Teutonic Mythology Gods and Goddesses of the Northland IN THREE VOLUMES by VIKTOR RYDBERG, Ph.D.

, MEMBER OF THE SWEDISH ACADEMY; AUTHOR OF "THE LAST ATHENIAN" AND OTHER WORKS AUTHORISED TRANSLATION FROM THE SWEDISH BY RASMUS B. ANDERSON, LL.D., EX-UNITED STATES MINISTER TO DENMARK; AUTHOR OF "NORSE MYTHOLOGY,' "VIKING TALES," ETC. The first volume of a 2 volume work called "Undersökningar i Germanisk Mythologi" (Investigations into Germanic Mythology) published in 1886 and 1889.

I. INTRODUCTION. A. THE ANCIENT ARYANS. 1. THE WORDS GERMAN AND GERMANIC. Already at the beginning of the Christian era the name Germans was applied by the Romans and Gauls to the many clans of people whose main habitation was the extensive territory east of the Rhine, and north of the forest-clad Hercynian Mountains. That these clans constituted one race was evident to the Romans, for they all had a striking similarity in type of body; moreover, a closer acquaintance revealed that their numerous dialects were all variations of the same parent language, and finally, they resembled each other in customs, traditions, and religion. The characteristic features of the physical type of the Germans were light hair, blue eyes, light complexion, and tallness of stature as compared with the Romans. Even the saga-men, from whom the Roman historian Tacitus gathered the facts for his Germania - an invaluable work for the history of civilisation - knew that in the socalled Svevian Sea, north of the German continent, lay another important part of Germany, inhabited by Sviones, a people divided into several clans. Their kinsmen on the continent described them as rich in weapons and fleets, and in warriors on land and sea (Tac. Germ. 44). This northern sea-girt portion of Germany is called Scandinavia Scandeia, by other writers of the Roman Empire; and there can be no doubt that this name referred to the peninsula which, as far back as historical monuments can be found, has been inhabited by the ancestors of the Swedes and the Norwegians. I therefore include in the term Germans the ancestors of both the Scandinavian and Gothic and German (tyske) peoples. Science needs a sharply-defined collective noun for all these kindred branches sprung from one and the same root, and the name by which they make their first appearance in history would doubtless long since have been selected for this purpose had not some of the German writers applied the terms German and Deutsch as synonymous. This is doubtless the reason why Danish authors have adopted the word "Goths" to describe the Germanic nations. But there is an important objection to this in the fact that the name Goths historically is claimed by a particular branch of the family that branch, namely, to which the East and West Goths belonged, and in order to avoid ambiguity, the term should be applied solely to them. It is therefore necessary to readopt the old collective name, even though it is not of Germanic origin, the more so as there is a prospect that a more correct use of the words German and Germanic is about to prevail in Germany itself, for the German scholars also feel the weight of the demand which science makes on a precise and rational terminology. Translator's note: Viktor Rydberg styles his work Researches in Germanic Mythology, but after consultation with the Publishers, the Translator decided to use the word Teutonic instead of Germanic both in the title and in the body of the work. In English, the words

German, Germany, and Germanic are ambiguous. The Scandinavians and Germans have the words Tyskland, tysk, Deutschland, deutsch, when they wish to refer to the present Germany, and thus it is easy for them to adopt the words German and Germanisk to describe the Germanic or Teutonic peoples collectively. The English language applies the above word Dutch not to Germany, but to Holland, and it is necessary to use the words German and Germany in translating deutsch, Deutschland, tysk, and Tyskland. Teutonic has already been adopted by Max Müller and other scholars in England and America as a designation of all the kindred branches sprung from one and the same root, and speaking dialects of the same original tongue. The words Teuton, Teutonic, and Teutondom also have the advantage over German and Germanic that they are of native growth and not borrowed from a foreign language. In the following pages, therefore, the word Teutonic will be used to describe Scandinavians, Germans, Anglo-Saxons, &c., collectively, while German will be used exclusively in regard to Germany proper. - TRANSLATOR.

2. THE ARYAN FAMILY OF LANGUAGES. It is universally known that the Teutonic dialects are related to the Latin, the Greek, the Slavic, and Celtic languages, and that the kinship extends even beyond Europe to the tongues of Armenia, Irania, and India. The holy books ascribed to Zoroaster, which to the priests of Cyrus and Darius were what the Bible is to us; Rigveda’s hymns, which to the people dwelling on the banks of the Ganges are God’s revealed word, are written in a language which points to a common origin with our own. However unlike all these kindred tongues may have grown with the lapse of thousands of years, still they remain as a sharply-defined group of older and younger sisters as compared with all other language groups of the world. Even the Semitic languages are separated therefrom by a chasm so broad and deep that it is hardly possible to bridge it. This language-group of ours has been named in various ways. It has been called the Indo-Germanic, the Indo-European, and the Aryan family of tongues. I have adopted the last designation. The Armenians, Iranians, and Hindus I call the Asiatic Aryans; all the rest I call the European Aryans. Certain it is that these sister-languages have had a common mother, the ancient Aryan speech, and that this has had a geographical centre from which it has radiated. (By such an ancient Aryan language cannot, of course, be meant a tongue stereotyped in all its inflections, like the literary languages of later times, but simply the unity of those dialects which were spoken by the clans dwelling around this centre of radiation.) By comparing the grammatical structure of all the daughters of this ancient mother, and by the aid of the laws hitherto discovered in regard to the transition of sounds from one language to another, attempts have been made to restore this original tongue which many thousand years ago ceased to vibrate. These attempts cannot, of course, in any sense claim to reproduce an image corresponding to the lost original as regards syntax and inflections. Such a task would be as impossible as to reconstruct, on the basis of all the now spoken languages derived from the Latin, the dialect used in Latium. The purpose is simply to present as faithful an idea of the ancient tongue as the existing means permit.

In the most ancient historical times Aryan-speaking people were found only in Asia and Europe. In seeking for the centre and the earliest conquests of the ancient Aryan language, the scholar may therefore keep within the limits of these two continents, and in Asia he may leave all the eastern and the most of the southern portion out of consideration, since these extensive regions have from prehistoric times been inhabited by Mongolian and allied tribes, and may for the present be regarded as the cradle of these races. It may not be necessary to remind the reader that the question of the original home of the ancient Aryan tongue is not the same as the question in regard to the cradle of the Caucasian race. The white race may have existed, and may have been spread over a considerable portion of the old world, before a language possessing the peculiarities belonging to the Aryan had appeared; and it is a known fact that southern portions of Europe, such as the Greek and Italian peninsulas, were inhabited by white people before they were conquered by Aryans.

3. THE HYPOTHESIS CONCERNING THE ASIATIC ORIGIN OF THE ARYANS. When the question of the original home of the Aryan language and race was first presented, there were no conflicting opinions on the main subject. [* Compare O. Schrader, Sprachvergleichung und Urgeschichte (1883).] All who took any interest in the problem referred to Asia as the cradle of the Aryans. Asia had always been regarded as the cradle of the human race. In primeval time, the yellow Mongolian, the black African, the American redskin, and the fair European had there tented side by side. From some common centre in Asia they had spread over the whole surface of the inhabited earth. Traditions found in the literatures of various European peoples in regard to an immigration from the East supported this view. The progenitors of the Romans were said to have come from Troy. The fathers of the Teutons were reported to have immigrated from Asia, led by Odin. There was also the original home of the domestic animals and of the cultivated plants. And when the startling discovery was made that the sacred books of the Iranians and Hindus were written in languages related to the culture languages of Europe, when these linguistic monuments betrayed a wealth of inflections in comparison with which those of the classical languages turned pale, and when they seemed to have the stamp of an antiquity by the side of which the European dialects seemed like children, then what could be more natural than the following conclusion: The original form has been preserved in the original home; the farther the streams of emigration got away from this home, the more they lost on the way of their language and of their inherited view of the world that is, of their mythology, which among the Hindus seemed so original and simple as if it had been watered by the dews of life’s dawn. To begin with, there was no doubt that the original tongue itself, the mother of all the other Aryan languages, had already been found when Zend or Sanskrit was discovered. Fr. v. Schlegel, in his work published in 1808, On the Language and Wisdom of the Hindus, regarded Sanskrit as the mother of the Aryan family of languages, and India as the original home of the Aryan family of peoples. Thence, it was claimed, colonies were sent out in pre-historic ages to other parts of Asia and to Europe; nay, even

missionaries went forth to spread the language and religion of the mother-country among other peoples. Schlegel’s compatriot Link looked upon Zend as the oldest language and mother of Sanskrit, and the latter he regarded as the mother of the rest; and as the Zend, in his opinion, was spoken in Media and surrounding countries, it followed that the highlands of Media, Armenia, and Georgia were the original home of the Aryans, a view which prevailed among the leading scholars of the age, such as Anquetil-Duperron, Herder, and Heeren, and found a place in the historical text-books used in the schools from 1820 to 1840. Since Bopp published his epoch-making Comparative Grammar the illusion that the Aryan mother-tongue had been discovered had, of course, gradually to give place to the conviction that all the Aryan languages, Zend and Sanskrit included, were relations of equal birth. This also affected the theory that the Persians or Hindus were the original people, and that the cradle of our race was to be sought in their homes. On the other hand, the Hindu writings were found to contain evidence that, during the centuries in which the most of the Rigveda songs were produced, the Hindu Aryans were possessors only of Kabulistan and Pendschab, whence, either expelling or subjugating an older black population, they had advanced toward the Ganges. Their social condition was still semi-nomadic, at least in the sense that their chief property consisted in herds, and the feuds between the clans had for their object the plundering of such possessions from each other. Both these facts indicated that the Aryans were immigrants to the Indian peninsula, but not the aborigines, wherefore their original home must be sought elsewhere. The strong resemblance found between Zend and Sanskrit, and which makes these dialects a separate subdivision in the Aryan family of languages, must now, since we have learned to regard them sister-tongues, be interpreted as a proof that the Zend people or Iranians and the Sanskrit people or Hindus were in ancient times one people with a common country, and that this union must have continued to exist long after the European Aryans were parted from them and had migrated westwards. When, then, the question was asked where this Indo-Iranian cradle was situated, the answer was thought to be found in a chapter of Avesta, to which the German scholar Rhode had called attention already in 1820. To him it seemed to refer to a migration from a more northerly and colder country. The passage speaks of sixteen countries created by the fountain of light and goodness, Ormuzd (Ahura Mazda), and of sixteen plagues produced by the fountain of evil, Ahriman (Angra Mainyu), to destroy the work of Ormuzd. The first country was a paradise, but Ahriman ruined it with cold and frost, so that it had ten months of winter and only two of summer. The second country, in the name of which Sughda Sogdiana was recognised was rendered uninhabitable by Ahriman by a pest which destroyed the domestic animals. Ahriman made the third (which, by the way, was recognised as Merv) impossible as a dwelling on account of never-ceasing wars and plunderings. In this manner thirteen other countries with partly recognisable names are enumerated as created by Ormuzd, and thirteen other plagues produced by Ahriman. Rhode’s view, that these sixteen regions were stations in the migration of the Indo-Iranian people from their original country became universally adopted, and it was thought that the track of the migration could now be followed back through Persis, Baktria, and Sogdiana, up to the first region created by Ormuzd, which, accordingly, must have been situated in the interior high-lands of Asia, around the sources of the Jaxartes and Oxus. The reason for the emigration hence was found in the statement that, although Ormuzd had made this country an agreeable abode, Ahriman had destroyed it with frost and snow. In other

words, this part of Asia was supposed to have had originally a warmer temperature, which suddenly or gradually became lower, wherefore the inhabitants found it necessary to seek new homes in the West and South. The view that the sources of Oxus and Jaxartes are the original home of the Aryans is even now the prevailing one, or at least the one most widely accepted, and since the day of Rhode it has been supported and developed by several distinguished scholars. Then Julius v. Klaproth pointed out, already in 1830, that, among the many names of various kinds of trees found in India, there is a single one which they have in common with other Aryan peoples, and this is the name of the birch. India has many kinds of trees that do not grow in Central Asia, but the birch is found both at the sources of the Oxus and Jaxartes, and on the southern spurs of the Himalaya mountains. If the Aryan Hindus immigrated from the highlands of Central Asia to the regions through which the Indus and Ganges seek their way to the sea, then it is natural, that when they found on their way new unknown kinds of trees, then they gave to these new names, but when they discovered a tree with which they had long been acquainted, then they would apply the old familiar name to it. Mr. Lassen, the great scholar of Hindu antiquities, gave new reasons for the theory that the Aryan Hindus were immigrants, who through the western pass of Hindukush and through Kabulistan came to Pendschab, and thence slowly occupied the Indian peninsula. That their original home, as well as that of their Iranian kinsmen, was that part of the highlands of Central Asia pointed out by Rhode, he found corroborated by the circumstance, that there are to be found there, even at the present time, remnants of a people, the so-called Tadchiks, who speak Iranian dialects. According to Lassen, these were to be regarded as direct descendants of the original Aryan people, who remained in the original home, while other parts of the same people migrated to Baktria or Persia and became Iranians, or migrated down to Pendschab and became Hindus, or migrated to Europe and became Celts, Greco-Italians, Teutons, and Slavs. Jacob Grimm, whose name will always be mentioned with honour as the great pathfinder in the field of Teutonic antiquities, was of the same opinion; and that whole school of scientists who were influenced by romanticism and by the philosophy of Schelling made haste to add to the real support sought for the theory in ethnological and philological facts, a support from the laws of natural analogy and from poetry. A mountain range, so it was said, is the natural divider of waters. From its fountains the streams flow in different directions and irrigate the plains. In the same manner the highlands of Central Asia were the divider of Aryan folk-streams, which through Baktria sought their way to the plains of Persia, through the mountain passes of Hindukush to India, through the lands north of the Caspian Sea to the extensive plains of modern Russia, and so on to the more inviting regions of Western Europe. The sun rises in the east, ex oriente lux; the highly gifted race, which was to found the European nations, has, under the guidance of Providence, like the sun, wended its way from east to west. In taking a grand view of the subject, a mystic harmony was found to exist between the apparent course of the sun and the real migrations of people. The minds of the people dwelling in Central and Eastern Asia seemed to be imbued with a strange instinctive yearning. The Aryan folk-streams, which in prehistoric times deluged Europe, were in this respect the forerunners of the hordes of Huns which poured in from Asia, and which in the fourth century gave the impetus to the Teutonic migrations and of the Mongolian hordes which in the thirteenth century invaded our continent. The Europeans themselves are led by this same instinct to follow the course of the sun: they flow in great numbers to America, and these folk-billows break against each other on the coasts of the Pacific Ocean. "At the breast of our Asiatic mother," thus exclaimed,

in harmony with the romantic school, a scholar with no mean linguistic attainments, "at the breast of our Asiatic mother, the Aryan people of Europe have rested; around her as their mother they have played as children. There or nowhere is the playground; there or nowhere is the gymnasium of the first physical and intellectual efforts on the part of the Aryan race." The theory that the cradle of the Aryan race stood in Central Asia near the sources of the Indus and Jaxartes had hardly been contradicted in 1850, and seemed to be secured for the future by the great number of distinguished and brilliant names which had given their adhesion to it. The need was now felt of clearing up the order and details of these emigrations. All the light to be thrown on this subject had to come from philology and from the geography of plants and animals. The first author who, in this manner and with the means indicated, attempted to furnish proofs in detail that the ancient Aryan land was situated around the Oxus river was Adolphe Pictet. There, he claimed, the Aryan language had been formed out of older non-Aryan dialects. There the Aryan race, on account of its spreading over Baktria and neighbouring regions, had divided itself into branches of various dialects, which there, in a limited territory, held the same geographical relations to each other as they hold to each other at the present time in another and immensely larger territory. In the East lived the nomadic branch which later settled in India in the East, too, but farther north, that branch herded their flocks, which afterwards became the Iranian and took possession of Persia. West of the ancestors of the Aryan Hindus dwelt the branch which later appears as the Greco-Italians, and north of the latter the common progenitors of Teutons and Slavs had their home. In the extreme West dwelt the Celts, and they were also the earliest emigrants to the West. Behind them marched the ancestors of the Teutons and Slavs by a more northern route to Europe. The last in this procession to Europe were the ancestors of the GrecoItalians, and for this reason their languages have preserved more resemblance to those of the Indo-Iranians who migrated into Southern Asia than those of the other European Aryans. For this view Pictet gives a number of reasons. According to him, the vocabulary common to more or less of the Aryan branches preserves names of minerals, plants, and animals which are found in those latitudes, and in those parts of Asia which he calls the original Aryan country. The German linguist Schleicher has to some extent discussed the same problem as Pictet in a series of works published in the fifties and sixties. The same has been done by the famous German-English scientist Max Müller. Schleicher’s theory, briefly stated, is the following. The Aryan race originated in Central Asia. There, in the most ancient Aryan country, the original Aryan tongue was spoken for many generations. The people multiplied and enlarged their territory, and in various parts of the country they occupied, the language assumed various forms, so that there were developed at least two different languages before the great migrations began. As the chief cause of the emigrations, Schleicher regards the fact that the primitive agriculture practised by the Aryans, including the burning of the forests, impoverished the soil and had a bad effect on the climate. The principles he laid down and tried to vindicate were: (1) The farther East an Aryan people dwells, the more it has preserved of the peculiarities of the original Aryan tongue. (2) The farther West an Aryan-derived tongue and daughter people are found, the earlier this language was separated from the mother-tongue, and the earlier this people became separated from the original stock. Max Müller holds the common view in regard to the Asiatic origin of the Aryans. The main difference between him and Schleicher is that Müller assumes that the Aryan tongue originally

divided itself into an Asiatic and an European branch. He accordingly believes that all the Aryan-European tongues amid all the Aryan-European peoples have developed from the same European branch, while Schleicher assumes that in the beginning the division produced a Teutonic and Letto-Slavic branch on the one hand, and an IndoIranian, Greco-Italic, and Celtic on the other. This view of the origin of the Aryans had scarcely met with any opposition when we entered the second half of our century. We might add that it had almost ceased to be questioned. The theory that the Aryans were cradled in Asia seemed to be established as an historical fact, supported by a mass of ethnographical, linguistic, and historical arguments, and vindicated by a host of brilliant scientific names.

4. THE HYPOTHESIS CONCERNING THE EUROPEAN ORIGIN OF THE ARYANS. In the year 1854 was heard for the first time a voice of doubt. The sceptic was an English ethnologist, by name Latham, who had spent many years in Russia studying the natives of that country. Latham was unwilling to admit that a single one of the many reasons given for the Asiatic origin of our family of languages was conclusive, or that the accumulative weight of all the reasons given amounted to real evidence. He urged that they who at the outset had treated this question had lost sight of the rules of logic, and that in explaining a fact it is a mistake to assume too many premises. The great fact which presents itself and which is to be explained is this: There are Aryans in Europe and there are Aryans in Asia. The major part of Aryans are in Europe, and here the original language has split itself into the greatest number of idioms. From the main Aryan trunk in Europe only two branches extend into Asia. The northern branch is a new creation, consisting of Russian colonisation from Europe; the southern branch, that is, the Iranian-Hindu, is, on the other hand, pre-historic, but was still growing in the dawn of history, and the branch was then growing from West to East, from Indus toward Ganges. When historical facts to the contrary are wanting, then the root of a great family of languages should naturally be looked for in the ground which supports the trunk and is shaded by the crown, and not underneath the ends of the farthestreaching branches. The mass of Mongolians dwell in Eastern Asia, and for this very reason Asia is accepted as the original home of the Mongolian race. The great mass of Aryans live in Europe, and have lived there as far back as history sheds a ray of light. Why, then, not apply to the Aryans and to Europe the same conclusions as hold good in the case of the Mongolians and Asia? And why not apply to ethnology the same principles as are admitted unchallenged in regard to the geography of plants and animals? Do we not in botany and zoology seek the original home and centre of a species where it shows the greatest vitality, the greatest power of multiplying and producing varieties? These questions, asked by Latham, remained for some time unanswered, but finally they led to a more careful examination of the soundness of the reasons given for the Asiatic hypothesis. The gist of Latham’s protest is, that the question was decided in favour of Asia without an examination of the other possibility, and that in such an examination, if it were undertaken, it would appear at the very outset that the other possibility - that is, the

European origin of the Aryans - is more plausible, at least from the standpoint of methodology. This objection on the part of an English scholar did not even produce an echo for many years, and it seemed to be looked upon simply as a manifestation of that fondness for eccentricity which we are wont to ascribe to his nationality. He repeated his protest in 1862, but it still took five years before it appeared to have made any impression. In 1867, the celebrated linguist Whitney came out, not to defend Latham’s theory that Europe is the cradle of the Aryan race, but simply to clear away the widely spread error that the science of languages had demonstrated the Asiatic origin of the Aryans. As already indicated, it was especially Adolphe Pictet who had given the first impetus to this illusion in his great work Origines indo-européennes. Already, before Whitney, the Germans Weber and Kuhn had, without attacking the Asiatic hypothesis, shown that the most of Pictet’s arguments failed to prove that for which they were intended. Whitney now came and refuted them all without exception, and at the same time he attacked the assumption made by Rhode, and until that time universally accepted, that a record of an Aryan emigration from the highlands of Central Asia was to be found in that chapter of Avesta which speaks of the sixteen lands created by Ormuzd for the good of man, but which Ahriman destroyed by sixteen different plagues. Avesta does not with a single word indicate that the first of these lands which Ahriman destroyed with snow and frost is to be regarded as the original home of the Iranians, or that they ever in the past emigrated from any of them. The assumption that a migration record of historical value conceals itself within this geographical mythological sketch is a mere conjecture, and yet it was made the very basis of the hypothesis so confidently built upon for years about Central Asia as the starting-point of the Aryans. The following year, 1868, a prominent German linguist - Mr. Benfey - came forward and definitely took Latham’s side. He remarked at the outset that hitherto geological investigations had found the oldest traces of human existence in the soil of Europe, and that, so long as this is the case, there is no scientific fact which can admit the assumption that the present European stock has immigrated from Asia after the quaternary period. The mother-tongues of many of the dialects which from time immemorial have been spoken in Europe may just as well have originated on this continent as the mother-tongues of the Mongolian dialects now spoken in Eastern Asia have originated where the descendants now dwell. That the Aryan mother-tongue originated in Europe, not in Asia, Benfey found probable on the following grounds: In Asia, lions are found even at the present time as far to the north as ancient Assyria, and the tigers make depredations over the highlands of Western Iran, even to the coasts of the Caspian Sea. These great beasts of prey are known and named even among Asiatic people who dwell north of their habitats. If, therefore, the ancient Aryans had lived in a country visited by these animals, or if they had been their neighbours, they certainly would have had names for them; but we find that the Aryan Hindus call the lion by a word not formed from an Aryan root, and that the Aryan Greeks borrowed the word lion (lis, leon) from a Semitic language. (There is, however, division of opinion on this point.) Moreover, the Aryan languages have borrowed the word camel, by which the chief beast of burden in Asia is called. The home of this animal is Baktria, or precisely that part of Central Asia in the vicinity of which an effort has been made to locate the cradle of the Aryan tongue. Benfey thinks the ancient Aryan country has been situated in Europe, north of the Black Sea, between the mouth of the Danube and the Caspian Sea.

but that they are not conclusive. since the ancestors of the Teutons must have inhabited this ancient European-Aryan country. and Greco-Italians. indeed. The people who have emigrated thence to more southern climes have not forgotten either the one or the other name of those phenomena. others Teutonic. The prevailing opinion among the advocates of the Asiatic hypothesis now doubtless is. among them Geiger. they have well . too. Sprachvergleichung und Urgeschichte. The view gained in this manner is. that the cradle of the Aryan race was to be looked for much farther to the west than Benfey and others had supposed. Pösche. Müller. through his linguistic and historical investigations.nigh entirely ceased to claim that these peoples. and had not yet become acquainted with the use of metals. Spiegel. based on the evidence furnished by the geography of plants. as Schrader has remarked. even before they came to Europe. Schrader himself. the European hypothesis has found many adherents. And the question as to where it was located is of the most vital importance. and more recently Schrader and Penka. His hypothesis. Nevertheless. Cuno. contains an excellent general review of the history of the question. In France. belonged to the stone age. On one point . as follows: The Aryan country of Europe has been situated in latitudes where snow and ice are common phenomena. others again Greco-Italian. it is possible to arrive at important results in this manner. that the Aryans who immigrated to Europe formed one homogeneous mass. places the ancient Aryan land in Germany. The leaders of the defenders of the Asiatic hypothesis have ceased to regard Asia as the cradle of all the dialects into which the ancient Aryan tongue has been divided. several defenders of the European hypothesis have come forward.and that is for our purpose the most important one . Schrader’s work. while they still were one people. the ancient words which today are common to all or several of these languages are presumably a mere remnant of the ancient European-Aryan vocabulary.the advocates of both hypotheses have approached each other. briefly stated. for. Slavs. Philology has attempted to answer the former question by comparing all the words of all the Aryan-European languages. but take care not to draw conclusions from what is wanting. To a . and reaches the conclusion that those in favour of the European origin of the Aryans are the stronger.Since the presentation of this argument. which gradually on our continent divided itself definitely into Celts. Geiger found. The cautious Schrader. but he weighs the arguments presented by the various sides. THE ARYAN LAND OF EUROPE. Friedr. were so distinctly divided linguistically that it was necessary to imagine certain branches of the race speaking Celtic. Teutons. who dislikes to deal with conjectures. as it is closely connected with the question of the original home of the Teutons. regards the question as undecided. 5. if we draw conclusions from the words that remain. While they cling to the theory that the Aryan inhabitants of Europe have immigrated from Asia. The attempt has many obstacles to overcome. already before their departure from their Eastern home. and a critical but cautious opinion in regard to its present position. has been led to believe that the Aryans. The adherents of both hypotheses have thus been able to agree that there has been a European-Aryan country. original contributions to its solution.

and north of them the progenitors of the Teutons. and a beech called bhaga. This leads to the conclusion that the Aryan country of Europe must to a great extent have been situated west of this line. but in some parts of the country the name was particularly applied to the beech. and lived in that part of Europe which we . The Aryans knew the art of brewing mead from honey. the name of which is preserved in the Greek linon (linen). It is not probable that the European Aryans knew bronze or iron. they gave it the name of mead (methu). The European Aryans must have cultivated at least one. Germans. so long as they linguistically formed one homogeneous body. the ass was not known.cows. or. its domain being particularly the plains of Central Asia. elm. and when the Greek Aryans came to Southern Europe and became acquainted with wine. rocks. The bear. The horse was also known.comparatively northern latitude points also the circumstance that the ancient European Aryans recognised only three seasons . The trees are fir. From this we conclude that the European Aryans applied the word bhaga both to the beech and the oak. valleys. Linguistic comparisons also show that the Aryan territory of Europe was situated near an ocean or large body of water. and in other languages. From this word bhaga is derived the Greek phegos. and summer. and that the regions inhabited by the ancestors of the Romans. and its name has been faithfully preserved both by the tribes that settled near the Ganges. in others to the oak. and Romans have preserved a common name for the ocean . In the Aryan country of Europe there were domestic animals . and between the Alps and the North Sea. perhaps two kinds of grain. This drink was dear to the hearts of the ancient Aryans.winter. The Swedish hummer (lobster) corresponds to the Greek kamaros.the Old Norse mar. The Brahmin by the Ganges still knows this beverage as madhu. the German Buche. and the Swedish bok. Many words for mountains. On the other hand. but it is uncertain whether it was used for riding or driving. and flowing waters. if they did know any of the metals. sheep. spring. But it is a remarkable fact that the Greeks did not call the beech but the oak phegos. had any large quantity or made any daily use of them. the Old High German mari. For autumn they had no name. This is proven by many names of trees. the Latin fagus. Nor has it been a treeless plain. hazel. willow. and the Swedish säl (seal) to the Greek selakhos. The beech is a species of tree which gradually approaches the north. the Latin linum. must be looked for west of this botanical line. otter. and beaver certainly belonged to the fauna of Aryan Europe. and goats. the Latin mare. the Lithuanian as medus. also flax. and brooks common to all the languages show that the European-Aryan land was not wanting in elevations. since both bear similar fruit. Celts. On the European continent it is not found east of a line drawn from Königsberg across Poland and Podolia to Crimea. birch. and by those who emigrated to Great Britain. wolf. elder. That they also understood the art of drinking it even to excess may be taken for granted. or simply valued on account of its flesh and milk. which means a tree with eatable fruit. while the Romans called the beech fagus. Scandinavians. streams. the Welchman has known it as medu. This division of the year continued among the Teutons even in the days of Tacitus. The names of certain sea-animals are also common to various Aryan languages.

As is known. like the Gothic aiz. and the Italian Aryans are immigrants to the Italian peninsula. Spain has even within historical times been inhabited by Iberians and Basques. at least. this cannot have been the Mediterranean Sea. the knife. the European Aryans must have occupied an extensive territory. the European Aryans lived near an ocean. on our continent was the home of this Aryan European people in the stone age? Southern Europe. were from the north and west toward the south and east. the hammer. Where. wood. Both prehistoric and historic facts thus tend to establish the theory that the Aryan domain of Europe. therefore.here call the Aryan domain. and Basques dwell there at present. The movements of the Teutonic races were from north to south. that in respect to weapons the dissimilarity of names is so complete in the Greek and Roman tongues. hitherto unknown materials. and the Eastgoths under Theodoric in later times. that all the Aryan European languages. The only common name for metal is that which we find in the Latin aes (copper). On account of their undeveloped agriculture. as the linguistic monuments likewise seem to prove. and Cherson. Bessarabia. the Latin aes. and at best were acquainted with copper before and during the period when their language was divided into several dialects. lack a common word for the tools of a smith and the inventory of a forge. and as one or more seas were known to these Aryans. oak. If. the ancient Aryans have certainly used various kinds of weapons . The Greek Aryans have immigrated to Hellas. the axe. Things more easily change names when the older materials of which they were made give place to new. the spear. but also for the far better and remarkable reason particularly pointed out by Schrader. and they migrated both eastward and westward. probable that the European Aryans were in the stone age. in other words. and in the Sanskrit áyas. the European Aryans for a great part. Students of early Greek history do not any longer assume that the Hellenic immigrants found their way through these countries to Greece. seems to be a matter of course. we cannot exclude from the limits of this knowledge the ocean penetrating the north of Europe from the west. and afterwards came to signify bronze. the Baltic and the North Sea on the other. but already away back in . Of the mutual position and of the movements of the various tribes within this territory nothing can be stated. they came the same way as the Visigoths under Alarik. except that sooner or later. with its peninsulas extending into the Mediterranean. even those which are nearest akin to each other and are each other’s neighbours. But if.the club. through Dobrudscha. in the Gothic aiz. elm. past the Crimea. There remain the Black and Caspian Sea on the one hand. must doubtless have been outside of the boundaries of the Aryan land of Europe. and also for the various kinds of weapons of defence and attack. It is. All these weapons are of such a character that they could be made of stone. means both copper and bronze. which compelled them to depend chiefly on cattle for their support. then. so far as history sheds any light on the subject. then they could not have been limited to the treeless plains which extend along the Black Sea from the mouth of the Danube. The migrations of the Celts. but that they came from the northwest and followed the Adriatic down to Epirus. Most of all does it astonish us. which is an alloy of copper and tin. Despite this fact. and elder. and horn. That the word originally meant copper. comprised the central and north part of Europe. as the linguistic monuments seem to prove. lived west of a botanical line indicated by the beech in a country producing fir. and that it was applied only to copper and not to bronze among the ancient Aryans seems clear not only because a common name for tin is wanting. Even the Latin tribes came from the north. within undefinable limits. and the crossbow.

The Aryan tribes which first entered Gaul must have lived west of those tribes which became the progenitors of the Teutons.prehistoric times. but still in Central Europe. . and the latter must have lived west of those who spread an Aryan language over Russia. they must have occupied precisely the position in which we find them at the dawn of history and which they now hold. the latter west of the former. Farthest to the north of all these tribes must have dwelt those people who afterwards produced the Teutonic tongue. there must have dwelt another body of Aryans. the ancestors of the Greeks and Romans. South of this line.

Switzerland. Norwegians. better than all other Aryan people. in the inhabitants of those parts of Great Britain that are most densely settled by Saxon and Scandinavian emigrants. they had kinsmen. This type appears most pure in the modern Swedes. 6. To the north. and Austria.B. THE STONE AGE OF PREHISTORIC TEUTONDOM. . An examination of more than nine million individuals showed the following result: Germany 31. Anthropological science has given them one more mark . Belgium. in regard to blonde and brunette types.80% blonde. if it was inhabited at all. 14. Bonn.15% mixed. as already indicated. ANCIENT TEUTONDOM (GERMANIEN). has. as they were less exposed to mixing with non-Aryan elements. THE GEOGRAPHICAL POSITION OF ANCIENT TEUTONDOM. been described in the following manner: Tall. white skin. west. The Teutonic type. are of great interest. could be but sparsely populated. exceeds the transverse diameter. before it was occupied by the fathers of the Teutons. and in the people of certain parts of North Germany. blue eyes. and east. and to some extent the Dutch. by its very nature.they are dolicocephalous. In the south. The investigations made at the suggestion of Virchow in Germany. Welcker's craniological measurements give the following figures for the breadth and length of Teutonic skulls: Swedes and Hollanders Icelanders and Danes Englishmen Holsteinians Hanoverians The vicinity of Jena. or that from the frontal to the occipital bone. and Cologne Hessians Swabians Bavarians 75-71 76-71 76-73 77-71 77-72 79-72 79-73 80-74 Thus the dolicocephalous form passes in Middle and Southern Germany into the brachycephalous. which doubtless also was the Aryan in general before much spreading and consequent mixing with other races had taken place. having skulls whose anterior-posterior diameter. preserved their original race-type. fair hair. on the other hand. separating them from non-Aryan races.05% brunette. that is. The northern position of the ancient Teutons necessarily had the effect that they. 54. Danes. lay a territory which.

