ABA Section of Litigation, 2012 ABA Annual Meeting, August 2-5, 2012 Arias of Law: The Rule of Law at Work

in Opera and the Supreme Court

Arias of Law: The Rule of Law at Work in Opera and the Supreme Court

INTRODUCTION ∗
This Presidential Showcase explores the rule of law from the perspectives of both operatic performance and legal practice. Moderated by Craig C. Martin of Jenner & Block LLP, the panel features virtuosi from both disciplines: Supreme Court Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg; U.S. Solicitor General Donald B. Verrilli, Jr.; and General Director of Chicago’s Lyric Opera (and trained attorney), Anthony Freud. The panel’s substantive discussion is centered around arias and excerpts from some of opera’s greatest works, performed by members of the Lyric’s Patrick G. and Shirley W. Ryan Opera Center, including: “In diesen heil’gen Hallen,” from Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart’s The Magic Flute; “I Accept Their Verdict,” from Benjamin Britten’s Billy Budd; “Me Voici,” from Charles Gounod’s Faust; “When I Went to the Bar,” from Gilbert & Sullivan’s Iolanthe; “Tutti accusan le donne,” from Mozart’s Così fan tutte; and “Ritorna vincitor!,” from Giuseppe Verdi’s Aida.

LAW AND OPERA
It has sometimes been said that lawyers are like opera singers because they love the sound of their own voices. Whether or not this quip rings true, it might serve as the starting point for reflection on the possibility of a deeper relationship between law and opera. Although at first blush the two perhaps appear to be entirely separate areas of human endeavor, they frequently intersect in interesting and significant ways. It is well known, for example, that many members of the United States Supreme Court have a deep passion for opera. This is true especially of Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg. Along with Justice Scalia, she has made appearances in the Washington National Opera’s production of Richard Strauss’s Ariadne auf Naxos. She also appeared with Justices Kennedy and Breyer in the Washington National Opera’s production of Johann Strauss’s Die Fledermaus. The late Chief Justice Rehnquist was an avid fan of Gilbert and Sullivan operas. The gold stripes on his robe reportedly were inspired by the Lord Chancellor’s costume used in a local theater company’s summer production of Gilbert and Sullivan’s Iolanthe—an opera discussed further below. 1 The Chief Justice also cited lines from Gilbert and Sullivan operas in his opinions and elsewhere.2 That there is a relationship between law and opera is also suggested by the fact that so many notable figures in the world of opera began their careers as lawyers. Famous librettists (W.S. Gilbert himself), singers (Italian tenor Andrea Bocelli), and opera directors (panelist Anthony Freud, General Director of Chicago’s Lyric Opera) were trained in and/or practiced law before embarking on their careers in opera. Are these simply random examples of a kind of cross-pollination, or might they point to a more significant relationship between law and opera? If the two disciplines are related, how is their relationship to be understood? What might be learned by examining opera and law in relation to one another? This Presidential Showcase inquires into these and other questions by exploring a principle to which the American Bar Association has long been committed—the rule of law—and the role that it plays in both opera and legal practice. As many legal and political theorists have pointed out, the rule of law is a multifaceted concept and cannot easily be reduced to a single definition.3 At the most basic level, the rule of law is commonly regarded as an alternative to the rule of men—i.e., subjection to the arbitrary whims of a particular person or ruler.4 The rule of law also requires, or is intimately bound up with, a range of other important ideals and principles, such as: Prepared by Jason Odeshoo, Jenner & Block LLP, with the assistance of Shelly Finkelstein, Podvey Meanor. 2

“The Magic Flute is certainly a most puzzling opera[:] it is an ‘adventure’ story with attributes of fairy tale. Left alone. Mozart is said to have consulted his watch each night to see how far along the performance had progressed. who tells Pamina that Tamino loves her and intends to save her. ordering the reluctant Papageno to escort the prince. 7 After killing the beast. Indeed. then boasts to the waking Tamino that he himself slew the serpent. who is evil. She is nearby. at age thirty-five. the work already had enjoyed considerable success. Tamino plays his flute. Monostatos appears with his henchmen. the last year of Mozart’s life. because of its spoken dialogue. saving the fainting Prince Tamino from a huge serpent. She charges Tamino with Pamina’s rescue. although interspersed with deft touches of comedy. I. On his deathbed. Before Papageno can spirit Pamina away. The two join voices in praise of love. The Magic Flute is technically not an opera but a singspiel (song play). exotic. high-minded symbolic drama. The Ladies hand a magic flute to Tamino and magic silver bells to Papageno to ensure their safety. saying he pines for a pretty wife. who has tried to escape. inquiring into the rule of law provides the occasion for reflection on these and other fundamental legal and political values. they exit to inform the Queen of his arrival. The Queen herself appears in a burst of thunder and laments the loss of her daughter.” 6 The opera begins with Three Ladies. attempting to escape with Papageno. and they padlock Papageno’s mouth for lying. folk tales. Pamina. who replies to the flute with his bird pipe. appointing Three Genii to guide them. . When Monostatos brings in the captive Tamino. and that Pamina is safe.     Freedom of expression and other basic rights Equality and impartiality An independent judiciary Public accountability and transparency A commitment to democratic deliberation5 As will become clear in what follows. . Premiering in 1791. the slave is punished by Sarastro for attempting 3 . Tamino is turned away from the first two gates before a Priest emerges from the third to advise him that it is the Queen. entering in ceremony. who they say is enslaved by the evil Sarastro. Deciding to leave together rather than allow one of them the treat of staying to protect him. Led by the Genii to a grove with three temples. THE RULE OF LAW AND THE MAGIC FLUTE Our discussion begins at what might seem an unusual point of departure: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart’s The Magic Flute (Die Zauberflöte). not Sarastro. it was his final opera. hoping to make his beloved appear. and politically biased morality play . Tamino feels himself falling in love. but he is frightened away by the feather-covered Papageno. Sarastro’s slave Monastatos pursues and recaptures Pamina. promises the girl eventual freedom but warns against her proud mother. ancient mystery religion. The Ladies return to give Tamino a portrait of the Queen’s daughter. When he died two months later. the Ladies linger to admire the unconscious youth. but they are rendered helpless by Papageno’s magic bells. In one critic’s assessment. . The Magic Flute’s plot is unusual to say the least. attendants of the Queen of the Night. The birdcatcher Papageno bounces in and introduces himself. Sarastro. [T]he tone alters drastically from lighthearted entertainment to a predominantly serious.

