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Suppose India had a target of producing by 2020 AD, 200,000 MW of electric power, ten percent of which was to be obtained from nuclear power plants. Suppose we are given that, on an average, the efficiency of utilization (i.e. conversion to electric energy) of thermal energy produced in a reactor was 25%. How much amount of fissionable uranium would our country need per year by 2020? Take the heat energy per fission of 235 U to be about 200MeV A source contains two phosphorous radio nuclides 25.3d). Initially, 10% of the decays come from do so? (T1/2 = 14.3d) and (T1/2 =


. How long one must wait until 90%


A modulating signal is a square wave, as shown in Fig. 15.14.

The carrier wave is given by (i) Sketch the amplitude modulated waveform (ii) What is the modulation index?

Figure shows a 2.0 V potentiometer used for the determination of internal resistance of a 1.5 V cell. The balance point of the cell in open circuit is 76.3 cm. When a resistor of 9.5 is used in the external circuit of the cell, the balance point shifts to 64.8 cm length of the potentiometer wire. Determine the internal resistance of the cell.


Figure shows a potentiometer with a cell of 2.0 V and internal resistance 0.40 maintaining a potential drop across the resistor wire AB. A standard cell which maintains a constant emf of 1.02 V (for very moderate currents up to a few mA) gives a balance point at 67.3 cm length of the wire. To ensure very low currents drawn from the standard cell, a very high resistance of 600 k is put in series with it, which is shorted close to the

balance point. The standard cell is then replaced by a cell of unknown emf and the balance point found similarly, turns out to be at 82.3 cm length of the wire.

(a) What is the value ? (b) What purpose does the high resistance of 600 k have? (c) Is the balance point affected by this high resistance? (d) Is the balance point affected by the internal resistance of the driver cell? (e) Would the method work in the above situation if the driver cell of the potentiometer had an emf of 1.0 V instead of 2.0 V? (f ) Would the circuit work well for determining an extremely small emf, say of the order of a few mV (such as the typical emf of a thermo-couple)? If not, how will you modify the circuit?

A spherical capacitor has an inner sphere of radius 12 cm and an outer sphere of radius 13 cm. The outer sphere is earthed and the inner sphere is given a charge of 2.5 C. The space between the concentric spheres is filled with a liquid of dielectric constant 32. (a) Determine the capacitance of the capacitor. (b) What is the potential of the inner sphere? (c) Compare the capacitance of this capacitor with that of an isolated sphere of radius 12 cm. Explain why the latter is much smaller