North Germany only 7%. these results are important. 57. the transition from the bronze to the iron age in Scandinavia must have taken place. but. cannot be distinguished from the race now dwelling there. 25. which.these Aryans belonged to the same race. and occupied separate territories. and the fact that the Teutons.04% mixed. The examinations. Southern Germany has 25% of brunettes. Here it is necessary to take into consideration the results of probability reached by comparative philology. while at the same time the dolicocephalous gives place to the brachycephalous. and particularly for mythology. appear with a Teutonic physiognomy and with Teutonic speech. It is a problem to be solved by comparative mythology what elements in the . For the history of civilisation. Teutons. though the latter has German-speaking inhabitants.17% brunette.or language-type should. have occupied a more northern domain than their kinsmen. following the strict rules of methodology which Latham insists on. Back of the bronze age lies the stone age. The manner in which the other domains of culture group themselves in Europe leaves no other place for the Teutonic race than Scandinavia and North Germany.40% mixed. later in history. Roman history supplies evidence that the same parts of Europe in which the Teutonic type predominates at the present time were Teutonic already at the beginning of our era. This theory is certainly not contradicted. &c. 11. The painstaking investigations of Montelius. were celebrated for their wealth in ships and warriors.Austria Switzerland 19. have led him to the conclusion that Scandinavia and North Germany formed during the bronze age one common domain of culture in regard to weapons and implements. then there is no doubt that the part of Aryan Europe which the ancestors of the Teutons inhabited when they developed the Aryan tongue into the Teutonic must have included the coast of the Baltic and the North Sea. Thus the blonde type has by far a greater number of representatives in Germany than in the southern part of Central Europe. Düben. judging from all indications. 61. Gustaf Retzius. conducted on the principle of methodology. on the other hand. so far as the characteristics of the skulls are concerned.. so far back as conclusions may be drawn from historical knowledge. Thus all tends to show that when the Scandinavian peninsula was first settled by Aryans .70% brunette.doubtless coming from the South by way of Denmark . Centuries must have passed ere the Teutonic colonisation of the peninsula could have developed into so much strength centuries during which. if there are no definite historical facts to the contrary. supported by the facts so far as we have any knowledge of them. If we now. showing that the European Aryans were still in the stone age when they divided themselves into Celts.10% blonde. and possibly Austria-Hungary. which. and that then already the Scandinavian peninsula was inhabited by a North Teutonic people. and Virchow. which the Teutonic domain resembles most. especially be looked for where this type is most abundant and least changed. by v. 23.79% blonde. bear in mind that the cradle of a race. In Germany itself the blonde type decreases and the brunette increases from north to south. and that their immigration to and occupation of the southern parts of the peninsula took place in the time of the Aryan stone age. of skeletons found in northern graves from the stone age prove the existence at that time of a race in the North which. among their kinsmen on the Continent.

on the other hand. a geographical and linguistic unity .various groups of Aryan myths may be the original common property of the race while the race was yet undivided. included the coasts of the Baltic and the North Sea. THE SAGA IN HEIMSKRINGLA AND THE PROSE EDDA. The conclusions reached gain in trustworthiness the further the Aryan tribes. the answer to this question is of great weight.originated at a time when the Aryans still formed. The discovery of groups of myths of this sort thus sheds light on beliefs and ideas that existed in the minds of our ancestors in an age of which we have no information save that which we get from the study of the finds. and that they have been peopled by Teutons since the days of the stone age. in the earliest times of which we have knowledge. in the same proportion as the probability of an intimate and detailed exchange of ideas after the separation grows less between these tribes on account of the geographical distance. The latter. MEDIÆVAL MIGRATION SAGAS. within certain indefinable limits. The subject which I am now about to discuss requires an investigation in reference to what the Teutons themselves believed. for instance. for whatever they believed gives no reliable basis for conclusions in regard to historical . 7. If. and to secure a basis for studying its development through centuries which have left us no literary monuments. the Teutonic mythology on the one hand and the Asiatic Aryan (Avesta and Rigveda) on the other are made the subject of comparative study. then the probability that they belong to an age when the ancestors of the Teutons and those of the Asiatic Aryans dwelt together is greater. when investigated by painstaking and penetrating archæological scholars. Did they look upon themselves as aborigines or as immigrants in Teutondom? For the mythology. but also in the grouping of the details and the epic connection of the myths. are separated from each other geographically. and if groups of myths are found which are identical not only in their general character and in many details. In the preceding pages we have given the reasons which make it appear proper to assume that ancient Teutondom. in regard to this question. the answer is of little importance. whose myths are compared. For pragmatic history. With all the certainty which it is possible for research to arrive at in this field. In this manner it becomes possible to distinguish between older and younger elements of Teutonic mythology. certainly give us highly instructive information in other directions. so to speak. THE LEARNED SAGA IN REGARD TO THE EMIGRATION FROM TROYASGARD. A. II. that the Scandinavian countries constituted a part of this ancient Teutondom. we may assume that these common groups of myths .at least the centres around which they revolve .in all probability at a time which lies far back in a common Aryan stone age.

facts. If they regarded themselves as aborigines. Once he was absent so long that the Asas believed that he would never return. and also Kvasir. though their traditions have ceased to speak of it. They considered themselves cheated in the exchange. and the chief citadel or town in that country was called Asgard. however. and so victorious was he. Freyja. Finally he returned. A river. that is. not of Hoenir. and many rulers fled on that account from . this does not hinder their having immigrated in prehistoric times. whether it brought many or few people. Even if he was absent. If he laid his blessing hand on anybody's head. his very name seemed to give comfort. and sent it to Odin. as hostages to the Asas. and the latter gave in exchange Hoenir and Mimir. then in Asia. But at that time the Romans invaded and subjugated all lands. He frequently went far away. If they regarded themselves as immigrants. and exchanged hostages. made peace. then it does not follow that the traditions. Under him ruled twelve men who were high-priests and judges. being angry on this account. was made a priestess. and took Frigg back again. that his men believed that victory was wholly inseparable from him. and. is a country formerly called Asaland or Asaheim. Heimskringla and the Prose Edda. We will first consider Heimskringla's story. Frey's sister. and often remained absent half-a-year at a time. too. Odin made war on the Vans. This river separates Asia from Europe. His kingdom was then ruled by his brothers Vili and Ve. but they defended themselves bravely. It was a great city of sacrifices. is separated by a great mountain range from Tyrkland. He embalmed the head. by name Tanakvisl. of which the celebrated Troy was supposed to have been the capital. sang magic songs over it. or Vanakvisl. Asaland. so that Swedish history might properly begin with the moment when Odin planted his feet on Swedish soil. if called upon in distress or danger. But they soon seemed to discover that Hoenir was a stupid fellow. The Vans treated the hostages they had received with similar consideration. was of the most decisive influence on the culture of the country. where Odin ruled. in regard to the immigration. the thirteenth century. Then his brothers married his wife Frigg. so that it could talk to him and tell him many strange things. although there is evidence that they are immigrants. In Tyrkland. The Vans sent their best son Njord and his son Frey. and that this immigration. Of the latter the Swedes are an example: the people here have been taught to believe that a greater or less portion of the inhabitants of Sweden are descended from immigrants who. and are separated by more than two hundred years from the heathen age in Iceland. and created Hoenir a chief and judge. contain any historical kernel. success was sure to attend him. East of Tanakvisl. Both sources are from the same time. Odin was a great chieftain and conqueror. Of the former we have an example in the case of the Brahmins and the higher castes in India: their orthodoxy requires them to regard themselves as aborigines of the country in which they live. they cut off the head. by which Heimskringla means Asia Minor. they grew weary of warring. are supposed to have come here about one hundred years before the birth of Christ. Odin gave Njord and Frey the dignity of priests. The Asas had a people as their neighbours called the Vans. and there dwelt a chief who was known by the name Odin. The more accessible sources of the traditions in regard to Odin's immigration to Scandinavia are found in the Icelandic works. When both parties had been victorious and suffered defeat. empties into the Black Sea. led by Odin. Odin also had great possessions. but of his wise brother Mimir. that is to say.

Odin went thither. And Odin. and in Sigtuna he established a great temple. and knowing. accompanied him. the raising of mounds in memory of great men. and they brought him tidings from all lands. Odin's son. and Freyja. and they thought he revealed himself to them before great battles took place. though he too was a wise man skilled in witchcraft and sorcery. the progenitor of the race of Ynglings. The descendants of Noah's son. he taught them poetry and runes. and he introduced the three great sacrificial feasts . according to which Odin acquired a vast territory around Logrin. which could be folded as a napkin. Among the customs he introduced in the North were cremation of the dead. and settled there. Before that time only one language was spoken. conquered vast countries. Seeland did not then exist. Where the land was ploughed away there is now a lake called Logrin. Odin died in Svithiod. where sacrifices henceforth were offered according to the custom of the Asas. Upsala to Frey. Odin himself always talked in measured rhymes.their kingdoms. make his foes in a conflict blind and deaf. From Saxland he went to Funen. and could wake the dead. and in this manner arose the seventy-two different languages in the world. When he perceived the approach of death.Noatun to Njord. and married Gefjun.] and. Frey. and that was Hebrew. and made his sons rulers over them. He owned the ship Skidbladnir. he suffered himself to be marked with the point of a spear. being unable to make resistance. being wise and versed in the magic art. [* As much land as can be ploughed in a day. and sons of his were also with him. He knew where all treasures were hid in the earth. which the others could not understand. Breidablik to Balder. On Svea's throne he was followed by Njord. by the help of four giants changed into oxen. Thrudvang to Thor. he left his kingdom to his brothers Vili and Ve. First. Then a long story is told of the building of the tower of Babel. and the other priests who had ruled under him in Asgard. We now pass to the Younger Edda. the erection of bauta-stones in commemoration of others. Where they tried to build the tower a city was founded and called . and declared that he was going to Godheim to visit his friends and receive all fallen in battle. and he and the Asas taught them to the people. and migrated with many followers to Gardariki. and for victory. Himminbjorg to Heimdal. But God confounded the tongues of these arrogant people so that each one of the seventy-two masters with those under him got their own language. Njord. From Gardariki he proceeded to Saxland. and tried in their arrogance to build a tower which should aspire to heaven itself. He had two ravens. This the Swedes believed. At that time ruled in Svithiod a chief by name Gylfi. and seventy-two master-masons and joiners served under him. The chief manager in this enterprise was Zoroaster. Russia. Besides. which in its Foreword gives us in the style of that time a general survey of history and religion. To his priests he gave dwellings . he was a wizard. which he had taught to speak. got this land. and then each went his own way. Thus Heimskringla. and Gylfi. that his descendants were to people the northern part of the world. Many new sports came to the North with Odin. Gefjun cut out with the plough. for good crops. therefore. and dragged into the sea near Funen that island which is now called Seeland. warred against and conquered the sons of Sem. They have since worshipped him in the belief that he had an eternal life in the ancient Asgard.for a good year. He gave Gefjun a ploughland. Skjold. &c. a peaceful compact was made. Ham. Among other things. he was a most excellent sorcerer. it gives from the Bible the story of creation and the deluge. Odin sent the maid Gefjun north across the water to investigate what country was situated there. And when Gefjun informed Odin that Gylfi possessed a good land. He could change shape. and could call them forth with the aid of magic songs.

Then Odin proceeded farther to the north and came to Reidgothaland." he made king in Westphalia. Priamus' son was Hektor. became king in Frankland. And they did not stop before they came as far north as Saxland. Dardanus. which is now called Jutland. and they spoke twelve languages. These twelve tributary kings were exceedingly wise men. "whom we call Thor". Jupiter.Jupiter. and he encouraged them in this faith. Plutus got as his share hell. Jupiter had many sons. conquering berserks. Under Priamus. There Odin remained a long time. At that time the Roman general Pompey was making wars in the East. Another son. When Saturnus divided his kingdom among his sons. Jupiter resembled his father in skill and magic. the greatest dragon. There Zoroaster became a king and ruled over many Assyrian nations. secured him the power of a prince on Crete. The tribes that departed with his master-workmen also fell into idolatry. Of these. who married Frigida." a very wise and well-informed man. and other prodigies. and he was a great warrior who conquered many peoples. teaching the inhabitants. and at the age of twelve he was full-grown. and so strong that he could lift twelve bear-skins at the same time. There was born a man. who became for the Cretans and Macedonians what Zoroaster was for the Assyrians. among which he introduced idolatry. and took with him many people. and which worshiped him as Baal. Meanwhile Odin and his wife had learned through prophetic inspiration that a glorious future awaited them in the northern part of the world." and thenceforward he roamed about the world. He slew his foster-father and foster-mother. "whom we call Frigg". by name Saturnus. "whom we call Balder. He had three sons . Neptunus. Thus. He made war against his father. took possession of his foster-father's kingdom Thracia. the island Crete became another. In the twentieth generation from this Thor. was not satisfied with this. his hair shone fairer than gold. the chief ruler. "which we call Thrudheim. descended in the fifth generation Priamus of Troy. Siggi. while Babylon became one of the chief altars of heathen worship. One of these twelve was called Munon or Mennon. had control over all invisible forces. In the North he met a prophetess by name Sibil (Sibylla). One of his sons. and Plutus. men and women. near the centre of the earth. "whom we call Odin. and when Rome had grown to be a great power it adopted many laws and customs which had prevailed among the Trojans before them. Troy was situated in Tyrkland. old and young. Vodin descended. a feud arose. and where he became a useful king. they received the honour of gods. and costly treasures. where he. and there . Veggdegg. who received heaven. A third son. Beldegg. From one of them. but wanted the earth too." and her he married. he appointed king of Saxland. and his art of producing gold from red-hot iron. giants. excepting the one tribe which kept the Hebrew language. out of fear of Jupiter. He was a very handsome man.Babylon. From the Trojans the Romans are descended. there were twelve tributary kings. changed his name and called himself Njord. and from them all European chiefs are descended. He therefore emigrated from Tyrkland. and as this was the least desirable part he also received the dog named Cerberus. "whom we call Sif. and also threatened the empire of Odin. who had to seek refuge in Italy. He was married to a daughter of Priamus. who in stature and strength was the foremost man in the world. to plough and plant vineyards. who lived on nuts and roots. the Cretans and Macedonians believed that he was a god. Saturnus' knowledge and skill in magic. moreover. It preserved also the original and pure faith. and had with her the son Tror. Wherever they came they appeared to the inhabitants more like gods than men. and as he.

Here ruled king Gylfi. Before the Asas had started on their journey to the North. Denmark. and there made his son Sæming king. and conducted Gylfi into the hall. and there he chose as his citadel the place which is called Sigtuna. and therefore betook himself in the guise of an old man to Asgard. according to Heimskringla. where many people were assembled. founding there the same institutions as had existed in Troy. and that the one who sat on the highest throne was named Thridi. The latter answered that he was named Gangleri. The Prose Edda's first part. And believing that this was a result either of the nature of these people. and offered Odin as much land and as much power in his kingdom as he might desire. others amused themselves at games. The Asas and their sons married the women of the land of which they had taken possession. who preserved the language spoken in Troy. and in each high-seat sat a man. and the juggler informed Gylfi that the king's name was Har. Gylfaginning. There were three high-seats in the hall. who were to make laws and settle disputes. and presumably the same as the author of Heimskringla places beyond the river Tanakvisl. But the ruling of Svithiod he had left to his son Yngvi. and the Asas. and Saxland. But the foreknowing Asas knew in advance that he was coming. Gylfi had learned that they were a wise and knowing people who had success in all their undertakings. and thereafter also of England. multiplied so fast that the Trojan language displaced the old tongue and became the speech of Svithiod. Har replied that the stranger should not leave the hall whole unless he was victorious in a contest in wisdom. Gylfi now begins his questions. From Svithiod Odin went to Norway. There he appointed his son Skjold as king. he resolved to investigate the matter secretly. and seven axes were in the air at the same time. and still others were practising with weapons. Some sat drinking. consists of a collection of mythological tales told to the reader in the form of a conversation between the above-named king of Sweden.took possession of as much as he wanted. and the three men in the high-seats give him answers. He finally came to a citadel. in the opinion of the author. one above the other. or of their peculiar kind of worship. and therefore they believed that Odin and his men controlled the weather amid the growing grain. and the hall of which was so large that he scarcely could see the whole of it. Har asked the stranger what his errand was. One reason why people everywhere gave Odin so hearty a welcome and offered him land and power was that wherever Odin and his men tarried on their journey the people got good harvests and abundant crops. it is here said. that the one who sat next above him was named Jafnhar. that he had made a long journey over rough roads. Odin had extensive . which might give him a high opinion of them. then he came to Svithiod. The juggler answered that it belonged to their king. and to which the Turks were accustomed. Odin went with Gylfi up to the lake "Logrin" and saw that the land was good. a younger Asgard. and invited him to eat and drink. and their descendants. the roof of which was thatched with golden shields. where. Gylfi. When he heard of the expedition of Odin and his Asiatics he went to meet them. Then he organised a council of twelve men. but there had existed an older Asgard identical with Troy in Tyrkland. and resolved to receive him with all sorts of sorcery. This man asked the traveller his name. which he threw up in the air and caught again with his hands. and asked for lodgings for the night. In the lowest sat the king. At the entrance stood a man playing with sharp tools. Gylfi answered that he first wished to know whether there was any wise man in the hall. Norway. Already in the first answer it appears that the Asgard to which Gylfi thinks he has come is. which all concern the worship of the Asas. He also asked whose the citadel was. from whom the race of Ynglings are descended.

Thor is. the author thinks these falsifications have an historical kernel. that is. and when he looked about him the citadel and hall had disappeared. were in reality none but historical events transformed into traditions about divinities. and resolved to visit them. 8. but when he had gone they counselled together. who slew Priam (Odin). He. in fact. none other than Ulixes (Ulysses). and women who were called Frigg. the first books of which were written toward the close of the twelfth century. based on what happened in the ancient Asgard. presents on this topic its own peculiar view. Njord. he thinks. son of Achilles. They described events which had occurred in the older Asgard . he perceived a mighty rumbling and quaking. Troy. Saxo's Historia Danica. Still. Nanna. so it is said.possessions at the time when the Romans began their invasions in the East. and he stood beneath the open sky. the fundamental view is the same. but upon the whole they are deceptions invented by the Asas or Asiamen to make people believe that they were gods. He returned to Svithiod and related all that he had seen and heard among the Asas. had heard reports concerning the wisdom of the Asas. who survives Ragnarok. and Vidar. which is presented in a similar form. and there were twelve high-seats in which sat men who were called Thor. Freyja. who was the foe of the Trojans. &c. The Icelandic accounts disagree only in unimportant details. the Midgard-serpent is one of the heroes slain by Hektor. and consequently was represented as the foe of the gods. comes to a place where the Asas receive him with all sorts of magic arts. Gylfaginning is followed by another part of the Prose Edda called Bragaroedur (Bragi's Talk). and had at length been instructed concerning the destruction and regeneration of the world. Their contents may be summed up thus: . The hall was splendidly decorated with shields.. which will be discussed later. the Fenriswolf is Pyrrhus. like Gylfi. When Gylfi with his questions had learned the most important facts in regard to the religion of Asgard. Troy.that is to say. remarks Gylfaginning. The mead passed round was exquisite. &c. A postscript to the treatise warns young skalds not to place confidence in the stories told to Gylfi and Ægir. Hektor. as stated. THE TROY SAGA IN HEIMSKRINGLA AND THE PROSE EDDA (continued). The author of the postscript says they have value only as a key to the many metaphors which occur in the poems of the great skalds. and to it alone. and conduct him into a hall which is lighted up in the evening with shining swords. is Æneas. and they agreed to call themselves by those names which they used in relating their stories to Gylfi. Ragnarok is originally nothing else than the siege of Troy. Frey. and the Loki of whom Gylfi had heard was. The basis of the stories told to Gylfi about Thor were the achievements of Hektor in Troy. On Lessö. Thus. They are. There he is invited to take his seat by the side of Bragi. for instance. He. dwelt formerly a man by name Ægir. and they have flown from the same fountain vein. like Gylfi. These sagas. and the talkative Bragi instructed the guest in the traditions concerning the Asas' art of poetry. The sources of the traditions concerning the Asiatic immigration to the North belong to the Icelandic literature.

and Priam had twelve tributary kings under him. and among them Odin's brothers Vili and Ve. and from Europe by the river Tanais or Tanakvisl. which in the sagas is called Macedonia. The religious traditions which he scattered among the people. Meanwhile. that valiant hero Thor. There they founded a new city called Asgard. accompanied by Thor's son. and in Crete. a council of twelve men. The severest of these wars was the one with a neighbouring people. still they were defeated. and Norway.Among the tribes who after the Babylonian confusion of tongues emigrated to various countries. So he set out with his many sons. together with the fact that his progress was everywhere attended by abundant harvests. Odin had great possessions. there was organised in Asgard. But however powerful the Trojans were. Accordingly. The prophetic vision with which he was endowed had told him that his descendants would long flourish there. which in the sagas is called Tyrkland. there was a body of people who settled and introduced their language in Asia Minor. Like his ancestors. the king of Svithiod. as in Troy. caused the peoples to look upon him as a god. and who was descended in the twentieth generation from the above-mentioned Thor. which was extended even to his twelve priests. and founded Rome. he was able to secure divine worship. In Tyrkland they founded the great city which was called Troy. Odin. This city was attacked by the Greeks during the reign of the Trojan king Priam. the son of Priam's daughter. but this had been ended with compromise and peace. Everywhere this great multitude of migrators was well received by the inhabitants. had made extensive expeditions in which he had fought giants and monsters. Odin had waged many successful wars. prophetic king. Troy was captured and burned by the Greeks. One of the parties of Trojan emigrants embarked under the leadership of Æneas for Italy. This circumstance strengthened him in his resolution to emigrate to the north of Europe. and there preserved the old customs and usages brought from Troy. On his journeys he had even visited the North. Svithiod. Priam descended from Jupiter and the latter's father Saturnus. The other party. went to Asialand. and married her. and to place their thrones at his disposal. and was accompanied by the twelve priests and by many people. At that time there ruled in Asgard an exceedingly wise. the celebrated prophetess. Denmark. twelve languages were spoken there. and began at length to send armies into Tyrkland. Of the surviving Trojans two parties emigrated in different directions. Many centuries passed without any political contact between the new Trojan settlements in Rome and Asgard. There Odin built Sigtuna. who were high priests and judges. and however bravely they defended themselves under the leadership of the son of Priam's daughter. In Tyrkland. which fell into the hands of the Romans. the Vans. Loridi. though both well remembered their Trojan origin. the Trojan tongue. The expedition proceeded through Gardariki to Saxland. which is separated from Tyrkland by a mountain ridge. for Thor. Rome had grown to be one of the mightiest empires in the world. were misrepresentations spun . in Greece. and the Romans formed many of their institutions after the model of the old fatherland. and so. and which were believed until the introduction of Christianity. Saturnus and Jupiter. and there he had met Sibil. Gylfi. the institutions of which were an imitation of those in Asgard and Troy. Odin's superior wisdom and his marvellous skill in sorcery. but not by all the inhabitants of the Asia country and of Asgard. He accordingly appointed his sons as kings in Saxland. too. Troy was a very large city. They seem in advance to have been well informed in regard to the quality of foreign lands. the old mother country. who was skilled in the magic arts. and accordingly belonged to a race which the idolaters looked upon as divine. Poetry and many other arts came with Odin to the Teutonic lands. and Priam himself was slain. A part of the people remained at home. submitted to his superiority and gave him a splendid country around Lake Mäler to rule over. then across the Danish islands to Svithiod and Norway.

and which found its way to Scandinavia through the Prose Edda and Heimskringla. the fame of his magic arts and of the miracles he performed reached even to the north of Europe. the author of Heimskringla. Saxo is entirely silent in regard to immigration of an Asiatic people to Scandinavia under the leadership of Odin. to which Odin by magic arts imparted the power of speech. though he was there worshipped as a god.. but this is not far from the ancient Troy. and make Odin a man changed into a god. and of heathen origin. Such is. in the main. as already stated. since he holds the same view as the Icelanders and the chroniclers of the Middle Ages in general in regard to the belief that the heathen myths were records of historical events. Sturluson. which are based on the still-existing songs and traditions found in Denmark. From Byzantium. SAXO'S RELATION OF THE STORY OF TROY. in the heathen songs and traditions on which he based the first part of his work. Saxo also tells that Odin's son. and he (Sturluson) had certainly not begun to write history when Saxo had completed the first nine books of his work. 36). where the Prose Edda locates his ancestors. according to Saxo. Somewhat older than these works is Historia Danica. This is the more remarkable. men changed into divinities. Saxo locates his residence in Byzantium. Saxo and the Icelanders also agree that Odin came from the East. was a lad of eight years when Saxo began to write his history. as in the Icelandic works. although both parties are Euhemerists. they were also personally acquainted with him. frequently finds Odin's name. Saxo writes as if he were unacquainted with Icelandic theories concerning an Asiatic immigration to the North. had land or authority in the North. like the Heimskringla. 42-44.around the memories of Troy's historical fate and its destruction. and our astonishment increases when we consider that he. 9. concerning the immigration of Odin and the Asas. No. But Odin himself has never. the story which was current in Iceland in the thirteenth century. Saxo. Odin is a human being. and to pay him honour the kings of the North once sent to Byzantium a golden image. and. and he has not a word to say about Odin's reigning as king or chief anywhere in Scandinavia. on the Bosphorus. vid. was chosen king by the Danes "on account of his personal merits and his respect-commanding qualities". according to Saxo. Baldur. He visited Upsala. pp. situated in heaven (Hist. relates that Odin was absent from his capital for a long time. It is the myth about Mimir's head which Saxo here relates. and when we examine his statements on this point. In Saxo. Saxo confines . But the kings of the North knew him not only by report. and at the same time a sorcerer of the greatest power. and concerning Odin's expulsion from the mythic Asgard. a place which "pleased him much". Dan. by the Danish chronicler Saxo. A comparison between him and the Icelanders will show at once that. On account of these miracles he was worshipped as a god by the peoples. and that the heathen gods were historical persons. we find that Saxo is here telling in his way the myth concerning the war which the Vans carried on successfully against the Asas. and consequently could not avoid presenting him in Danish history as an important character. The only difference is that while the Icelandic hypothesis makes him rule in Asgard. and around the events of Asgard.

wrote a chronicle.the Church father Hieronymus and the poet Virgil. but still not farther away than to Pannonia. bishop of Tours. 10. Franc. we find that Hieronymus once names the Franks in passing. Sulpicius Alexander and others. by name Priam. not popular songs or traditions. more than five hundred years before Heimskringla and the Prose Edda were written . while the Icelanders. according to his own statement. ii. What Fredegar tells about the emigration of the Franks is this: A Frankish king. that they had like the Romans emigrated from Troy. begin with the learned theory in regard to the original kinship of the northern races with the Trojans and Romans. If we. and containing as kernel "a faint reminiscence of an immigration from Asia" or is it a thought entirely foreign to the heathen Teutonic world. too. Then the Franks emigrated. Their oldest chronicler.a Teutonic people were told by a chronicler that they were of the same blood as the Romans. Nevertheless. about 650. and around this theory as a nucleus they weave about the same myths told as history as Saxo tells. How did the belief that Troy was the original home of the Teutons arise? Does it rest on native traditions? Has it been inspired by sagas and traditions current among the Teutons themselves. and that they had the same share as the Romans in the glorious deeds of the Trojan heroes. called after Friga's name Frigians (Phrygians). the reference to Virgil is the key to the riddle. THE OLDER PERIODS OF THE TROY SAGA. desires to give an account of the original home of the Franks (Hist. who. where they first appear in the light of history. but also contains various other things in regard to the early history of the Franks. Already in the seventh century . and seeks as far as possible to turn them into history. He even gives us the sources from which he got this information. on the other hand. and settled. travelled across this continent. go to these sources in order to compare Fredegar's statement with his authority. one of which settled in Macedonia.wrote their history in ten books. near .himself more faithfully to the popular myths. which is in part a reproduction of Gregorius' historical work. and one part of them migrated under king Francio into Europe. not Frankish. Of the coming of the Franks from Troy neither Gregorius knows anything nor the older authors. as we shall show below. but never refers to their origin from Troy. an unknown author. and they divided themselves into two parties. Gregorius. whose works he studied to find information in regard to the early history of the Franks. ruled in Troy at the time when this city was conquered by the cunning of Ulysses. migrated through Asia and settled there.that is to say. and locates it quite a distance from the regions around the lower Rhine. His sources are. and that Virgil does not even mention Franks. who for reasons unknown is called Fredegar. then. and were afterwards ruled by a king named Friga. does not say a word about it. Under his reign a dispute arose between them. But in the middle of the following century. and among these the statement that they emigrated from Troy. 9). in the sixth century . while the other. with their women and children. about one hundred years before that time that is to say.. introduced in Christian times by Latin scholars? These questions shall now be considered. but two Latin authors . This people were the Franks. There they were again divided. He.

Then the Trojans received from the emperor Valentinianus the name Franks. which. who waged war against all their neighbours. Then the emperor collected a large army under the command of Aristarcus. in a contracted form Ansgis.that is. Priam's son. attacked the Alamanni.the Gesta regum Francorum. About seventy years later another Frankish chronicle saw the light of day . king of the Trojans. Anchises. where they founded a city.the well-known Longobardian historian Paulus Diaconus wrote a history of the bishops of Metz. where they began building a city which they called Troy. He led a great army against them. But then the kings of the Greeks united and brought a large army against Æneas. Thus Fredegar's chronicle. which they called Sicambria. and the greater part of the Trojans fell. and intended to organise in the manner of the old Troy. The other group chose a king by name Turchot. These . The Trojans were a strong and brave people. and strengthened it with auxiliary forces from many lands. and hewed them down with their swords. "for the Trojans had a defiant and indomitable character". lost their leader Priam. Then came a time when the Roman emperor Valentinianus got into war with that wicked people called Alamanni (also Alani). who went from Troy to Italy. and located there. which the Greeks besieged and conquered after ten years. They sailed farther and came within the borders of Pannonia. and he adds that according to evidence of older date the Franks were believed to be descendants of the Trojans. There were great battles and much bloodshed. and fled to the Moeotian marshes. where king Æneas formerly ruled. This they refused. But those who settled on the Rhine called themselves Franks after their king Francio. who was descended from Priam. into the marshes. accompanied by a Roman army. and later chose a king named Theudemer. When the Trojans heard this they went. from whom Charlemagne was descended in the fifth generation. where he hoped to receive auxiliary troops. When Paulus speaks of this he remarks that it is thought that the name Ansgis comes from the father of Æneas. and had to take flight. The one under king Æneas went to Italy. to be more accurate. "If anyone dares to enter those marshes and drive away this wicked people. For ten years afterwards the Trojans or Franks lived undisturbed by Roman taxcollectors. who were defeated by the superior force. the chronicle adds. I shall for ten years make him free from all burdens". and. The Trojans who escaped divided themselves into two parties. away from Sicambria through Germany to the Rhine. Æneas fled with those surviving into the city of Ilium. The Alamanni were defeated. Friga. They embarked in ships and came to the banks of the river Tanais. which numbered 12. and Francio. about the year 787 . son of Antenor. and were called after him Turks. in the Attic tongue means the savage (feri). Arnulf had two sons. one of whom was named Ansgisel. They now proceeded under their leaders Markomir. near the Moeotian marshes (navigantes pervenerunt intra terminos Pannoniarum juxta Moeotidas paludes). About fifty years after its appearance . Then said the emperor. and here they remained many years and became a mighty people. but the city was not completed. In it we learn more of the emigration of the Franks from Troy.the Rhine. Other distinguished Trojans became the leaders of the other party. and Sunno. Gesta regum Francorum (i) tells the following story: In Asia lies the city of the Trojans called Ilium. Among these bishops was the Frank Arnulf. and attacked the Franks. and slew the tax-collectors sent to them. Thus this chronicle. in the time of Charlemagne. but after that the Roman emperor demanded that they should pay tribute.000 men.

p. (See No. and an effort has been made to add weight and dignity to this document by incorporating it with the works of the well-known Church historian Beda. lib. and there we find the Saxon chronicler Widukind. and to show that it was believed in England during the centuries immediately following Widukind's time.evidences of older date we have considered above . accordingly had to be made into Trojans. which we shall discuss later. In another British pseudo-Sibylline document it is stated that the Sibylla was a daughter of king Priam of Troy. the emigration chief of the Teutonic myth. I make special mention of this fact. Dudo relates (De moribus et gestis. and as England to a great extent was peopled by Saxon conquerors. Thus when Franks and Saxons had been made into Trojans .Fredegar's Chronicle and Gesta regum Francorum. Together with the Normans the Scandinavians also. which tells that the Trojans. &c. And thus the matter was understood by Dudo's readers. i. and when Robert Wace wrote his rhymed chronicle. was married to Sibil (Sibylla). The one is from a Saxon source. as Widukind had learned. 289). which goes down to the year 996. and thus date it at the beginning of the eighth century. It hardly needs to be added that there is no good foundation for the derivation of Ansgisel or Ansgis from Anchises. Other pseudo-Sibylline documents in Latin give accounts of a Sibylla who lived and prophesied in Troy. and claims that the Saxons are of Macedonian descent. In this manner the Saxons..) that the Norman men regarded themselves as Danai. the other is from a scholastic source. after Alexander's early death. In his Norman Chronicle. could claim a Trojan descent. from old native traditions. Ansgisel is a genuine Teutonic name. The Macedonians were at that time regarded as Hellenicised Trojans. Quentin. had spread over the whole earth.it could not take long before their northern kinsmen received the same descent as a heritage. and that a part of them emigrated and settled in Macedonia. In evidence of this. he presents two conflicting accounts. that the Saxons and Angles were of Trojan blood. for Danes (the Scandinavians in general) and Danai was regarded as the same race name. When he is to tell the story of the origin of the Saxon people. In this connection I call the reader's attention to Fredegar's Chronicle referred to above. for the reason that in the Foreword of the Prose Edda it is similarly stated that Thor. a term applied to all Greeks. disagreed among themselves. deacon of St. Meanwhile this shows that the belief that the Franks were of Trojan descent kept spreading with the lapse of time.. I have already shown that the Macedonians were regarded as Hellenicised Trojans. 298). 123 concerning Ansgisel. and in it Britain is said to be an island inhabited by the survivors of the Trojans (insulam reliquiis Trojanorum inhabitatam).the former into fullblooded Trojans and the latter into Hellenicised Trojans . Roman de Rou. It was examined by the French scholar Alexandre (Excursus ad Sibyllina. the son of Priam's daughter. . p. from whom they were descended. In the very nature of things the beginning must be made by those Northmen who became the conquerors and settlers of Normandy in the midst of "Trojan" Franks. I will simply refer here to a pseudo-Sibylline manuscript found in Oxford and written in very poor Latin. Dudo.) We now pass to the second half of the tenth century. in the time of king Friga. Together with the Hellenicising they had obtained the name Danai. but the manuscript itself is a compilation from the time of Frederick Barbarossa (Excurs ad Sib. According to this latter account they were a remnant of the Macedonian army of Alexander the Great. the same honour was of course claimed by her people. which. like the Franks. About a hundred years after their settlement there they produced a chronicler.