The despairing Pamina. Sarastro symbolizes reason and wisdom. protected by the magic flute. finding Pamina asleep in the garden. 9 These values receive beautiful expression in “In diesen heil’gen Hallen. When the Queen’s Ladies appear. The Genii bring sustenance and return the magic flute and bells. Monostatos returns when the Queen vanishes. When he wishes again for a pretty girl. tries to steal a kiss but is ordered away by the Queen of the Night. which regards the opera as extolling the ideals of the philosophical Enlightenment. who remind him to use his magic bells to summon Papagena. With Pamina at his side. When Pamina appears. Tamino is impervious to their dire warnings. The Speaker and a Priest swear their two initiates to silence. he undergoes trials by water and fire. Sarastro comforts and forgives Pamina. who knows of the Queen’s plot but assures Pamina that love is his answer to revenge. Pamina is relieved when Tamino speaks to her but worries about his new ordeals. too. is talked out of suicide by the Genii. At the caverns of fire and water. Papageno is approached by a flirtatious old lady. Instead of seeking revenge. The priests inform Tamino that he has only two more trials. Papageno has failed his trials. the old lady reappears. Sarastro tells his priests that Tamino is prepared to undergo initiation rites. but the Speaker returns to spirit her away. turning into a young Papagena when he vows fidelity. Pamina. her Three Ladies.” one of The Magic Flute’s great arias. Sarastro says the lovers will meet again and separates them. who lead her to Tamino. but Pamina is rescued by Sarastro. two Guards proclaim that Tamino must brave the elements. but Papageno is easily derailed from his course of virtue. The two plan their future together. It is sung by Sarastro after he learns that Pamina has been given a dagger and ordered to kill him.to molest Pamina. while the Queen of the Night represents superstition and ignorance. and Monostatos attack the temple but are defeated and banished as the throng hails Sarastro. Misunderstanding his silence. Sarastro leads the triumphant lovers into the temple. Tamino steadfastly refrains from speaking to her. The latter is enchanted by a glimpse of Tamino. 8 According to one popular reading. and Tamino. the aria can be seen as articulating a notion that lies at the heart of the rule of law: that instead of resorting to personal vendettas or acting on the desire for revenge. she goes away broken-hearted. Monostatos. He calls on the gods to favor both the young prince and Papageno. who vanishes when asked her name.” Mozart’s The Magic Flute SARASTRO: In diesen heil’gen Hallen 4 SARASTRO: To rule by Hate and Vengeance . contemplating suicide. happily settling for a glass of wine. who gives her daughter a dagger with which to murder Sarastro. In Act II. The Magic Flute has been interpreted in many different ways. The Queen of the Night. is saved by the Genii. Papageno. who is led into the temple with Papageno. judgments should be based on reason and principle. *** As can be imagined. “In diesen heil’gen Hallen. In this respect.

does not believe Claggart’s charges. Melville was inspired to write Billy Budd based on a real-life dilemma faced by his father-in-law. In these cases. By Love alone we live. Eventually. In diesen heil’gen Mauern. And if a man’s repentant He’s saved by love. Shaw ordered that the slave be returned to his owner because he was required to do so by the Constitution. 5 . Kann kein Verräter lauern. fidelity to the rule of law may require individuals to set aside their own values and feelings. Billy is so shocked at being wrongfully accused that he is unable to speak. but he summons Billy to investigate the matter. Although deeply opposed to slavery. and Billy is ultimately hanged. Dann wandelt er an Freundes Hand Vergnügt und froh ins bess’re Land. feels threatened by Billy’s many admirable qualities. Although Vere knows that Billy is a good man and that Claggart was evil. 11 Based on Herman Melville’s novella of the same title. Claggart falsely accuses Billy of organizing a mutiny. Shaw once presided over a case involving an escaped slave. Billy Budd is a new sailor aboard the ship. Und ist ein Mensch gefallen. DUTY AND THE RULE OF LAW: BILLY BUDD Sarastro’s aria seems to present a harmonious conception of the rule of law (“By Love alone we live / Though tyrants rage and threaten / We love them and forgive”). a loving hand Shows him with joy our happy land. Wen solche Lehren nicht erfreun. This conflict is vividly dramatized in Benjamin Britten’s tragic opera Billy Budd (1951). Verdienet nicht. and the ship’s Master-at-Arms. The ship’s captain. Is not our practice here. If he is lost. the H. John Claggart. a person’s feelings and principles conflict with what the law requires. the opera is set aboard a naval vessel. Here Peace and Mercy govern.” Benjamin Britten’s Billy Budd VERE: I accept their verdict.M.Kennt man die Rache nicht. Though tyrants rage and threaten We love them and forgive. during the French and English wars of 1797. Indomitable. 12 a judge in Massachusetts during the antebellum period. Führt Liebe ihn zur Pflicht. “I Accept Their Verdict” is the aria sung by Captain Vere after Billy Budd has been court-martialed and sentenced to die. Death is the penalty For those who break the laws of earth. ein Mensch zu sein. he nevertheless allows the death sentence to stand. If man can’t learn what love can do. This is a capital offense. “I Accept Their Verdict. 10 II. His days on earth are surely few. however. Sometimes. Lemuel Shaw. Wo Mensch den Menschen liebt.S. He strikes a blow to Claggart’s head and kills him. not fear. Weil man dem Feind vergibt. Edwin Fairfax Vere.

Cooped in this narrow cabin I have beheld The mystery of goodness— And I am afraid. I. we turn to “Me Voici. Beauty. To describe persuasion as an “art. ô voluptés humaines! Mauadites soient la chaînes 6 FAUST: But this God. Of this floating monarchy.” from Charles Gounod’s opera Faust. This is perhaps part of what Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes meant when he said that “the meaning of a sentence is to be felt rather than to be proved. is to acknowledge that. the impression may be strengthened by argument. and . goodness. Lost with all hands on the infinite sea. “Me Voici. not on the naked use of force or coercion. THE ART OF PERSUASION AND THE RULE OF LAW: FAUST The art of persuasion is essential to maintaining the rule of law. As he contemplates committing suicide by drinking poison. The story is set in sixteenth-century Germany and begins with an aging Faust sitting at his desk brooding about the meaninglessness of his life. Before what tribunal do I stand if I destroy goodness? The angel of God has struck and the angel must hang— Through me.And I who am king of this fragment of earth. It is for me to destroy you. . and faith? Cursed be all of man’s vile race! Cursed be the chains that bind him in his place! . have exacted death.” Charles Gounod’s Faust FAUST: Mais ce Dieu. . (He goes towards the door of Billy’s stateroom) I am the messenger of death! How can he pardon? How receive me? 13 III. Edward Fairfax Vere. handsomeness. Gounod’s Faust was first performed in Paris in 1859. what will he do for me? Will he return to me youth.” 14 What might judges and lawyers learn about the art of persuasion from opera? To help focus reflection on this question.” however. love. generally. l'espérance et la foi? Maudites soyez-vous. since a nation governed by the rule of law is ultimately founded on the consent of the governed. he calls out to Satan. Mephistopheles then appears and succeeds in persuading Faust to sell him his soul. persuasion involves an aesthetic dimension. Captain of the Indomitable. in addition to appealing to reason and logic. But I have seen the divine judgement of Heaven. que peut-il pour moi? Me rendra-t-il l'amour. I’ve seen iniquity overthrown.

Cursed be science. Doctor Faust. patience! A moi.Qui me font ramper ici bas! Maudit soit tout ce qui nous leurre. A cloak o’er my shoulder. la plume au chapeau. —Mais dis-moi d'abord Ce que tu veux. Satan! à moi! MEPHISTOPHELES: Me voici! —D'où vient ta surprise! Ne suis-je pas mis à ta guise? L'épée au côté. —en somme Un vrai gentilhomme! Eh bien! que me veux-tu. —est-ce de l'or? Cursed be visions false deceiving! Cursed the folly of believing! Cursed be dreams of love or hate! Cursed be souls with joy elate. La prière et la foi! Maudite sois-tu. L'escarcelle pleine. that with Satan One should conduct in a different way. un riche manteau Sur l'épaule. what is your will? Behold! Speak! Are you afraid of me? FAUST: No. Why. I’ve entered your door with infinite trouble. MEPHISTOPHELES: Doutes-tu ma puissance?— FAUST: Peut-être! MEPHISTOPHELES: Mets-la donc à l'épreuve! FAUST: Va-t'en! MEPHISTOPHELES: Fi! — c'est là ta reconnaissance! Apprends de moi qu'avec Satan L'on en doit user d'autre sorte. arise! MEPHISTOPHELES: Here am I! So I surprise you? Satan. gotten up quite in the fashion! But come. FAUST: Begone! MEPHISTOPHELES: Fie! Fie! Is this your politeness! But learn. FAUST: Que ferais-je de la richesse? MEPHISTOPHELES: Bien! je vois où le bât te blesse! Tu veux la gloire? 7 . maudites la science. MEPHISTOPHELES: Do you doubt my power? FAUST: Perhaps[!] MEPHISTOPHELES: Prove it. Et qu'il n'était pas besoin De l'appeler de si loin Pour le mettre ensuite à la porte! FAUST: Et que peux-tu pour moi? MEPHISTOPHELES: Tout. and faith. Abundance of gold? FAUST: And what can I do with riches? MEPHISTOPHELES: Good. voyons! —Te fais-je peur? FAUST: Non. Rêves d'amour ou de combats! Maudit soit le bonheur. and altogether. docteur! Parle. Vain espoir qui passe avec l'heure. then. You will have glory. But Say first what you would have. at your service! A sword at my side. Cursed my fate in life and death! Infernal king. on my hat a gay feather. Sir. Would you kick me out the very same day? FAUST: Then what will you do for me? MEPHISTOPHELES: Anything in the world! All things. my friend. prayer. I see where the shoe pinches.

