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granted under the section 4 of the Indian Telegraph act under the following categories: a. Access Service providers : It covers the Mobile Telecom Service providers based on GSM , CDMA technology and Fixed Telephone Service Providers i.e. Traditional POTS b. International Long Distance Service Provider : Also know as ILD providers . they are international carriers and are permitted to establish International gateway , Landing Station and are authorized to carry all telecom traffic including Voice and Data to/from Indian Territory from/to the foreign countries. c. National Long Distance Service Providers : also known as NLD provider. They are authorized to carry the Domestic Telecom Traffic including Voice and Data from/to one state/Circle to/from another. d. VSAT Telecom Providers : They are authorized to provide the VSAT services for CUG and Captive network. e. INMARSAT/GMPCS providers f. Internet Service Providers : Also known as ISP. They are authorized to provide the Internet Services including Internet Telephony and other services mainly Colocation , Webhosting , Data Centre etc. The government took a conscious decision to charge a nominal license fee of Rupee One from the ISP in order to usher the benefits of Internet Connectivity. It was expected that all sizes of companies varying from startups to large established companies will be participating in the internet revolution. In accordance with NTP 1994, the telephony sector was opened for Private Companies for providing Access Services and later after NTP-99 the private service providers are permitted to offer carrier services for domestic and international traffic. Keeping in view of the interest of the Access Service Providers and International Long Distance Operators the Internet telephony was permitted to the ISP with restrictions. Internet Telephony is considered to be different service in its scope, nature and kind from real time voice as offered by other Access Service Providers and Long Distance Carriers. Hence the following type of Internet Telephony are permitted in India : (a) PC to PC; within or outside India (b) PC / a device / Adapter conforming to standard of any international agencies like- ITU or IETF etc. in India to PSTN/PLMN abroad. (c) Any device / Adapter conforming to standards of International agencies like ITU, IETF etc. connected to ISP node with static IP address to similar device / Adapter; within or outside India. (d) Except whatever is described in condition (ii) above, no other form of Internet Telephony is permitted.
(e) In India no Separate Numbering Scheme is provided to the Internet Telephony. Presently the 10 digit Numbering allocation based on E.164 is permitted to the Fixed Telephony , GSM, CDMA wireless service. For Internet Telephony the numbering scheme shall only conform to IP addressing Scheme of Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA). Translation of E.164 number / private number to IP address allotted to any device and vice versa, by ISP to show compliance with IANA numbering scheme is not permitted. (f) The Internet Service Licensee is not permitted to have PSTN/PLMN connectivity. Voice communication to and from a telephone connected to PSTN/PLMN and following E.164 numbering is prohibited in India. Due to the licensing restrictions and regulations the INTERCONNECITON between the PSTN/PLMN NETWORK and INTERNET in NOT PERMITTED in India. The technical note given below explains the operation of illegal/ unauthorized setup for Incoming International Calls into India through illegal automatic ILD setup. MODUS OPERANDI OF ILLEGAL ILD TELEPHONE EXCHANGE: DEFINITIONS 1. ADC means Access Deficit Charge For all ILD calls to fixed line, terminating service provider is to be paid the access deficit amount by the ILDO. For all ILD outgoing and incoming calls from/ to cellular and WLL (M), the ADC is to be collected by the ILDO and paid to BSNL. The ADC at present is Rs. 4.25/- per minute (subject to change by TRAI) 2. “BSO, CMSP, ILDO and NLDO” respectively mean the Basic Service Operator, Cellular Mobile Service Provider, International Long Distance Operator and National Long Distance Operator. 3. TRAI means Telecom Regulatory Authority of India 4. “Originating/ Transit/ Terminating Service Provider” means the Service provider whose network is used for originating/ transit/ terminating a telecommunication message (voice and non voice) respectively. 5. “Terminating Network” means the network to which a receiver of a telecommunication message (voice and non-voice) is proximately connected to.