The Icelanders. I have now traced the scholastic tradition about the descent of the Teutonic races from Troy all the way from the chronicle where we first find this tradition recorded. According to the lost Argive History by Anaxikrates. and scarcely had Germany become known to the Romans. Then fled from flames on the Trojan strand The race that settled old Denmark's land And in honour of the old Trojan reigns. And the Greeks exceedingly glad were made. became drawn into the cycle of Trojan stories. who was said to have emigrated from there to Troy. 248).. resting on the authority of five hundred years. Latium and Campania through the Æneids. developed into manhood. and wanted to give an account of their origin. Gaul (see Lucanus arid Ammianus Marcellinus). rerum Aquitanicarum scriptor. on the other hand.).about the northern conquerors of Normandy.. quanquam Dudo. through the relation between the royal families of Troy and Sicily. down to the time when Ari. Quentin was the authority upon which this belief was chiefly based. son of Hektor and Andromache. and every event and every hero was connected in some way or other with Troy. Danos a Danais ortos nuncupatosque recenseat. Church learning. on the basis of a common tradition: "When the walls of Troy in ashes were laid. the same century in which Sturluson. The accounts given in Heimskringla and the Prose Edda in regard to the emigration from Asgard form the natural denouement of an era which had existed for centuries. just as the English in our time think they have found traces of the ten lost tribes of Israel both in the old and in the new world. lived. Scamandrius. and traces of Dardanians and Danaians were found everywhere. Saxo rejected the theory current among the scholars of his time. Sicily. and in Iceland the theory is worked out and systematised as we have already seen. that the northern races were Danai-Trojans. and Latin manuscripts were spread among the Teutonic tribes. Heimskringla's author. and in which the events of antiquity were able to group themselves around a common centre. a great part of the lands subject to the Roman sceptre were in ancient literature in some way connected with the Trojan war and its consequences: Macedonia and Epirus through the Trojan emigrant Helenus. from whom the inhabitants of these provinces were said to be descended (Servius ad Virg. and when the Icelander Sæmund is said to have studied in Paris. Germ. Every educated Greek and Roman person's fancy was filled from his earliest school-days with Troy. and of course all of Asia Minor. and he gives his Danes an entirely different origin. there were disseminated among them knowledge of and an . He knew that Dudo in St. allies of the Trojans. concerning Troy as the starting-point for the Teutonic race. accepted and continued to develop the belief. All peoples and families of chiefs were located around the Mediterranean Sea. the very home of the Ænean traditions. Rhetia and Vindelicia through the Amazons. This was not all. and is made to fit in a frame of the history of the world. too. Etruria through Dardanus. Sardinia (see Sallust). The People called themselves the Danes". at least so far as to make this country visited by Ulysses on his many journeys and adventures (Tac. Carthage through the visit of Æneas to Dido. he could say. i. before it. In fact. In the same degree as Christianity. Iceland's first historian. Illyria and Venetia through the Trojan emigrant Antenor. came with emigrants to Scythia and settled on the banks of the Tanais.

were the things which especially stimulated their curiosity and captivated their fancy.interest in the great Trojan stories. the Goths were the same as the Getæ. is destroyed a second time by Goths (c. c. and among pseudo-classical works to Dares Phrygius' Historia de Excidio Trojæ (which was believed to have been written by a Trojan and translated by Cornelius Nepos!). We need only call attention to Virgil and his commentator Servius. he maintained the Goths' own traditions in regard to their descent and their original home. Not that he made the Goths the descendants either of the Greeks or Trojans. furnished abundant materials in regard to Troy both in classical and pseudo-classical authors. and also to find the very kernel out of which the illusion regarding the Trojan birth of the Franks grew. of migrations. I believe I am able to point out the sources of all the statements made in these chronicles in reference to this subject. Fredegar admits that Virgil is the earliest authority for the claim that the Franks are descended from Troy. In the class of Latin scholars which developed among the Christianised Teutons. 11.. 20). the word Franks does not occur anywhere in Virgil. of the conflicts between Trojans and Greeks. and to "Pindari Thebani. A Gothic chief marries Priam's sister and fights with Achilles and Ulysses (Jord. The Latin literature which was to a greater or less extent accessible to the Teutonic priests. and when the identity of these was accepted. As above stated. and continued in their new guise to command their attention and devotion. The discovery that he nevertheless gave information about the Franks and their origin must therefore have been made or known in the time intervening between Gregorius' chronicle and Fredegar's. had already found a place for his Gothic fellow-countrymen in the events of the great Trojan epic. But according to Orosius. as already shown. having scarcely recovered from the war with Agamemnon. to Dictys Cretensis' Ephemeris belli Trojani (the original of which was said to have been Phoenician. it was easy for Jordanes to connect the history of the Goths with the Homeric stories. active as a writer in the middle of the sixth century. and thus renews the agitation handed down from antiquity. Which. the new stories learned from Latin literature. 9). who is Jordanes' authority. We must now return to the Frankish chronicles. which became a mine of learning for the whole middle age. Before the story of the Trojan descent of the Franks had been created. where the theory of the descent from Troy of a Teutonic tribe is presented for the first time. and Ilium. of the founding of colonies on foreign shores and the creating of new empires. On the contrary. The native stories telling of Teutonic gods and heroes received terrible shocks from Christianity. Gregorius of Tours. Fredegar's predecessor. then. and found in Dictys' alleged grave after an earthquake in the time of Nero!)." Epitome Iliados Homeri. telling of Ilium. which attempted to make all ancient history a system of events radiating from Troy as their centre. or to priests labouring among the Teutons. was ignorant of it. the Teuton Jordanes. but were rescued in another form on the lips of the people. can be the passage in Virgil's poems . THE ORIGIN OF THE STORY IN REGARD TO THE TROJAN DESCENT OF THE FRANKS. and. a matter which I shall discuss later. to Fredegar's and Gesta regum Francorum.

whence. ii. According to Gesta.in which the discoverer succeeded in finding the proof that the Franks were Trojans? A careful examination of all the circumstances connected with the subject leads to the conclusion that the passage is in Æneis.: "Antenor potuit. and overpass the springs of Timavus. through nine mouths. emigrate from Pannonia. 295). when he had escaped the Achivians. the very heart of Illyria. Hic tamen ille urbem Patavi sedesque locavit Teucrorum. succeeded in penetrating Illyricos sinus. i. et fontem superare Timavi. the author of Gesta had learned from Gregorius." "Antenor having escaped from amidst the Greeks. the so-called Fredegar. Hist. From this point of view. on their .. and Sunno a son of the Trojan Antenor. between the Romans and Franks. a sea impetuous. is based on the following circumstances: Gregorius of Tours had found in the history of Sulpicius Alexander accounts of violent conflicts. that this is really the passage which was interpreted as referring to the ancient history of the Franks. Gesta regum Francorum has taken both these names. it bursts away. near the Moeotian marshes. lib. and the Pannonians were an Illyrian tribe. and as the wanderings of Antenor are nowhere else mentioned by the Roman poet. Illyricos penetrare sinus atque intima tutus Regna Liburnorum. Markomir is made a son of the Trojan Priam. And as Gesta's predecessor. Unde per ora novem vasto eum murmere montis It mare proruptum. appeals to Virgil as his authority for this Frankish emigration. Yet there he built the city of Padua and established a Trojan settlement. 9)." The nearest proof at hand. could with safety penetrate the Illyrian Gulf and the inmost realms of Liburnia. Virgil's account of Antenor's and his Trojans' journey to Europe from fallen Troy refers to the emigration of the father of the Frankish chief Sunno at the head of a tribe of Franks. Thus Antenor. From Gregorius. In Gesta. and settle on the Rhine. on the west bank of the Rhine. there can be no doubt that the lines above quoted were the very ones which were regarded as the Virgilian evidence in regard to a Frankish emigration from Troy. and sweeps the fields with a roaring deluge. To Illyricum belonged the Roman provinces Dalmatia. the Franks. But how did it come to be regarded as an evidence? Virgil says that Antenor. with loud echoing from the mountain. and Moesia. Staatsverwalt.. Pannonia. The name Illyricum served to designate all the regions inhabited by kindred tribes extending from the Alps to the mouth of the Danube and from the Danube to the Adriatic Sea and Hæmus (cp. mediis elapsus Achivis. et pelago premit arva sonanti. Marquardt Röm. In Pannonia Gregorius of Tours had located the Franks in early times.. with his Trojans. under the command of Markomir and Sunno. 242 ff. the latter led by the chiefs Markomir and Sunno (Greg. The supposition that they had lived in Pannonia before their coming to the Rhine.

Virgil tells us that Antenor settled near this river and founded a colony Patavium . after their appearance there.. xxxi. the middle age knew that the Liburnian kingdoms were Rhetia and Vindelicia (Rhetia Vindelici ipsi sunt Liburni).). and finally emptying itself by many outlets into the ocean. Again. From Servius' commentary on this passage. it is true. The wars fought around the Moeotian marshes between the emperor Valentinianus.westward journey. and the Franks. It is only necessary to call attention to the similarity of the words Patavi and Batavi. its conquerors might properly be called Batavian Franks. the plains of which are deluged by the billows. as Gesta supposes. 2. libs. 5). Thus it appears that the Franks were supposed to have migrated to the Rhine under the leadership of Antenor. but Servius interprets this as meaning many: "finitus est numerus pro infinito". and came into conflict with those same Alamanni (Ammian. then this must be the Rhine. for if a watercourse is to be looked for in Europe west of the land of the Liburnians. Marc. takes the same route toward the West as the Franks must have taken if they came from Pannonia to the Rhine.on the low plains of the delta. We must pardon the Frankish scribes for taking this river to be the Rhine. Virgil then brings Antenor to a river. is called Timavus. are not wholly inventions of the fancy. coming thundering out of a mountainous region.. and as Markomir ought to be the son of some celebrated Trojan chief. which answers to the Virgilian description. Marc. in order to show at the same time that the conclusion could scarcely be avoided that Virgil had reference to the immigration of the Franks when he spoke of the wanderings of Antenor. . on whose banks the ancestors of the Franks for the first time appear in history. Antenor. but the regions on the Rhine. which. since from time out of date the pronunciation of the initials B and P have been interchanged by the Germans.. the more so. The first Frankish chiefs recorded. The historical kernel in this confused semi-mythical narrative is that Valentinianus really did fight with the Alamanni. The Salian Franks acquired possession of the low and flat regions around the outlets of the Rhine (Insula Batavorum) about the year 287. the Franks had set out for the Rhine. Virgil also says that Antenor extended his journeys to the Liburnian kingdoms (regna Liburnorum). Virgil says nine. accordingly. This seemed to be established for all time. of which Gesta speaks. xxx. traverses the same regions from which. and after protracted wars the Romans had to leave them the control of this region. Thus we have explained Fredegar's statement that Virgil is his authority for the Trojan descent of these Franks. By the very occupation of this low country. are Markomir and Sunno. he was made the son of Priam. forming before it reaches the sea a delta. From this the conclusion was drawn that Sunno was Antenor's son. the Alamanni. where it has its source. In the conquered territory the Franks founded a city (Amminan. according to Gregorius. and also of the land to the south as far as to the Scheldt. But the scene of these battles was not the Moeotian marshes and Pannonia. but which is described as a mighty stream. Rhetia and Vindelicia separate Pannonia from the Rhine. and that the Franks for some time were allies of the Romans. xvii. carrying with it a mass of water which the poet compares with a sea.

until they refound each other in the west of Europe. Gesta makes Pannonia extend from the Moeotian marshes to Tanais." was. since. which about the year 26 was incorporated with the Roman troops stationed in Pannonia and Thracia.Cæsar. where Buda now is situated. Consequently they too were Trojans. having made themselves masters of the Romanised Gaul. This is sufficient proof that they had borrowed from the Franks the tradition in regard to their Trojan descent.. "Brutus.. according to Gregorius and earlier chroniclers. these waters were the boundary between Europe and Asia. this was at once accepted. and was so eagerly adopted that the older traditions in regard to the origin and migrations of the Franks were thrust aside and consigned to oblivion. to dwell together again in Gaul.. Thus we have exhibited the seed out of which the fable about the Trojan descent of the Franks grew into a tree spreading its branches over all Teutonic Europe. in regard to the Trojan descent of the Romans had grown into a tree overshadowing all the lands around the Mediterranean. often called them the "brothers and kinsmen" of the Romans (fratres consanguineique . History repeats itself a third time when the Normans conquered and became masters of that part of Gaul which after them is called Normandy. 2). The Roman Gauls and the Franks were represented as having been one people in the time of the Trojan war. De Bell. 427): Averni . says that they regarded themselves as being ex Antenore progenitos. After the Frankish conquest the population of Gaul consisted for the second time of two nationalities unlike in language and customs. gradually found its way to the Gauls on the other side of the Rhine. 1). Of the Avernians Lucanus sings (i. This explains how it came to pass that. (The first son of the Britons. when they thought they had found evidence of this view in Virgil. . according to Galfred. The cohort is believed to have remained in Hungary and formed a colony.The unhistorical statement of Gregorius that the Franks came from Pannonia is based only on the fact that Frankish warriors for some time formed a Sicambra cohors. (Æneid. Dudo. Thus we see that when the Franks. Gall. After the fall of the common fatherland they were divided into two separate tribes. Virgil had called the Trojan kingdom Asia: Postquam res Asiæ Priamique evertere gentem. ausi Latio se fingere fratres. then this was the repetition of a history of which Gaul for many centuries previously had been the scene. and since Asia was regarded as a synonym of the Trojan empire. This view. greatgrandson of Æneas. had at an early day made way for the belief that they had the same origin and were of the same blood as the Romans. the incorporation of Cis-Alpine Gaul with the Roman Empire. with separate destinies. descendants of Antenor. which was at least developed if not born in Sicily. claimed a Trojan descent. and even before Cæsar's time the Roman senate had in its letters to the Æduans. iii. and now as before it was a political measure of no slight importance to bring these two nationalities as closely together as possible by the belief in a common descent. i. their chronicler. and the Romanising of the Gauls dwelling there. sanguine ab Iliaco populi. 33. and migrated from Alba Longa to Ireland!) So far as the Gauls are concerned. encouraged by Roman politics. in the same manner as the earlier fable. &c.. and extending one of its branches across Gaul to Britain and Ireland.

who thought themselves descended from the gods. and in regard to his origin. as chiefs and lawmakers with magic power. legislators. WHY ODIN WAS GIVEN ANTENOR'S PLACE AS LEADER OF THE TROJAN EMIGRATION. Both answers could. easily be reconciled with each other. is more commonly reflected in the Teutonic chronicles. chiefs. There were two sources of investigation in reference to this matter. for it was evident that when these proud and deceitful rulers died. it was sufficient that the Teutonic-Trojan immigration had the father of a Frankish chief as its leader. The other. [* Later on in this work we shall discuss the traditions of the Mannussaga found in Scandinavia and Germany. made use of these to make people believe that they were gods. and from whom their royal houses were fond of tracing their descent. Odin. The common answer. evil spirits. and information was of course sought with the greatest interest in regard to the place where he had reigned. what manner of beings those gods had been in whom they and their ancestors so long had believed. But there was also another source. who ensnared men in superstition in order to become worshipped as divine beings.kings. in order to maintain through all ages a worship hostile to the true religion. the chief of the Teutonic gods. and as demons they continued to deceive the people. and was regarded among the scholars as the scientific view. the patriarch of the German people and German tongue. But in the same degree as the belief in a Trojan descent spread among the other Teutonic tribes and assumed the character of a statement equally important to all the Teutonic tribes. was that the gods of their ancestors were demons. as stated. and both were easily reconcilable.] Mennor der erste was genant dem diutische rede got tet bekant. One source was the treasure of mythic songs and traditions of their own race. Their Christian teachers had two answers. 2). and worship them as such. As Christianity was gradually introduced among the Teutonic peoples. Both sides of this view we find current among the Teutonic races through the whole middle age. the question confronted them. who. Thus it followed of necessity that Odin. and that usually given to the converted masses. which was better calculated to please the noble-born Teutonic families. the grandson of the goddess Jord (Earth). There can be no doubt that he still was remembered by this (Mann) or some other name (for nearly all Teutonic mythic persons have several names). But what might be history in these seemed to the students so involved in superstition and fancy. the idea would naturally present itself that the leader of the great immigration was a person of general Teutonic importance. The other answer. and for reasons which we shall now present. So long as the Franks were the only ones of the Teutons who claimed Trojan descent. The one which particularly presents the old gods as evil demons is found in popular traditions from this epoch. which in . also must have been a wise king of antiquity and skilled in the magic arts. whom Tacitus speaks of and calls Mannus (Germania. But Mannus had to yield to another universal Teutonic mythic character. endowed with higher wisdom and secret knowledge. since he reappears in the beginning of the fourteenth century in Heinrich Frauenlob as Mennor.12. Most conspicuous was the mythical Teutonic patriarch. that not much information seemed obtainable from them. was that these divinities were originally human persons . which presents the old gods as mortals. There was no lack of names to choose from. their unhappy spirits joined the ranks of evil demons.

who in large numbers sought their fortunes in Rome. where it is stated in the ninth chapter that the chief god of the Germans is the same as Mercury among the Romans. has had many names . But Tacitus was almost unknown in the convents and schools of this period of the middle age. Originally the Romans did not divide time into weeks of seven days. they said. made great progress. they had weeks of eight days. no special name for each day of the week. the first day of the week. the Romans.one name among one people. Thursday. but they had another and completely compensating evidence of the assertion. the moon's. Already in the beginning of the empire these names of the days were quite common in Italy. From Italy both the taste for astrology and the adoption of the week of seven days. could not fail to be noticed by the strangers among whom they dwelt. spread not only into Spain and Gaul. and the farmer worked the seven days and went on the eighth to the market. Saturday was the planet's and the planet-god Saturnus' day. and it is therefore not strange if the week of seven days. Instead. But what had this source . But the week of seven days had been in existence for a very long time among certain Semitic peoples.what had the Roman annals or the Roman literature in general to tell about Odin? Absolutely nothing.regard to historical trustworthiness seemed incomparably better. it would seem. the sun's. and another among another. where the Romanising of the people. Wednesday. as we know. But from this introduction of the seven-day week did not follow the adoption of the Roman names of the days. and in so doing chose among their own divinities those which . Germania superior and inferior. and the astrologers had special names for each of the seven days of the week. contributed much to bring this about. and there can be no doubt that he is the same person as the Romans called Mercury and the Greeks Hermes. Odin. Egyptian. and Greek astrologers and astronomers. The Jews had. The ancient king of our race. Tuesday. But the Oriental. The evidence of the correctness of identifying Odin with Mercury and Hermes the scholars might have found in Tacitus' work on Germany. and long before Rome itself was converted to Christianity. by abstaining from all labour. Consequently this source must be more reliable. and that was the Latin literature to be found in the libraries of the convents. Friday. which were circulated in the name of the Egyptian Petosiris among all families who had the means to buy them. with Cologne (Civitas Ubiorum) as the centre. with a separate name given to each day. The Jewish custom of observing the sacredness of the Sabbath. had had parchment and papyrus to write on. with the above-mentioned names. and were familiar with the everyday customs of the Romans. They could not use this proof. Mercury's. were to be found in various parts of the independent Teutonic territory. Jupiter's. but also into those parts of Germany that were incorporated with the Roman Empire. The Teutons translated the names into their own language. Sunday. was known and in use more or less extensively throughout Teutondom even before Christianity had taken root east of the Rhine. But this was only an apparent obstacle. inasmuch as the name Odin. and already in the time of the Roman republic many Jews lived in Rome and in Italy. did more than the Jews to introduce the week of seven days among all classes of the metropolis. Venus' day. The astrological almanacs. or Wodan. Mars'. does not occur in any of the authors of the ancient literature. Teutons who had served as officers and soldiers in the Roman armies. Monday. however. Through them the week of seven days became generally known. During centuries when the Teutons had employed no other art than poetry for preserving the memory of the life and deeds of their ancestors. and had kept systematic annals extending centuries back.

They were called Sunday and Monday. historical chief. the ruler of the wind. Mercury had introduced poetry and song among men. by people who were as familiar with the Roman gods as with their own. governed by the Romans. Friday. flew over the world. but his dignity does not exempt him from being the very busy messenger of the gods of Olympus. The day of the goddess of love Venus became that of the goddess of love Freyja. among a part of them. and still he was not really the war-god. The Romans knew that the same god among the same people might be represented differently. The day of Mercury became Odin's day. the ideal of beauty and elastic youth. Odin also. therefore resembled each other. and often appeared as a traveller among men. Odin likewise. In all important respects Mercury and Odin.that is. with wings on his hat and on his heels. Mercury was the god of martial games. the lord of the seventh day. Mercury had taught men the art of writing. and has his house in the sign of the waterman. was among the Romans. but the war-god's occupation he had left to Tyr. Saturnus. Mercury was the symbol of wisdom and intelligence. and that the local traditions also sometimes differed in regard to the kinship and rank of a divinity. of course. -TR. in their eyes. Mercury did not hesitate to apply cunning when it was needed to secure him possession of something that he desired. who had lived in a distant past. his day got its name from laug. or its relation to the affairs of the community and to human culture. We are wont to conceive Hermes (Mercury) as the Greek sculptors represented him. as the son of Zeus. Romans. The day of the lightning-armed Jupiter became the day of the thundering Thor. or. But neither Greeks nor Romans nor Teutons attached much importance to such circumstances in the specimens we have of their comparative mythology. and it is worthy of notice in this connection that the author of the Prose Edda's Foreword identifies Saturnus with the sea-god Njord.the same historical person as the Romans worshipped by the name Mercury. The translation of the names is made with a discrimination which seems to show that it was made in the Teutonic border country.] which means a bath. and had alike induced Greeks. while we imagine Odin as having a contemplative.most nearly corresponded to the Roman. The day of the war-god Mars became the day of the war-god Tyr.and was so recognised by their heathen ancestors . and Goths to worship him as a god. Odin. To get additional and more reliable . who in astrology is a watery star. Mercury in the Roman has. nor was Odin particularly scrupulous in regard to the means. did the same. and before them among the Greeks and Chaldæans. had been one and the same human person. The days of the sun and moon were permitted to retain their names. Among the North Teutons. at least. the significance of the divinity as a symbol of nature. And while Odin in the Teutonic mythology is the father and ruler of the gods. [* Saturday is in the North called Löverdag. whom the Romans called Mercury and the Teutons Odin. Here the Latin scholars had what seemed to them a complete proof that the Odin of which their stories of the past had so much to tell was . ln that border land there must have been persons of Teutonic birth who officiated as priests before Roman altars. Tuesday. Mercury was the god of eloquence. Odin also was the chief of martial games and combats. mysterious look. Lördag . Laugardag = bathday. so was Odin. At first sight it may seem strange that Mercury and Odin were regarded as identical. Mercury. Thursday. a high rank. Wednesday. To the scholars this must have been an additional proof that this. They therefore paid more attention to what Tacitus calls vis numinis . Odin had given them the runes.that is.

Then the Sibylline books were produced by the properly-appointed persons. and we read in Servius' commentaries on Virgil's poems that the Erythreian Sibylla was by many regarded as identical with the Cumæan. for Cumæ was a Greek colony from Asia Minor. the Erythreian. This done. so called from a Greek city in Asia Minor. and also the Sibylla Europa and the Sibylla Agrippa. But the scholars of the middle ages also knew from Servius that the Cumæan Sibylla was. the same as the Erythreian.is found in Roman authors who were well known and read throughout the whole middle age. the Delphian. the Cimmerinean. the Phrygian and Tiburtinian. The story telling how these books came into the possession of the Roman State through a woman who sold them to Tarquin . but did not make known the words or phrases of the passage. The common opinion that the Roman State consulted them for information in regard to the future is incorrect.information in regard to this Odin-Mercury than what the Teutonic heathen traditions could impart. the Samian. a prophetess from Cumæ in southern Italy. and published it in his own name in the form of heroic poems concerning Troy. The woman was a Sibylla. for the text of the Sibylline books must not be known to the public. and from the Church father Lactantius. men in high standing.. or when prodigies of one kind or another had excited the people and caused fears of impending misfortune. were simply added in order to make the number of Sibyllas equal to that of the prophets and the apostles. in fact. had recast and falsified it.according to one version Tarquin the Elder. and kept the strictest watch over them. . they published their interpretation of the passage. according to another Tarquin the Younger . Europa and Agrippa. the Libyan. &c. it was only necessary to study and interpret correctly what Roman history had to say about Mercury. The last two. some mysterious documents called the Sibylline books were preserved in Jupiter's temple. who had found a copy of the books of the Sibylla. They were consulted only to find out by what ceremonies of penance and propitiation the wrath of the higher powers might be averted at times when Rome was in trouble. so that their contents remained a secret to all excepting those whose position entitled them to read them. Authorities for the first ten of these were the Church father Lactantius and the West Gothic historian Isodorus of Sevilla. they also thought they could determine precisely where the Trojan Sibylla was born. were appointed to guard them and to consult them when circumstances demanded it. in Rome. In western Europe the people of the middle age claimed that there were twelve Sibyllas: the Persian. and in some line or passage they found which divinity was angry and ought to be propitiated. Thanks to Lactantius. From Asia Minor she was supposed to have come to Cumæ. The Roman State was the possessor. who was extensively read in the middle ages. A college of priests. and also of prophecies concerning the fall of Troy and other coming events. of lives of the Trojan kings. the Hellespontian or Trojan. they also learned that the Erythreian was identical with the Trojan. The books were written in the Greek tongue. From the same Church father they learned that the real contents of the Sibylline books had consisted of narrations concerning Trojan events. according to Varro the Erythreian. according to Virgil the Cumæan. and that the poet Homer in his works was a mere plagiator. on the Capitoline Hill. near the Trojan Mount Ida. the Cumæan. As is known. Her birthplace was the town Marpessus. Both versions could easily be harmonised.

Nevertheless the Romans were able even in the later period of antiquity to discriminate between their native gods and those introduced by the Sibylline books. Ceres. and as the Sibyllas were believed to have made predictions even in regard to Christ. whose original home was Asia Minor and the Trojan territory. This explains why the Roman mythology. this explains why Roman and Greek mythology at that time might be regarded as almost identical. in the time of Solon. were written by a Sibylla who was born in the Trojan country. and in this capacity they were entitled to the worship which the Romans considered due to the souls of their forefathers. By birth and in her sympathies she was a heathen. From Marpessus the collection came to the neighbouring city Gergis. And the historical fact which lies back of all this is that the Sibylline books which were preserved in Rome actually were written in Asia Minor in the ancient Trojan territory. But careful examinations have shown that an historical kernel is not wanting in these representations. How it came there is not known. which from the beginning had but few gods of clear identity with the Greek. On the other hand. she proclaimed heathen and idolatrous doctrines. From a Christian standpoint this was of course idolatry. and that the books which Tarquin bought of her contained accounts and prophecies . which in its oldest sources is so original and so unlike the Greek. it is absolutely certain that they referred to gods and to a worship which in the main were unknown to the Romans before the Sibylline books were introduced there. and thus it did not take long before the Romans appropriated the myths that were current in Greece concerning these borrowed divinities. and Esculapius. which the woman from Cumæ had sold to the Roman king Tarquin. near the Trojan mountain Ida. In connection with the propitiation ceremonies the god or goddess was received in the Roman pantheon. Proserpina. but this she did by divine compulsion and in moments of divine inspiration. But Lactantius gave a satisfactory explanation of this matter. and received gods and goddesses who were worshipped in Greece and in the Greek and Hellenised part of Asia Minor where the Sibylline books originated. he said.accounts especially in regard to the Trojan chiefs and heroes afterwards glorified in Homer's poems. The former were worshipped according to a Roman ritual. To the latter belonged Apollo. and sooner or later a temple was built to him. Artemis. It is also demonstrably an invention that the Sibylline books in Rome contained accounts of the heroes in the Trojan war. was especially during this epoch enlarged.This seemed to establish the fact that those books. that the oldest known collection of so-called Sibylline oracles was made in Marpessus. The Roman mythology. these chiefs and heroes were their ancestors. and that the Sibylline books were a Greek-Trojan work. and occurs in various forms. When the temple of the Capitoline Jupiter was burned down eighty-four years before Christ. it might seem improper for them to promote in this manner the cause of idolatry. The story about the Cumæan woman and Tarquin is an invention. the Sibylline books . Cybile. Latona. The way this happened was that whenever the Romans in trouble or distress consulted the Sibylline books they received the answer that this or that Greek-Asiatic god or goddess was angry and must be propitiated. or. As the Romans came from Troy. and from Cumæ to Rome in the time of the kings. The Sibylla. and was preserved in the Apollo temple there. was well known to the Romans. and that to these books must chiefly be attributed the remarkable change which took place in Roman mythology during the republican centuries. in the golden period of Roman literature comes to us in an almost wholly Greek attire. and when under the spell of her genuine inspirations. Hermes-Mercury. had certainly prophesied truthfully in regard to Christ. In our critical century all this may seem like mere fancies. from Gergis it came to Cumæ. in other words. Venus. the latter according to a Greek.

the worship of whom the Trojan Sibylla had recommended to the Romans. HermesMercury had received his first temple in Rome. since the Teutons worshipped Odin-Priamus-Hermes as their chief god. and when he appears in Teutonic mythology as the chief of gods. and as the Romans had taken a southern course on their way to Europe.were lost. and the Greeks as Hermes. and beside the image was placed a table and a meal. In that age very little was known of Asia. Venus. of course. both from Orosius and. it seemed most probable that he was identical with the Trojan king Priam. This halt must have been of several centuries' duration. the Trojan Romans and the Trojan Teutons must have been separated a very long time. to have been a god originally unknown to the Romans. We must also remember that the Sibylla who was supposed to have recommended the Romans to worship the old king Odin-Mercurius was believed to have been a Trojan woman. the Teutons must have taken a northern. About one hundred years before that time. and since a number of Teutonic families traced their descent from this Odin. and heroes. for Rome had been founded already in 754 or 753 before Christ. in Asia Minor. But. where this TeutonicTrojan colony was supposed to have been situated. must have emigrated from Troy. This was known to the scholars of the middle age. and. was the same as the Teutons called Odin. like Apollo. the ancient Troy. too. Now. and in Ilium. in addition to various prophecies. So far as Hermes-Mercury is concerned. we must bear in mind that it was as certain to them as an undoubted scientific fact that the gods were originally men. inasmuch as the Teutonic dialects differed greatly from the Roman language. and from whom distinguished Teutonic families traced their descent. Hermes-Mercury seemed. Consequently. It was also apparent to the scholars that the Romans had landed in Europe many centuries earlier than the Teutons. later. But the State could not spare them. and so this manner of reasoning led to the conclusion that the gods who were introduced in Rome through the Sibylline books were celebrated Trojans who had lived and fought at a time preceding the fall of Troy. Now. Lectisternium was a sacrifice: the image of the god was laid on a bed with a pillow under the left arm. A new collection had to be made. they must have founded a city. and that the deified chief whom the Romans worshipped as Mercury. especially in Erythræ. it was necessary to assume that the Romans were not the only Trojan emigrants. which as a sacrifice was offered to the god. but of the Teutons not a word is to be found in the annals before the period immediately preceding the birth of Christ. and that Priam was identical with Hermes-Mercury. and others. the Teutons. and this was mainly done by gathering the oracles which could be found one by one in those places which the Trojan or Erythreian Sibylla had visited. for. and that her books were thought to have contained stories about Troy's heroes. Esculapius. . but. Another inevitable and logical conclusion was that Odin had been a Trojan chief. the Roman annals inform us that he got his first lectisternium in the year 399 before Christ by order from the Sibylline books. that is to say. They must have parted company immediately after the fall of Troy and gone in different directions. as the ancestors of the Romans were supposed to have emigrated from Troy to Italy under the leadership of Æneas. therefore. the Teutons must have made a halt somewhere on their journey to the North. chiefs. and from it ruled a territory in commemoration of their fallen city Troy. like the Romans.

that is. As a rule the European peoples regarded themselves in antiquity as autochthones. We trust the facts presented above have convinced the reader that the saga concerning the immigration of Odin and the Asas to Europe is throughout a product of the convent learning of the middle ages. and that the Tanais empties into these marshes.Pompey even entered Jerusalem and visited its Temple . it was natural that they should locate the colony of the Teutonic Trojans on the banks of this river. Comm. and having likewise learned that the Moeotian marshes lie east of Pannonia.and that Asia and Europe are divided by a river called Tanais. as born and developed in antiquity. Serv. or that it received its population from Asia. THE MATERIALS OF THE ICELANDIC TROY SAGA. down into Heimskringla and the Foreword of the Younger Edda.. The immigration of the Trojans to Europe was looked upon as a return to their original homes. does not indicate by a single word that Europe was peopled later than Asia. it was known that our world is divided into three large divisions .Asia. they had the course marked out by which the Teutons had come to Europe that is. And having learned from Gregorius of Tours that the Teutonic Franks were said to have lived in Pannonia in ancient times. a web which extends from Fredegar's Frankish chronicle. if they did not look upon themselves as immigrants from regions within Europe to the territories they inhabited in historic times. I think I have now pointed out the chief threads of the web of that scholastic romance woven out of Latin convent learning concerning a Teutonic emigration from Troy and Asia.from Gregorius of Tours. by way of Tanais and the Moeotian marshes. the emigration of the Franks from the Trojan colony near the Tanais was thought to have occurred very late. That it was born and developed independently of the .). 13. The Icelandic authors very well knew that Teutonic tribes had been far into Europe long before that time. and as Pompey's expedition to Asia was the most celebrated of all the expeditions made by the Romans in the East . through the following chronicles of the middle age. it seemed probable that these world-conquerors had also caused the earlier emigration from Tanais. in other words. Gesta regum Francorum. or. According to the Frankish chronicle. As the Roman attack was the cause of the Frankish emigration. Not knowing anything at all of importance in regard to Asia beyond Tanais. between 364 and 375 after Christ. under the rule of Odin's younger brothers Vili and Ve. 165 ff. Europe.it was found most convenient to let the Asas emigrate in the time of Pompey.. but they left a remnant of Teutons near the Tanais. iii. it should be mentioned that the Trojan migration saga. was regarded as the leader of an emigration from Etruria to Asia (Æneid. and Africa . in the time of Valentinianus I. in order that this colony might continue to exist until the emigration of the Franks took place. the founder of Troy. Dardanus. Finally. and the reigns they had constructed in regard to the North indicated that they must have emigrated from the Tanais colony long before the Franks.