signe. FAUST: La-bas? MEPHISTOPHELES: La-bas. Oh! I would have pleasure. FAUST: Below! MEPHISTOPHELES: Below. then. . Mais là-bas tu seras au mien. And love. (Il fait un geste. . MEPHISTOPHELES: Fort bien! je puis contenter ton caprice. write. . FAUST: No.) Allons. If youth you restore me. Et la folle orgie Du coeur et des sens! Ardente jenuesse. (Unfolding a scroll..) Come. I would have a treasure Which contains all. One scene of delight. ose la regarder! . Should be my employment From day-dawn till night.) FAUST: O merveille! MEPHISTOPHELES: Eh bien! que t'en semble?. je suis à ton service. One round of enjoyment. My joys I’ll renew! MEPHISTOPHELES: ’Tis well—all thou desirest I can give thee. the scene opens and discloses Margeurite. For youth is the season When joy most impresses. spinning. . . MEPHISTOPHELES: Power. A moi tes désirs! A moi ton ivresse! A moi tes plaisirs . I would have pleasure. wonder! FAUST/MEPHISTOPHELES: Well. . But down below thou must be mine. —Le fond du théâtre s'ouvre et laisse voir Marguerite assise devant son rouet et filant. how do you like it? 8 . FAUST: Ah! but what must I give in return? MEPHISTOPHELES: ’Tis but little: In this world I will be thy slave. Les jeunes maîtresses! A moi leurs caresses! A moi leurs désirs! A moi l'énergie Des instincts puissants. (Lui presentant un parchemin. and caresses. La jeunesse t'appelle. and caresses. FAUST: Et que te donnerai-je en retour? MEPHISTOPHELES: Presque rien: Ici. .) FAUST: Oh. And love. . Oh.FAUST: Plus encor! MEPHISTOPHELES: La puissance! FAUST: Still wrong. je veux la jeunesse! A moi les plaisirs. I wish for youth. —Eh quoi! ta main tremble? Que faut-il pour te décider? . FAUST: Non! je veux un trésor Qui les contient tous! . What! does thy hand tremble? Whence this dire trepidation? ’Tis youth that now awaits thee—Behold! (At a sign from Mephistopheles.

I sigh for its kisses. .) I invite thee to empty a cup. FAUST: C’est bien! MEPHISTOPHELES: En route! FAUST: A moi les plaisirs. But young and vigorous life.) (Taking parchments.) MEPHISTOPHELES: Come on then! And now.) MEPHISTOPHELES: Allons donc! (Prenant la coupe restée sur la table. A toi ses plaisirs!A toi ses plaisirs! 9 . FAUST: Say. shall I again behold her? MEPHISTOPHELES: Most surely! FAUST: When? MEPHISTOPHELES: This very day! FAUST: ’Tis well.) Et maintenant. A toi ses désirs. où fume en bouillonnant Non plus la mort.(Prenant le parchemin. 15 MEPHISTOPHELES: Viens! FAUST: Je la reverrai? MEPHISTOPHELES: Sans doute.) A toi. I sigh for the rapture Of heart and of sense. fantôme adorable et charmant! . Maître. (Il vide la coupe et se trouve meta-morphose en jeune et elegant seigneur. The vision disappears. FAUST/MEPHISTOPHELES: ’Tis pleasure I covet. c'est moi qui te convie.) O beautiful. FAUST: Quand? MEPHISTOPHELES: Aujourd'hui. (Taking cup from the table. FAUST: (Taking cup and turning toward Marguerite. Its love I demand! With ardor unwonted I long now to burn. master. ’Tis beauty I crave. La vision disparait. and is transformed into a young and handsome man. adorable vision! I drink to thee! (He drinks the contents of the cup.) FAUST: Give me the scroll! (Signs. non plus le poison.) FAUST: Donne! (Il Signe. Les jeunes maîtresses! A moi leurs caresses! A moi leurs désirs! MEPHISTOPHELES: A toi la jeunesse.) MEPHISTOPHELES: Come. —mais la vie! FAUST: (Prenant la coupe et se tournant vers Marguerite. A vider cette coupe. In which there is neither poison nor death. then. . MEPHISTOPHELES: Then let’s away. A toi son ivresse.

If. in some sense. had committed the capital crime under fairy law of marrying a human being. the performers of texts. for example. and the audiences affected by those performances. . Iolanthe’s plot is every bit as unusual as The Magic Flute’s: Iolanthe is a fairy who. As noted previously. 20 Nowhere is this more evident than in Gilbert & Sullivan’s comic opera Iolanthe. And whether or not their performances do persuade. the law possesses a “performative” dimension. half human. Like other performing arts. musical.”17 They explain: Like music and drama. Iolanthe has a son from her marriage. citizens are likely to lose faith in the legal system. they have effects on the audience . as some legal scholars have put it. . AND THE RULE OF LAW: IOLANTHE “It is not merely of some importance. PUBLIC PERCEPTION. Gilbert himself was a barrister before becoming a dramatist.18 What role do performance and public perception play in actual legal practice? How are the law and the legal profession portrayed to the public in opera and other performing arts? A comedic perspective on these questions is found in the operas of W. but is of fundamental importance that justice should not only be done. a shepherd named Strephon. As it happens. He is in love with Phyllis. who is half fairy. but only on the condition that Iolanthe leave her husband and never communicate with him again. the Lord Chancellor is also in love with Phyllis—and with many of his other wards—and he wishes to find a way of marrying Phyllis without giving scandal to the Peers. . 10 . Strephon has tried to convince the Lord Chancellor to let him marry Phyllis. or The Peer and the Peri. Legal. legal performance is more than the interpretation of a text by a performer: it involves a triangle of reciprocal influences between the creators of texts. The Queen of the Fairies commuted Iolanthe’s sentence from death to banishment for life. PERFORMANCE.”16 This venerable maxim underscores the important link between the rule of law and public perception. is best understood as performance—the acting out of texts rather than the texts themselves.19 and many of his operas satirize the law and the legal profession. law takes place before an audience to whom the interpreter owes special responsibilities. and dramatic interpreters must persuade others that the conception of the work put before them is. After twenty-five years. Jack Balkin and Sanford Levinson have argued that “[l]aw. but the Lord Chancellor refuses. authoritative. the public perceives judicial decisions as stemming from personal biases or political influence. This is to acknowledge that. a human. like music or drama. and the rule of law is likely to suffer. but should manifestly and undoubtedly be seen to be done. The Queen ultimately relents. For example.IV.S. the fairies still miss Iolanthe and beg the Queen to pardon her and allow her to return to fairyland. twenty-five years earlier. who happens to be one of many wards in the Lord Chancellor’s charge. Gilbert and Arthur Sullivan.

