Sun. Acceleration of astronaut: a = ∑F/m = 20/100 = 0. Action: force of attraction (gravity) that the Sun exerts on the Earth.4 Newton’s third law of motion 1 a b c d 2 a b c Action: force from the racquet on to the ball Reaction: ball exerts a force on the racquet in the opposite direction Action: weight of pine cone.10 = 100 s or 1 min 40 s 3 a b c d 4 Force exerted on jack by bowl = mJaJ = 1. If the kit is thrown directly away from the ship. Calculate force that acts on tool kit: ΣFT = mT × aT =2. The speed is increasing.e. FN = Fg cos 50° = 410 N Heinemann Physics 11 (3e) Teacher’s Resource and Assessment Disk ISBN 9781442501249 7 5 6 a b Copyright © Pearson Education Australia 2008 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) .0 m s–2 Acceleration of the fisherman: a = m 70 Speed of the fisherman: v = 0 + 2 × 0.5 × 8.5 = 1 m s–1 Speed of the boat: v = 0 + 3. normal force up and perpendicular to the incline.5 = 1.20 m s–2 v = u + at = 0 + 0.5 × 0.0 × 25 = 25 N north Therefore force exerted on bowl by jack = 25 N south Acceleration of bowl a = ΣFB/mB =25/2. Weight vertically down. The boat exerts an equal and opposite reaction force. The angle of inclination becomes smaller as the ball travels down the ramp.5 m s–2 south a b The speed is increasing but acceleration is constant along a uniform incline. ie 140 N in the opposite direction to the leaping fisherman. hopefully the reaction force will propel her back to the craft. C is correct. Reaction: upwards force that ground exerts on the pine cone.50 = 0.20 × 0.5 m s–2 in the opposite direction to the fisherman m 40 !F 140 = = 2. i. there will be an action–reaction force pair in which the action force is the force on the tool kit. so B is correct. Weight Fg = mg = 65 × 9.8 = 640 N downwards Normal reaction force.8 m s–1 If no other forces act.0 = 12.10 m s–1 The astronaut will travel with a constant speed of 0. slight friction up the incline. gravity pulling it to the Earth Reaction: Earth pulled toward the pine cone with the same force Action: downwards force that the pine cone exerts on the ground.0 = 20 N . and the reaction force will act on the astronaut in the opposite direction.10 m s–1 so: v = d/t t = d/v = 10/0.

they are both acting on the lunchbox and so cannot be an action/reaction pair in the sense of Newton’s third law. While the forces are equal in size but opposite in direction.8 – FT FT = 370 N 8 9 10 a b c Copyright © Pearson Education Australia 2008 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 8 Heinemann Physics 11 (3e) Teacher’s Resource and Assessment Disk ISBN 9781442501249 . Net force on rope = (50 × 9. Braking force FB = mg sin θ = 110 × 9. Tania is correct.Worked solutions Chapter 5 Newton’s laws c d 7 Net force = mg sin θ = 640 sin 50° = 490 N down the incline Acceleration = 490/65 = 7.8) – (30 × 9.45 = 50 × 9.8 sin 15° = 280 N The normal force will be smallest at A and will become progressively larger as he travels through point B and C.8) = 196 N down on the side of the student Acceleration = ΣF/Σm = 196/80 = 2.45 m s–2 down on the side of the student Consider the student only: ΣFs = ms × as = 50 × 2.5 m s–2 down the incline The braking force must balance the component of the gravitational force that is acting down the incline.