In the Church fathers the saga is developed in this direction. and that in this undertaking he was assisted by seventy-two master-masons. Nat. But God confused their tongues and brought their project to naught. it was natural to assume that Babel had been the scene of Zoroaster's activity. Among other things Saturnus informs Solomon that Adam was created out of various elements. that this Chus went to the Persians. Orosius speaks of him as the inventor of sorcery and the magic arts. and is still confessed by their descendants in India. still knows that Zoroaster was a man from Bactria. It should be borne in mind that.. The Christian historian Orosius also knows that Zoroaster was from Bactria. weighing altogether eight pounds. a son of Zoroaster. but he already connects Zoroaster with the history of Nineveh and Babylon. Gregorius also relates that this Zoroaster was the first person who taught men the arts of sorcery and led them astray into idolatry. but he already has formed the opinion that Zoroaster had gotten much of his wisdom from the writings of the Babylonians. the son of Ham. was. Zoroaster is. be of some interest to first dwell on some of the details in the Heimskringla and in the Younger Edda and point out their source. with Chus. magic. it was Zoroaster who first thought of building the Tower of Babel. which Solomon answers partly from the Bible and partly from sagas connected with the Bible. Of the 72 master-masons who were said to have helped Zoroaster in building the tower. Zoroaster is a descendant of Noah's son Cham and the founder of all idolatry. not from Babylon. But already in the first century of Christianity. xxx. but the saga about these builders was current everywhere during the middle ages. Gregorius of Tours told in his time that Zoroaster was identical with Noah's grandson. however. the name of the prophet and religious reformer who is praised on every page of Avesta's holy books. Hist.traditions of the Teutonic heathendom shall be made still more apparent by the additional proofs that are accessible in regard to this subject. Solomon tells that Shem. and makes Ninus make war against him and conquer him. and astrology (Plinius. Nimrod. who was supposed to have built Babel. and as astrology particularly was supposed to have had its centre and base in Babylon. if not earlier. still less with the Tower of Babel. and who in a prehistoric age founded the religion which far down in our own era has been confessed by the Persians. according to Gregorius. The GreekRoman chronicler Ammianus Marcellinus. Noah's son. and is marked by a most serious and moral view of the world. then we find that there. and from the Church fathers it got into the Latin chronicles. a name supposed to mean "the living star". called "A Dialogue between Saturn and Solomon. and as he knew the art of making stars and fire fall from heaven." in which Saturnus tests Solomon's knowledge and puts to him all sorts of biblical questions. If we compare this with what the Foreword of the Younger Edda tells. It is evident that the author of the Foreword gathered these statements from some source related to Gregorius' history. It may. who lived in the fourth century after Christ. and that he himself was worshipped as a god. In the earlier Anglo-Saxon literature there is a very naïve little work. according to the Younger Edda. too. very characteristic of its age. as is well known. In the Persian and in the classical literatures this Zoroaster has naught to do with Babel. Cham thirty. men paid him divine worship. Gregorius continues. had thirty sons. another form for the Bactrian or Iranian name Zarathustra. 2). Gregorius has nothing to say. men desired to build a tower which should reach to heaven. and from whom the 72 languages of the world originated. and Japhet twelve - . and that when created he was just 116 inches long. traditions became current which made Zoroaster the founder of all sorcery. At that time. and that the Persians called him Zoroaster.

and the treasury of the Romans was in the temple of Saturnus in the Forum. that is to say. the 72 elders in the synagogue. who had adopted this name after his deified progenitor Hermes-Priam. thought to be 72. Luther's contemporary. and Vingthor. Bjæf. Heremod. one from Odin's son. who. supposed to be the oldest and the proper Odin. the 72 commentators of the Old Testament. and as there can be no doubt that it was the author's opinion that all the languages of the world. aurea regna. the younger Odin. They were accordingly his brothers. was descended in the sixth generation from Jupiter. This illustrates sufficiently how widespread was the tradition in regard to the 72 master-masons during the centuries of the middle ages. who was known and read during the middle age. the 72 angels who govern the 72 divisions of the Zodiac. and that he had two sons. in his work De occulta Philosophia. Here the Latin sources naturally fail it entirely. This mode of making genealogies was current in Iceland in the twelfth century. in which these different names of Thor are applied to different persons. The one branch has the names Veggdegg. Heingest. grandson of Jupiter. Beldegg or Baldur. is taken from Latin chronicles. From one of these three sources the Edda has taken . and before that time among the Christian Anglo-Saxons. These names are found arranged into a genealogy by the English Church historian Beda. still considers it necessary to point out that a certain commentator had doubted whether the number 72 was entirely exact. Then the Edda has the difficult task of continuing the genealogy through the dark centuries between the burning of Troy and the younger Odin's immigration to Europe. printed in 1647. Vingthor the son of Indridi. As the Edda claims that Saturnus knew the art of producing gold from the molten iron. God's 72 names. and in the Anglo-Saxon chronicle. and were spread into the world by these 72 grandsons of Noah. and can be found in the Anglo-Saxon chronicle name for name. Vitrgils. according to which the Trojan king Priam. Christ's 72 disciples. king Jupiter. The genealogy found in the Edda. and says in speaking of the number 72: "The number 72 corresponds to the 72 languages. the Edda's Lamedon is Laomedon. this must be considered an interpretation of the statement made in Latin sources that Saturnus' was the golden age . Indridi. There it finds that Thor is also called Lorridi. is found in a general way. Ritta. partly in the Church-father Lactantius. An edition of Sulpicius Severus' Opera Omnia. Herikon of the Edda. according to the Edda. Atra. and it is obliged to seek other aid. What the Edda tells about king Saturnus and his son. each division of which corresponds to one of the 72 languages". Even Nestor's Russian chronicle knows the tradition. &c. Among the Romans Saturnus was the guardian of treasures. Skjaldun or Skold. Among the doubters we find Rudbeck in his Atlantica. is the Roman-Greek Erichtonius. This whole genealogy is taken from a Saxon source. From Odin the genealogy divides itself into two branches. Itrman. Veggdegg. we here find the key to who those 72 master-masons were who. but it also finds a genealogy made about the twelfth century. Modi and Magni. Indridi the son of Lorridi. assisted Zoroaster in building the tower. Jat. and another from Odin's son. and finally Odin. Gudolf. Fjarlaf or Fridleif. by the English chronicler Nennius. It first considers the native sources. It continued to enjoy a certain authority in the seventeenth century. Henricus Cornelius Agrippa. so that Lorridi is the son of Thor.making 72 grandsons of Noah. and that no other than gold coins existed in his time. has a chapter on the power and sacred meaning of various numbers. gathered numerous data in regard to the superstition of all ages. originated at the Tower of Babel. partly in Virgil's commentator Servius. Thereupon the Edda continues its genealogy with the names Bedvig.aurea secula.

this marriage is not invented by the author. she answered that in a prophetic vision she had seen that the time would come when this tree would be made into a cross on which the Saviour of the world was to suffer. except that she had one foot like that of a water-bird. and the Edda adds that this Sibil is called Sif in the North. therefore. has not . according to the Edda. with which they fly through space. 92). and again in the guise of the most beautiful swimming bird. Still. Church sculpture sometimes in the middle age represented the queen of Saba as a woman well formed. It has already been mentioned that it was believed in the middle age that the Cumæan or Erythreian Sibylla originally came from Troy. Sibilla. the Edda says that Odin appointed him king in Westphalia.them. The statement has an older foundation. but the other like the foot of a water-bird up to the moment when she took it out of the brook. Götaland from a king Göt. and the only difference is that the Edda must have made a slip in one place and changed the name Vitta to Ritta. tells that when the queen of Saba visited king Solomon. Freyja has a falcon-guise. should marry Thor to the most famous of Trojan women. and taking all circumstances into consideration. was thought to be still another form of the same name. was of human form. and would not let her foot touch the beam. The legend came also to Germany. explains a phenomenon not hitherto understood in the saga-world and church sculpture of the middle age. Denmark from a king Dan. A tree or beam was thrown across as a bridge. based on the assumed fact that Thor's wife Sif was identical with the Sibylla. In the Norse mythology several goddesses or dises have. I shall give further proof of in No. She preferred to wade across the brook. strange that the author of the Younger Edda. feather-guises. was as well known as Thor. In an age when it was believed that Sweden got its name from a king Sven. and on this point I now have a few remarks to make. Angeln from a king Angul. As already stated. married to Sibil. In the Teutonic mythology Thor's wife is the goddess Sif. may be traced to Germany. the Franks from a duke Francio. The belief. 92. with its variation Fol. embraces eight names. but also in Scandinavia. To the northern form Sif corresponds the Gothic form Sibba. who speaks of the Trojan descent of Odin and his people. foreign to the Italian legend. she was in one place to cross a brook. so says the German addition. that is to say. and it is not. the swan. One of her feet. The other branch. and Sibil. the Sibylla. Among these swan-maids was Sif (see No. several dises have swanguises (Völundarkviða. see No. This statement is based on the tradition that Baldur was known among the heathen Germans and Scandinavians by the name Fal (Falur. Thor was. and was freed while wading across the brook from a bad blemish. where Sif. How the Germans came to represent her with this blemish. it might be expected that Falen (East. A legend. in the days of heathendom. which begins with Baldur or Beldegg. In regard to Baldur. but here it appears with the addition that the queen of Saba was rewarded for this piety. the origin of which may be traced to Italy. as we know. and the Old High German Sibba. Sif could therefore present herself now in human form. and when she was asked the reason for this.and West-Phalia) had been named after a king Fal. which are found in precisely the same order in the Anglo-Saxon chronicle. the Old Saxon Sibbia. 123). Helreið Brynhildar 6). the Old English Sib. The wise queen stopped. That this name was recognised as belonging to Baldur not only in Germany.

The Latin scholars found further evidence of the correctness of this identity in a statement drawn originally from Greek sources to the effect that Jupiter had had a Sibylla. but a mortal king from Crete who had taken the god Saturnus' name. as mistress. This Saturnus. says Servius. who. for example. by name Lamia. When the Prose Edda tells that the chief who proceeded from Asgard to Saxland and Scandinavia did not really bear the name Odin. with Sibilla. And having come to the conclusion that Thor was a Trojan. with Sibba. was received by Janus. The Church father Lactantius. on the other hand. and condemns them as foes of truth and violators of the doctrines of the true God. Saturnus thereupon introduces a higher culture among the people of Latium. where she is styled Regina Seba. and Sibilla were in the popular fancy blended into one. and Jupiter to Thor. on his arrival in Italy and the vicinity of Rome. in the middle age. and he blames Virgil for making Saturnus come from the heavenly Olympus to found a golden age in Italy. Janus is unpretentious enough to leave a portion of his territory and his royal power to Saturnus. Virgil's commentator. The character of the anthropomorphosed Odin.heretofore been explained. on account of the Latin translation of the Bible. was received by king Gylfi. reminds us of the manner in which Odin. his wife Sif also ought to be a Trojan woman. Thus. Sif. the king ruling there. but not among the Italians. Servius. was not a god from above. The name suggested her identity. this blending was almost inevitable. on the one hand. according to Tertulianus. So far as the blessing by the laying on of hands . The manner in which Saturnus. the Persian Mithra. introduced the custom of blessing by laying the hands on the head or the brow of those to whom he wished to insure prosperity. Mercury corresponds to Odin. as represented in Heimskringla and the Prose Edda. During the middle ages the queen of Saba was called queen Seba. but had assumed this name after the elder and deified Odin-Priam of Troy. Mithra. Seba. then this was no new idea. got the blemish which reminds us of the swan-guise of Thor's wife Sibba. who knew in advance that Christianity would come. and the latter particularly. since queen Seba had proved herself to be in possession of prophetic inspiration. and that queen Seba was a Sibylla. In regard to one of them. who was endowed with her mother's gift of prophecy. in the names of the days of the week. whose swan-guise lived in the traditions. remarks that ancient kings very frequently assumed names which by right belonged only to the gods. and Odin brings a higher culture to the inhabitants of Scandinavia. and had begotten a daughter with her by name Herophile. although the influence of the Greek-Roman mythology on the legends of the Romance peoples. is only in part based on native northern traditions concerning the heathen god Odin. As we know. and he also adopted among his mysteries a practice resembling the breaking of the bread in the Eucharist. and that of the Teutonic mythology on the Teutonic legends. the chief characteristic of the Sibylla. has received his chief features from documents found in the convent libraries. Tertulianus relates that he (Mithra). has been traced in numerous instances. was confounded with Zoroaster. to make people believe that he was a god. like Servius. the ruler of heaven. on his arrival in Svithiod. who is lawgiver and king. and Seba was thought to be her name. It thus follows that it was Thor who stood in this relation to the Sibylla. This younger Odin. and Gylfi makes the same concessions to Odin. resolved to anticipate the true faith by introducing some of its customs. Sibba. This explains how queen Seba among the Germans. And as it was known that the Sibylla was Trojan. constructed by Christian authors. speaks of kings who tried to appropriate the name and worship of the gods.

or on some errand. The names Third and High seem to point to the phrase "the thrice-highest". under the name Mithra.had given his warriors the assurance of victory. in advance imitated the Christian usages. has. but that Odin the sorcerer. who was able to turn men's vision. practised in the Christian cult . in the middle age. this war was waged around the walls built by a giant around the heavenly Asgard (Völuspá. was present in them all. belonged to king Odin. When Gylfi sought Odin and his men he came to a citadel which. Mithra especially used it in giving courage to the men whom he sent out as soldiers to war. Presumably the author of Heimskringla has chosen this foreign word in order not to wound the religious feelings of readers with a native term. When Gylfi asked the names of these chiefs. then it lay near at hand to modify. to lay his hands on their head and give them bjannak". consequently. Vigfusson. With these words of Tertulianus it is interesting to compare the following passage in regard to Odin in the Heimskringla: "It was his custom when he sent his men to war. as I believe.that is. The rest that Heimskringla and the Younger Edda tell about the king Odin who immigrated to Europe is mainly taken from the stories embodied in the mythological songs and traditions in regard to the god Odin who ruled in the celestial Valhal. the second Jafnhár. for if bjannak really means bread. The men who drink and present exercises in arms are the einherjes of the myth. whom they associated with the Greek Hermes and called Hermes-Trismegistus . given the correct definition of the word. One of the three. and. and there has been uncertainty in regard to its significance. the impression of the disagreeable similarity between the heathen and Christian usages. The citadel in which Gylfi finds the triple Odin is decorated in harmony with the Valhal described by the heathen skalds. and if the author of Heimskringla desired in this way to indicate that Odin. those who believed that Odin was identical with Hermes also regarded him as identical with Hermes-Trismegistus. The well-known Icelandic philologist. the thrice greatest and highest. according to the statement of the gatekeeper. he received an answer that indicates that none of the three alone was Odin. New Platonian works had told much about an originally Egyptian god. is told. which means bread. but three thrones. by the aid of sacred usages. that his spirit could leave the body and go to faroff regions. The name Hermes-Trismegistus became known through Latin authors even to the scholars in the middle age convents. says the door-keeper. by the aid of a foreign word for bread. and that his body lay in the meantime as if asleep or dead. of Zoroaster and of Hermes-Mercurius." which in the middle age was ascribed to Mercury. What Heimskringla tells about Odin. But at the same time the complete harmony between what Tertulianus tells about Mithra and Heimskringla about Odin is manifest. had. It was accordingly taken for granted that Odin had appropriated this name in order to anticipate Christianity with a sort of idea of trinity. It seems to me probable that what gave rise to this story was the surname "the thrice-highest. In the myth. having referred it to the Scottish word bannock and the Gaelic bangh. not even Teutonic. Here belongs what is told about the war of Odin and the Asiatics with the Vans. was regarded as one of the epithets which Odin assumed. Bjannak is not a Norse word. just as Zoroaster. by the laying on of hands and the breaking of bread . and the one on the highest throne is Þriði. Gylfi himself is taken from the . the one above the other.that is. and upon each of the thrones a chief. but when he had entered the hall he there saw not one throne.is concerned. 24). as a matter of course. amid. his progenitor. is named Hár.

and that they are throughout the work of the Latin scholars in the middle age. history. as it were of necessity. was accepted for centuries. 138). no matter from what race they spring. Snær. in connection with the fable about the Asiatic emigration. these old and genuine Teutonic migration sagas have. he did not play the part of a king. but by a gradual increase of the population and consequent moving of their boundaries. myself given to myself" (Hávamál. As a rule. and still has its defenders. THE RESULT OF THE FOREGOING INVESTIGATIONS. The Fornaldar sagas (Hversu Noregur byggðist 1) make him a descendant of Fornjótr. Herewith I close the examination of the sagas in regard to the Trojan descent of the Teutons.mythology. but of a giant. That a few new settlers year by year extend the boundaries of a race has no influence on the imagination.an hypothesis which. from a purely historical standpoint. but. and diffusion of the human race. and it . that they actually do not need to be aware of it. in a Christian time. Geitir. should be treated with the utmost caution. and in regard to the immigration of Odin and his Asia-men to Saxland. to all appearances. and much less do they need to remember it in sagas and songs. But that of which they furnish evidence is. given to Odin. and as such were regarded as the aborigines of the North . who. Jökull. and the Scandinavian peninsula. Hlér. When Odin and the Asas had been made immigrants to the North. when he perceived death drawing near. not by the sudden influx of large masses. doubtless belong to Jotunheim. or at least of the Teutonic part of it. &c. Such an expansion of the territory may take place. and how it gradually grew to be what we find these sagas to be in Heimskringla and the Younger Edda. and is completely refuted by the genuine migration sagas of Teutonic origin which were rescued from oblivion. dwelling in Jotunheim. I have shown that they do not belong to the Teutonic heathendom. by my spear wounded. all the old migration sagas. Logi. and of which I shall give an account below. and his descendants. among Teutons converted to Christianity. and Kári.. and there need not have been any very remarkable or memorable events in connection therewith. but little more claim than the fables of the Christian age in regard to Odin's emigration from Asia to be looked upon as containing a kernel of reality. how entirely foreign to the Teutonic heathens was the idea of an immigration from Troy or Asia. has its origin in the words which a heathen song lays on Odin's lips: "I know that I hung on the windtossed tree nine nights. The assumption that they concealed within themselves a tradition preserved for centuries among the Teutons themselves of an ancient emigration from Asia is altogether improbable. marked himself with the point of a spear. In my opinion. and be so little remarked by the people living around the centre. 14. Denmark. the soil in which the seed could be developed. This must in each case be carefully considered. The story that Odin. they are of great interest on account of their connection with what the myths have to say in regard to the oldest dwelling-places. I have pointed out the seed from which the sagas grew. Large portions of the earth's surface may have been appropriated by various races. with his sons. and besides. it was quite natural that the giants were made a historical people. but that they were born.

one of their Latin scholars wrote a little treatise. Among the Longobardians it fared better. It is not perceptible to the eye. on the lower Elbe. . far in the north. THE LONGOBARDIAN MIGRATION SAGA. is a saga-figure taken from mythology. Then it came to pass that the Vandals. the other named Ajo. No wonder. She and these sons were the rulers among the Vinnilians. then. Tacitus speaks of them with admiration as a small people whose paucity. A hundred years after they had become settled in North Italy. Five hundred years later we find them as rulers in Pannonia. What there still remains of migration sagas from the middle ages. Hengist. at least among the class possessing Latin culture. The Longobardians dwelt at that time in the most northern part of Germany. in a time when the art of writing was known . A people's spreading over new territory may be compared with the movement of the hour-hand on a clock. Such undertakings are of themselves worthy of being remembered. But even in such cases it is surprising how soon the real historical events either are utterly forgotten or blended with fables. and among them Christianity was introduced later. REMINISCENCES IN THE POPULAR TRADITIONS OF THE MIDDLE AGES OF THE HEATHEN MIGRATION SAGA. Gambara had two sons: one by name Ibor.is a most remarkable instance of this. is. Among them was a little people called the Vinnilians. 123). and yet the separate generations may scarcely have been conscious of the change in progress. and among the Vinnilians was a woman by name Gambara. which begins in the following manner: "In the name of our Lord Jesus Christ! Here begins the oldest history of our Longobardian people. and produce as its final result an immense expansion. according to their own immigration saga. alas! but little. are said to have planted their feet on British soil. which rendered them secure in the midst of the numerous and mighty tribes around them. There is an island called Skadan. and they are attended by results that easily cling to the memory. They had then been converted to Christianity. under whose command the Saxons. The conquest and settlement of England by Saxon and Scandinavian tribes . too. taken from the sagatreasure of the Teutons themselves. was balanced by their unity and warlike virtues. who have left their old abodes to seek new homes.can continue generation after generation. immigrations have taken place in large masses. if we discover in mythology those heroes under whose leadership the Longobardians and Goths believed they had emigrated from their original Teutonic homes. which gradually. There dwelt many peoples. he says. since they appeal more to the fancy.and that. B. 15. and is only realised by continued observation. when Tiberius invaded their boundaries. and there we shall find him later on (see No. Within the ken of Roman history they appear in the first century after Christ. however. Among the Franks the stream of national traditions early dried up. whence they invade Italy. In many instances. De Origine Longobardorum. monopolise the interest. probably in Luneburg.

then arm yourselves for war!' Then made answer Ibor and Ajo and their mother Gambara: 'It is better for us to arm ourselves for war than to pay tribute to the Vandals'. Bainaib. 94). And as he looked up he saw the Vinnilians. who ruled successfully in Italy. Odin's wife. and he was himself a Longobardian by birth. as you now have named them. thanks to Frigg's help. and from their reports he gives some facts. Frigg." Paulus makes a digression to discuss many remarkable things to be seen in Scandinavia: the light summer nights and the long winter nights. and went to seek a land in which they might settle. Of the earliest history of his people he relates the following: The Vinnilians or Longobardians. If ye will not. an animal resembling a deer hunted by the neighbours of the Scandinavians. to them I shall give victory'. so that they. and said to them: 'Pay ye tribute unto us. defended themselves well. they addressed themselves to Odin (Godan) with a prayer that he should grant them victory. and there was fought the aforesaid battle. Anthaib. you must also give them victory!' And he gave them victory. The mother of these two leaders was called Gambara. When Ambri and Assi. are of Teutonic descent. and No. and observed the hair hanging down from the faces of their women. in accordance with his resolve. and great reliance was placed on her prudence in difficult circumstances. who was distinguished among her people for her keen understanding and shrewd advice. a monk in the convent Monte Cassino. long-beards.with their dukes Ambri and Assi. and a cave in a rock where seven men in Roman clothes have slept for centuries (see Nos. The story is then told how this occurred. that it was Odin's custom when he awoke to look out of the window. Then Frigg gave the advice that the Vinnilians should set out at the rising of the sun. and got the upper hand.that is to say. the Vinnilians conquered the Vandals. But at the same time Ibor and Ajo. Then they bade farewell to their friends and to their country. and that the women should accompany their husbands and arrange their hair so that it should hang like a beard under their chins. . the dukes of the Vandals. and it was determined by lot which part should emigrate from the native land and seek new homes. and thereupon they occupied Aldonus. they were divided into three parts. From that day the Vinnilians were called Longobardians . Then he relates that the Vinnilians left Scandinavia and came to a country called Scoringia. Odin's wife. who demanded tribute from them. turned against the Vinnilians. to the east toward the rising sun. The part whose destiny it became to leave their native land chose as their leaders the brothers Ibor and Ajo. Odin answered and said: 'Those whom I first discover at the rising of the sun. a maelstrom which in its vortex swallows vessels and sometimes throws them up again. and then she waked him. Then the Longobardians left their country and came to Golaida." In the days of Charlemagne the Longobardians got a historian by name Paulus Diaconus. the chiefs of the Vinnilians. When the sky cleared and the sun was about to rise. went to the couch where her husband was sleeping and directed his face to the east (where the Vinnilians stood). which was open. in which. and came originally from the island Scandinavia. and their mother Gambara. and how the Vinnilians got the name Longobardians in a manner corresponding with the source already quoted. Then he continues: "When the population on this island had increased beyond the ability of the island to support them. and Burgundaib. heard this. with the one addition. who were in the bloom of manhood and were distinguished above the rest. And then said he: 'What long-beards are they?' Then said Frigg to Odin: 'My lord. Then he says that he has talked with persons who had been in Scandinavia. from which it is evident that his informants had reference to Scania with its extensive coast of lowlands and shallow water. addressed themselves to Frigg (Frea). the Scritobinians (the Ski-Finns). beseeching her to assist them. 79-81.

for he is the same as the one called by the Romans Mercury. judging from expressions in the heathen poems of the North (Völuspá 53. indeed. The Longobardian emigration saga . Frigg. but as mythic characters. lower. in the first place. those starving had resolved to kill all the aged and all children. thanks to a good and wise woman. This conflict resulted in a terrible winter and consequent famine throughout the North. and appeals to the testimony of Paulus Diaconus. In this mythological description we shall find Ajo and Ibor. Odin did not live among the Teutons. by name Gambaruc. where they had a contest with the Vandals. and in a manner thoroughly corresponding with the stories recorded in the North concerning the relations between Odin and his wife. then they sailed past Moringia (Möre) and came to Gutland. Odin-Mercury did not live at the time when the Longobardians emigrated from Scandinavia. and when there occurred a terrible famine. under whose leadership the Longobardians emigrated. he says. and reappear in mythic sources (see No. but this awful resolve was not carried out. I shall refer to these adventures later on. But the Longobardian monk is not Saxo's only source. The emigration took place.as we find it recorded in the seventh century. and thence to the German continent. ruled. and by the aid of the goddess Frigg they won the victory. and lower beings on the other hand. not in itself. but among the Greeks. but as divine beings. but much earlier. he says. not as men. 112). They belong to the Teutonic mythology. Thus we find in Paulus Diaconus the ideas in regard to Odin-Mercury which I have already called attention to.contains unmistakable internal evidence of having been taken from the people's own traditions. reappear and take part in the events. as we shall show. seems to . but unavoidable in connection with the well-being of nature and man. and Hengist. This Saxo also admits. who are actors in the great winter which Saxo speaks of. but in a more original from. and thus after many adventures they at length became masters of a large part of Italy. and as events which took place in the beginning of time in a conflict between the Asas and Vans on the one hand. First. From Gutland they sailed to Rugen. a man. at a time when a Danish king. who advised that a part of the people should emigrate. Ajo and Ibor are Aggo and Ebbo. In the second place.Paulus Diaconus finds this Longobardian folk-saga ludicrous. and then again in the time of Charlemagne . still the long-banished divinities. and got the name Longobardians. there were only five generations between the emigration of the Longobardians and the time of Odoacer. but because Odin was. This was done under the leadership of her sons Aggo and Ebbo. by name Snö. In the third place. though not as leaders of the Longobardians. In regard to this account it must be remarked that although it contains many details not found in Paulus Diaconus. Vafþrúðnismál 1-4). For although this relation was a good and tender one. Odin and Frigg. The emigrants came first to Blekingia (Blekinge). under whom the Saxons landed in Britain. were known to him from purely northern sources. that although the Longobardians had been Christians for nearly 200 years when the little book De Origine Longobardorum appeared. Paulus' Gambara is Saxo's Gambaruc. and the brothers Aggo and Ebbo. It is proper to show what form the story about the Longobardian emigration had assumed toward the close of the twelfth century in the writings of the Danish historian Saxo Grammaticus. still it is the same narrative that has come to Saxo's knowledge. not a god. Paulus thereupon relates the adventures which happened to the Longobardians after the battle with the Vandals. Proof of this is already the circumstance. and although the queen of heaven. According to Paulus.

And the story goes on to say that Geirrod. according to the other. and as a mythical winter symbol he corresponds to king Snö in Saxo. which necessitated emigrations. the Saxons are descended from Danes and Northmen. by which Ajo. According to one opinion held by those who knew the Greeks and Romans. and his very name. still is distinguished for its remarkably vigorous . and Agio. 16. the Saxons are descended from the remnants of Alexander the Great's Macedonian army. and turned winter giants like Jökull. who wrote his chronicle in the tenth century. Their historian. The prose introduction has no original connection with Grímnismál itself. and that they landed in Hadolaun. by Frigg.have been a good mother in the belief of the Teutons. but from an island. like the Longobardians crossing the sea. and is apparently from an author belonging to the same school as those who regarded the giants as the original inhabitants of Scandinavia. protects Geirrod's brother Agnar. had pushed the boat in which Agnar was sitting away from shore. Here. "stingy with food. The man and wife find fault with each other's protégés. Odin has a favourite by name Geirrod. into historical kings of Norway. he says. Agnar. which is based on native traditions. Geirrod is in reality the name of a giant. on the other hand. From the Longobardians I now pass to the great Teutonic group of peoples comprised in the term the Saxons. abandoned to the waves of the sea. which. when the country became over-populated. Frigg remarks about Geirrod. so that he lets his guests starve if they are many". this does not hinder her from being represented as a wily person. which washes the northern shores of the Teutonic continent. Snær. begins by telling what he has learned about the origin of the Saxons. THE SAXON AND SWABIAN MIGRATION SAGA. that is to say. Widukind. how she and he have different favourites among men. is protected. we may say in passing. not from Troy or Asia. at the secret command of Odin. situated in the ocean. with a will of her own which she knows how to carry out. The story is found in the prose introduction to the poem Grímnismál. 2). near the mouth of the Elbe. one of the leaders of the Longobardians. Frigg. Widukind so far takes his position between these opinions that he considers it certain that the Saxons had come in ships to the country they inhabited on the lower Elbe and the North Sea.. Acho. that is to say. and in the form in which we now have it. The story looks like a parable founded on the Longobardian saga. and that the boat had gone to sea with Agnar and had not returned. an introduction which in more than one respect reminds us of the Longobardian emigration saga. His "stinginess of food when too many guests come" seems to point to lack of food caused by the unfavourable weather. in the district Hadeln. or like one grown in a Christian time out of the same root as the Longobardian story. different opinions are opposed to each other. reminds us of the names Aggo. that he is a prince. &c. He dwells in the uttermost North. In both it is mentioned how Odin from his dwelling looks out upon the world and observes what is going on. beyond the mythical Gandvik (Þórsdrápa. of Germany. and vie with each other in bringing greater luck to their favourites. Even a Norse story tells how Frigg resolves to protect a person whom Odin is not able to help. it belongs to a Christian age. is known. Agnar. The absolutely positive result of the Longobardian narratives written by Longobardian historians is that the Teutonic race to which they belonged considered themselves sprung. and the giant is in the myth a being who brings hail and frost.

so that a large number of the men were able to ride on horseback. and that all they who. and the above resolution was rescinded. it was decided to procure ships. they embarked. A Swabian chronicle. "What do you bid?" answered the Saxon. was acquired in the following manner: While the Saxons were still in their ships in the harbour. and instead. Armed with weapons. the fathers of families who had several sons should slay them all except the one they loved most. richly adorned with gold and wearing a gold necklace. Accompanied by their female friends. He called a convention of all the most noble men in the land. because the inhabitants were heathens who annually sacrificed twelve Christians to their gods. that the Thuringians were rulers in the land to which the immigrants came. The Saxon said he would accept this offer. tells. which claims that the Swabians also came from the North and experienced about the same adventures as the Saxons when they came to their new home. on the condition that they abstained from plundering and murder. According to this account. went ashore. gives from popular traditions additional details in regard to the migration and the voyage. At the time when the famine came there ruled a king Rudolph over that region in the Northland whence the people emigrated. after which they scattered themselves along the coast. and that bloody battles had to be fought before they got possession of it. and thus an understanding was reached. might remain and buy what they needed and sell whatever they could. written about 860. Widukind's account attempts to give the Saxons a legal right. a new convention was called. and they came to the river Alba (Elbe). at least to the landing-place and the immediate vicinity. Here they went ashore. they gathered 20. There a Thuringian met him and asked him: "Why do you wear so much gold around your lean neck?" The youth answered that he was perishing from hunger. were doomed to die. with the addition that the leader of the Saxons in their emigration was a chief by name Hadugoto. The Thuringian filled the skirts of his frock with sand. he says. Then he took the sand he had bought and scattered it as widely as possible over the ground. brave Saxons. together with much other booty. consisting of peasants whose ancestors throughout the middle ages preserved the communal liberty in successful conflict with the feudal nobility.000 horses. which they crossed. and the Thuringian said in derision: "I will give you as much sand as you can carry in your clothes". should seek new homes beyond the sea. which carried them to a Danish harbour near a place. This Swabian narrative. "How much do you ask ?" inquired the Thuringian. and. which is called Slesvik. covering in this manner so large an area that it . they hewed their ships into pieces. and they had not sailed far before they were attacked by a violent storm. it was resolved on both sides to open negotiations. and there it was decided that. Widukind's statement that the Saxons crossed the sea to Hadeln is found in an older Saxon chronicle. Then it occurred that a Saxon man. according to the former resolution. and I will show you that my foolishness will be your advantage". but the youth said: "Go with me. the emigration was caused by a famine which visited the Northland situated on the other side of the sea. This legal right. out of which the Thuringians were unable to drive them. who was himself included in this dreadful resolution. and was seeking a purchaser of his gold ornaments. in order to put an end to the famine. that the Saxons. and to put an end to all discussion in regard to a return to the old dear fatherland.population. Near by was a large sand-hill. Thanks to a young man. like the latter. they proceeded in this manner through the country ruled by the Danes. by name Ditwin. The rest followed the riders on foot. which seems to be copied from the Saxon. says the author. the Saxon gave him his gold ornaments and returned to the ships. and the Saxons found it foolish. The Thuringians laughed at this bargain with contempt. Then they wandered through the country which lay before them.

but the Saxons answered that hitherto they had faithfully observed the treaty. and prophecy are written with these characters. When Hrabanus speaks of the Northmen. had traditions in harmony with those of the other Teutonic tribes. and that they had not taken more territory than they had purchased with their gold. for they.. in which he has recorded a Runic alphabet. wholly ignore the traditions of the Franks. But I did not mean to say that we are wholly without evidence that another theory existed among the Franks. and instead present the scholastic doctrine concerning the descent of the Franks from Troy and the Moeotian marshes. The Thuringians sent messengers and complained of this.gave the Saxons a fortified camp. Hrabanus Maurus. too. Hrabanus has certainly not heard of any such theory. 17. unlike those of the other Teutonic tribes. There lived in the time of Charlemagne and after him a Frankish man whose name is written on the pages of history as a person of noble character and as a great educator in his day.should not surprise us. incantation. the founder of the first library and of the first large convent school in Germany. The Frankish chronicles make the Franks proceed from Pannonia straight to the Rhine. later archbishop in Mayence. We have already stated that the Frankish chronicles. and then came from the North to Germany. that their ancestors were supposed to have come from a northern country beyond the Baltic. He encouraged its study and use. that some value should be attached to the customs of the fathers and to the old memories from heathen times . a scholar of the distinguished Alcuin. Thus the Saxons got a firm foothold in the land. The fact that he was particularly a theologian and Latinist did not prevent his honouring and loving the tongue of his fathers and of his race. THE FRANKISH MIGRATION SAGA. and he succeeded in bringing about that sermons were preached in the churches in the Teutonic dialect of the church-goers. and found kingdoms there before he comes to Denmark and Sweden. But of such a view there is not a trace to be found in the middle age chronicles. His statement that all the Teutons came from the North rests on the same foundation as the native traditions . This statement cannot be harmonised with the hypothesis concerning the Asiatic descent of the Franks and other Teutons. That a Latin scholar with so wide a horizon as his also was able to comprehend what the majority of his colleagues failed to understand . and that songs and formulas for healing. except by assuming that the Teutons on their immigration from Asia to Europe took a route so far to the north that they reached the Scandinavian peninsula and Denmark without touching Germany and Central Europe. and added the information that it is the alphabet used by the Northmen and by other heathen tribes. Thus we find that the sagas of the Saxons and the Swabians agree with those of the Longobardians in this. he adds that those who speak the German tongue trace their descent from the Northmen. The Icelandic imitations of the hypothesis make Odin and his people proceed from Tanais to Saxland. Of an immigration from the East the traditions of these tribes have not a word to say. The Swabian version identifies this country distinctly enough with the Scandinavian peninsula. One of the proofs of his interest in this matter he has given us in his treatise De invocatione linguarum. the abbot in Fulda.viz.