As a result. 11 . Their marriages now legally sanctioned. The fairies then confess that each of them has broken the law by marrying Peers. I’ll work on a new and original plan. whereupon everyone flies back to fairyland.Q. I’ll never throw dust in a juryman’s eyes (Said I to myself—said I). When I haven’t been there to attend to the case (Said I to myself—said I!). (Said I to myself—said I!). The Fairy Queen then enters to remind everyone that marriage between humans and fairies is verboten on pain of death. One of Strephon’s laws would require each Peer to pass an I. and Iolanthe must disregard her prior marriage to the Chancellor. Or hoodwink a judge who is not over-wise (Said I to myself—said I). since his wife is still alive. The Queen intercedes by making Strephon a member of Parliament. Let it stand that every fairy shall die who doesn’t marry a mortal. Because his attorney has sent me a brief. I’ll never assume that a rogue or a thief Is a gentleman worthy implicit belief. and that Strephon is their son. (Said I to myself—said I). at which point the Chancellor crafts a solution. (Said I to myself—said I).Iolanthe complains that the Lord Chancellor is interfering with Strephon’s life. The Chancellor realizes that. the Chancellor comes to believe that he has indeed found a loophole that will allow him to marry Phyllis without destorying his reputation. the Lords sprout wings and turn into fairies. Strephon asks the Lord Chancellor: “And have you the heart to apply the prosaic rules of evidence to a case which bubbles over with poetical emotion?” The Lord Chancellor answers: “Distinctly. test before admittance to the House of Lords.21 “When I Went to the Bar” is sung by the Lord Chancellor in Act I of Iolanthe. and ensuring that every law he proposes is enacted. My learned profession I’ll never disgrace By taking a fee with a grin on my face. and it is to that fact that I owe my advancement to my present distinguished position. I have always kept my duty strictly before my eyes. Strephon cannot marry Phyllis. he cannot marry Phyllis. And I’ll never take work I’m unable to do (Said I to myself—said I).” “When I Went to the Bar. Ere I go into court I will read my brief through (Said I to myself—said I). Iolanthe then reveals to the Chancellor that she is his wife of twenty-five years. Later. the Lord Chancellor asks Strephon why he has disobeyed an order of the Court of Chancery.” Gilbert & Sullivan’s Iolanthe LORD CHANCELLOR: When I went to the Bar as a very young man. When the Lord Chancellor and Strephon are alone. and there you are.” He then goes on to sing “When I Went to the Bar. out of your difficulty at once!” The Queen quickly marries a sentry to avoid incurring the death penalty. announcing that a simple modification of the law will solve everything: “the insertion of a single word will do it.

Professional license. Don Alfonso explains that the women shouldn’t be held accountable for their actions because all women are flirtatious by nature. In other professions in which men engage (Said I to myself—said I). debating the constancy of women with two young officers. a cynical old bachelor.C. both women are seduced and shown to be unfaithful. just like all other women. Queen’s Bench. One persistent impediment to equality and to the rule of law is gender discrimination. or The School for Lovers”). we consider “Tutti accusan le donne. 12 . “Tutti accusan le donne” is sung by Don Alfonso to console Ferrando and Guglielmo after they’ve learned of Dorabella’s and Fiordiligi’s unfaithfulness. Your chance of promotion will certainly mar— And I fancy the rule might apply to the Bar (Said I to myself—said I!). Have perjured themselves as a matter of course (Said I to myself—said I!). the principle of equality goes hand-in-hand with the rule of law. if carried too far. Ferrando and Guglielmo hatch a plan to test the ladies’ fidelity by disguising themselves so that each can try to seduce the other’s lover.23 The discriminatory laws challenged in these cases were premised in large part on common gender stereotypes. Common Pleas. Ultimately. or Divorce. who insist that their sweethearts—the sisters Dorabella and Fiordiligi—are faithful to them. he will prove within one day that Dorabella and Fiordiligi are fickle. Prior to her appointment to the United States Court of Appeals for the D. the Navy. Alfonso bets Ferrando and Guglielmo that if they do everything he asks.” The opera begins with Don Alfonso. the Church.” an aria form Mozart’s Così fan tutte. Ferrando and Guglielmo. accountability. 22 V. and transparency.Or assume that the witnesses summoned in force In Exchequer. and the Stage (Said I to myself—said I). which translated more colloquially means “Women are all like that. GENDER EQUALITY AND THE RULE OF LAW: COSÌ FAN TUTTE As with principles such as freedom of expression. Circuit in 1980. To bring the issue of gender discrimination into sharper perspective. Justice Ginsburg litigated several cases before the Supreme Court that were pivotal in establishing constitutional protections against gender discrimination. The opera’s full title is “Così fan tutte ossia La scuola degli amanti” (“That is how they all do it. The Army.

What you need is to reach the wise conclusion: All your ancestors. Ramfis and the priests demand the captives’ death. Radamès is led off amid rejoicing. to confirm her suspicions. the value of the rule of law consists largely in the fact that it acts as a bulwark against threats to freedom. and brothers went through it. don’t complain of disillusion. Amneris threatens her and leaves as Aida reiterates her prayer.“Tutti accusan le donne. which passes before the King and Amneris. learns that Ethiopia threatens the Nile valley. the opera from which our final performance is taken. You lovers.” Mozart’s Così fan tutte DON ALFONSO: Tutti accusan le donne. You have to take them as they are. Radamès has defeated the Ethiopians. Amneris is being groomed by slaves and diverted by dancers. 25 Radamès. a young captain of the Egyptian guard. then later reveals that he still lives. L’amante che si trova al fin deluso. tells Aida that Radamès has died in battle. e belle e brutte. At a public square in Thebes. “Return victorious!” cries Amneris. Indeed. Amonasro. ed a me par—necessità del core. echoed by the people. she dismisses her other attendants and. You are wrong to upbraid them. the Egyptian King’s daughter. Ramfis consecrates Radamès’s sword for the campaign. Convinced by Aida’s reactions that her slave does love Radamès. but Radamès requests 13 . As Mother Nature made them. envisioning a glorious victory so he can free Aida from slavery. The captured Ethiopians are led in. se mille volte al dì cangiano amore. ma il proprio errore: giacché giovani. and Aida is left alone. He warns her in an aside not to betray his rank. and Amneris salutes his victory. non condanni l’altrui. then pleads for his fellow prisoners’ lives. ed io le scuso. The title character is an Ethiopian princess who is captured and forced to be the slave of Amneris. a Priestess addresses the deity. and he hopes to be chosen to command the Egyptian army. ed altri un uso. a crowd welcomes the returning army. FREEDOM AND THE RULE OF LAW: AIDA The relationship between freedom and the rule of law is readily apparent. and in preparation for his return. Since they learned it from Eve: “Così fan tutte!” 24 VI. But I don’t mind it. Radamès arrives. At Aida’s approach. He is in love with Aida. altri un vizio lo chiama. The King announces Radamès’s appointment as commander and leads the assemblage in a battle hymn. In the temple of Ptah. vecchie. fathers. ripetete con me: Così fan tutte! DON ALFONSO: Women cannot be faithful. In Act II. among them Aida recognizes her father. as Radamès is ceremonially clothed in sacred armor. Freedom is among the major themes at work in Giuseppe Verdi’s Aida (1871). For I can see the principle behind it.