and so a smaller (upwards) normal force is needed—helping the wheels to rotate more freely.0 m s–2 for 1 s and then at 2.50 = 17. and so stay in the vertical stack.5 = 5. 11 a a = ΣF/Σm = 120/(30 + 50) = 120/80 = 1.8) + 41 = 240 N up When a cart is pulled.0 m s–2 for 1 s.5 + 30 = 48 N a = ΣF/m = 25/15 = 1. • The weight of any object can be considered an action force—the Earth pulls on the body. Its final speed will be 7.0 × 2.8 = 540 N down 3 4 5 Mass = 85 kg Mass = 85 kg Fg = mg = 85 × 3. as described by Newton’s third law.67 × 4. the vertical component of the applied force is upwards rather than downwards.67 m s–2 v = u + at = 0 + 1.0 m s–1. a b 6 a b c v = u + at = 0 + 2.5 N ΣF = pushing force – 30 N Pushing force = 17. Frictional force = 30 N ΣF = ma = 35 × 0. 8 9 Using Newton’s second law.5 m s–2 in the direction of the force Copyright © Pearson Education Australia 2008 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 9 Heinemann Physics 11 (3e) Teacher’s Resource and Assessment Disk ISBN 9781442501249 . the glider will accelerate at 5. a b c d Fh = 120 cos 20° = 110 N north Fv = 120 sin 20° = 41 N down Forces are balanced. • Hot gases are forced out of a jet engine (action) and the gases push the engine forward (reaction).8 = 540 N down Fg = mg = 55 × 9.0 = 6. so frictional force is opposite to horizontal pushing force = 110 N south FN = mg + Fp(v) = (20 × 9.7 m s–1 Three examples are: • Kicking the tyre of a car hurts because you apply a force to the tyre (action) and the tyre will apply a reaction force to your foot (reaction).Worked solutions Chapter 5 Newton’s laws Chapter review 1 2 C. and so it is ejected from the pile. 10 The weight and normal forces balance. so B is correct.6 = 306 N down 7 A block is struck with a sharp blow so that it overcomes the grip of the blocks within which it is in contact. The reaction force acts on the Earth—the object pulls on the Earth. The other blocks experience no horizontal net force. There is no driving force or drag force acting.0 m s–1 i ii Fg = mg = 55 × 9.

Action/reaction forces each act on different objects.2 = 11. so they are not an action/reaction pair as used in Newton’s third law.Worked solutions Chapter 5 Newton’s laws b Consider 50 kg trolley. the bucket must be allowed to accelerate downwards as it is lowered.8 sin 45°= 485 N Net force along incline = 485 – 250 = 235 N a = ΣF/m = 235/70 = 3.96 × 100 = 392 v = 19. 12 a b c 13 To maintain a tension of less than 100 N in the rope.8 × 3. the tension in the rope will be 120 N and the rope will snap.96 m s–2 v2 = u2 + 2ax = 0 + 2 × 1. If it ever travels with a constant speed or stops. 14 a b No Both the weight and normal forces are acting on the water tank.5° The car will have an acceleration of: a = g sin θ = 9.5 = 75 N These forces are an action–reaction pair and are therefore equal in magnitude.9 = 9. ΣF(50 kg) = ma = 50 × 1.4 m s–2 18 Copyright © Pearson Education Australia 2008 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 10 Heinemann Physics 11 (3e) Teacher’s Resource and Assessment Disk ISBN 9781442501249 . 15 The slope of the road is: θ = sin–1 0.50 θ = 30° 17 Component of weight force along incline = mg sin θ = 70 × 9.8 sin θ sin θ = 0.8 × 0.2 = 1. Acceleration of girl = F/40 Acceleration of skateboard = F/10 Acceleration of girl/acceleration of skateboard = 1:4 Ratio of final velocities = ratio of accelerations = 1:4 (using v = u + at). their ratio = 1:1. Consequently.6 = 71 km h–1 16 a = g sin θ 4.8 m s–1 = 19. The only horizontal force acting on it is the pushing force from the 30 kg trolley.

Copyright © Pearson Education Australia 2008 (a division of Pearson Australia Group Pty Ltd) 11 Heinemann Physics 11 (3e) Teacher’s Resource and Assessment Disk ISBN 9781442501249 .7 = 65 N 20 a b Therese is correct. The floor and basketball exert equal forces on each other as described by Newton’s third law. Therese is correct.27 m s–2 Consider the 10.0 = 3. The marble and billiard ball exert equal forces on each other as described by Newton’s third law.27 = 98 – FT FT = 98 – 32.Worked solutions Chapter 5 Newton’s laws 19 The net force on the system is: ΣF = m1g – m2g = 98 – 49 = 49 N a = ΣF/Σm = 49/15.0 kg mass: ΣF(10 kg) = m × a = 98 – FT 10 × 3.