The identification is not made by Paulus himself. Ragnaricii. In its capacity as cradle of the Gothic race. 123. with an air of superiority. On this account Jordanes gives as complete a description of this island as possible. under the influence of the hypothesis regarding the Trojan descent of the Franks. he is able to enumerate many more. but was found in the Frankish source which furnished him with what he tells about the ancestors of Charlemagne. 18. Rani. Jordanes also points out. which carried victorious weapons over all eastern and southern Europe and Asia Minor. He gives us special accounts of a . He first tells what the Greek and Roman authors Claudius Ptolemy and Pomponius Mela have written about it. regarded himself as descended from the same royal family as that from which the Amalians. Thus it appears that. wrote in the sixth century the history of his people. but he also reports a great many things which never before were known in literature. however. has made an emigration leader mentioned in the popular traditions identical with the Trojan Anchises. Unfortunately several of the Scandinavian tribe-names given by him are so corrupted by the transcriber that it is useless to try to restore them. and that he was the one under whose leadership the Saxon tribes left their old homes. the Franks originally emigrated under the same chief as the Saxons. There still remains one trace of the Frankish migration saga. The most populous and mighty of all the Teutonic tribes was during a long period the Gothic. and that is the statement of Paulus Diaconus. Raumaricii. for instance. JORDANES ON THE EMIGRATION OF THE GOTHS. are easily recognisable as the names of tribes in various parts of Sweden and Norway. out of whose loins our race burst forth like a swarm of bees and spread over Europe. he says. and Swabians from the North. This is corroborated by the Ravenna geographer. a Romanised Goth. Jordanes. that while the geographer Ptolemy did not know more than seven nations living on the island Scandza. The traditions of the Goths also referred the cradle of the race to Scandinavia. In the North. Hallin. who also informs us that a certain Anschis. was a Teutonic emigration leader. the more so since he. TRACES OF AN ALAMANNIC MIGRATION SAGA. traced their ancestry. It is also evident that Jordanes himself has had a confused notion of the proper geographical or political application of the names. and founded kingdoms between the Don in the East and the Atlantic ocean and the Pillars of Hercules in the West and South. and the Frankish source. The character and position of Ansgisel in the heathen myth will be explained in No. Finnaithæ (inhabitants of Finved). as. Some of them. this island Scandza is clearly of great interest to Jordanes. according to the Frankish saga. Bergio. Saxons. GEPIDÆ. unless they were found in the lost Historia Gothorum by Cassiodorus . AND HERULIANS. there is a great ocean. Ostrogothæ. and of other Teutonic tribes. the famous royal family of the East Goths. through his father Vamod or Alano-Vamut.things which either Jordanes himself or Cassiodorus had learned from Northmen who were members of the large Teutonic armies then in Italy. THE MIGRATION SAGA OF THE BURGUNDIANS.which produced the sagas in regard to the descent of the Longobardians. concerning the supposed identity of the name Ansgisel with the name Anchises. Ansgisel. Vagoth. made above. and in this ocean there is a large island called Scandza.

Scandinavian people, which he calls sometimes Svehans and sometimes Svethidi, and with these words there is every reason to believe that he means the Swedes in the wider or more limited application of this term. This is what he tells about the Svehans or Svethidi: The Svehans are in connection with the Thuringians living on the continent, that Teutonic people which is particularly celebrated for their excellent horses. The Svehans are excellent hunters, who kill the animals whose skins through countless hands are sent to the Romans, and are treasured by them as the finest of furs. This trade cannot have made the Svehans rich. Jordanes gives us to understand that their economical circumstances were not brilliant, but all the more brilliant were their clothes. He says they dressed ditissime. Finally, he has been informed that the Svethidi are superior to other races in stature and corporal strength, and that the Danes are a branch of the Svethidi. What Jordanes relates about the excellent horses of the Swedes is corroborated by the traditions which the Icelanders have preserved. The fact that so many tribes inhabited the island Scandza strengthens his conviction that this island is the cradle of many of the peoples who made war on and invaded the Roman Empire. The island Scandza, he says, has been officina gentium, vagina nationum - the source of races, the mother of nations. And thence - he continues, relying on the traditions and songs of his own people - the Goths, too, have emigrated. This emigration occurred under the leadership of a chief named Berig, and he thinks he knows where they landed when they left their ships, and that they, like the Longobardians, on their progress came in conflict with the Vandals before they reached the regions north of the Black Sea, where they afterwards founded the great Gothic kingdom which flourished when the Huns invaded Europe. The saga current among the Goths, that they had emigrated from Scandinavia, ascribed the same origin to the Gepidæ. The Gepidæ were a brave but rather sluggish Teutonic tribe, who shared the fate of the Goths when the Huns invaded Europe, and, like the Goths, they cast off the Hunnish yoke after the death of Attila. The saga, as Jordanes found it, stated that when the ancestors of the Goths left Scandza, the whole number of the emigrants did not fill more than three ships. Two of them came to their destination at the same time; but the third required more time, and therefore the first-comers called those who arrived last Gepanta (possibly Gepaita), which, according to Jordanes, means those tarrying, or the slow ones, and this name changed in course of time into Gepidæ. That the interpretation is taken from Gothic traditions is self-evident. Jordanes has heard a report that even the warlike Teutonic Herulians had come to Germany from Scandinavia. According to the report, the Herulians had not emigrated voluntarily from the large island, but had been driven away by the Svethidi, or by their descendants, the Danes. That the Herulians themselves had a tradition concerning their Scandinavian origin is corroborated by history. In the beginning of the sixth century, it happened that this people, after an unsuccessful war with the Longobardians, were divided into two branches, of which the one received land from the emperor Anastasius south of the Danube, while the other made a resolve, which has appeared strange to all historians, viz., to seek a home on the Scandinavian peninsula. The circumstances attending this resolution make it still more strange. When they had passed the Slavs, they came to uninhabited regions - uninhabited, probably, because they had been abandoned by the Teutons, and had not yet been occupied by the Slavs. In either case, they were open to the occupation of the Herulians; but they did not settle there. We misunderstand their character if we suppose that they failed to do so from fear of being disturbed in their possession of them. Among all the Teutonic tribes none were more

distinguished than the Herulians for their indomitable desire for war, and for their rash plans. Their conduct furnishes evidence of that thoughtlessness with which the historian has characterised them. After penetrating the wilderness, they came to the landmarks of the Varinians, and then to those of the Danes. These granted the Herulians a free passage, whereupon the adventurers, in ships which the Danes must have placed at their disposal, sailed over the sea to the island "Thule," and remained there. Procopius, the East Roman historian who records this (De Bello Goth., ii. 15), says that on the immense island Thule, in whose northern part the midnight sun can be seen, thirteen large tribes occupy its inhabitable parts, each tribe having its own king. Excepting the Ski-Finns, who clothe themselves in skins and live from the chase, these Thulitic tribes, he says, are scarcely to be distinguished from the people dwelling farther south in Europe. One of the largest tribes is the Gauts (the Götar). The Herulians went to the Gauts and were received by them. Some decades later it came to pass that the Herulians remaining in South Europe, and dwelling in Illyria, were in want of a king. They resolved to send messengers to their kinsmen who had settled in Scandinavia, hoping that some descendant of their old royal family might be found there who was willing to assume the dignity of king among them. The messengers returned with two brothers who belonged to the ancient family of rulers, and these were escorted by 200 young Scandinavian Herulians. As Jordanes tells us that the Herulians actually were descended from the great northern island, then this seems to me to explain this remarkable resolution. They were seeking new homes in that land which in their old songs was described as having belonged to their fathers. In their opinion, it was a return to the country which contained the ashes of their ancestors. According to an old middle age source, Vita Sigismundi, the Burgundians also had old traditions about a Scandinavian origin. As will be shown further on, the Burgundian saga was connected with the same emigration chief as that of the Saxons and Franks (see No. 123). Reminiscences of an Alamannic migration saga can be traced in the traditions found around the Vierwaldstädter Lake. The inhabitants of the Canton Schwitz have believed that they originally came from Sweden. It is fair to assume that this tradition in the form given to it in literature has suffered a change, and that the chroniclers, on account of the similarity between Sweden and Schwitz, have transferred the home of the Alamannic Switzians to Sweden, while the original popular tradition has, like the other Teutonic migration sagas, been satisfied with the more vague idea that the Schwitzians came from the country in the sea north of Germany when they settled in their Alpine valleys. In the same regions of Switzerland popular traditions have preserved the memory of an exploit which belongs to the Teutonic mythology, and is there performed by the great archer Ibor (see No. 108), and as he reappears in the Longobardian tradition as a migration chief, the possibility lies near at hand, that he originally was no stranger to the Alamannic migration saga.


The migration sagas which I have now examined are the only ones preserved to our time on Teutonic ground. They have come down to us from the traditions of various tribes. They embrace the East Goths, West Goths, Longobardians, Gepidæ, Burgundians, Herulians, Franks, Saxons, Swabians, and Alamannians. And if we add to these the evidence of Hrabanus Maurus, then all the German tribes are embraced in the traditions. All the evidences are unanimous in pointing to the North as the Teutonic cradle. To these testimonies we must, finally, add the oldest of all - the testimony of the sources of Tacitus from the time of the birth of Christ and the first century of our era. The statements made by Tacitus in his masterly work concerning the various tribes of Germany and their religion, traditions, laws, customs, and character, are gathered from men who, in Germany itself, had seen and heard what they reported. Of this every page of the work bears evidence, and it also proves its author to have been a man of keen observation, veracity, and wide knowledge. The knowledge of his reporters extends to the myths and heroic songs of the Teutons. The latter is the characteristic means with which a gifted people, still leading their primitive life, makes compensation for their lack of written history in regard to the events and exploits of the past. We find that the man he interviewed had informed himself in regard to the contents of the songs which described the first beginning and the most ancient adventures of the race, and he had done this with sufficient accuracy to discover a certain disagreement in the genealogies found in these songs of the patriarchs and tribe heroes of the Teutons - a disagreement which we shall consider later on. But the man who had done this had heard nothing which could bring him, and after him Tacitus, to believe that the Teutons had immigrated from some remote part of the world to that country which they occupied immediately before the birth of Christ - to that Germany which Tacitus describes, and in which he embraces that large island in the North Sea where the seafaring and warlike Sviones dwelt. Quite the contrary. In his sources of information Tacitus found nothing to hinder him from assuming as probable the view he expresses - that the Teutons were aborigines, autochthones, fostered on the soil which was their fatherland. He expresses his surprise at the typical similarity prevailing among all the tribes of this populous people, and at the dissimilarity existing between them on the one hand, and the nonTeutonic peoples on the other; and he draws the conclusion that they are entirely unmixed with other races, which, again, presupposes that the Teutons from the most ancient times have possessed their country for themselves, and that no foreign element has been able to get a foothold there. He remarks that there could scarcely have been any immigrations from that part of Asia which was known to him, or from Africa or Italy, since the nature of Germany was not suited to invite people from richer and more beautiful regions. But while Tacitus thus doubts that non-Teutonic races ever settled in Germany, still he has heard that people who desired to exchange their old homes for new ones have come there to live. But these settlements did not, in his opinion, result in a mixing of the race. Those early immigrants did not come by land, but in fleets over the sea; and as this sea was the boundless ocean which lies beyond the Teutonic continent and was seldom visited by people living in the countries embraced in the Roman empire, those immigrants must themselves have been Teutons. The words of Tacitus are (Germ., 2): Germanos indigenas crediderim minimeque aliarum gentium adventibus et hospitiis mixtos, quia nec terra olim sed classibus advehebantur qui mutare sedes quærebant, et immensus ultra atque ut sic dixerim, adversus Oceanus raris ab orbe nostro navibus aditur. "I should think that the Teutons themselves are aborigines, and not at all mixed through immigrations or connection with non-Teutonic tribes. For those desiring to change homes did not in early times come by land, but in

ships across the boundless and, so to speak, hostile ocean - a sea seldom visited by ships from the Roman world." This passage is to be compared with, and is interpreted by, what Tacitus tells when he, for the second time, speaks of this same ocean in chapter 44, where he relates that in the very midst of this ocean lies a land inhabited by Teutonic tribes, rich not only in men and arms, but also in fleets (præter viros armaque classibus valent), and having a stronger and better organisation than the other Teutons. These people formed several communities (civitates). He calls them the Sviones, and describes their ships. The conclusion to be drawn from his words is, in short, that those immigrants were Northmen belonging to the same race as the continental Teutons. Thus traditions concerning immigrations from the North to Germany have been current among the continental Teutons already in the first century after Christ. But Tacitus' contribution to the Teutonic migration saga is not limited to this. In regard to the origin of a city then already ancient and situated on the Rhine, Asciburgium (Germ., 3), his reporter had heard that it was founded by an ancient hero who had come with his ships from the German Ocean, and had sailed up the Rhine a great distance beyond the Delta, and had then disembarked and laid the foundations of Asciburgium. His reporter had also heard such stories about this ancient Teutonic hero that persons acquainted with the Greek-Roman traditions (the Romans or the Gallic neighbours of Asciburgium) had formed the opinion that the hero in question could be none else than the Greek Ulysses, who, in his extensive wanderings, had drifted into the German Ocean and thence sailed up the Rhine. In weighing this account of Tacitus we must put aside the Roman-Gallic conjecture concerning Ulysses' visit to the Rhine, and confine our attention to the fact on which this conjecture is based. The fact is that around Asciburgium a tradition was current concerning an ancient hero who was said to have come across the northern ocean with a host of immigrants and founded the abovenamed city on the Rhine, and that the songs or traditions in regard to this ancient hero were of such a character that they who knew the adventures of Ulysses thought they had good reason for regarding him as identical with the latter. Now, the fact is that the Teutonic mythology has a hero who, to quote the words of an ancient Teutonic document, "was the greatest of all travellers," and who on his journeys met with adventures which in some respects remind us of Ulysses'. Both descended to Hades; both travelled far and wide to find their beloved. Of this mythic hero and his adventures see Nos. 96-107, and No. 107 about Asciburgium in particular. It lies outside the limits of the present work to investigate whether these traditions contain any historical facts. There is need of caution in this respect, since facts of history are, as a rule, short-lived among a people that do not keep written annals. The historical songs and traditions of the past which the Scandinavians recorded in the twelfth century do not go further back in time than to the middle of the ninth century, and the oldest were already mixed with stories of the imagination. The Hellenic historical records from a pre-literary time were no older; nor were those of the Romans. The question how far historically important emigrations from the Scandinavian peninsula and Denmark to Germany have taken place should in my opinion be considered entirely independent of the old migration traditions if it is to be based on a solid foundation. If it can be answered in the affirmative, then those immigrations must have been partial returns of an Aryan race which, prior to all records, have spread from the South to the Scandinavian countries. But the migration traditions themselves clearly have their firmest root in myths, and not in historical memories; and at all events are so closely united with the myths, and have been so transformed by song and fancy, that

they have become useless for historical purposes. The fact that the sagas preserved to our time make nearly all the most important and most numerous Teutonic tribes which played a part in the destiny of Southern Europe during the Empire emigrants from Scandinavia is calculated to awaken suspicion. The wide diffusion this belief has had among the Teutons is sufficiently explained by their common mythology - particularly by the myth concerning the earliest age of man or of the Teutonic race. As this work of mine advances, I shall find opportunity of presenting the results of my investigations in regard to this myth. The fragments of it must, so to speak, be exhumed from various mounds, and the proofs that these fragments belong together, and once formed a unit, can only be presented as the investigation progresses. In the division "The Myth concerning the Earliest Period and the Emigrations from the North," I give the preparatory explanation and the general résumé (Nos. 20-43). For the points which cannot there be demonstrated without too long digressions the proofs will be presented in the division "The Myth concerning the Race of Ivaldi" (Nos. 96-123).

III. THE MYTH CONCERNING THE EARLIEST PERIOD AND THE EMIGRATIONS FROM THE NORTH. 20. THE CREATION OF MAN. THE PRIMEVAL COUNTRY. SCEF THE BRINGER OF CULTURE. The human race, or at least the Teutonic race, springs, according to the myth, from a single pair, and has accordingly had a centre from which their descendants have spread over that world which was embraced by the Teutonic horizon. The story of the creation of this pair has its root in a myth of ancient Aryan origin, according to which the first parents were plants before they became human beings. The Iranian version of the story is preserved in Bundehesh, chap. 15. There it is stated that the first human pair grew at the time of the autumnal equinox in the form of a rheum ribes with a single stalk. After the lapse of fifteen years the bush had put forth fifteen leaves. The man and woman who developed in and with it were closely united, forming one body, so that it could not be seen which one was the man and which one the woman, and they held their hands close to their ears. Nothing revealed whether the splendour of Ahuramazda - that is to say, the soul - was yet in them or not. Then said Ahuramazda to Mashia (the man) and to Mashiana (the woman): "Be human beings; become the parents of the world!" And from being plants they got the form of human beings, and Ahuramazda urged them to think good thoughts, speak good words, and do good deeds. Still, they soon thought an evil thought and became sinners. The rheum ribes from which they sprang had its own origin in seed from a primeval being in human form, Gaya Maretan (Gayomert), which was created from perspiration (cp. Vafþrúðnismál 33:1-4), but was slain by the evil Angra Mainyu. Bundehesh then gives an account of the first generations following Mashia and Mashiana, and explains how they spread over the earth and became the first parents of the human race.

The Hellenic Aryans have known the myth concerning the origin of man from plants. According to Hesiodus, the men of the third age of the world grew from the ash-tree (ek meleon); compare the Odyssey, xix. 163. From this same tree came the first man according to the Teutonic myth. Three Asas, mighty and worthy of worship, came to Midgard (at húsi, Völuspá 17; compare Völuspá 4, where Midgard is referred to by the word salr) and found á landi Ask and Embla. These beings were then "of little might" (lítt megandi) and "without destiny" (örlögslausir); they lacked önd, they lacked óðr, they had no lá or læti or litr goða, but Odin gave them önd, Hoener gave them óðr, Lodur gave them lá and litr goða. In reference to the meaning of these words I refer my readers to No. 95, simply noting here that litr goða, hitherto defined as "good colour" (góðr litr), signifies "the appearance (image) of gods". From looking like trees Ask and Embla got the appearance which before them none but the gods had assumed. The Teutons, like the Greeks and Romans, conceived the gods in the image of men. Odin's words in Hávamál 49 refer to the same myth. The passage explains that when the Asa-god saw the modesty of the new-made human pair he gave them his own divine garments to cover them. When they found themselves so beautifully adorned it seems to indicate the awakening sense of pride in the first human pair. The words are: "In the field (velli at) I gave my clothes to the two wooden men (tveim trémönnum). Heroes they seemed to themselves when they got clothes. The naked man is embarrassed." Both the expressions á landi and velli at should be observed. That the trees grew on the ground, and that the acts of creating and clothing took place there is so self-evident that these words would be meaningless if they were not called for by the fact that the authors of these passages in Hávamál and Völuspá had in their minds the ground along the sea, that is, a sea-beach. This is also clear from a tradition given in Gylfaginning 9, according to which the three Asas were walking along the sea-beach (með sævarströndu) when they found Ask and Embla, and created of them the first human pair. Thus the first human pair were created on the beach of an ocean. To which sea can the myth refer? The question does not concern the ancient Aryan time, but the Teutonic antiquity, not Asia, but Europe; and if we furthermore limit it to the Christian era there can be but one answer. Germany was bounded in the days of Tacitus, and long before his time, by Gaul, Rhoetia, and Pannonia on the west and south, by the extensive territories of the Sarmatians and Dacians on the east, and by the ocean on the north. The so-called German Ocean, the North Sea and the Baltic, was then the only body of water within the horizon of the Teutons, the only one which in the days of Jordanes, after the Goths long had ruled north of the Black Sea, was thought to wash the primeval Teutonic strands. The myth must therefore refer to the German Ocean. It is certain that the borders of this ocean where the myth has located the creation of the first human pair, or the first Teutonic pair, was regarded as the centre from which their descendants spread over more and more territory. Where near the North Sea or the Baltic was this centre located?

Even this question can be answered, thanks to the mythic fragments preserved. A feature common to all well-developed mythological systems is the view that the human race in its infancy was under the special protection of friendly divinities, and received from them the doctrines, arts, and trades without which all culture is impossible. The same view is strongly developed among the Teutons. Anglo-Saxon documents have rescued the story telling how Ask's and Embla's descendants received the first blessings of culture from the benign gods. The story has come to us through Christian hands, which, however, have allowed enough of the original to remain to show that its main purpose was to tell us how the great gifts of culture came to the human race. The saga names the land where this took place. The country was the most southern part of the Scandinavian peninsula, and especially the part of it bordering on the western sea. Had these statements come to us only from northern sources, there would be good reason for doubting their originality and general application to the Teutonic tribes. The IcelandicNorwegian middle-age literature abounds in evidence of a disposition to locate the events of a myth and the exploits of mythic persons in the author's own land and town. But in this instance there is no room for the suspicion that patriotism has given to the southernmost part of the Scandinavian peninsula a so conspicuous prominence in the earliest history of the myth. The chief evidence is found in the traditions of the Saxons in England, and this gives us the best clue to the unanimity with which the sagas of the Teutonic continent, from a time prior to the birth of Christ far down in the middle ages, point out the great peninsula in the northern sea as the land of the oldest ancestors, in conflict with the scholastic opinion in regard to an emigration from Troy. The region where the myth located the first dawn of human culture was certainly also the place which was regarded as the cradle and centre of the race. The non-Scandinavian sources in question are: Beowulf's poem, Ethelwerdus, Willielmus Malmesburiensis, Simeon Dunelmensis, and Matthæus Monasteriensis. A closer examination of them reveals the fact that they have their information from three different sources, which again have a common origin in a heathen myth. If we bring together what they have preserved of the story we get the following result: [* Geijer has partly indicated its significance in Svea Rikes Häfder, where he says: "The tradition anent Sceaf is remarkable, as it evidently has reference to the introduction of agriculture, and shows that it was first introduced in the most southern part of Scandinavia".] One day it came to pass that a ship was seen sailing near the coast of Scedeland or Scani, [* The Beowulf poem has the name Scedeland (Scandia): compare the name Skådan in De origine Longobardorum. Ethelwerd writes: "Ipse Skef cum uno dromone advectus est in insulam Oceani, quæ dicitur Scani, armis circumdatus," &c.] and it approached the land without being propelled either by oars or sails. The ship came to the sea-beach, and there was seen lying in it a little boy, who was sleeping with his head on a sheaf of grain, surrounded by treasures and tools, by glaives and coats of mail. The boat itself was stately and beautifully decorated. Who he was and whence he came nobody had any idea, but the little boy was received as if he had been a kinsman, and he received the most constant and tender care. As he came with a sheaf of grain to their country the people called him Scef, Sceaf. [* Matthæus Westmonasteriensis translates this name with frumenti manipulus, a sheaf.] (The Beowulf poem calls him Scyld, son of Sceaf, and gives Scyld the son Beowulf, which originally was another name of Scyld.) Scef grew up among this people, became their benefactor and king, and ruled most honourably for many years. He died far advanced in age. In accordance with his

own directions, his body was borne down to the strand where he had landed as a child. There in a little harbour lay the same boat in which he had come. Glittering from hoarfrost and ice, and eager to return to the sea, the boat was waiting to receive the dead king, and around him the grateful and sorrowing people laid no fewer treasures than those with which Scef had come. And when all was finished the boat went out upon the sea, and no one knows where it landed. He left a son Scyld (according to the Beowulf poem, Beowulf son of Scyld), who ruled after him. Grandson of the boy who came with the sheaf was Healfdene-Halfdan, king of the Danes (that is, according to the Beowulf poem). The myth gives the oldest Teutonic patriarchs a very long life, in the same manner as the Bible in the case of Adam and his descendants. They lived for centuries (see below). The story could therefore make the culture introduced by Scef spread far and wide during his own reign, and it could make his realm increase with the culture. According to scattered statements traceable to the Scef-saga, Denmark, Angeln, and at least the northern part of Saxland, have been populated by people who obeyed his sceptre. In the North Götaland and Svealand were subject to him. The proof of this, so far as Denmark is concerned, is that, according to the Beowulf poem, its first royal family was descended from Scef through his son Scyld (Skjold). In accordance herewith, Danish and Icelandic genealogies make Skjold the progenitor of the first dynasty in Denmark, and also make him the ruler of the land to which his father came, that is, Skane. His origin as a divinely-born patriarch, as a hero receiving divine worship, and as the ruler of the original Teutonic country, appears also in Fornmannasögur, v. 239, where he is styled Skáninga goð, the god of the Scanians. Matthæus Westmonasteriensis informs us that Scef ruled in Angeln. According to the Anglo-Saxon chronicle, the dynasty of Wessex came from Saxland, and its progenitor was Scef. If we examine the northern sources we discover that the Scef myth still may be found in passages which have been unnoticed, and that the tribes of the far North saw in the boy who came with the sheaf and the tools the divine progenitor of their celebrated dynasty in Uppsala. This can be found in spite of the younger saga-geological layer which the hypothesis of Odin's and his Trojan Asas' immigration has spread over it since the introduction of Christianity. Scef's personality comes to the surface, we shall see, as Skefill and Skelfir. In the Fornaldar-sagas, ii. 9, and in Flateyjarbók, i. 24, Skelfir is mentioned as family patriarch and as Skjold's father, the progenitor of the Skjoldungs. There can, therefore, be no doubt that Scef, Scyld's father, and through him the progenitor of the Skjoldungs, originally is the same as Skelfir, Skjold's father, and progenitor of the Skjoldungs in these Icelandic works. But he is not only the progenitor of the Skjoldungs, but also of the Ynglings. The genealogy beginning with him is called in the Flateyjarbók, Skilfinga ætt eðr skjöldunga ætt. The Younger Edda also (i. 522) knows Skelfir, and says he was a famous king whose genealogy er köllut skilvinga ætt. Now the Skilfing race in the oldest sources is precisely the same as the Yngling race both from an Anglo-Saxon and

from a heathen Norse standpoint. The Beowulf poem calls the Swedish kings scilfingas, and according to Thjodulf, a kinsman of the Ynglings and a kinsman of the Skilfing, Skilfinga niðr, are identical (Ynglingatal 18). Even the Younger Edda seems to be aware of this. It says in the passage quoted above that the Skilfing race er í Austrvegum. In the Thjodulf strophes Austrvegar means simply Svealand, and Austrkonungur means Swedish king. Thus it follows that the Scef who is identical with Skelfir was in the heathen saga of the North the common progenitor of the Ynglinga and of the Skjoldunga race. From his dignity as original patriarch of the royal families of Sweden, Denmark, Angeln, Saxland, and England, he was displaced by the scholastic fiction of the middle ages concerning the immigration of Trojan Asiatics under the leadership of Odin, who as the leader of the immigration also had to be the progenitor of the most distinguished families of the immigrants. This view seems first to have been established in England after this country had been converted to Christianity and conquered by the Trojan immigration hypothesis. Wodan is there placed at the head of the royal genealogies of the chronicles, excepting in Wessex, where Scef is allowed to retain his old position, and where Odin must content himself with a secondary place in the genealogy. But in the Beowulf poem Scef still retains his dignity as ancient patriarch of the kings of Denmark. From England this same distortion of the myth comes to the North in connection with the hypothesis concerning the immigration of the "Asiamen," and is there finally accepted in the most unconcerned manner, without the least regard to the mythic records which were still well known. Skjold, Scef's son, is without any hesitation changed into a son of Odin (Ynglingasaga 5 ; Foreword to Gylfaginning, 5). Yngvi, who as the progenitor of the Ynglings is identical with Scef, and whose very name, perhaps, is or has been conceived as an epithet indicating Scef's tender age when he came to the coast of Scandia - Yngvi-Scef is confounded with Freyr, is styled YngviFreyr after the appellation of the Vanagod Ingunar Freyr, and he, too, is called a son of Odin (Foreword to Gylfaginning 5), although Freyr in the myth is a son of Njord and belongs to another race of gods than Odin. The epithet with which Ari Fróði in his Schedæ characterises Yngvi, viz., Tyrkjakonungr, Trojan king, proves that the lad who came with the sheaf of grain to Skane is already in Ari changed into a Trojan.