ond’io lo vegga. turns his last thoughts to Aida. he refuses. Leaving the temple. Amneris offers to save him if he will renounce Aida. as Aida and her father escape. destroy. a palace. destroy the forces of our oppressors! 14 . . destroy. my father . . struggete le squadre dei nostri oppressor! AIDA: May he return a victor! And the impious word came from my lips! Victor over my father . Listening as the priests’ demands that he defend himself are met with silence. . . prays to Isis for peace. mio padre . Una reggia. di catene avvinto! L’insana parola o Numi sperdete! Al seno d’un padre la figlia rendete. . “Ritorna vincitor!” (“Return. . Radamès. and I will see him. Bidding farewell to earth. Enraged. whom she curses. Tinto del sangue amato. Amonasro hides as Radamès appears. She suggests they run away together. di lui Che impugna l’armi per me . the lovers greet eternity. begins on a moonlit bank of the Nile. . Amneris feels her pride falling away. . e il nome illustre Che qui celar m’è forza! Vincitor de’miei fratelli . and her love for Radamès is revealed by her agony in hearing him condemned by the priests. Ramfis leads Amneris into a temple of Isis for her wedding vigil. startles her out of her reverie and commands her to trick Radamès into revealing the Egyptian army’s intended route into Ethiopia. Act III. promising to make Aida his bride after his next victory. .their freedom as his reward. bound in chains! Oh gods. in order to restore to me to a country. and the illustrious name that I am forced to hide here! Victor over my brothers . The King releases all but Amonasro. . struggete. Overcome with nostalgia. struggete. . In Act IV. in the temple above. Amneris finds the three and denounces Radamès as a traitor. victor!”) is the aria sung by Aida after Radamès is sent off to fight the Ethiopians. Amonasro. And behind his chariot. . who emerges from the shadows. her own people. . Per ridonarmi una patria. a king. asking what road they should take to avoid his army. Her emotional enslavement is perhaps as powerful as her physical. let the insane words vanish! restore a daughter to her father’s breast. Aida is appalled that she too has cheered Radamès to victory against the Ethiopians. then presents Radamès with Amneris’s hand. Amneris lets him go to his doom. having entered the vault earlier to share his fate. Radamès tries vainly to dislodge the stone that locks them in. No sooner has he revealed the Egyptians’ plans than Amonasro emerges from his hiding place and divulges his identity as King of Ethiopia. bodily enslavement. Trionfar nel plauso dell’Egizie coorti! E dietro il carro. but Radamès shields her and surrenders himself. He shames and threatens her until she reluctantly agrees. . over him who bears arms for me . Un Re . . Amonasro lunges at her with a dagger. . Radamès is led into the hall of judgment. triumphing in the praises of Egypt’s cohorts. Aida comes to wait secretly for Radamès. leaving Aida in despair. still determined to save his people. stained with beloved blood. She sings of her conflicting emotions and prays for pity. . she laments her conquered homeland. “Ritorna vincitor!” from Verdi’s Aida AIDA: Ritorna vincitor! E dal mio labbro uscì l’empia parola! Vincitor del padre mio . buried alive in a crypt beneath the temple. as Amneris. .

pieta del mio soffrir . she drew a direct link between opera (and other sources of music) and the rule of law. it is a music with the logic and clarity of Bach. the genius of Mozart . ah! . . . . . The words of the music of the law you can hear are words of equality. come raggio di sol . pity my suffering! 26 CONCLUSION Justice Sandra Day O’Connor liked to say that “we must not be tone deaf to the music of the law. . and I would die in my cruel sorrow. . colpa il sospir . even to him. . those who think there is none. . d’amante. Numi. . pietà. fairness. . . thought is lost in the dark night . pity my suffering. . fammi morir! Numi. consistency. qui mi beava? Imprecherò la morte a Radamès . . to quote a former law school classmate of mine . . has delighted me here. . . . equity. guilt . pietà. those who think the law is just a business—one for which high fees can be charged and collected for the necessary services only a lawyer can provide. . . Gods. . Ma la mia prece in bestemmia si muta . . . . . . Per l’un . per l’altro confusa tremante io piangere vorrei . . . . .Ah! Sventurata! Che dissi? E l’amor mio? Dunque scordar poss’io questo fervido amore che. . . a lui ch’amo pur tanto! Ah! non fu in terra mai da più crudeli angoscie un core affranto! I sacri nomi di padre . justice. gods pity my suffering . . But if you understand and hear the law’s music. Numi. . . . break my heart . . trembling. pity. sometimes overblown and pompous. ah! . . tremendo amor spezzami il cor . . whom I love so much! Ah! never on earth was there a heart more burdened by cruel sorrows! I may neither mention nor recall the sacred names of father . oppressa e schiava. Quoting a law school classmate. . pietà del mio soffrir! Ah! Wretched woman! What did I say? And my love? Can I then forget the fervent love which like a sunbeam . vorrei pregar. . Justice O’Connor’s remarks represent a fitting note on which to conclude: There are lawyers who never hear the law’s music—indeed. . Numi. Confused. . . . . pietà de l mio soffrir! Speme non v'ha pel mio dolor . . . pieta del mio soffrir. . the thunder. pietà del mio soffrir. I would pray . in notte cupa la mente è perduta . of Wagner. . for the one . . pity my suffering! Is there no hope for my sorrow . weeping is a crime for me . gods. . . . I would weep . fatal love. . e nell’ansia crudel vorrei morir. nè profferir poss’io nè ricordar . boundless love. predictability. . . delitto è il pianto a me . wrongs 15 . the lyric passion of Verdi and Puccini. Amor fatal. make me die! Gods. for the other.” In explaining what she meant by this on one occasion. But my prayer is turned to blasphemy . . pity my suffering. . of lover . a sigh. . . . . oppressed and enslaved though I am? Shall I pray for death to Radamès . .

20 LAW & LITERATURE 47 (2008). 687 (Ch. more specifically. L. and Dance: Reflections of a Common Culture. 749 (Q.g. and Law in Rossini’s Semiramis. Wagner. See. but it is a world worth living toward. 20 CARDOZO L.. Instrumental Music. 1649 (1999). 35 HARV.” which generally had applied to the employment of household servants. much scholarly attention has been devoted to the contract dispute in the 1850s involving opera star Johanna Wagner. Johanna Wagner and the Rival Opera Houses. Daniel F. Gye. the court extended the doctrine of “enticement. Peter Goodrich. Desmond Manderson.S.. e. (1852) 42 Eng. See also RESTATEMENT (SECOND) OF CONTRACTS § 367 cmt. 16 . As a result. cf. The Sovereignty of Pleasure: Sexual and Political Freedom in the Operas of Mozart and Da Ponte. Frederick Gye and “The Dreadful Business of Opera Management. REV. J. A New Tortious Interference with Contractual Relations: Gender and Erotic Triangles in Lumley v. 20 CARDOZO L. Gabriella Dideriksen & Matthew Ringel. Lior Barshack.g. The suit against Wagner is notable for its treatment of the question of specific performance. Law. Another strand of literature discussing opera and the law focuses on legal issues and doctrines that were in some way rooted in real-life disputes involving operas and/or opera performers. Wagner initially had entered into an agreement to perform at Lumley’s Her Majesty’s Theatre. F. e. these articles use operas and other texts to illuminate particular legal themes or issues. Stephen Waddams. In Gye. For example. opera and the rule of law). without undue advantage. See. Gye.. but nevertheless granted a negative injunction forbidding Wagner from performing at Covent Garden. c. David Howarth. illus. Against Lumley v. See.righted. Perhaps it is not a world that ever was. Lumley brought suits against both Wagner. L.). Opera and the Law: Dramma Giocosa. & GENDER 167 (2012). . (1853) 118 Eng. Operatic Hermeneutics: Harmony. 27 LEGAL STUD. REV. cf. Sherman. REV. She later reneged.g. 195 (2005). Euphantasy. 1621 (1999). after accepting a better offer to perform at Gye’s Covent Garden. 117 LAW Q. nor ever will be. The following bibliographical essay is offered for those interested in pursuing the topic further. . 83 OR. 3 (1981) (citing Lumley v. Lumley v. of childlike innocence in which the lion lies down with the lamb. A large part of the scholarly literature regarding opera and the law belongs to the “Law and Literature” genre. REV. 68 THE MOD. See also Michael L. Law’s Lunacy: W. Sarah Swan. 7 (2004). and without leaving either side with bitter feelings of having been cheated. 1035 (2004).B. 43 (2001). Rep. e. Somewhat more germane to the theme of this program is the scholarship seeking to underscore the aesthetic dimension of the law. Et Lux Perpetua: Dying Declarations & Mozart’s Requiem. 783 (2003). Generally. Lumley v. Gye. It is the music sung in the world . Wagner in connection with the concept of specific performance). Tritter. however. Gilbert and His Deus ex Lege. Richmond. and Gye. L. REV. 27 BIBLIOGRAPHICAL ESSAY A central aim of this Presidential Showcase has been to explore the relationship between opera and the law (and.” 19 19TH-CENTURY MUSIC 3 (1995).). and the repose of disputes settled without violence. in holding that Lumley could maintain a cause of action against Gye for inducing Wagner to breach their original agreement. 20 OPERA Q. The court affirmed that specific performance was not an appropriate remedy in disputes involving personal services contracts. This idea has been developed in a variety of different ways. Jeffrey G. Rep.