1. Basic Network- Legal Setup : EXCHANGE at Foreign End International carrierr
EXCHANGE in India
In the authorized/ legal setup for international calls, the foreign subscriber (A-number) dials the desired destination number in India (B-number). His call is carried from the foreign exchange to the Indian exchange through some authoriesd international carrier at foreign end (e.g. AT&T, MCI,BT), then through some authorised carrier in India (e.g. VSNL, Bharti, Reliance). In this case the authorised ILD operator in India (VSNL, Reliance, Bharti) earn the revenue @ around 6.98 Rs (15 cents) per minute from their foreign counterpart and they pay ADC (as per TRAI regulation) per minute to BSNL. 2. Basic Network- Illegal Setup: EXCHANGE at Foreign End VOIP GATEWAY at foreign end ISP at foreign end
EXCHANGE in India
VOIP GATEWAY in India
ISP in India
The setup consists of an exchange in the foreign country from which the calls are being made in India. The subscribers at foreign end (A-Number) dial the desired destination
number (B-Number). The call is converted into data form by a VOIP Gateway. This data is transmitted to India over international leased lines provided by ISP (internet service provider) at foreign end, then through the ISP in India to the VOIP Gateway in India. This VOIP Gateway is connected to the illegal exchange in India. The data received by the VOIP Gateway is converted back into voice call and transferred to the illegal exchange. The illegal exchange automatically dials the B-number and the call is matured. In this case, the final dialing is done by the exchange in India, so the CLI (calling line identification) number displayed on the B-subscriber is the exchange number of Indian illegal exchange. INFRINGEMENT OF RULES a. The above illegal setup bypasses the international carriers (VSNL, Bharti, etc), authorised to carry international calls into the country, thus robbing them of the lawful revenue, they are authorised to earn (around 15 cents per minute). b. On all international calls carried by the authorised carriers, an ADC (as per TRAI regulation) per minute is earned by BSNL. Since the voice calls carried through VOIP setup are bypassing the authorised operators, the Government is being robbed of the ADC on incoming international calls, amounting to stealth. c. Violation of Rule 4 of Indian Telegraph Act: “Within India, the Central Government shall have exclusive privilege of establishing, maintaining and working telegraphs: Provided that the Central Government may grant a license, on such conditions and in consideration of such payment as it thinks fit, to any person to establish, maintain or work a telegraph within any part of India. “ Since the illegal setups are working without any license from the Government of India, they are violating the above rule. d. As the illegal setups can not be monitored, they are possible threats to the security of nation.
On example of operation of such illegal Exchange at SCF 182, Grain Market, Sec 26, Chandigarh Punjab raided by TERM Cell DOT New Delhi is given below : The illegal exchange that was working at second floor of SCF 182, Sector 26, Grain Market, Chandigarh was working with the reliance FWTs. The operation of the exchange is explained below: At the foreign end, a subscriber makes a call to the desired destination number in India. His call is taken by an exchange in the foreign country. A number of such simultaneous calls are combined in one T1 stream (Multiplexed) through a T1 multiplexer at the foreign end. This T1 stream is sent to the VOIP gateway placed at the foreign end and converted to data. This data is transmitted to the VOIP gateway placed in India. The internet connectivity for transmission of this data to India is provided by some ISP (Internet Service Provider) in foreign country while the same data is carried to the VOIP gateway in India through some ISP in India. The medium for transmission is VSAT (Very Small Aperture Terminal). The output of VSAT is amplified in the power amplifier and the RF unit. The output of RF unit is given to VOIP gateway (of Neura Communication) and converted to voice. This is then demultiplexed (separated in individual calls) in the T1 CAC multiplexer. The separated calls are then transited automatically to the desired destination through the reliance FWT and so the local number of the reliance FWT is displayed on the phone of the final destination subscriber.
© Harish Kumar, R/o Gangwar Colony Nawabganj, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh , India Email id. Harish_gang@yahoo.com Disclaimer : I hereby declare that the above views are my own and not those of the
Government. of India.
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