21. SCEF THE AUTHOR OF CULTURE IDENTICAL WITH HEIMDAL-RIG, THE ORIGINAL PATRIARCH. But in one respect Ari Fróði or his authority has paid attention to the genuine mythic tradition, and that is by making the Vana-gods the kinsmen of the descendants of Yngvi. This is correct in the sense that Scef-Yngvi, the son of a deity transformed into a man, was in the myth a Vana-god. Accordingly every member of the Yngling race and every descendant of Scef may be styled a son of Freyr (Freys áttungr), epithets applied by Thjodulf in Ynglingatal in regard to the Uppsala kings. They are gifts from the Vana-gods - the implements which point to the opulent Njord, and the grain sheaf

Vanaheim was thought to be situated on the other side of it. definitely named Vans. Scef-Yngvi comes across the ocean. in a wonderful manner. and that he performed that which is attributed to Scef . and is accordingly called both áss and vanr (Þrymskviða 15). by nine sisters (Hyndluljóð 35 = Völuspá in . who is a Skjoldung. Freyr. and the identity will be established by the whole investigation. grandfather to Dan.that is. according to both Anglo-Saxon and the northern sources above quoted. begot with an earthly woman the son Jarl-Rig. But the progenitor of the Skjoldungs is. Heimdal is like Njord and Freyr a Vana-god by birth and birthplace. Thus Heimdal and Scef are identical. on a strand outside of which the swans sing (Gylfaginning 23). preserved in the saga of the Lower Rhine and of the Netherlands. the first who bore the kingly name. (2) Rígsþula relates that the god Heimdal. without sails or oars. Though an Asagod by adoption.which Scef-Yngvi brings with him to the ancient people of Scandia. Konr-Rig is.which is Frey's symbol . Thus the descendants of these swans that sing outside of the Vana-palace Nóatún and their arrival to the shores of Midgard seem to have some connection with the coming of the Van Scef and of culture. Heimdal-Rig is thus the father of the progenitor of the Skjoldungs. Thus Njord's castle Nóatún is situated in the West. are only a few out of many. In the faded memory of Scef. They are all descended from that pair of swans which swim in the sacred waters of Urd's fountain. it is related that he lived for a time among men as a man. This is indicated in Lokasenna 34. Meanwhile these three divinities. The Vans most prominent in the myths are Njord. strong enough to wage a victorious war against the Asas (Völuspá). organised and elevated human society and became the progenitor of sacred families in Midgard. as in Ynglingasaga the judge (Dómarr) begets the first king. Scef. The Vans have constituted a numerous clan. and of him alone among the gods. Hyndla's Lay tells how these friendly powers prepared the child for its important mission. From Gylfaginning 16 we learn that there are myths telling of the origin of the swans. who in turn became the father of Konr-Rig. Who among them was Scef-Yngvi? The question can be answered as follows: (1) Of Heimdal. but is drawn over the billows by a swan. More can be presented. These proofs are sufficient. and his rule is peaceful and rich in blessings. as the very name indicates and as Vigfússon already has pointed out. In Rígsþula the Jarl begets the king. in the same direction as Ægir's palace in the great western ocean and in the outermost domain of Jörmungrund (see 93). like Scef's. there comes to a poverty-stricken people a boat in which there lies a sleeping youth. having assumed the name Rig. according to Ynglingasaga 17. As a tender boy. and it is the story of the divine origin of the Skjoldungs Rígsþula gives us when it sings of Heimdal as Jarl's father and the first king's grandfather. The boat is. Heimdal was sent by the Vans to the southern shores of Scandinavia with the gifts of culture. and Heimdal. after it was born in the outermost borders of the earth (við jarðar þröm). where Loki in Ægir's hall says to the Van Njord: "You were sent from here to the East as a hostage to the gods" (Þú vart austr héðan gísl um sendr at goðum). Rig is.

that he has several names . and the venom-cold Elivágar (Grímnismál. Heimdal journeys fram með sjávarströndu. 63 and 93). Heimdal then visits Afi's and Amma's well-kept and cleanly house. gets the grain-sheaf for its pillow. Nos. but happiness prevails everywhere. a song written in Christian times. and are smiths. When the child has been strengthened in this manner for its great mission. and numerous treasures are placed around it. There is born. and. and around whose rush-bordered edge the reeds of poetry grow (Eilífr Guðrúnarson. Thence Rig betakes himself to Faðir's and Móðir's elegant home. in that land which his presence has blessed". and remains three days. For its mission the child had to be equipped with strength. Here he is called Rígr . the son Jarl. The people are settled. the strength of the water in Urd's fountain. Different homes show different customs and various degrees of wealth.the thralls. we find him journeying along "green paths. and wisdom.Skamma 7. but also tools (tangir skópu ok tól görðu). nine months later. from house to house. which quotes a satire of late origin. compare No. when he has developed into manhood. human culture has germinated under his influence and the beginnings of classes in society with distinct callings appear. It is certain that there were not only weapons and ornaments.but the introduction to the poem informs us that the person so called is the god Heimdal (einhverr af ásum sá er Heimdallr hét). but also workmen's tools among the treasures. In Rígsþula. with hardening liquids. Svalkaldr sær. It was given to drink jarðar magn. The country is here also described as situated near the sea. Evidence is presented in No. 82. which contains the highest spiritual gifts. Gylfaginning). Culture is in complete operation. The expression Sónar dreyri shows that the child had tasted liquids from the subterranean fountains which water Yggdrasil and sustain the spiritual and physical life of the universe (cp. it is laid sleeping in the decorated ship. but to the heathen skalds Són is the name of Mímir's fountain. svalkaldr sær and Sónar dreyri (Völuspá in Skamma 10). and Heimdal has instructed them in runes. Skáldskaparmál). It is necessary to compare these expressions with Urðar magn. In Skáldskaparmál. the freemen. Heimdal visits Ái's and Edda's unpretentious home. The child Heimdal has. is hospitably received. this name is given to a jar in which Suttung preserves this valuable liquor. where the ancient Aryan root of the myth concerning Heimdal's nine mothers is pointed out). drunk from Mímir's fountain. Nine months thereafter the son Þræll (Thrall) is born to this family. therefore. The boy grows up among the inhabitants on the Scandian coast. perform handiwork. The third subterranean fountain is Hvergelmir.it is true of him as of nearly all mythological persons. It should be borne in mind that the gods made on the Iða-plains not only ornaments. they plough and bake. endurance. they spin and weave. Jarðar magn (the earth's strength) is in reality the same as Urðar magn. is an appropriate designation of this fountain. From Hvergelmir comes the river Svöl. 82 that Scef-Heimdal brought the fire-auger to primeval man who until that time had lived without the blessings produced by the sacred fire. where this reminiscence of a triple heathen-mythic drink reappears as a potion of forgetfulness allaying sorrow. Thus the three Teutonic classes . svalkaldr sær and Sónar dreyri in Guðrúnarkviða in forna 21. and nine months thereafter the son Karl (Churl) is born in this household. cool sea. Són contains the mead of inspiration and wisdom. which keeps the world-tree ever green and sustains the physical life of creation (Völuspá). and . Heimdallar Galdr in Gylfaginning 27.

according to Tacitus. the nobility trace theirs also from Thor. men of all classes and conditions. a theory alike strange to the Teutons and to the other peoples of antiquity. during a time when they live in peace and happiness protected by Heimdal's fostering care and sceptre. whom Völuspá's skald gathered around the seeress when she was to present to them a view of the world's development and commanded silence with the formula: "Give ear. we find for the first time words which have the character of names . In strophe 48. in the full physical sense of the word. to establish in a more satisfactory manner the connection between Rígsþula and other accounts which are found in fragments concerning the Teutonic patriarch period. Through him the families of chiefs get the right of precedence before both the other classes. In the account of Rig's visit to the three different homes lies the mythic idea of a common fatherhood. and Heimdal's coming . The Teutonic patriarch Mannus is. Heimdal-Rig's reign must be regarded as the happy ancient age.have received their divine sanction from Heimdal-Rig. not even Heimdal's. is not interrupted by the intervention of the visiting god. saying that peaceful amusement (kyrra fugla) does not become him longer. and axe-age with cloven shields. They are the descendants of Ask and Embla. The circumstance that these names are mentioned makes it possible. gets the same name after he has given proof of his knowledge in the runes introduced among the children of men by Heimdal. While all classes trace their descent from Heimdal. The oldest history of man did not among the Teutons begin with a paradisian condition. The idea of a common fatherhood we find again in the question of Faðir's grandson. men. and all three have been honoured with divine birth. starting with Ask and Embla.Danr and Danpr. Nevertheless he is. half-human middle class or bastard clan. but must not be construed into the theory of a continued progress based on the law and nature of things. and besides his divine father he has had a human father. of which nearly all mythologies have dreamed. as we shall show below. Konr. great and small. an idea which must not be left out of sight when human heroes are described as sons of gods in the mythological and heroic sagas. Thor becomes their progenitor. begotten with Móðir. at the same time. Jarl's son. skilled in navigating ships and wielding swords. we read of men of violence who visit the peaceful. have more precious halls and a better freehold than you". the grandson of Heimdal. as his name indicates. the son of a god and the grandson of the goddess Earth." which continues through history and receives its most terrible development before Ragnarok. but that he should rather mount his steed and fight against men. nor is there developed by this intervention a half-divine. the last of the fragment.the nobility . from a genealogical standpoint. A crow sings from the tree to Jarl's son. Konr. all ye divine races. Their pedigree. and the crow seeks to awaken his ambition or jealousy by saying that "Dan and Danp. inherits in Rígsþula the name of the divine co-father. Some time has elapsed between the creation of Ask and Embla. that is. that of the second patriarch. The more common mythical names of the persons appearing in Rígsþula are not mentioned in the song. and through him from Odin. They are sons of the gods and. and is called Rígr Jarl. Already in the next age following. and has even shown himself superior to his father in this respect. as shall be shown below. and under the third patriarch begins the "knife-age. a man. This view that the younger generation surpasses the older points to the idea of a progress in culture among men. sons of Heimdal". Heimdal-Rig's and Faðir's son.

It is in short the same chain of ideas as we find in Rígsþula. "the worthy.among men. Rig. The manner in which the strange child was received by the inhabitants of Scandia's coast. and of Dyggvi. Vigfússon (Corpus Poet. and the oldest of kings is the third. has understood this correspondence between Dómarr and RigJarl. whose name was Judge (Dómarr). HEIMDAL'S SON BORGAR-SKJOLD. Hence it is that the Vana-child comes across the western sea with fire. . the author of Supplementum Historiæ Norvegiæ. and it is there stated that the ruler who first possessed the kingly title in Svithiod was the son of a chief. the daughter of Danp. Rígsþula has been rescued in a single manuscript. as Bugge (Norr. corresponds to Rig-Jarl in the other. Ynglingasaga 17 contains a passage which is clearly connected with Rígsþula or with some kindred source. the latter with the epithet Dyggvi. and the tenderness with which it was cared for (diligenti animo." were afterwards woven into the royal pedigree in Ynglingasaga. 22. the judge. THE SECOND PATRIARCH. That Domar and his royal son. without metal implements. Arngrim relates that Rig Jarl was married to a daughter of Danp. When Scef-Heimdal had performed his mission. of Dómarr.. Some person. and Dyggvi corresponds to Konr. is here married to Danp's daughter. and with the sheaf of grain. whose son is the first king. Heimdal is the first patriarch. and has given to the former the wife which originally belonged to the latter. like the representative of the Judge's dignity in Ynglingasaga. with implements. then the second mythic patriarchage begins. Dómarr. Fornkv. and without knowledge of agriculture. the legislator. and Judge was married to Drott (Drótt). and was perhaps in his time. viz. the priest. the first king. symbolising the development of human society on a religious basis into a political condition of law culminating in royal power." "the noble. Bor.) has already shown the mythic symbolism and unhistorical character of this royal pedigree's Vísburr. This manuscript was owned by Arngrim Jonsson. But the barbarous condition may have been attended with innocence and goodness of heart. The passage mentions three persons who appear in Rígsþula. a condition of barbarism must have preceded his arrival. through whose hands Ynglingasaga has passed before it got its present form in Heimskringla.) conjectures. less fragmentary than it now is. As culture begins with Heimdal. These are not historical Uppsala kings. and when the beautiful boat in which he came had disappeared beyond the western horizon. Thus the representative of the Jarl's dignity. but personified myths. Danp. and Dan. the Jarl-judge is the second. where Heimdal. son of a god. says Ethelwerd) seem to indicate this. becomes the father of the Jarl-judge. is a matter which we cannot at present consider. of Dómaldr-Dómvaldr. in the one version of the chain of ideas. At all events the first generations after Ask and Embla have been looked upon as lacking fire. the son of a god and the founder of culture. lord of Danpsted. consequently they have been without the art of the smith.

of similar meaning. Borgar's fostering by "the white Asa-god" has accordingly not been forgotten. Skjold's son Gram and Borgar's son Halfdan are found on close examination (see below) to be identical with each other. like Skjold. Dan." and as such it was applied to the common defensive armour. 336-354) occupies an important position. sword in hand. the son of the ancient patriarch Heimdal. he holds a position answering to that of the Jarl. (2) That he has performed similar exploits to those of Skjold. according to Ynglingasaga. is the progenitor of Denmark's king Healfdene. 350). Heimdal's son. Berker. who takes a daughter of Danp as his wife. (4) That he is married to Drott. but whose son becomes a Danish king and the progenitor of the Skjoldungs. determines the destiny of his race. Dan. the progenitor of the Skjoldungs. and Rig-Jarl are names of the same mythic person. borginn. Borgar. Borgar's wife is Drott (Drotta. The name Anzius points to the Gothic ansi (Asagod). a Teutonic Nestor. Like Skjold he fights beasts and robbers. rer. thus has the names Skjold.. His mythic character as ancient patriarch is there well preserved. As such he is also mentioned in Script. the same name as Danp's daughter. The word Skjöldr has from the beginning had. and with king Halfdan Berggram in whom the names of both are united. He was fostered by a king Anzius. the meaning "the protecting one. and those derived therefrom. p. "the defending or protecting one". In German poems of the middle age ("Wolfdieterich. who is not himself styled king. Borgarr is derived from bjarga (past. This corresponds to Heimdal's son Rig-Jarl. and like him he wins his bride. Drota). leader of Skane's warriors (Borcarus cum Scanico equitatu. The second patriarch. and becomes 250 years old. (6) That this son of his is called Halfdan.In Saxo. He is a South Scandinavian chief. a man by name Borgar (Borcarus . while in the Anglo-Saxon sources Scef. part. through his son Scyld (Skjold). or has in the lapse of past ages acquired. From Norse poetry a multitude of examples can be given of the paraphrasing of a name with another. but instead of a king's title. 16-19. 154). and himself the second patriarch. and Rig-Jarl in the heathen traditions. (pp. or even several others. is Danp's daughter." "the shielding one. which in the myth is the cradle of the human race. after Heimdal. Borgar. or of the Teutonic race." "König Ruther." and others) Borgar is remembered by the name Berchtung. Thus we find: (1) That Borgar appears as a chief in Skane. that is. (3) That he is not clothed with kingly dignity. The name Borgarr is a synonym of Skjöldr.Hist. (5) That his son is identical with the son of Skjold. Among the exercises taught him by Anzius are daz werfen mit dem messer und schissen zu dem zil (compare Rig-Jarl's exercises. and thus has the same meaning. Meanwhile he. becomes the founder of a Danish royal dynasty. but has a son who founds a royal dynasty in Denmark. This corresponds to Heimdal's son Rig-Jarl. who. where he is called Burgarus and Borgardus. cp. These testimonies contain incontestible evidence that Skjold. Rígsþula . the shield. who. He is der grise mann. and Berther. wears a beard reaching to the belt. borg). the progenitor of the Amelungs (the Amalians). the son of Scef-Heimdal.

according to Saxo. Before I present these. in this form refers to bjarga. and Halfdan Borgarson mentioned by Saxo. the third patriarch. 42). Halfdan the Old slays king Sigtrygg. may in an older form have been related to the name Berchter. In the time of Borgar and his son. Berchtung is. and marries Signe. Danish scholars have already discovered what I pointed out above. are identical with each other and with Halfdan the Skjoldung and Halfdan the Old of the Icelandic documents.] Gram slays king Sictrugus. Berchtung. and marries Alveig.35). THE THIRD PATRIARCH. as indicated. daughter of Eyvind. in close relation to heroes who belong to the race of Hildings. Borgar is. Halfdan the Old slays king Sigtrygg. the chain of evidence requires that I establish clearly the names applied to Borgar in our literary sources." Hildebrand's ancestor. wise and kind. with Borgar's son grows up as foster-brother Hamal (Helgakviða Hundingsbana II 2. Berchtung becomes the foster-father of an Amalian prince. Halfdan Berggram. Halfdan Berggram. Saxo: Hyndluljóð: 1 Prose Edda: Fornaldarsögur: . BORGAR-SKJOLD'S SON HALFDAN. Berchtung is not a king. The very name Borgarr. king of the Finns. and marries Almveig with the consent of Eymund. and referred to different generations. the stepfather of Hildeger. Halfdan Skjoldung slays king Sigtrygg. that the kings Gram Skjoldson. Of Hildeger Saxo relates in part the same as the German poem tells of Hildebrand. and marries Alfny. many of the most important events of the myth take place. according to "Wolfdieterich. but a very noble and greatly-trusted chief. 23. and Halfdan Borgarson. 29. Like Borgar. daughter of Eymund. The Norse saga places Borgar. The Identity of Gram. the foster-father and counsellor of heroes and kings. daughter of Sumblus. whose name points to the Amalian race. The correctness of this view will appear from the following parallels: [See also author's footnote below. which. see Nos. and the German saga places Berchtung.

son of Skjold. He kills seven brothers and nine of their half-brothers. Odlungs. Halfdan Berggram marries Sigrutha. He kills seven brothers. after having slain Ebbo on his wedding-day. Halfdan Skjoldung. son or descendant of Skjold. Halfdan Borgarson marries Guritha.Saxo: Gram. Halfdan Berggram uses an oak as a weapon. Hyndluljóð: 2 Prose Edda: Saxo: Saxo: Gram uses a club as a weapon. is the progenitor of the Skjoldungs. Halfdan the Old is the progenitor of the Hildings. Halfdan Borgarson is the progenitor of a royal family of Denmark. &c. is the progenitor of the Skjoldungs. &c. 4 Saxo: Saxo: . Odlungs. after having killed Sivarus on his wedding-day. 3 Saxo: Saxo: Saxo: Gram secures Groa and slays Henricus on his wedding-day. Ynglings. He kills twelve brothers. Ynglings. Halfdan Borgarson uses an oak as a weapon.

a chronicle in which fifty to sixty successive rulers were to be brought upon the stage and off again. Saxo's task of producing a chain of events running through many centuries forced him to consider the three names A'. but the thread of Ariadne seems to be wanting. On this account it might be supposed that Saxo had treated the rich mythical materials at his command in an arbitrary and unmethodical manner. and Halfdan Borgarson. In the very nature of the case. and the position the saga (restored in this manner) concerning the third patriarch. The simplest of the rules he followed was to avail himself of the polyonomy with which the myths and heroic poems are overloaded. and most mythic persons continue to exist through all ages. and the different forms of his name A'. A closer analysis of these sagas. is attacked by Ericus. while myths and heroic traditions embrace but few generations. when he assumed the desperate task of constructing. the synthesis possible on the basis of such an analysis. and has handled them with all due reverence. in order to solve this problem. A''. Saxo: 5 Combined sources: Saxo: These parallels are sufficient to show the identity of Gram Skjoldson. who slew a Swedish king. Halfdan Berggram. Ericus is the son of the daughter of the slain Swedish king. This supposition is however. the son of Skjold-Borgar. when they were to be recorded by the Icelandic authors. Svipdag is the slain Swedish king's grandson (daughter's son). A'''. A''. by the aid of the mythic traditions and heroic poems at hand. and to do so in the following manner: Assume that a person in the mythic or heroic poems had three or four names or epithets (he may have had a score). a chronicle spanning several centuries . but a thorough study of the above-mentioned books of his history shows that he treated the delinquent with consistency. Saxo has examined his sources methodically and with scrutiny. and the grandson of Heimdal. We will call this person A.Saxo: Gram. and we must bear in mind that these mythic materials were far more abundant in his time than they were in the following centuries. Halfdan Berggram. gives complete proof of this identity. Saxo was obliged. who slew a Swedish king. assumes in the chain of mythic events. [Author's footnote: The first nine books of Saxo form a labyrinth constructed out of myths related as history. is attacked in war by Svipdag. wrong. and A''' as originally three . to put his material on the rack.

Saxo tries to resolve this mythical product. or corroborated by statements preserved in other sources. but which can assure us that our investigation is in the right course only when corroborated by indications belonging to other groups. By comparing all that is related concerning these nine names. We will assume that in the myths and heroic poems these have been named B and C. by the aid of the abundance of names. and therefore had. then it is proper to continue the investigation in the direction thus started.. A''.persons. C has also been styled C'. we are enabled gradually to form a more or less correct idea of what the original myth has contained in regard to A. are found in Icelandic or other documents. and blended by the authors of myths and stories into one person A. and there belong to persons whose adventures are in some respects the same. and in this way we get the following analogies: A' A'' A''' is to B' is to B'' is to B''' and C' as and C'' and as and C'''.for instance. B. These. the chief persons A'. in course of time.. C''. and C. who had performed certain similar exploits. A''. For we have seen - . B'. If it then happens . of historical elements. and there forms a necessary link in the chain of events. have in the songs of the skalds had several names and epithets. &c. then. The parallels given in the text above are a concrete example of the above scheme. Saxo. &c. by what Saxo tells about A'. composed. The similarities remaining form one important group of indications which he has furnished to guide us. and if a myth thus restored easily dovetails itself into an epic cycle of myths. It may also be that one or more of the stories applied to A were found more or less varied in different sources. In such cases he would report the same stories with slight variations about A'. every new step brings forth new confirmations from various sources. as follows: A' A'' A''' is to B' is to B' is to B'' and C' as and C'' and as and C'. B'''. A''. in his opinion. B''.that two or more of the names A'. been confounded with each other. B has also been called B'. makes as many subordinate persons .as is often the case . then the investigation has produced the desired result. B''. and A'''. Out of this one subordinate person B. and in other respects are made clearer and more complete. C'''.as he made out of the original chief person A that is. As best he can. A''. too. If. and A'''. other persons are also mentioned. and B''' . But in the events which Saxo in this manner relates about A'. An aid in the investigation is not unfrequently the circumstance that the names at Saxo's disposal were not sufficient for all points in the above scheme.B'. Thus also with C. and A'''. short cuts . so to speak. and to distribute the exploits attributed to A between A'. and A'''. We then find analogies which open for us. A''. and A'''. C'.

and gave himself no rest until he had taken Gram's life and realm. Hostilities on account of the robbing of the woman. and who was a son of Signe. B = Ebbo (Ebur. whereupon he got into a feud with Svipdag. who fought against him with varying success of arms. an irreconcilably bitter foe. or Hadding. named Hadingus. To the other. The one named Guthormus (Gudhormr) who was a son of Groa. has been saved by Thor from a dangerous adventure. whom Svipdag treated in a very different manner. Gram-Halfdan is separated froma Groa.A = Halfdan. Gram-Halfdan kills Groa's father Sigtrygg. harmaverting songs. and that he slew her father. Hading. Groa is married to the brave Orvandel. Jöfurr). trebled in A' = Gram. The Groa of the myth is mentioned in two other places: in Gróugaldur and in Gylfaginning. Orvandel. we learn in another place. B'' = Ebbo. In Gylfaginning she is the loving wife who forgets everything in her joy that her husband. he transferred the deadly hate he had cherished towards the father. both also in describing her as a tender person devoted to the members of her family. .] 24. he received into his good graces. too. Groa has a son Svipdag. but this. A''' = Halfdan Borgarson. though she was already bound to another man. Ibor. In Gróugaldur she is the mother whose love to her son conquers death and speaks consoling and protecting words from the grave. No. Gram left two sons. A'' = Halfdan Beggram. Both sources agree in representing her as skilled in good. her son is Svipdag. C doubled in C' = Svipdag. 33) Saxo relates in regard to Gram that he carried away the royal daughter Groa. Groa is robbed by Gram-Halfdan. and C'' = Ericus. Her husband is. Nor does Saxo mention who the person was from whom Gram robbed Groa. healing. as stated. HALFDAN'S ENMITY WITH ORVANDEL AND SVIPDAG (cp. the brave archer Orvandel. B''' = Sivarus. Saxo does not mention but this point is cleared up by a comparison with other sources. trebled in B'= Henricus. and which could not he extinguished in his blood. If we compare the statements in Saxo with those in Gróugaldur and Gylfaginning we get the following result: Saxo: Gylfaginning: Gróugaldur: Saxo: Saxo: Hyndluljóð: Skáldskaparmál: Saxo: King Sigtrygg has a daughter Groa. With Gram-Halfdan Groa has the son Gudhorm. The cause of the hatred of Svipdag against Gram.

Saxo: Svipdag attacks Gram-Halfdan. and also under other names to which I shall refer later. In this connection we find the key to Svipdag's irreconcilable conflict with GramHalfdan. From the grave Groa sings protecting incantations over her son. Svipdag pardons the son Gram-Halfdan has had with Groa. . The stepmother gives Svipdag a task which he thinks surpasses his strength.He courts Signe (Almveig in Hyndluljóð. must go to her grave and wake her out of the sleep of death. Concerning the Ynglings. king of the Finns. but persecutes his son with Signe (Alveig). and. Gróugaldur: Groa with her son Svipdag is once more with her first husband. if need requires her help. as a further investigation shows. HALFDAN'S IDENTITY WITH MANNUS IN "GERMANIA". his grandfather Sigtrygg's death. Groa. Alveig in Skáldskaparmál). We also find why he pardons Gudhorm: he is his own half-brother and Groa's son. and hence Saxo calls Sigtrygg king in Svithiod. Before her death Groa has told Svipdag that he. Ynglingasaga remarks that Yngvi was the name of everyone who in that time was the head of the family (Ynglingasaga 10). Sigtrygg. and Svipdag have in the myth belonged to the pedigree of the Ynglings. daughter of Sumbel. Svipdag. Svipdag's father Orvandel marries a second time. He must revenge himself on him on his father's and mother's account. Orvandel. 25. the favourite hero of the Teutonic mythology. After several conflicts he succeeds in conquering him and gives him a deadly wound. when I am to give a full account of the myth concerning him. is accordingly celebrated in song under the name Yngvi. Groa dies. He then goes to his mother's grave. the murder also of his father Orvandel. He must avenge his mother's disgrace.

The mother of his divine father is the goddess Earth.polyonomous like nearly all mythic beings . ch. Halfdan was the fruit of a double fatherhood. Andlungs. The war between these three . though greatly changed with the lapse of time. It is possible that both the older patriarchs originally were regarded rather as the founders and chiefs of the whole human race than of the Teutons alone. 36-43).With Gram-Halfdan the Teutonic patriarch period ends. ch. In his saga. In our native myths we rediscover this goddess . nine of which were the founders of the heroic families whose names were at that time rediscovered in the heathen-heroic songs then extant. those who dwell in the centre Hermionians (Hermiones. songs which continued to live. and the beginning of its iron age under Halfdan. was magnified in the Younger Edda into the report that he was the father of eighteen sons. Thus Mannus. mother Earth. where it is said of the Germans: "In old songs they celebrate Tuisco. Certain it is that the appellation Teutonic patriarch belonged more particularly to the third of the series.was the subject of a cycle of songs sung throughout Teutondom. its copper age under Skjold-Borgar. as told by Saxo. ut magni Thor filius existimatus. and he has been regarded as its progenitor. 40). In regard to the goddess Earth (Jord). though human. Herminones). also called Fjörgyn and Hlöðyn. the latter's half-brother Gudhorm. although the son of a human prince. 40). compare the goddess Terra Mater. a divine and a human. after the memory of the myths had faded and become confused. was respected as a son of Thor. that is to say. We have a reminiscence of this in Hyndluljóð 14-16. and Gudhorm's half-brother Hading or Hadding. Saxo was aware of this double fatherhood. and relates of his Halfdan Berggram that he. and Ylfings. the Swedes (Igitur apud Sveones tantus haberi coepit. Mannus is said to have had three sons. With Halfdan the pedigree is divided into three through his stepson Yngvi-Svipdag. The human race had its golden age under Heimdal.a statement which. 2. and his son Mannus as the source and founder of the race. the Svevians. a god born of Earth (Terra. According to what we have now stated in regard to Halfdan's genealogical position there can no longer be any doubt that he is the same patriarch as the Mannus mentioned by Tacitus in Germania." Tacitus adds that there were other Teutonic tribes. such as the Marsians. and the Vandals. as a characteristic trait that she is believed to take a lively interest and active part in the affairs of men and nations . on the lips of Germans throughout the middle ages (see Nos. Skilfings. Tacitus states (ch. As sons of her and Odin only Thor (Völuspá) and Baldur (Lokasenna) are definitely mentioned. His son Skjold-Borgar has been considered the founder of the Skjoldungs.in Odin's wife Frigg.a continuation of the feud beween Halfdan and Svipdag . and the source and founder of the Teutonic race. "Whence came the Skjoldungs. and all the free-born and gentleborn?" the song answers by pointing to "the foremost among the Skjoldungs" Sigtrygg's slayer Halfdan . is also the son of a god. Thor holds his protecting hand over Halfdan like a father over his son. Like his father. The Skilfinga-Ynglinga race has been named after Heimdal-Skelfir himself. after whose names those who dwell nearest the ocean are called Ingævonians (Ingævones). To the question. whose names were derived from other heroes of divine birth. and the rest Istævonians (Istævones). and honoured as a god among that people who longest remained heathen. divinis a populo honoribus donaretur ac publico dignus libamine censeretur). the Gambrivians.

and the author of Ynglingasaga.(eam intervenire rebus hominum. Frigg's high position as Odin's real and lawful wife. presupposes her to be of the noblest birth which the myth could bestow on a being born outside of the Asa clan. Unnr. which continued to be remembered among the Longobardians long after they became converted to Christianity. as hostages. as the queen of the Asa world. she is able to bring about that Odin. a view plainly presented in Saxo (p. probability. and as mother of the chief gods Thor and Baldur. also bears a son Uðr. Frigg's father is Fjörgynr (perhaps the same as Parganya in the Vedic songs). Vigfusson (and before him J. as we know. and he informs us that she is especially worshipped by the Longobardians and some of their neighbours near the sea. the ruler of the sea. that the duties of the daughter and sister are above the wife's. who. also called Auðr (Rich). the goddess of earth. and contributed towards making the latter lords of Asgard. Nor are they deceived in their trust in her. this tradition. where the tradition is related as history. Frigg's taking part with the Vans against her own husband can scarcely be explained otherwise than by the Teutonic principle. and Ónarr. This explains the attitude given to Frigg in the war between the Asas and Vans by Völuspá. and trust in her desire and ability to intervene when the fate of a nation is to be decided by arms. Njord is. was celebrated in song as the mother of Mannus' divine father. confirms the theory that the goddess Jord. In the form given to this tradition in Christian times and in Saxo's hands. This view is corroborated in two ways. and as a christening present was in order. in the days of Tacitus. without considering the consequences. it is disparaging to Frigg as Odin's wife. When the purely heathen documents (Völuspá. In our mythic documents neither Frigg nor Njord are of Asa race. down to the time when Origo Longobardorum was written. is identical with Frigg. and wealth. would favour the theory that Frigg is a goddess of the race of Vans. Both these names are applied among the gods to Njord alone as the god of navigation. a Van. Tacitus' statement. Lokasenna) describe her as a tender wife and mother. also called Annarr. and her mother is Narfi's daughter Night. the gift could be no other than victory over their foes. Grimm) and others have seen in this name a feminine version of Njörðr. Thus it is proved that the god who is the father of the Teutonic patriarch Mannus is himself the son of Frigg.) Thus Frigg is Njord's sister. Tacitus calls the goddess Jord Nerthus. and in Fjörgyn-Frigg a feminine form of Fjörgynr. but the pith of Saxo's narrative is. 353). and illustrated by Gudrun's conduct toward Atli. that the Longobardians were one of the races who particularly paid worship to the goddess Jord. the personification of wealth. and as the Longobardians stood arrayed against the Vandals at the moment when they received their new name. The existence of such a form is not more surprising than that we have in Freyja a feminine form of Frey. In their emigration saga the Longobardians have great faith in Frigg. and were united with them from the beginning of time. invehi populis arbitrantur). and to be explained by. and must. (In reference to wealth compare the phrase auðigr sem Njörðr rich as Njord. according to the mythic . is found to be intimately connected with. gives the Longobardians a new name. and as the Vans come next after the Asas in the mythology. Vafþrúðnismál. by treaty. and by adoption. by marriage. Nor does any other explanation seem possible. commerce. The same divine mother Night (Nótt). compared with the emigration saga of the Longobardians (No. The cosmogony makes Earth and Sea sister and brother. This statement. Ánarr. and that her father Fjörgyn is a clan-chief among the Vans. if no other proof could be found. that Frigg in the feud between the Asas and Vans did not side with Odin but with the Vans. Saxo. who bears the goddess Jord. 15).

and that hormr should be referred to Hermio. and "Jord's son" is in Norse poetry an epithet particularly applied to Thor. does not determine which of the two. It may be that the name should be divided Gud-hormr. (5) The time of Halfdan's sons. It nevertheless remains as a result of the investigation that all that is related by Tacitus about the Teutonic patriarch Mannus has its counterpart in the question concerning Halfdan. related to Dios divus. The second part of this name has. (3) the age of Skjold-Borgar. Mannus' third son is Istævo. and devas. not by Baldur. as Jessen has already pointed out. nothing to do with ormr. The Celtic scholar Zeuss has connected this name with that of the Gothic (more properly Vandal) heroic race Azdingi. in accordance with the analysis above given. No. Halfdan has a stepson Yngvi. The pedigrees are: 26. . 43) makes but little difference here. THE SACRED RUNES LEARNED FROM HEIMDAL. be either Thor or Baldur. and Grimm has again connected Azdingi with Hazdiggo (Haddingr). Halfdan's son with Groa is called Gudhormr. The second son of Mannus is named Hermio. Mannus has three sons. Tuisco.records at hand. his place is occupied by Thor. While Mannus has a son Ingævo. an old name of Odin. And now we will discuss the events of the last three epochs. Halfdan's third son is in Saxo called Hadingus. Whether the comparisons made by Zeuss and Grimm are to the point or not (see further. Ingi (Svipdag). from which all the sons of Odin and gods of Asgard received the epithet tívar. be divided into the following epochs: . The name given him by Tacitus.(l) From Ask and Embla's creation until Heimdal's arrival. and reappears in the Norse Tívi. (2) from Heimdal's arrival until his departure. and that both in the myths occupy precisely the same place as sons of a god and as founders of Teutonic tribes and royal families. The mythic ancient history of the human race and of the Teutons may. So has Halfdan. Tuisco has the form of a patronymic adjective. (4) Halfdan's time. But in the songs learned by Saxo in regard to the northern race-patriarch and his divine father.

if not wholly. see No. in peace and in war (Hávamál 144 ff. in prayer. and an event in nature takes place threatening at least the northern part of the Teutonic world with destruction. but the sound gradually increased. The strophe makes Odin say: Ef ek skal til orrostu leiða langvini. in investigations. 35). originally in the possession of Mimir. yet for the greater part.a song which Ammianus Paulus himself has heard. en þeir með ríki fara heilir hildar til. 150). seemed to perceive Valfather's voice blended with their own. and it is of no little interest that we. undir randir ek gel. the knowledge of runes. in the harmony of the subdued song increasing in volume. Still he did not have it of himself. 63) . was. the shield-song with which they went to meet their foes ." the white art. 34. To these belong the fimbul-song of the runes of victory. When thee Teutonic forces advanced to battle the warriors raised their shields up to a level with the upper lip. in the activity among men of a female being from the giant world. and acquaintance with the application of nature's secret forces for good ends (see Nos. and enable them to assist their worshippers in danger and distress. and at a distance it resembled the roar ot the breakers of the sea. the "fimbul-songs. advancing against the gods. where it makes the stormgiant.). the evil art of sorcery. The abovementioned strophe of Hávamál gives us an explanation of this: the warriors were roused to confidence if they. Sigurdrífumál 14). Certain kinds of runes were regarded as . The moral degradation has its cause.a fountain whose veins. find what Tacitus tells about the barditus of the Germans." which is able to allay sorrow and cure diseases (Hávamál 146). 88) a drink from the precious liquor of this fountain and nine fimbul-songs (Hávamál 140. or in such a manner that they were overcome by despair. In the hands of Odin they are a means for the protection of the power of the Asa-gods. which he guarded beneath the middle root of the worldtree (see No. and successfully they go out of it. which is the opposite of the wisdom drawn from Mimir's holy fountain.. The runes of victory were able to arrest weapons in their flight and to make those whom Odin loved proof against sword-edge and safe against ambush (Hávamál 148."If I am to lead those to battle whom I have long held in friendship. Hrymr. "lift his shield before him" (hefiz lind fyrir). The sacred knowledge of runes. With success they go to the conflict. in the practical affairs of life. together with the deepest root of the worldtree extends to a depth which not even Odin's thought can penetrate (Hávamál 138). in Hávamál 156. an expression which certainly has another significance than that of unnecessarily pointing out that he has a shield for protection. according to the myth. This began in a low voice and preserved its subdued colour. then I sing under their shields. so that the round of the shield formed a sort of sounding-board for their song." Völuspá 50 also refers to the shield-song. cp. The myth gives the causes of both these phenomena. Through her men become acquainted with the black art. but got it from the subterranean fountain. in sacrifices and in other religious acts. Sigurdrífumál 6 ff. Tacitus says that the Teutons predicted the result of the battle from the impression the song as a whole made upon themselves: it might sound in their ears in such a manner that they thereby became more terrible to their enemies. and of which he gives a vivid description.In the days of Borgar the moral condition of men grows worse. which were the basis of the divine magic of the application of the power of the word and of the rune over spiritual and natural forces. The character and purpose of these songs are clear from the fact that at the head is placed "help's fimbul-song. By self-sacrifice in his youth Odin received from Bestla's brother (Mimir. heilir hildi frá .

like the Teutons themselves. 8). Odin taught them to his own clan. Another class of runes (brimrúnar. and a great honour to kings and chiefs. which sounds as if it were taken from an ancient hymn. and produces friendship and love (Hávamál 153. Hence the belief current among the Franks and Saxons that the alphabet of the Teutons. A seventh kind (bjargrúnar and limrúnar) helps in childbirth and heals wounds. it is said (Rígsþula 43-44): En Konr ungr kunni rúnar ævinrúnar ok aldrrúnar. among the wise Vans. which.as. To men the beneficent runes came through the same god who as a child came with the sheaf of grain and the tools to Scandia. Ásvinr (see No. even to those whose lips were sealed in death (see No. and healing hands while we live!" (Sigurdrífumál 4). blunt sword-edges. and among the children of men (Sigurdrífumál 18). . There is a distinct consciousness that the runes of this kind were a gift of the blithe gods. mixed with sacred mead. together with dises of Asa and Vana birth. Hávamál 159). are in possession of bjargrúnar. A third kind of runes (málrúnar) gave speech to the mute and speechless. In a strophe. Well he knew also. A sixth kind of runes (ölrúnar) takes the strength from the love-potion prepared by another man's wife. Rígsþula expressly presents Heimdal as teaching runes to the people whom he blessed by his arrival in Midgard. 88) among the giants (Hávamál 143). Dáinn taught them to the Elves.producing victory and were carved on the hilt and on the blade of the sword. In ancient times arrangements were made for spreading the knowledge of the good runes among all kinds of beings. how to deliver men. runes of eternity. named Konr-Halfdan. But Kon the young had knowledge of runes. when sailors in distress were to be rescued or power over the flames when they threatened to destroy human dwellings (Hávamál 152). was of northern origin. is the father of daughters. Even the last-named became participators in the good gift. Hávamál 154) controlled the elements. A fifth kind of runes protected against witchcraft (Hávamál 151). and from every treachery mingled therein (Sigurdrífumál 7. meir kunni hann mönnum bjarga. 70). among the Elves. Dvalinn among the dwarfs. Of great value. who taught the runes to his clan of ancient artists. and it has since been among the Asas. and while they were carved Tyr's name was twice named (Sigurdrífumál 6). Sigurdrífumál 6. and employ them in the service of man (Fáfnismál 12-13). and that certain nobleborn families inherited the power of these runes was a belief which has been handed down even to our time. 161). who. The above-named Dvalinn. An eighth kind gives wisdom and knowledge (hugrúnar. the gods are beseeched for runes of wisdom and healing: "Hail to the gods! Hail to the goddesses! Hail to the bounteous Earth (the goddess Jord). for instance. The noble-born are particularly his pupils in runic lore. purified the air from evil beings (Hávamál 155). A ninth kind extinguishes enmity and hate. gave power over wind and waves for good purposes . was sent far and wide. A fourth kind of runes could free the limbs from bonds (Hávamál 149). the son of Jarl-Borgar. Of Heimdal's grandson. runes of earthly life. Sigurdrífumál 13. was the possession of healing runes and healing hands. cp. Words and wisdom give unto us. eggjar deyfa.