1597 (1991). 17 . 1513 (1999). 42 STAN.M. L. the True. Balkin. much remains yet to be explored. See J. Particularly notable among the early contributions on the subject is Karl Llewellyn’s. there remains an esthetic aspect undiscussed . based on a speech that Judge Frank gave to members of the Columbia Law Review. J. 9 VAND. 1047 (2002). at 227. REV. 47 COLUM. Richard A. 224 (1942). so that to satisfy. REV. Music.” Id. operas with offensive lyrics) and the problem of interpreting and enforcing unjust laws. & TECH.. 301.U. L. Rev. For example. 1589 (1999). Balkin and Levinson argue that the parallels between law and opera and other performing arts are more instructive than those between law and music. in this. Quite the contrary. Pollock. REV. L. at 1260. PA. 591 (1996). 303 (2006). whose nature. L. See also Ian Gallacher. the lay need of relative accessibility. REV. They develop their thesis by looking at the similarities between the problem of performing offensive texts (e. Bork and Beethoven. the singing rule with purpose and with reason dear. As can be seen. legal rules. the Formal Perpendicular has led our legal thinkers to forget—almost to deny. REV. there is a substantial body of literature discussing questions of statutory interpretation and how these mirror questions of interpretation in the arts. The locus classicus for this genre is arguably Jerome Frank’s. For to see the wider function. of friendliness and meaningfulness of the reason.M.g. is to find the road back to that rightest and most beautiful type of legal rule. REV. CHI. The Art of Judging. Only the rule which shows its reason on its face has ground to claim maximum chance of continuing effectiveness. For the most part. in Law. the Beautiful. and Other Performing Arts. in widening one’s view of what the function of rules of law is. Sanford Levinson & J. Judge Frank “suggest[s] a comparison between (1) the interpretation of statutes by judges and (2) the interpretation of musical compositions by musical performers.” 20 CARDOZO L. Interestingly. Conducting the Constitution: Justice Scalia. REV. to risk confusion on the marks of beauty. Llewellyn’s essay begins with the observation that “[b]eauty in things of law has been slighted as if by law. The Aesthetics of American Law. Posner. these articles have tended to focus on music rather than opera. 20 CARDOZO L. 9 U. at 249-50. Interpreting Law and Music: Performance Notes on “The Banjo Serenader” and “The Lying Crowd of Jews. Law. L. Textualism. Score as Contract: Private Law and the Historically Informed Performance Movement. 71 N. 1365 (1990). L. and indeed the rule of law itself. and the Eroica Symphony. ENT. Stewart G. There is thus no need. the article’s observations and insights continue to be echoed in more recent scholarship. There has been at least one attempt specifically to examine the relationship between law and opera. Words and Music: Some Remarks on Statutory Interpretation. 115 HARV.” Id. . In the article. are at the center of his discussion. . . Timothy S. Balkin & Sanford Levinson. Hall. Llewellyn goes on to say: [I]n regard to the rule of law itself. L. although much has been written about the various ways in which law and opera intersect.Pierre Schlag. On the Good. 1259 (1947). 139 U.Y. Written in 1940s. is at the same time to do a functionally more effective job on the side of pure technique. whose very possibility. Id. The literature most relevant to the theme of this program consists of various attempts to draw parallels between law and opera as disciplines.

296-97 (2008) (citing the following from Rehnquist’s appearance on The Charlie Rose Show: “Q: What did that whole [impeachment] process—and what was it important that you thought you. Fallon. but Chief Justice Rehnquist’s version was less regal. 496 (1911) (Holmes. Virginia. 7 The synopsis is reprinted with the permission of Opera News. REV. Christopher Ballantine.’ and no one was the least bit surprised that they did so. CENTENNIAL CRISIS: THE DISPUTED ELECTION OF 1876. Eckelmeyer. Slavery. Pinafore. see John Q. 4 (2007). 1 (1982). Diane P. cf. at 220 (2004) (“Each of them. REV. BILLY BUDD (Libretto by E.” 72 MUSICAL Q. CHI.1 As Justice Ginsburg has explained: Visitors to the Court in recent years could hardly miss noticing the Chief’s self-designed robe. 70 U. e.’ And I feel that’s about what I did at the impeachment trial. 74 NOTRE DAME L.’s Lord Chancellor. 14 United States v. Folklore and Enlightenment in the Libretto of Mozart’s Magic Flute.. The robe has gleaming gold stripes. REV. trans. Principles of the Rule of Law. Johnson. Sailor with an Application to Justice Rehnquist.S. 51. 1691 (1999). I did nothing in particular and I did it very well. Michael Geliot. J.. Wood. Richmond Newspapers. L. ‘always voted at his party’s call. L.g. 12 See generally Steven L. and Robert S.. ‘When Wellington whipped Bonaparte. 448 U. and the Failure of the Judicial Process. Forster & Eric Crozier. 604 (1980) (Rehnquist. 2471 (2005). supra note 3. e. How Judges Speak: Some Lessons on Adjudication in Billy Budd. Why did a man not given to sartorial splendor decide on such a costume? In his own words.M. as does the robe of the U.K.S. 1980). 97 COLUM. A Rehnquist Ode on the Vinson Court. THE MAGIC FLUTE (Libretto by Emanuel Schikaneder. Barrett. 555. 221 U. should accomplish in that process? A: Well. 26 CARDOZO L. Melville. 57 N. Social and Philosophical Outlook in Mozart’s Operas. 49 Ariz. L.” 65 MUSICAL Q. 9 See. 5 More elaborate catalogs can be found in Fallon. Layers of Meaning in “The Magic Flute. Chief Justice Rehnquist also quoted Gilbert and Sullivan in his books. e. 6 (1997). 1961). The Rule of Law in Times of Stress. 2 See.. MOZART AND THE ENLIGHTENMENT: TRUTH. Summers.U. I wear British and French lace foulards too. J.. 455. REV. 18 . REHNQUIST. VIRTUE AND BEAUTY IN MOZART’S OPERAS (1992). LAW. and even in the occasional television interview. 1.g. Richard Weisberg. Hon. v. NICHOLAS TILL. Jr.S. 13 BENJAMIN BRITTEN. Robert Spaethling.g. not very much. 52-53 (1986). the House of Peers throughout the war did nothing in particular and did it very well. (Justice O’Connor wore several attractive neck pieces. Inc. 507. dissenting) (criticizing majority’s holding that the First Amendment was violated by the closing of a criminal trial to the public and media). collars from British gowns. 520-21 (1991).Y. resembling the stripes of a master sergeant more than those of a British Lord.”). 45 (1975). 67 MUSICAL Q. Rev. REV. he did not wish to be upstaged by the women. 471 (1979). Structure as Hermeneutic Guide to “The Magic Flute. “The Rule of Law” as a Concept in Constitutional Discourse. as any child can tell.”). 488. 10 WOLFGANG AMADEUS MOZART. There’s a line from Gilbert and Sullivan’s Iolanthe that—let me see if I can think of it.) Ruth Bader Ginsburg. and sometimes a collar of French Canadian design.). Reflections on Arizona’s Pace-Setting Justices: William Hubbs Rehnquist and Sandra Day O’Connor. 9 EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY STUD. 11 Britten revised the opera in 1960. Winter. see WILLIAM H. like Sir Joseph Porter in the Gilbert and Sullivan opera H. as chief justice. 3 Richard J. 8 See generally Joscelyn Godwin. 6 Judith A. copied from the Lord Chancellor’s costume in a local theater company’s summer production of Gilbert and Sullivan’s Iolanthe. 11 GREEN BAG 2D 289.M. and a frilly French foulard. 4 See. 456-57 (2003). 1.