These were looked upon as being for all time. and how to quench fire. In connection with this moral corruption. The important position Heid occupies in regard to the corruption of ancient man.we find runes intended to serve the cause of sympathy and mercy. But already in the beginning of time evil powers appear for the purpose of opposing and ruining the good influences from the world of gods upon mankind. sickness. and for nature (see below). Bird-song he learned. to sooth and comfort. A series of connected myths tell of this. all Midgard . SORCERY THE REVERSE OF THE SACRED RUNES. have led Völuspá's author. Ancient artists . prophesying vala. 34. THE MORAL DETERIORATION OF THE ORIGINAL MAN. and the consequences of her appearance for the gods for man. and was always sought by bad women. Together with physical runes with magic power . 67). GULLVEIG-HEIDR.that is. in spite of his general poverty of words. practised the evil art. practising the black art and stimulating the worst passions of the human soul. thus we soon find a messenger of evil wandering about between the houses in Midgard.ægi lægja. sorgir lægja. who practised sorcery (vitti ganda). 27. pointing out among other things that she was the cause of the first war in the world. The fundamental character of this rune-lore bears distinctly the stamp of nobility. to describe her with a certain fullness. The runes of eternity united with those of the earthly life can scarcely have any other reference than to the heathen doctrines concerning religion and morality. but on her wanderings on earth called Heiðr.nay. That the time of her appearance was during the life of Borgar and his son shall be demonstrated below. there occur in this epoch such disturbances in nature that the original home of man and culture .forces at work in the growth of nature . Just as Heimdal. "the fast traveller. and subdue the ocean. The messenger comes from the powers of frost. the crafty. It is a giantess. and caused by the same powers hostile to the world. and drive away sorrow.personifications of the same kind as Rigveda's Ribhus. caused by witchcraft misfortunes. 35). kyrra elda. the enemies of creation.is threatened with destruction on account of long." proceeds from house to house. the daughter of the giant Hrímnir (Hyndluljóð 32 = Völuspá in Skamma 4)." Thus Völuspá describes her. sæfa ok svefja. runes that gave their possessors power over the hostile forces of nature . Klök nam fugla. "Heid they called her (Gullveig) when she came to the children of men. forming new ties in society and giving instruction in what is good and useful. and of equal importance to the life hereafter. see No. and death (leikin. terrible winters. known among the gods as Gullveig and by other names (see Nos. that had . THE SOURCE OF SORCERY.

and seek to destroy what Odin had created (see Nos. says Saxo. with her life-renewing apples. were transferred from mythology to history. In Saxo's time there was still extant a myth telling how Heimdal. Alf and Borgar search for and find the troop of Amazons amid ice and snow. Idun. The giant king Snow and his kinsmen Þorri (Black Frost). 335-337. desires to possess belongs like himself to the divinities of light. through the influence of Loki. falls sick. Hild. Borgar attends him. got himself a wife. though he was young. Alf. It is conquered and flies to "Finnia". but at the advice of her mother Alfhild takes flight. and is described by the colour applied to pure silver in the old Norse literature to distinguish it from that which is alloyed. we find it on German soil in the poem concerning king Ruther. and could not be regarded as subject to anyone else. Frey. Borgar's co-father. Alf is the more noble of the two. Freyja. the goddess of fertility. a so remarkably white splendour was diffused that rays of light seemed to issue from his silvery locks (cujus etiam insignem candore cæsariem tantus comæ decor asperierat. and is there concealed. is carried by Þjazi away from Asgard to the northernmost wilderness of the world. She is watched by two dragons. after his protégé Borgar had grown up. Alf's identity with Heimdal is corroborated by "King Ruther. pp. Alf and Borgar pursue them thither. Saxo also says that her beauty could make one blind if she was seen without her veil. but still has a happy issue. There is a new conflict. The Heimdal of the myth is a god of light.. mother and daughter. his ruler and fosterer. Svanhild Goldfeather. his teeth glitter like gold. 28 A. foes of Asgard. puts on a man's clothes and armour. had a fine exterior. Changed into a song of chivalry in middle age style. otherwise Borgar himself would be the chief person in his country. their work becoming as harmful as it before was beneficent. extend their sceptres over Scandia. fighting at the head of other Amazons. HEIMDAL AND THE SUN-DIS. Saxo relates that a certain king Alf undertook a perilous journey of courtship. if he is Heimdal. and over his hair. something happens which forebodes these terrible times. Jökull (the Glacier). We should expect that the maid whom Alf. as the ruler of the earliest generation." and to a degree also by the description Saxo makes of his appearance. to that class of names by which the sun-dises. and her name Alfhild belongs. Already during Heimdal's reign. &c. is robbed and falls into the power of giants. and was accompanied by Borgar. Borgar strikes the . a description based on a definite mythic prototype. and so does his horse. Alfhild Solglands. Alf conquers the guarding dragons.before worked in harmony with the gods. 111 and 112). Suitors who approach her in vain get their heads chopped off and set up on poles (thus also in "King Ruther"). he is hvíti áss (Gylfaginning 27) and hvítastr ása (Þrymskviða 15). The myth is found related as history in Historia Danica. ut argenteo crine nitere putaretur). like Alfsol. the god of harvests. This already points to the fact that the mythic figure which Saxo has changed into a historical king must be Heimdal. and becomes a female warrior. become.

There is reason for believing that Heimdal's helmet has been conceived as decorated with ram's horns. its course defined and regularly established. it is a king who undertakes a perilous journey of courtship and must fight several battles to win the wondrous fair maiden whose previous suitors had had to pay for their eagerness by having their heads chopped off and fastened on poles. we find in the Völuspá strophe. curved. The Norse Hrútr is. before it could give harvests to the inhabitants. in the same manner as Day and Night. sword in hand. which speaks of a bewilderment of this kind on the part of the sun. described as the patriarch and adviser. and Heimdali is another form of Heimdall (Isl. not the case. The fundamental traits of "King Ruther" resemble Saxo's story. In interpreting the mythic contents of this story we must remember that the lad who came with the sheaf of grain to Scandia needed the help of the sun for the seed which he brought with him to sprout. 499). and through them received. ii. but that it was brought back by the might of the gods who created the world. Its fundamental idea. The king is accompanied by Berter. That he whom the skald characterises by this epithet is a god is a matter of course. Skáldskaparmál quotes a strophe from Skuli Thorsteinson where Sol [* Sol is feminine in the Teutonic tongues. i. i. This is..that is. identical with Berchtung-Borgar. Hyndluljóð's Vidolfr (Völuspá in Skamma 5) . As Hrútr means a ram." and in the following strophe. Glenr signifies "the shining one.] is called Glenr's wife. 589). and in his hand he has something resembling a staff which ends in a circle. that the sun at one time in the earliest ages went astray from southern regions to the farthest north and desired to remain there. A giant. according to the Younger Edda (i. examined with so great acumen by Julius Hoffory. Vidolt . The ram's head carries and is the ram's sword." (HVÍTASTR i ása). -TR. however. There. Near him a ram is drawn. Of the age of this animal symbol we give an account in No. but here. had to fetch her. light is thrown upon the bold metaphors. and thereupon saved his son Halfdan's life. It can also be demonstrated that the very name Ruther is one of those epithets which belong to Heimdal." and "Heimdal's sword" are synonyms (Younger Edda. 231). a synonym of Heimdali. too. occurring before it yet "knew its proper sphere. But the saga also indicates that the sun-dis had veiled herself. and as Heimdali is an epithet of a ram (see Younger Edda. Nor is the marriage into which the sun-dis entered forgotten.Saxo's Vitolphus. which tells how the all-holy gods thereupon held solemn council and so ordained the activity of these beings. At the first glance it might seem as if this myth had left no trace in our Icelandic records. She has to confess herself conquered. Heimdal.accompanies Ruther and Berter on the journey. as always in the German story. where the god and his foster-son. and possibly is intended to . and becomes Alf's wife. [* That some one of the gods has worn a helmet with such a crown can he seen on one of the golden horns found near Gallehuus. There twice occurs a being wearing a helmet furnished with long. that time can be divided and years be recorded by their course. i." "Heimdal's head. whereupon a happy marriage between him and the sun-dis secures good weather and rich harvests to the land over which he rules. and that when Heimdal had forced himself into her presence she fled to northern ice-enveloped regions. 264. and when Vitolphus in Saxo is mentioned under circumstances which show that he accompanied Borgar on a warlike expedition. sharp pointed horns. 100. 82.helmet from Alfhild's head." and this epithet was badly chosen if it did not refer to "the most shining of the Asas. 588. according to which "head. there is no room for doubt that Saxo's saga and "King Ruther" originally flowed from the same mythic source. and made herself as far as possible unapproachable. 589).

When the treasures were finished. and calls the sword the fyllir of Heimdal's helmet. Another group of original artists were Sindri and his kinsmen. Njord's useful son. 93. for shining Frey. 23. remembered also in Icelandic poetry. nýtum Njarðar bur. and wagers his head that Sindri cannot make treasures as good as the above-named gifts from Ivaldi's sons to the Asas.represent Heimdal's horn.. 24. the golden locks on Sif's head. The corruption of nature and of man go hand in hand. but also as that which has its place on the helmet. and among them the prototype of pirates that terrible character. which could hold all the warriors of Asgard and always had favourable wind. an ambiguous expression. had all come from the workshop of these artists. best of ships. called Rodi (Saxo. 354). The danger averted by Heimdal when he secured the sun-dis with bonds of love begins in the time of Borgar.] A strophe quoted in the Younger Edda (i. According to the account given in Skáldskaparmál. Borgar has to contend with robbers (pugiles and piratæ). decide this without at the same time passing judgement on the gifts of Sindri and those of Ivaldi's sons. THE CONSEQUENCE IS THE FIMBUL-WINTER AND EMIGRATIONS. but which also could be folded as a napkin and be carried in one's pocket (Gylfaginning). Compare the expression fyllir hilmis stóls as a metaphor for the power of the ruler. and showing that . who dwelt on the Nidaplains in the happy domain of the lower world (Völuspá 37. The moderate laws given by Heimdal had to be made more severe by Borgar (Hist. which may be interpreted as that which fills Heimdal's helmet. skírum Frey. Among these artists the sons of Ivaldi constitute a separate group. 25). but is intended to bring about the ruin of both the gods and man. the ring Draupnir for Odin. which seems to be to the advantage of the gods. and the incomparable hammer Mjolnir for Thor. that is to say. The gods cannot. The sons of Ivaldi in days of yore created Skidbladnir. Hist. LOKI CAUSES ENMITY BETWEEN THE GODS AND THE ORIGINAL ARTISTS (THE CREATORS OF ALL THINGS GROWING). and gave them the best products of their wonderful art. Originally they enjoyed the best relations to the gods. 94). Nos. Odin's spear Gungnir. 608) mentions Heimdal's helmet. skipa bezt. Sindri then made in his smithy the golden boar for Frey. His purpose is to cause enmity between the original artists themselves and between them and the gods. of course. for ornament and for use. Grímnismál 43: Ívalda synir gengu í árdaga Skíðblaðni at skapa. Heimdal's head. While the moral condition in Midgard grows worse.. and Frey's celebrated ship Skidbladnir. Loki meets Sindri's brother Brokk. Loki carries out in Asgard a cunningly-conceived plan. from which eight gold rings of equal weight drop every ninth night. Loki cunningly gets the gods to assemble for the purpose of deciding whether or not he has forfeited his head. 28 B.

and iðlíkr. Idi. 111). Idun. Þjazi. The judgment there has the most important consequences: hatred toward the artists who were victorious. 214) Ölvaldi and Auðvaldi. doubtless are symbols thereof . We here point this out in passing. "the sons of Ivalde" (Ívalda synir). and nature is afflicted with great suffering. . But at the same time Sindri fails. for the prefixed Í (Ið) and All may interchange in the language without the least change in meaning. may be names of one and the same person. will be given in Nos. so also in the name Ívaldi or Ívaldr. He has three sons. The sons of Ivaldi regarded it as a mortal offence. and Valthere of Vaskasten are all variations of the name of the same mythic type changed into a human hero. Auðvaldi.is changed into "the mightiest foe of earth. Ölvaldi. Þjazi's father is called Allvaldi in Hárbarðsljóð 19. [* Elsewhere it shall be shown that the heroes mentioned in the middle age poetry under the names Valdere." and keeps the apples which symbolise the ever-renewing and rejuvenating force of nature. and the same. Nor is it long before it becomes apparent what the consequences are of the decision pronounced by the Asas on Loki's advice upon the treasures presented to the gods. the German Walther. Walther. and thus the sons of Ivaldi are declared to be inferior in comparison. and toward the gods who were the judges. Just as in the names Alveig and Almveig.for Sif's golden locks. He who was the promoter of growth and the benefactor of nature .one group of artists is inferior to the other. Waltharius manufortis. corresponding to the Old English Valdere. 113. and has wholly assumed the nature of a giant." dólg ballastan vallar (Haustlaung 6). Of these variations Ívaldi and Allvaldi are in their sense most closely related. to get the prize agreed on. Complete statement and proof of this fact. On the other hand. Allvaldi. The Skáldskaparmál does not inform us whether the sons of Ivaldi accepted the decision with satisfaction or anger. or whether any noteworthy consequences followed or not. Arinbjörn and Grjótbjörn. Both groups of artists are offended by the decision. That the Teutonic mythology has described similar results of the decision shall be demonstrated in this work." and to regain his liberty he is obliged to assist him (Þjazi) in carrying Idun away from Asgard. is now their irreconcilable foe. ílíkr. who possesses "the Asas' remedy against old age. born of the ingratitude of the gods. the Latinised Waltharius. as Ivaldi of the Norse documents (see No. all-lítill and ílítill. Sindri's treasures are preferred.] The former part of the word may change without any change as to the person indicated: Ívaldi. the originator of the scheme. ígnóg. takes possession of the ancient artist who was defeated. through the decision of the gods. 114. in the Younger Edda (i. 123). and iðgnóg. The gods grow old. is carried away by Þjazi to a part of the world inaccessible to the gods. and Skidbladnir. who are the famous ancient artists. the prefixes in Ölvaldi and Auðvaldi produce different meanings of the compound word. Loki. the latter part of the word forms the permanent part. and winter extends its power more and more beyond the limits prescribed for it in creation. too. Gang. who before was the friend of the gods. And this is done. Bil-röst and Bif-röst. all-nóg. 115. But the records give most satisfactory evidence that Ölvaldi and Auðvaldi nevertheless are the same person as Allvaldi (Ívaldi). is caught in the snares laid by Þjazi in a manner fully described in Thjodolf's poem "Haustlaung. An entirely similar judgment is mentioned in Rigveda (see No. belonging to the god of fertility. also called Aurnir (Gróttasöngr 9). Compare all-líkr. and the just-named Þjazi. so important from a mythological standpoint.

8. At the same time a brother-in-law of Virfir takes possession of Bornholm. . That this island is Oland is clear from Saxo. who is Ivaldi's ally and Odin's enemy (see No. Skirfir. 89. Fjalarr. The ancient terrible winter and the inclination of the axis of heaven have in the myth been connected. ii.. the prototype of the mill of the Grótta-song composed in Christian times. In this explanation the reader will find that the great earthquake in primeval time is caused by Þjazi's kinswomen on his mother's side (Gróttasöngr) . the Jara-plains.Saxo. and from Svithiod now proceeds. Younger Edda. 548)... whom Saxo (Hist. and thereof we shall give an account in Nos. 570). Hist. In Fornaldarsögur Vifill is an emigration leader who married to Logi's daughter Eymyrja (a metaphor for fire . and Þjazi. i. Virfir is allied with the sons of Finnr (Fyn . who is the son of Þjazi's brother (see Nos. 14). where Huyrvillus is called Holandiæ princeps. the mill-handle.At the same time.Younger Edda. Already before his sons he became the foe of the gods.that is. begot the illegitimate children Idi. 115). Aurnir. The attack is directed against aurvanga sjöt. in connection with the spreading of the fimbul-winter. and Helg. 33. Finnr. who have Skilfing names. with which handle not only the mill-stone but also the starry heavens are made to whirl round. a terrible earthquake takes place. with a giantess. and good-will among men. and 123. ruled. 32. The mill had up to this time ground gold. The myth in regard to this is explained in No. the work at the same time of the Skilfings and the primeval artists. to str. ii. 32). 179) speaks of as Huyrvillus. The winter must of course first of all affect those people who inhabited the extensive Svithiod north of the original country and over which another kinsman of Heimdal. Frosti. a name which points to the Skilfings. peace. and that when the mill was put in so violent a motion by the angry giantesses that it got out of order. Saxo. and Gotland is colonised by Thjelvar (Þjálfi of the myth). In the pedigree of these emigrants þeir er sóttu frá Salar steini (or Svarins haugi) aurvanga sjöt til Jöruvalla occur the names Álfr and Yngvi. henceforth it grinds salt and dust. and the assailants do not stop before they reach Jöruvalla. which sweeps the uttermost rim of the earth. It is there found that he is the same as Ivaldi. 110. 31. The saga concerning the emigration of the Longobardians is also connected with the myth about Þjazi and his kinsmen (see Nos. 178. the effects of which are felt even in heaven. Hist. The list of dwarfs in Völuspá has preserved the record of this in the strophe about the artist migration from the rocks of the hall (salar steinar) and from Svarin's mound situated in the north (the Völuspá strophe quoted in the Younger Edda.. 113. a migration southward. 89). happiness. and working in the depths of the sea. 123). 178). betakes himself from the far North and takes possession of an island on the Swedish coast. that the world-mill has a möndull. 113-115. Dan. ii. 112-115). the first of the race of Skilfings or Ynglings. and these again with the close of the golden age. 114. which name is still applied to the south coast of Scandinavia (see No. which is one of the several names of Ivaldi himself (see No.. Hund. the land of the clayey plains. 81. 91. i. This kinsman of Heimdal has an important part in the mythology. and the Icelandic records as Virvill and Vifill (Fornaldarsögur. then the starry constellations were also disturbed. and Virfir. built on the foundations of the lower world. who turned the enormous world-mill. with the approach of the great winter. who. who symbolises cold. 178. by the giantesses Fenja and Menja. cp.

as we have seen. And finally there existed in Saxo's time mythic traditions or songs which related that all the present Germany came under the power of the Teutons who emigrated with Borgar. who is the foster-brother of Borgar's son (cp. The name Alamanni is in this case not to be taken in an ethnographical but in a geographical sense. they were the ones who. With Berig is connected the race of the Amalians. 17. becomes a ruler there. according to which the Swedes forced Scandinavian tribes dwelling farther south to emigrate. me de Scandzæ insulæ gremio Gothos dixisse egressos cum Berich suo rege .) The name Berig. and that the Danes are of Svithidian origin . in spite of their wide diffusion and their separation in time. the centre of gravity. 28 with Helge Hund. 3) claims that the Herulians were driven from their abode in Scandza by the Svithidians. is continually being moved farther to the south. but not in the circumstances themselves. (Ex hac igitur Scandza insula quasi officina gentium aut certe velut vagina nationum cum rege suo Berig Gothi quondam memorantur egressi . with Borgar the memory of Hamal (Amala). point to a single root: to the myth concerning the primeval artists and their conflict with the gods. At the very beginning of the fimbul-winter Mimir opens in . ii. and that Denmark was repeopled by emigrants from Sweden. From this we see that migration traditions remembered by Teutons beneath Italian and Icelandic skies. where the second son of Heimdal. And in the Norse sagas themselves. and here. also written Berich and Berigo. Heimdal. comes to the original inhabitants in Scania. c. And as the Swedes constituted the northernmost Teutonic branch. Borgar. lies the explanation of the statements. "he made the whole race of Alamanni tributary". Thus the emigration of the Goths is in the myth a result of the fate experienced by Borgar and his people in their original country. as Jordanes heard it. the emigration from the North carried with it the hegemony of Teutonic tribes over other tribes which before them inhabited Germany. Orig. is the same as the German Berker. and Mimir makes arrangements to save all that is best and purest on earth for an expected regeneration of the world. that an older Teutonic population in Denmark was driven south. were the first that were compelled to surrender their abodes and secure more southern habitations. and who is identical with Borgar. rules. on the approach of the fimbulwinter. The myth makes the gods themselves to be seized by terror at the fate of the world. under the name Scef-Skelfir. his son. With Scef and Skjold the Wessex royal family of Saxon origin is in turn connected. makes them emigrate from Scandinavia under the leadership of Berig. Saxo says of Skjold-Borgar that omnem Alamannorum gentem tributaria ditione perdomuit. This also appears from saga fragments which have been preserved. that is. under the name Skjold. 4.From all this it appears that a series of emigration and colonisation tales have their origin in the myth concerning the fimbul-winter caused by Þjazi and concerning the therewith connected attack by the Skilfings and Þjazi's kinsmen on South Scandinavia.De Goth. No. The migration saga of the Goths. It means the people who were rulers in Germany before the immigration of Teutons from the North.. on the clayey plains near Jöruvellir. and indicates the same person as the Norse Borgarr.). but founds. It is the remembrance of this migration from north to south which forms the basis of all the Teutonic middle-age migration sagas. that. that is. on the islands of Great Britain and on the German continent.. Berchtung.c. to the robbing of Idun and the fimbul-winter which was the result. in other words. the royal dynasty of the Skjoldungs in Denmark. and thus the royal dynasty of the Goths is again connected with the Skjold who emigrated from Scandza.in other words. Meminisse debes. SkjoldBorgar. Jordanes (c.

Halfdan-Gram is on the occasion completely wrapped in the skin of a wild beast. The juvenile adventures of the hero have. For the history of the origin of the existing heroic poems from mythic sources. who is mounted on horseback and accompanied by other women on horseback (Saxo 26. 33). 16. and Halfdan Borgarson (see No. 53). invades Svithiod. Hund.. where Halfdan appears wrapped in the skin of a . 23). in what they tell about Halfdan Skjoldung and Halfdan the Old. it is important to get the original identity of the heromyth. for the two children of men. who reconquers it for a time. 9). He speaks frá úlfíði "from a wolf guise" (Helg. 32. so that even his face is concealed (Saxo 26). i. 16) and in Skáldskaparmál (chapter 80). closed against all physical and spiritual evil. meets Groa. of their relation to these and to each other. Helgi Hundingsbani. furnished the materials for both the songs about Helgi Hundingsbani. 27). forest (Völs. and repels Þjazi and his kinsmen (see Nos. and more or less blended with foreign elements. The following parallels suffice to show that this Helgi is a later time's reproduction of the mythic Halfdan: Halfdan-Gram. sent on a warlike expedition. who is mounted on horseback and is accompanied by other women on horseback (Helg. Helgi is on the occasion disguised. ch. 29. The Grótta-song also (22) identifies Helgi Hundingsbani with Halfdan. EVIDENCE THAT HALFDAN IS IDENTICAL WITH HELGI HUNDINGSBANI. Halfdan Berggram. meets Sigrun. Líf and Lífþrasir (Vafþrúðnismál 45).his subterranean grove of immortality an asylum. i. sent on a warlike expedition. in Saxo's accounts of the kings Gram. 16). 9). ch. concerning Halfdan and the heroic poems concerning Helgi Hundingsbani. with some modifications. The main outlines of Halfdan's saga reappear related as history. Contributions to the saga are found in Hyndluljóð (14. 52. fixed on a firm foundation. Völs. Hund. which expression finds its interpretation in Saxo. 80-110) and Völsungasaga's about Helgi Sigmundsson are to be compared. with which Saxo's story of Helgo Hundingicida (Hist. The war begun in Borgar's time for the possession of the ancient country continues under his son Halfdan. 15. The meeting takes place in a The meeting takes place in a forest (Saxo 26). who are to be the parents of a new race of men (see Nos.

Sigrun's father had already promised her to another (Helg. Hund. Halfdan-Gram conquers a king Ring (Saxo 32). Halfdan-Gram makes war on Groa's father. i. Helgi conquers Ring's sons (Helg. Halfdan-Gram slays Groa's father and betrothed. Halfdan-Gram has felled Svarin and many of his Helgi makes war on Sigrun's father. Hund. Groa's father had already given her hand to another (Saxo 26). Conversation is begun between Helgi and Sigrun. on his rival. ii. and thus gotten the name Hundingsbane (Helg. Halfdan-Gram explains that Helgi explains that this rival this rival ought not to cause should not cause them to them to fear (Saxo 28). and on the kinsmen of the latter (Saxo 32). Borgar's son has defeated and slain king Hunding (Saxo 362. ii. ii.). hermegir heima eiguð? (Helg. Helgi marries Sigrun (Helg. rogo. and many heroes who belonged to his circle of kinsmen or were subject to him (Saxo 32). Hund. 16-17). and many heroes who were the brothers or allies of his rival (Helg Hund. Conversation is begun between Halfdan-Gram and Groa.. 18). 52). quo duce signa bellica fertis? (Saxo 27. Hund. Saxo 337). Hund.). i. i. 6). on his rival. cp.) Helgi invites Sigrun to accompany him. 56). i. Hund. Helgi pretends to be a person who is his fosterbrother (Helg. Groa asks Halfdan-Gram: Quis. Sigrun asks Helgi: Hverir láta fljóta fley við bakka? Hvar. Hund. Helgi has slain king Hunding. i. Halfdan-Gram marries Groa (Saxo 33). Halfdan pretends to be a person who is his brother-at-arms (Saxo 27). i.) Halfdan-Gram invites Groa to accompany him. 10). Helgi kills Sigrun's father and suitors. fear (Helg. At first the invitation is rebuked (Helg. ii. 5.). Helgi's rival and the many brothers of the latter dwell . ii. At first invitation is refused (Saxo 27).. i.wild beast. vestrum dirigit agmen. Hund. and on the kinsmen of the latter (Helg. Hund.

mun Yrsu sonr við Halfdana hefna Fróða. Helgi Hundingsbani had a son with his own sister Ursa (Saxo 82). See Nos. who took his kingdom (Hrólfs Saga Kraka). Helgi Hundingsbani became the father of Rolf (Saxo 83. Helgi and his brother were in their childhood protected by Reginn (Hrólfs Saga Kraka). They are allies or 32). 101. Halfdan Berggram and his brother burnt Frode to death in his house (Saxo 323). weapon (Helg. who conquers his brother in three battles and slays him in a fourth (Saxo 325). 98. the descendant of Scef and Scyld.). 33. who is Svipdag. sá mun hennar heitinn verða bur ok bróðir). Hund. becomes the father of Rolf (Beowulf poem). who is armed with armed with an Asgard an Asgard weapon (Saxo 34. who took his kingdom (Saxo 320). Halfdan had a son with his own sister Yrsa (Grottasong 22. Halfdan Berggram as a youth left the kingdom to his brother and went warfaring (Saxo 320 ff. subjects of Sigrun's father.brothers. Halfdan Berggram and his brother were in their childhood protected by Regno (Saxo 320). Svarin was viceroy around Svarin's graveunder Groa's father (Saxo mound. compare Hrólfs Saga Kraka). Halfdan-Berggram's father is slain by his brother Frode. Helgi's father was slain by his brother Fróði. During Halfdan's absence Denmark is attacked by an enemy.). Helgi and his brothers burnt Fróði to death in his house (Hrólfs Saga Kraka). Halfdan. who conquers his brother in three battles and slays him in a fourth (Saxo 82). Helgi Hundingsbani as a youth left the kingdom to his brother and went warfaring (Saxo 80). Halfdan-Gram is slain by Helgi is slain by Dag. to be compared with other sources. The son was Rolf (compare Hrólfs Saga Kraka). ii. During Helgi Hundingsbani's absence Denmark is attacked by an enemy. 103). .

and Halfdan Borgarson.all these are questions which I shall discuss fully in a second part of this work. of which the one continues to be the saga of this patriarch. . have been retained side by side with the names given by the compiler. HALFDAN'S BIRTH AND THE END OF THE AGE OF PEACE. in fact. this division into two branches had already taken place. the son of Skjold-Borgar. foreign to his pedigree. is divided into two branches. How this younger branch. It was time's morning. and have clearly belonged to a genuine old mythic poem about Halfdan. they who did shape the fate of the nobleman. and without much change the compiler of the Helgi Hundingsbani song has incorporated them into his poem. The first strophes of the first song of Helgi Hundingsbani distinguish themselves in tone and character and broad treatment from the continuation of the song. Gram Skjoldson. þær er öðlingi aldur um skópu. see below]. which myth. nornir kómu. the illegitimate son of Halfdan Skjoldung. that of Helgi Hundingsbani. and in a separate treatise on the heroic sagas. norns came. holy waters fell from the heavenly mountains. They describe Halfdan's ("Helgi Hundingsbani's") birth. In Saxo's time. Ár var alda það er arar gullu. It was night. and partly did itself appropriate (as in Saxo) the old Danish local tradition about Rolf.A glance at these parallels is sufficient to remove every doubt that the hero in the songs concerning Helgi Hundingsbani is originally the same mythic person as is celebrated in the song or songs from which Saxo gathered his materials concerning the kings. and long before him. For the present. Sigmund and Borghild. Then was the mighty Helgi born by Borghild in Bralund. was afterwards partly appropriated by the all-absorbing Sigurdsaga and became connected with it in an external and purely genealogical manner. Helgi Hundingsbani's saga. The real mythic names of his parents. eagles screeched. a saga with which it formerly had no connection. HILDING. þá hafði Helga inn hugumstóra Borghildur borið í Brálundi. Halfdan Berggram. 30. THE FAMILY NAMES YLFING. Borgar and Drott [dubious. Nótt varð í bæ. It is the ancient myth in regard to Halfdan. BUDLUNG. while the other utilises the history of his youth and tranforms it into a new saga. after the introduction of Christianity in Scandinavia. my task is to show what influence this knowledge of Halfdan and Helgi Hundingsbani's identity has upon the interpretation of the myth concerning the antiquity of the Teutons. hnigu heilög vötn af Himinfjöllum. how it got mixed with the saga about an evil Frode and his stepsons. . and.

his eyes are sharp like those of the Hildings. With might the strands of fate they twisted. Neri's kinswoman [one of the norns] northward sent one thread and bade it hold forever. [bright son of day or light] the people expected . kváðu með gumnum they proclaimed him best among the Budlungs. hungry cawed one raven to another in the high tree: "Hear what I know!" "In a coat of mail stands Sigmund's son. þær um greiddu gullin símu og und mána sal miðjan festu. now the day is come. nú er dagur kominn. there between the chief should rule. þá er borgir braut í Brálundi. ey bað hún halda. they arranged the golden thread. hvessir augu sem hildingar. þar átti lofðungur land á milli. andvanur átu. sá er varga vinur. Þær austur og vestur enda fálu. he is a friend of wolves: We shall thrive!" Drott thought she saw [sic!] in him a "dayling". við skulum teitir. one day old. sat á hám meiði." Drótt þótti sá döglingur vera. In the east and west they hid the ends. and most famed among princes. "Eg veit nokkuð!" "Stendur í brynju bur Sigmundar dægurs eins gamall. and fastened it directly 'neath the moon's hall. brá nift Nera á norðurvega einni festi. Eitt var að angri Ylfinga nið og þeirri meyju er munúð fæddi: hrafn kvað að hrafni. when Borgar settled [sic!] in Bralund.þann báðu fylki frægstan verða og buðlunga beztan þykja. Sneru þær af afli örlögþáttu. One cause there was of alarm to the Ylfing [Sigmund=Borgar] and also for her who bore the loved one.

are the knowledge of bird-speech (Konr ungr . Among the runes which Heimdal. The parents of the child heard and understood what the raven said." and with prophetic vision it has already seen him clad in coat of mail. and which the son of the latter in time learned. With all their love of strife and admiration for warlike deeds. is yet suffering from hunger (andvanur átu) but from the high tree in which it sits. Important in regard to a correct understanding of the song and characteristic of the original relation of the strophes quoted to the myth concerning primeval time. sjáfur gekk vísi úr vígþrimu ungum færa íturlauk grami. Saxo (Hist.góð ár komin. to have awakened the parents' joy and pride. and discovered that he possessed "the sharp eyes of the Hildings. klök nam fugla . His significance in this respect is distinctly manifest in the poem. seen the newcomer. Borgar's father. Halfdan's ("Helgi Hundingsbani's") birth occurs. He was the hero of peaceful deeds. on the contrary they are filled with alarm.. it has on the day after the birth of the child. the chief himself left the battle to give the noble "leek" to the young lord. and looked forward to a regeneration which is to restore the reign of peace. It has seemed to them that the prophecy of the lad's future heroic and blood-stained career ought. they dreamed of primeval Saturnia regna. The raven's appearance in the song of Helgi Hundingsbani is to be compared with its relative the crow in Rígsþula. the necessary qualities for inspiring respect and interest. was the legislator and judge. is the circumstance that Halfdan's ("Helgi Hundingsbani's") parents are not pleased with the prophecies of the raven. which ever since has reigned in the world. But the matter is explained by the mythic connection which makes Borgar's life constitute the transition period from a happy and peaceful golden age to an age of warfare. The raven. Like their Aryan kinsmen. and foretells that theirs and the age of the wolves has come: "We shall thrive!". established the community. His arrival announces the close of the peaceful epoch and the beginning of an age of strife. when two epochs meet. Borgar. and had given him abundant opportunity for exhibiting these qualities in the promotion of culture and the maintenance of the sacredness of the law. presumably through the window. and shared with all other people the opinion that peace and harmony is something better and more desirable than war and bloodshed. 23) has preserved the traditions which tell how he at one time fought breast to breast with a giant bear. who fought with the gigantic beasts and robbers of the olden time. Former interpreters have been surprised at this. Borgar was the Hercules of the northern myth. conquering him and bringing him fettered into his own camp. taught him.Rígsþula 4344). according to the contents of these strophes. the Teutons still were human. in harmony with the general spirit pervading the old Norse literature. . plentiful harvests. in the myth. the other urges the grown man to turn away from his peaceful amusements. to whom the battle-field will soon be as a well-spread table.. It proclaims its discovery to another raven in the same tree. the one foretells that the new-born one's path of life lies over battlefields. who did not care to employ weapons except against wild beasts and robbers. But the myth had also equipped him with courage and strength.