18 Id. Shevin.). 22 W. 677 (1973). 15 19 . Edwin F.B. L. Richardson. REV. REV. Law’s Lunacy: W.wikipedia.J. 25 The synopsis of Aida is reprinted with the permission of Opera News. 2002..html (last visited July 5. 351 (1974).M. 636 (1975). 20 Id. 1962). Jr. Kalmus ed. Sherman. 421 U. 23 Duren v. 21 Adapted from the synopsis of the Bristol Gilbert & Sullivan Operatic Society. 1951). Frederick Steiner is reportedly the classmate to whom Justice O’Connor refers.S. 7 GREEN BAG 2D 167 (2004)..” 20 CARDOZO L. Wiesenfeld. Gilbert and His Deus ex Lege. Weinberger v. 430 U. COSÌ FAN TUTTE: WOMEN ARE LIKE THAT (Libretto by Lorenzo da Ponte. Steiner. afbennett.S.CHARLES GOUNOD. C. Kahn v. Missouri. http://www. Sussex Justices.. Ruth & Thomas Martin trans. Balkin & Sanford Levinson. 772 (1975). 1519 (1999).uk/bgsos/Synopsis-Iolanthe. 357 (1979). The Music of the Law. OR THE PEER AND THE PERI (1882).. 24 WOLFGANG AMADEUS MOZART. 420 U. 26 GIUSEPPE VERDI. 200-01 (2002) (brackets omitted).co. 1036 (2004). 416 U. REV. e. 1513. GILBERT & ARTHUR SULLIVAN. See Frederick K. Ellen Bleiler trans. 411 U.S. Interpreting Law and Music: Performance Notes on “The Banjo Serenader” and “The Lying Crowd of Jews. 259 (1924) (Lord Hewart. IOLANTHE. 55 OKLA.S.S. Edwards v. 83 OR. 1035. AIDA (Libretto by Antonio Ghislanzoni. 27 Sandra Day O’Connor. 17 J. 2012). 199 (1977). Jeffrey G.S. 1972). and Wikipedia.. Califano v. 197. ex parte McCarthy. Frontiero v. 439 U.S. 1 K. Healy. 16 Rex v. 256. http://en.org/ wiki/ Iolanthe (last visited July 5. FAUST: A LYRIC DRAMA IN FIVE ACTS (Libretto by Jules Barbier and Michel Carré. 2012).g. Professionalism: Remarks at The Dedication of the University of Oklahoma’s Law School Building and Library. L. Goldfarb.S. 19 See.

He attended his first opera at age four. Martin is a partner in the Chicago office of Jenner & Block LLP. Verrilli. Donald B. He is AV Peer Review Rated. became a regular operagoer in his teens. which established principles governing the right to effective assistance of counsel at capital sentencing. Inc. Mr. Mr. is the forty-sixth Solicitor General of the United States. both of whom were born in Hungary. Martindale-Hubbell’s highest peer recognition for ethical standards and legal ability. Justice Ginsburg later went on to play a central role in launching the Women’s Rights Project of the American Civil Liberties Union and argued several cases before the Supreme Court that were instrumental in establishing constitutional protections against gender discrimination. Before becoming Solicitor General. Brennan. Before pursuing his passion for opera. after earning widespread acclaim for his achievements as general director of the Welsh National Opera and later of the Houston Grand Opera. Mr. he handled numerous cases in the Supreme Court and the courts of appeals. Department of Justice. becoming the second woman ever to serve on the Court. Martin received the Judge Learned Hand Human Relations Award from the American Jewish Committee. Palmieri of the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York. In 1980. His father came to the UK as a refugee in 1939 and his mother was a survivor of Auschwitz. where he is Co-Chair of the Firm’s Litigation Department and a member of its governing committee.L.C. Grokster. where he served as editor-in-chief of the Columbia Law Review. Leading Lawyers Network named Mr. i . and has said that by age fourteen. he knew he wanted to run an opera company. Jr. Jr.B. Mr. Freud earned a law degree with honors from the University of London King’s College and qualified as an attorney. Freud was born and raised in London by immigrant parents. Verrilli served as a law clerk to Judge J. Skelly Wright of the United States Court of Appeals for the D. After graduating from Columbia Law School. Mr. Justice Ginsburg has made cameo appearances in the Washington National Opera’s productions of Richard Strauss’s Ariadne auf Naxos and Johann Strauss’s Die Fledermaus. In 2009. New York. where she graduated at the top of her class. for his extraordinary professional accomplishments and dedication to philanthropic and civic endeavors. domestically and internationally. Martin serves on the Executive Committee of the Board of Directors of the Lyric Opera. Smith. Anthony Freud is the General Director of the Lyric Opera of Chicago. Verrilli served as Deputy Counsel to President Obama and as an Associate Deputy Attorney General in the U. Circuit. A graduate of the University of Notre Dame and the Harvard Law School. which established that companies building businesses based on the unauthorized distribution of copyrighted works can be liable for inducing infringement. of the United States Supreme Court.” where he represents major corporations in their most complex matters. Martin one of the “Top 100 Business Lawyers in Illinois. Mr. Craig C. she was nominated as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court by President Bill Clinton. including MGM Studios. In 1993. she served as a law clerk to Judge Edmund L. Freud was made an Officer of the Order of the British Empire in recognition of his services to music by Queen Elizabeth II in her 80th Birthday Honours. she was appointed a Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit. and Wiggins v. from Columbia Law School.SPEAKER BIOGRAPHIES Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg was born in Brooklyn. In 2006. Mr. During his years as a partner at Jenner & Block LLP. Martin’s practice spans the “courtroom to the boardroom. Mr. is the Chair of the Board of Directors of the Boys and Girls Clubs of Chicago. and is the Co-Chair of the ABA Section of Litigation 2012 Annual meeting. He joined the Lyric in 2011.” and profiled him in its Leading Lawyers Magazine. v. In 2011.S. and later to Justice William J. After receiving her L.

Oreste/Cavalli’s Giasone (debut) and Créon/Charpentier’s Medea. The bass has appeared at Lyric Opera in Macbeth (debut). Mimì/La bohème. and Così fan tutte and Eugene Onegin (Northwestern University). AND SHIRLEY W. Matthew Polenzani. During Lyric Opera’s mainstage season. Tchaikovsky’s Iolanta. Antony and Cleopatra. Don Giovanni. They also gain valuable performing experience by participating in recitals and concerts at many Chicago-area venues. Quinn Kelsey. Harolyn Blackwell. Emily Magee. orchestra. Kentucky native was a national semifinalist in the Metropolitan Opera National Council Auditions. directors. Erin Wall.THE PATRICK G. L’incoronazione di Poppea and La traviata (Chautauqua Institution). the Giulio Gari Foundation. and Guang Yang. conductors. Recent performances include his European debut as Sarastro/The Magic Flute at Garsington Opera. the Ryan Opera Center Ensemble members are in residence for twelve months. Since its inception. and Rigoletto. the Ryan Opera Center has been recognized as one of the premier programs of its kind in the world. Weill’s Rise and Fall of the City of Mahagonny (Tanglewood Music Center). Cantin’s repertoire there has included Donna Anna/Don Giovanni. TRACY CANTIN Soprano Tracy Cantin is a first-year Ryan Opera Center member. The Rake’s Progress. Mark S. This presents an extraordinary opportunity to work with the world’s greatest opera singers. Ryan Opera Center members perform and understudy a significant number of principal and supporting roles. Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg. The Magic Flute. In 2012-13 he will be seen at Lyric in Simon Boccanegra. Maria Kanyova. and master classes with some of opera’s most renowned artists. Lohengrin. and chorus. both at Chicago Opera Theater. Roger Honeywell. He was awarded first place in the 2010 Union League Civic and Arts Foundation competition and has received awards from the Licia Albanese-Puccini Foundation. Gianna Rolandi is Director of the program. A testament to the Ryan Opera Center’s caliber and success is the roster of distinguished alumni who perform regularly on the stages of leading international opera houses. and Golijov’s Ainadamar (all at Philadelphia’s Curtis Institute of Music). Boyer’s appearances encompass a variety of roles in La sonnambula. She previously studied at the University of Alberta (the Mother/Humperdinck’s Hansel and Gretel) and the University of Western ii . Elizabeth Futral. Dina Kuznetsova. and his Carnegie Hall debut in Salome with the Cleveland Orchestra. Elizabeth DeShong. Carmen student matinees. Wozzeck. Joseph Kaiser. Susanna Phillips. Christian Van Horn. RYAN OPERA CENTER AT LYRIC OPERA OF CHICAGO The Patrick G. language and acting training. Boris Godunov. the Louisville. In 2009. Patricia Risley. A recent graduate of the Artist Diploma program at McGill’s Schulich School of Music. Christopher Feigum. That standing is maintained by providing the finest up-and-coming singers with unparalleled training and experience. Over the course of the year they receive advanced instruction in numerous aspects of operatic performance. and the American Opera Society Competition. Doss. It includes René Barbera. and Shirley W. Nicole Cabell. Ryan Opera Center was established in 1974 as the professional artistdevelopment program for Lyric Opera of Chicago. Amber Wagner. The Tales of Hoffmann. Gary Lehman. The Girl of the Golden West. La bohème. including voice lessons and coachings. PERFORMER BIOGRAPHIES EVAN BOYER Bass Evan Boyer is a third-year Ryan Opera Center member. and the Governess/Britten’s Turn of the Screw. Ariadne auf Naxos. Selected from some 400 singers who audition annually. Act Four of La bohème (San Francisco Opera’s Merola program). Gregory Kunde. and Aida.

Handel’s Dettingen Te Deum and Mozart’s Requiem with the Elmhurst Symphony. While there. He has performed alongside such esteemed vocalists as Sir iii . Haydn’s Creation. tenor Bernard Holcomb was a winner of the Michigan District Metropolitan Opera National Council Auditions. and Mahler’s Symphony No. Poland. Rochester Philharmonic. Kent Nagano. Next season Cantin will make her Lyric Opera of Chicago debut in Elektra and later appear in Rigoletto. 9.Ontario (Donna Anna). Terry made his Carnegie Hall debut in 2000 and has appeared at Avery Fisher Hall. Next season he will appear in Werther and Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg. Latvia. He has worked with such notable conductors as Harry Bicket. pianist. Bach’s Magnificat. Federico/L’amico Fritz. During Lyric’s 2011-12 season he portrayed Nathanaël/The Tales of Hoffmann (debut). he sang King Basilio/Lewis Spratlan’s Life is a Dream (workshop premiere). and the Messenger/Aida. Orchestral engagements include the Verdi Requiem with the University of Michigan Symphony Orchestra. and Germany. James Levine. Don Pasquale. and Ezekiel Cheever/Robert Ward’s The Crucible. Michigan Opera Theatre roles include Nelson and the Crab Man/Porgy and Bess and Gastone/La traviata. the tenor has been heard there as A Villager/Pagliacci. bass-baritone. Gianni Schicchi with DuPage Opera Theatre. Greece. he will appear in Simon Boccanegra. and Grant Park Orchestra. and Beaumarchais/The Ghosts of Versailles. The Bartered Bride. Sir Andrew Davis. the June Rittmeyer Prize (2010). spent two summers in The Santa Fe Opera’s apprentice program. Alice Tully Hall. will soon begin his seventh season as Assistant Conductor at Lyric Opera of Chicago. and a recital at Chicago’s Mayne Stage (also broadcast on WFMT). and last summer he performed with the Grant Park Music Festival. and the Speaker/The Magic Flute student matinees. As a performer. A former Apprentice Artist and Studio Program member at Sarasota Opera. Postcard from Morocco. the Second Armed Man/The Magic Flute regular performances. and the London Opera Guild Scholarship (2009). Estonia. DAVID GOVERTSEN Second-year Ryan Opera Center member David Govertsen. she was awarded the Phyllis and Bernard Shapiro Opera Scholarship (2011). The soprano’s other operatic credits include Alice Ford/Falstaff (Highlands Opera Studio) and Nella/Gianni Schicchi (Opera NUOVA). In the spring of 2011 he made his Carnegie Hall debut in Otello with the Chicago Symphony Orchestra (Riccardo Muti conducting). and the Metropolitan Museum of Art. and Robert Spano. Other recent engagements for the Wheaton. BERNARD HOLCOMB A second-year Ryan Opera Center member. Illinois native include Handel’s Messiah with the Northwest Indiana Symphony. Valery Gergiev. Vivaldi’s Gloria. and Eugene Onegin. During his tenure at Northwestern University the bass-baritone performed the title role/The Marriage of Figaro. the Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts. Handel’s Messiah. the Officer/Ariadne auf Naxos. In 2008 the Detroit native participated in an international tour of Porgy and Bess with appearances in Russia. Detroit Symphony Orchestra. Holcomb is an alumnus of the Eastman School of Music and University of Michigan-Ann Arbor. Beethoven’s Symphony No. 2 (University of Western Ontario Orchestra). Basilio/The Barber of Seville. Originally from Prince Edward Island. he was an Assistant Conductor at The Metropolitan Opera (after joining the Lindemann Young Artist Development Program) and a coach/pianist with the Houston Grand Opera Studio. In the upcoming Lyric season. the Boyar/Boris Godunov. and concerts with the New Hampshire Symphony Holiday Pops. On the concert stage Cantin has been heard as a soloist in Strauss’s Four Last Songs. He also appeared as a soloist in the Mozart Requiem with the Santa Fe Symphony and joined the Santa Fe Chamber Music Festival for a concert of Bach arias and duets. where his repertoire included leading roles in La bohème. the First Armed Man/The Magic Flute. first place in the Lois Marshall Memorial Competition (2010). Govertsen appeared in Lyric Opera of Chicago’s 2011-12 season as Nikitich/Boris Godunov (debut). CRAIG TERRY Craig Terry. and La bohème. Prior to arriving in Chicago he appeared with the Pine Mountain Music Festival for two summers (Paolino/The Secret Marriage and Alfredo/La traviata). Previously.

and Patricia Racette throughout the U. and Canada. Christine Brewer. He made his conducting debut at Lyric Opera in student matinee performances of L’elisir d’amore. Florida State University. and the Manhattan School of Music.S.Thomas Allen. Kate Lindsey. Susanna Phillips. including the Ravinia Festival and the American Songbook series at Jazz at Lincoln Center. iv . Danielle De Niese. Terry studied at Tennessee Technological University. Stephanie Blythe.

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