That Thor is one of Halfdan's fathers. the poem "Wolfdieterich" makes Berchtung the progenitor of the Hildings. and are applied to royal and princely warriors in general. Saxo mentions the Hilding Hildeger as Halfdan's half-brother. and Icelandic statements points to an older source common to them all. according to which it is proper to take the name of any viking. Beowulf. HALFDAN'S CHARACTER.von dem selbe geslehte sint uns die wilfinge kumen (v. and the tradition on which the saga of Ásmundr Kappabani is based has done the same (compare No. To a divine common fatherhood point the words: "Drott [or: the people] saw in him (the lad just born) a dayling (son of a god of light. The German poem "Wolfdieterich und Sabin" calls Berchtung (Borgar) Potelung . or Achilleus a Laertiatid. "hart er í heimi" (harsh is the . a poetic principle which scholars even of our time claim can also be applied in the interpretation of the heathen poems. and we find that the patronymic appellations Ylfing. justice. and casts his shadow over the house where the child is born. as impossible as it would be in Greek poetry to call Odysseus a Peleid. There is a thunder-strife. and when the words already are applicable. But. giant. THE WEAPON-MYTH. His part in the myth is to be the personal representative of the strife-age that came with him. &c. to a certain degree also. or dwarf. The god of thunder is present. and Budlung are in fact old usage and have a mythic foundation. and adds: "From the same race the Ylfings have come to us" . 25). Who the divine partner-father is. Hilding. Hilding. the Asa-god Baldur. and Lofdung are copiously strewn on "Helgi Hundingsbani". and. the eagles screech. however. giant. when the demoralisation of the world has begun along with disturbances in nature. vígþrima. The agreement in this point between German. 43). a son divine)". of an age when the inhabitants of the earth are visited by the great winter and by dire misfortunes. Helgi Hjörvarðsson. and holy waters fall from the heavenly mountains (from the clouds). so far as the above-quoted strophes are concerned. his counterpart among heroes. This is in perfect analogy with the Christian Icelandic poetry. Hildings. just as Heimdal is one of Borgar's. have in the poems of the Christian skalds lost their specific application to certain families. Danish. is indicated by the fact that a storm has broken out the night when Drott's son is born. The poems concerning Helgi Hundingsbani are compiled in Christian times from old songs about Borgar's son Halfdan. has already been pointed out above (see No.. Budlung. and the most sensitive nobleness. Halfdan did not belong to this group.that is. or Prometheus Hephaistos. or dwarf. Such are. the family names Ylfings. or Hephaistos Daedalos. and apply it to any special viking. and furnishes an additional proof that the German Berchtung occupied in the mythic genealogies precisely the same place as the Norse Borgar. it can be shown that the appellations Ylfing. for example. The myths and heroic poems are not wanting in ideal heroes. In regard to the old Norse poets this method is.As is well known. 31. 223). who are models of goodness of heart. Budlung. Budlungs. Sigurður Fáfnisbani.

323. and an extraordinary. with Ásmund Kapp. later. the Amalians. ii. 33.see below). without knowing who he is (cp. and in Ragnarok it causes the death of Frey. which he wields successfully in advantageous exploits. the above-mentioned knowledge of runes. In Ragnarök. 356. After various fortunes it comes into the possession of Frey. The first time he uses one of them he slays in a duel his noble half-brother Hildeger. Hist. That the Teutonic patriarch's favourite weapon is the club. It is given to the parents of the giantess Gerd. 113-115. Hist. but still it is probable that it. great skaldic gifts (Saxo.which is emphasised by Saxo (Hist. however. and that it was from the beginning under a curse. The best sword made by him is intended to make way for the destruction of the gods (see Nos. according to the myth. 325). Hjörr may. and support his cause even amid the most difficult circumstances (see Nos. not the sword. ii. Halfdan's weapon. That the sword also at length was looked upon as sacred is plain from the fact that it was adopted and used by the Asa-gods. and that he himself finally is slain by the sword forged by Þjazi. and that. 355. No doubt the myth also described him as the model of a faithful foster-brother in his relations to the silent Hamal. the club (Saxo. 42. The oldest and . and he does it because her husband Orvandel has made a compact with the powers of frost (see Nos. 351. It follows. and attractive to the hearers of the songs concerning him. The wife he takes by force is the goddess of vegetation. and which is also evident from the fact that the Teutonic myth makes him. 30). 9). These qualities are. 31.]. 103). Hund. 353). Hist... which his mother's father. Halfdan is guilty of the abduction of a woman . Younger Edda [Nafnaþulur]). too. besides the necessary strength and courage. In all cases it is certain that the myth made the foster-brotherhood between Halfdan and Hamal the basis of the unfailing fidelity with which Hamal's descendants. 109). i. the father of swords (Haustlaung. 6). cling to the son of Halfdan's favourite Hadding. Halfdan had two swords.. on one occasion don a woman's attire.world). and his mother long kept the place of concealment secret from him. in conflict with a son (the step-son Svipdag . 33.). Viðar is to avenge his father with a hjörr and pierce Fenrir's heart (Völuspá). and can thus be justified. as the Greek myth makes Achilleus. that the latter.the old custom of taking a maid from her father by violence or cunning is illustrated in his saga. in his hand. I regard as worthy of notice from the standpoint of the views cherished during some of the centuries of the Teutonic heathendom in regard to the various age and sacredness of the different kinds of weapons. who accordingly is called faðir maurna. 108. 1. The abduction of a woman by Halfdan is founded in the physical interpretation of the myth.). Saxo. Cursed swords are several times mentioned in the sagas. means a sword. in Viðar's hand. that the myth at the same time embellished him with qualities which made him a worthy Teutonic patriarch. Þjazi [* Proofs of Þjazi's original identity with Volund are given in Nos. but is of no service to Asgard. The first and most important of all sword-smiths was. There are indications that our ancestors believed the sword to be a later invention than the other kinds of weapons. who externally was so like him that the one could easily be taken for the other (cp. fighting on the side of the Skilfings. 38. 26. wherein he even surpasses his father (Rígsþula). and resemble a valkyrie in this guise (Helg. Helg. Hund. Hund. fascinating physical beauty . had buried in the earth. Groa. 43). for whom they were made. sheds the blood of a kinsman. in fact. 98. 101. also mean a missile. it is true. a liberality which makes him love to strew gold about him (Helg.. is.

the weapon of the Teutonic patriarch. whose Gungnir was forged for him by Ívaldi's sons before the dreadful enmity between the gods and them had begun. and in Islend. In Saxo it is Halfdan-Gram who slays Svarin and his numerous brothers. as has been shown already. Thus also in the Helgi-song's list of persons with whom the conflict is waged in the vicinity of Svarin's Mound. in the other the battle-axe is called Gaut's meginhurðar galli. But Halfdan represses them. and the axe. p. but Baldur is slain by a shot from the bow. The club is. 346. Saxland. as we have seen.e. but a brother of Þjazi. The bow is a weapon employed by the Asa-gods Höðr and Ullr. and to those regions on the other side of the Baltic in which the Goths settled. "the destroyer of Odin's great gate". This is evident from the metaphors found in the Younger Edda.. and occupying his whole life. was the chief weapon both for footsoldiers and cavalry in the Teutonic armies. The spear which. he wielded a hammer of stone. names which point to the Völuspá strophe concerning the attack on the south Scandinavian plains. To this may be added.. we must remember that he inherits from his father the duty of stopping the progress southward of the giant-world's wintry agents. occur. in the Helgi-song (46). In the Völuspá's list Moinn is mentioned among the aggressors (in the variation in the Prose Edda). Before Sindri forged one for him of iron (Gylfaginning). not an Asa-god. the hammer. the kinsmen of Þjazi. "from Svarin's Mound attacked and took (sótti) the clayey plains as far as Jaravall". shown that Borgar and his people had to leave the original country and move south to Denmark. who. HALFDAN'S MARRIAGE WITH DISES OF VEGETATION.) 32. HALFDAN'S CONFLICTS INTERPRETED AS MYTHS OF NATURE. The mythological kernel in the former metaphor is Njörðr klauf Herjan's hurðir. i. as we have seen. a rock. under the name Helgi. in the saga of "Helgi Hundingsbani" it is again Halfdan.most sacred weapons were the spear. a stone. For a time the original country is possessed by the conquerors. (Further discussion of the weapon-myth will be found in No. 39. "Njord cleaved Odin's gates" (when the Vans conquered Asgard). i. Saga. on which the song is based. and conquers them. The battle-axe belonged to Njord. and is wielded side by side with Thor's hammer in the conflict with the powers of frost. when interpreted as myths of nature.e. in the days of Tacitus. In regard to the significance of the conflicts awaiting Halfdan. is wielded by the Asa-father himself. it is said that Helgi-Halfdan fought á . and of the Skilfing (Yngling) tribes dwelling in the north. and the chief archer of the myth is. The migration sagas have. the club. The hammer is Thor's most sacred weapon. That the words quoted from Völuspá really refer to the same mythic persons with whom Halfdan afterwards fights is proved by the fact that Svarin and Svarin's Mound are never named in our documents except in connection with Halfdan's saga. This is evident from the very name hamarr. according to Völuspá:. that the compiler of the first song about Helgi Hundingsbani borrowed from the saga-original. or the genealogy of the aggressors. 9. the Skilfing names Alf and Yngve. In the category of names. and much later. who attacks tribes dwelling around Svarin's Mound. as we shall see. THE WAR WITH THE HEROES FROM SVARIN'S MOUND.

123). as naturesymbols. Thus we here have a family. the real Teutonic patriarch. and their attack on the original country. Orvandel the brave. and is a synonym for Ölvaldi. Of the names of their father Sumbli. The mother of one of these groups is a giantess (see Nos. are in the Teutonic mythology identical with soma and somamadhu in Rigveda and haoma in Avesta. and whose connection with the myth concerning the artists. he is the son of Thor. We have the group of names. in the same poem Groa is called Ölgefjun.Móinsheimum against his brave foes. they are the strengthdeveloping. both indicating members of the same family. is. 115). can be shown. mead. 123). it may be said that. Ölvaldi. 114. divinities of nature belonging to the Ívaldi group. that is. 115) proof shall be presented that Groa's first husband. in the Helgi-song is mentioned Sporvitnir. Gangr-Aurnir. Ívaldi was the father of two groups of children. from which the world-tree draws its nourishment. is one of Þjazi's brothers. who from Svarin's Mound watches the forces of Helgi-Halfdan advancing. tries to reconquer for the Teutons the country of which winter has robbed them. According to a well-supported statement in Forspjallsljóð (see No. whom he afterwards marries. whom he afterwards slew in the battle around Svarin's Mound. and have allied themselves with the frost-giants. 113. by uniting the sun-goddess with himself through bonds . In the poem "Haustlaung" Idun is called Ölgefn. is a mead-fountain. whom he robs and keeps for some time. Iðunn. among them Iðunn and Signý-Alveig. In the Völuspá's list is named among the aggressors one Haugspori. yet powerful. 114. According to Saxo she is the daughter of Sumblus.. With her he has daughters. and particularly for the Teutonic tribes. names which belonged to the father of the Ívaldi sons (see No. and Ölgefjun. 123). Iði. Ölmóðr. Mimir's subterranean well. Their names and epithets also point to the family bond which unites them. Iðvaldi. "the one spying from the mound". "öl" (ale) and "mjöðr" (mead). and the group. viz. Midgard's chief hero. the names and epithets of whose members characterise them as forces. is the same. it is the enmity caused by Loki between the Asa-gods and the lower serving. The physical significance of Halfdan's conflicts and adventures is apparent also from the names of the women. I have already (No. Ölmóðr. 113. the divine foe of the frost-giants. Groa (growth). which means feast. That Idun is the daughter of Ívaldi is clear from Forspjallsljóð (6). And in the same manner as Heimdal before secured favourable conditions of nature to the original country. too. and Skilfings of antiquity. Both appellations refer to goddesses who give the drink of growth and regeneration to nature and to the gods. ale. álfa ættar Iðunni hétu Ívalds eldri yngsta barna. and performs on the border of Midgard a work corresponding to that which Thor has to do in space and in Jotunheim. 28B) pointed out several other names which occur in the Völuspá list. and Þjazi. Further on (see Nos. as her very name indicates.Iði. who are goddesses of growth. Her name signifies "the nourishing drink". whom the saga makes him marry. As we know. nourishing saps in nature. These hitherto beneficent agents of growth have ceased to serve the gods. To be able to do this. With her he has three sons. and thus that Groa. Latin for Sumbl. which produces the terrible winter with its awful consequences for man. The war waged by Halfdan must be regarded from this standpoint. Ölvaldi (Ölmóðr). The mother of the other group is a goddess of light (see No. Signý-Alveig. Ölgefn. the three famous artists of antiquity . active in the service of nature and of the god of harvests. was closely connected with this family. frost-giants. a goddess of vegetation.

A symbol of nature may also be found in Saxo's statement. Hjörv." succeeds with the aid of his father Thor to carry his weapons into the Teutonic lands destroyed by frost. have celebrated Halfdan in their songs as their patriarch and benefactor... who secured the "giver of growth" and the "giver of nourishing sap. in order that he may retain his royal power for three hundred years. and these valkyries are in their very nature goddesses of growth. Groa's father. that is to say. Sigtrygg. and wins in the vicinity of Svarin's Mound the victory over his opponents. and shining spears. i. too. 30. that of reconquering from the powers of frost the northernmost regions of the Teutonic territory and of permanently securing them for culture. it seems to me. cast a single thread in this direction and prayed that it might hold for ever: Þær austur og vestur enda fálu. which tell us that the norns fastened the woof of his power in the east and west. in the strophes above quoted. which was for a time decisive. it is said that Neri's kinswoman. and the difficulty of this task is indicated. 31). (Cp. The statement should be compared with what the German poems of the middle ages tell about the longevity of Berchtung-Borgar and other heroes of antiquity. That the myth made Halfdan proceed victoriously to the north. The songs about Helgi Hundingsbani have also preserved from the myth the idea that Halfdan and his forces penetrating northward by land and by sea are accompanied in the air by "valkyries. ey bað hún halda. is proved by the statements that he slays Svarin and his brothers. 85). to Svarin's Mound. means the restoration of the proper change of seasons. and that he from the beginning. that the king of Svithiod. the chief of the norns (see Nos. with Helg. Orvandel. by robbing a hostile son of Ívaldi. the giver of the nourishing sap. They live for several centuries. The norns' prayer was heard. even to the very starting-point of the emigration to the south caused by the fimbul-winter. His penetration into the north. so far spring and summer again extend the sceptre of their reign. 12. his grandson Halfdan now seeks to do the same for the Teutonic country. the object which the norns particularly gave to his life. the prose to v.) On this account the Swedes. 15.of love. 5764. while in regard to the northern latitudes. þar átti lofðungur land á milli." "goddesses from the south. Hund. and thereupon also of Alveig. and according to Saxo they have worshipped him as a divinity. As far as the hero. But the response Halfdan gets from the powers to whom . The purpose of Halfdan's conflicts." armed with helmets. brá nift Nera á norðurvega einni festi. and undisputed. HeIg. ii. 13. from the manes of whose horses falls the dew which gives the power of growth back to the earth and harvests to men. could not be conquered unless Halfdan fastened a golden ball to his club (Hist. 5. 28. of his wife Groa. the growth-giver. although it was his task to check the advance of the Skilfings to the south. who fight the forces of nature that are hostile to Halfdan. when regarded as a nature-myth. Doubtless it is after this successful war that Halfdan performs the great sacrifice mentioned in Skáldskaparmál 80. coats of mail. and the rendering of the original country and of Svithiod inhabitable. extended the sceptre of his rule over these latitudes.

34). 33. There we have given proofs of various mythological facts. 325. and brings with her her own and his son Svipdag. "the one loving ornaments" (Gróugaldr 3). and Svipdag. bids her awake from her sleep of death. who put him in chains and took the sword. Hist. Hist. REVIEW OF THE SVIPDAG MYTH AND ITS POINTS OF CONNECTION WITH THE MYTH OF HALFDAN (cp. 103). he conquers the guard of the gates . Saxo. but Orvandel's. Halfdan offers to spare his life and adopt him as his son. and from her he receives protecting incantations (Gróugaldr).. at the head of the giants. (f) Under the weight of these tasks Svipdag goes to his mother's grave. 98. the allies of the Ívaldi sons (see Fjölsvinnsmál 1. The latter is now concealed in the lower world (see Nos. (d) Groa dies. is the most brilliant and most beloved of those celebrated in Teutonic songs. 102. Then Halfdan binds him to a tree and leaves him to his fate (Saxo.. (g) Before Svipdag enters upon the adventurous expedition to find Menglad. is overcome by the latter. He develops into a hero who. (b) Groa is rejected by Halfdan (Saxo. and Orvandel marries again (Gróugaldr 3). Dan. she was already the bride of Orvandel the brave. and finds there a descent to the lower world. (i) Svipdag wanders about sorrowing in the land of the giants. No. The host of giants is defeated. Dan. We have devoted a special part of this work to him (see Nos. cp. She returns to Orvandel. god of the moon (see Nos. which is always attended by victory (see No. and answers a defiant no to the proffered father-hand.. 103). like Halfdan himself. he undertakes. 325 . Nos. The sword is forged by Þjazi. and the first son she bore in Halfdan's house was not his. Hist. Before her death Groa has told her son that if he needs her help he must go to her grave and invoke her (Gróugaldr 1). 101. When Halfdan secured Groa. Hist. 34). which I now already must incorporate with the following series of events in order that the epic thread may not be wanting: (a) Groa bears with Halfdan the son Guthorm (Saxo. and with her becomes the father of the son Hadding (Saxo. 24). but just at the moment when the smith had finished his weapon he was surprised in his sleep by Mimir. (e) It is Svipdag's duty to revenge on Halfdan the disgrace done to his mother and the murder of his mother's father Sigtrygg. But Svipdag refuses to accept life as a gift from him. Hist. and that in his family there shall not for three hundred years be born a woman or a fameless man. Dan. 91). The son's name is Svipdag. i. Prose Edda. 33 ff. 33). 33). 516. But his stepmother bids Svipdag seek Menglad. 90. (j) Following Gevarr-Nökkvi's directions. 96-107). (h) Svipdag is freed from his bonds through one of the incantations sung over him by his mother (Gróugaldr 10). tells him how he is to find an irresistible sword. Svipdag goes to the northernmost edge of the world. 101).. where Svipdag is called þursa þjóðar sjólr [dubious!]). a war of revenge against Halfdan (Saxo. who intended to destroy the world of the gods with it. No.he sacrificed is that he shall live simply to the age of an old man. who has entered into a duel with his stepfather. cp. 103). (c) Halfdan marries Signý-Alveig (Hyndluljóð 15. Gevarr-Nökkvi.

is adopted in Valhall. Reconciliation between the gods and the Ívaldi race. 34. becomes her husband. . 112). Saxo. A similar honour had already been paid to his brother Orvandel (Prose Edda). ITS CAUSE. (k) Svipdag begins a new war with Halfdan. Svipdag's half-brother (see No. obeyed the command of his stepmother to find and rescue Freyja from the power of the giants. when Thor himself. The end of the power of the fimbul-winter is marked by Freyja's and Iðunn's return to the gods by Þjazi's death. the Asa-god himself must yield. 102). by the adoption of Þjazi's kinsmen. Loki to the walls of Asgard. Njord marries Þjazi's daughter Skaði. Svipdag. pursues. The war ends with Halfdan's defeat. Thor fights on his son's side. THE VOICE OF COUNSEL BETWEEN THE ASAS AND THE VANS. 100. Hist. THE WORLD WAR. although the Teutonic patriarch finally succumbs in the war which he waged against the Þjazi-race and the frost-powers led by Þjazi's kinsmen. The feud. Miðgarðs véurr (Völuspá). who is freed from his prison at Mimir's. to which the former may be regarded as simply the prelude. sees the wonderful regions down there. thereby wins her heart and earns the gratitude of the gods. 103. is received joyfully by Freyja. 103. and by several marriage ties celebrated in commemoration of the reconciliation between Asgard's gods and the kinsmen of the great artist of antiquity. and succeeds in securing the sword of victory (see Nos. who is Freyja who was robbed by the giants. and which ended in the marriage of Svipdag and Freyja. 34). when Halfdan's fate is settled. must retreat with his lightning hammer broken into pieces. But it is not long before a new war breaks out. by the presentation of the invincible sword to the god of harvests (Frey). where he is slain by the gods (see the Eddas). The gods honour the memory of Þjazi by connecting his name with certain stars (Hárbarðsljóð 19). Ull. armed with the irresistible sword.. Orvandel's second son Ullr. under the spell of his deceased mother's incantations from the grave. 96. Þjazi. and Skadi in Asgard. He has himself learned to love her. 101. Svipdag. 97. When the crisis had reached its culminating point. cp. the mighty protector of earth and the human race. 101. but the irresistible sword cleaves the hammer Mjölnir. 53. 98. then the power of love suddenly prevails and saves the world. From this series of events we find that. (m) Iðunn is brought back to Asgard by Loki.of Hades. (n) Svipdag. 102). He liberates her and sends her pure and undefiled to Asgard (see Nos. (l) Svipdag seeks and finds Menglad. 98. when the giant hosts of the fimbul-winter had received as their leader the son of Orvandel. in the guise of an eagle. and presents his sword of victory to Frey. goes to Asgard. He dies of the wounds he has received in the battle (see Nos. was waged for the purpose of securing again for settlement and culture the ancient domain and Svithiod. THE MURDER OF GULLVEIG-HEIDR. still the results of his work are permanent. armed with the sword of victory. and is at last compelled by his longing to seek her in Asgard. A sister of Svipdag is married to Forseti (Hyndluljóð 20). Thus the peace of the world and the order of nature might seem secured. who. which had its origin in the judgment passed by the gods on Þjazi's gifts.

er Gullveigu geirum studdu og í höll Hárs hana brenndu. Fleygði Óðinn og í fólk um skaut. and in which I have given . Þá gengu regin öll á rökstóla. This is apparent from the following Völuspá strophes: 21 Það man hún fólkvíg fyrst í heimi. causes the other. völu velspá. But the new conflict rages at the same time in heaven and in earth. into one with him. and Völuspá calls it the first great war in the world . þrisvar brenndu þrisvar borna. eða skyldu goðin öll gildi eiga. brotinn var borðveggur borgar ása. æ var hún angan illrar brúðar. 22 23 24 The first thing to be established in the interpretation of these strophes is the fact that they. ginnheilög goð og um það gættust. 24).where Heimdal had founded the first community. who gradually is blended. It was confined within the limits of the North Teutonic peninsula. From the standpoint of Teutonic mythology it is a world war.fólkvíg fyrst í heimi (21. so to speak. between the divine clans of the Asas and the Vans. and in it the united powers of Asgard supported the other Teutonic tribes fighting under Halfdan. þó hún enn lifir. það var enn fólkvíg fyrst í heimi. Heiði hana hétu. in the order in which they are found in Codex Regius. oft. ósjaldan. vitti hún ganda. Loki was the cause of the former prelusive war. hvort skyldu æsir afráð gjalda. and between all the Teutonic tribes led into war with each other by Halfdan's sons. seið hún kunni. seið hún Leikin. hvars til húsa kom. His feminine counterpart and ally Gullveig-Heidr. knáttu vanir vígspá völlu sporna.

but. interrupted a discussion between them. she still lives. on the one hand. After Völuspá has given an account of the vala who in Asgard was called Gullveig and on earth Heiður. they pierce the body of the witch with their spears. and since this took place. has also been the scene of her activity. as described in Völuspá. goðin öll. do not have the power over her that they have over other agents of sorcery. it follows that the Asas must have committed the murder. Strophe 22 has already described who Gullveig is. she was burnt. and thus given at least one reason for the hatred of the Asas towards her. a division caused by the fact that Odin. and for the treatment she receives in Odin's hall. It is evident that she was in Asgard under the name Gullveig. or Frey's.that is. practising the evil arts of black sorcery (see No. in strophe 23. all belong together and refer to the same mythic event . and the strophe also explains the result of the war: the bulwark around Asgard was broken. of the dispute which arose among the gods on account of her murder. a murder committed in Valhall itself. the first and last of those quoted. There she has roamed about under the name Heiðr. and. the abode of man. since Gullveig was killed and burnt in Valhall. Thrice burned and thrice born. not in Njord's. In this afráð gjalda we meet with a phrase which is echoed in the laws of . of which the Asas constitute the one. on the other hand. and hold her over the flames of the fire. 27) and encouraging the evil passions of mankind: æ var hún angan illrar brúðar. or Freyja's halls. Of course. The gods burn her thrice. but Midgard. and in connection with. where Odin rules and is surrounded by his sons. if the Vans were the ones who committed it. The former strophe informs us that it occurred as a result of.them. beneath the roof where the gods of the Asa-clan are gathered around their father. Hence Gullveig suffers the punishment which from time immemorial was established among the Aryans for the practice of the black art. The gods assembled on and around the judgement seats are divided into two parties. It is there expressly emphasised that all the gods. One of the views prevailing in the consultation and discussion in regard to the matter is that the Asas ought to afráð gjalda in reference to the murder committed. would certainly not have permitted the Vans quietly and peaceably to subject Gullveig to the long torture there described. And her mysteriously terrible and magic nature is revealed by the fact that the flames. to the origin of the great world war. and the Vans got possession of the power of the Asas. All is in vain. the murder of Gullveig. hurling his spear. the Asas and Vans. solemnly assemble and seat themselves on their rökstólar to counsel together concerning the murder of Gullveig-Heiðr. which is called fólkvíg fyrst í heimi. The latter strophe tells that the first great war in the world produced a separation between the two god-clans. The fact that the treatment received by Gullveig can become a question of dispute which ends in enmity between the gods is a proof that only one of the god-clans has committed the murder. regin öll. They cannot prevent her return and regeneration. but in Valhall. Vans who were guests in Odin's hall might have been the perpetrators of the murder. we cannot conceive the murder as possible. That the Asas committed the murder is also corroborated by Völuspá's account of the question in dispute. and the Asas were Gullveig's protectors. Both speak of the war. who were the lords in Valhall. unless it wished thereby to point out the Asas as the doers of the deed. in the hall of the Asa-father. the Asas and Vans. for then the latter. the poem speaks. This is evident from a comparison of strophe 21 with 24. in which she is spitted on spears and held over the flames to be burnt to ashes. the poem would scarcely have indicated Odin's hall as the place where Gullveig was to be punished. The discussion or council is explained in strophe 23. though kindled by divine hands.

129). The compensation may be of any kind whatsoever.to pay the compensation for the murder. or it may be death and wounds for having waged war. Against this demand we have the proposition from the Asas that all the gods should gildi eiga. quam Othinus cortice carminibus adnotato contingens lymphanti similem reddidit).a token that the contest of reason against reason is at an end. at least one of which he ought to take the consequences. plays. alieno crimine implicati. which he henceforth occupies in a brilliant manner. the black art.. 130). and that its legal significance was simply more definite and precise than its use in the vernacular. But one of his first acts after his return is to banish the black art and its agents from heaven and from earth (Hist. 44).. 126 ff. It may be rent for the use of another's field. or it may be taxes for the enjoyment of social rights. the Asas and the Vans.Hist. Odin touched Rind with a piece of bark on which he had inscribed magic songs.Iceland..Hist...at least. turning myth as usual into history. but for which all the gods ought not to be held responsible (. mentioned by the heathen skald Kormak (seið Yggr til Rindar . Othinum variis majestatis detrimentis divinitatis gloriam maculasse cernentes. with the consent of the reigning gods. ne vel ipsi. i. His account is taken from a mythic circumstance.Younger Edda. and ought to be deposed from his royal dignity (dii . 236). Hist. that Odin is banished. and in the old codes of Norway and Sweden. distinguished for his wisdom and calmness. collegio suo submovendum duxerunt . The myth concerning this deliberation between Asas and Vans was well known to Saxo. according to which Odin. in which it was claimed that Odin had stained his divine honour. In regard to this disputed phrase at least so much is clear. and gained his point by sorcery and witchcraft. Thereupon he is. should be compared with Völuspá's account. In the present instance. In immediate connection herewith it is related that the gods held a council. The common popular meaning of the phrase is to pay compensation. but that the crime should be regarded as one in reference to which all the gods. Something must have been said at which Odin has become deeply offended. the chief part in the chain of events. and what he has to say about it (Hist. recalled to the throne. and as one for which they all together should assume the responsibility. it must mean compensation to be paid by the Asas for the slaying of Gullveig-Heiðr. forced by extreme need.. for the Asa-father. insontes nocentis crimine punirentur .. it must have been made by the Vans and their supporters in the discussion. in omnium caput unius culpam recidere putares. 129. as in Völuspá. and the result was that she became insane (Rinda .). The first thing that strikes us in Saxo's narrative is that sorcery. for both these sources complement each other. There can be no doubt that the phrase has found its way into the language of the law from the popular vernacular. According to Saxo. in Saxo as in Völuspá. and that it is to be followed by a contest with weapons. The result of the deliberation of the gods is. were alike guilty.. and that another clan of gods than his holds the power for some time.. as it appears from Saxo. sought the favour of Rind. hurls his spear into the midst of those deliberating . that it must contain either an absolute or a partial counter-proposition to the demand of the Vans. as he could not gain it otherwise.. not alone . . Among the deeds of which his opponents in this council accused him was. As such a demand could not be made by the Asas themselves.. The discussion does not lead to a friendly settlement. and its purpose must be that the Asas ought not .

Why have the Vans objected to the killing of Gullveig-Heid? Should this clan of gods. the evil plans of Gullveig-Heid have particularly been directed against those very Vana-gods who in the council demand compensation for her death. that he too once practised sorcery on the occasion when he visited Rind. is nevertheless the declared enemy of witchcraft. was guilty of the practice of sorcery. . As shall be shown. the claim that Odin's own clan. who on one occasion and under peculiar circumstances. be kindly disposed toward the evil and corrupting arts of witchcraft? This cannot have been the meaning of the myth. In this regard Saxo has in perfect faithfulness toward his mythic source represented Odin on the one hand. and pure. and according to Teutonic ideas of law. on account of a passion of which he is the victim (probably through sorcery). HYRROKIN. He and his clan had slain and burnt Gullveig-Heid because she practised sorcery and other evil arts of witchcraft. The Vans likewise look upon it with horror. Odin. The explanation of the fact is. celebrated in song as benevolent. as alike hostile to the black art. that Frey. alieno crimine implicati innocentes nocentis crimine punirentur. and it is this horror which adds strength to their words when they attack and depose Odin. It is the background on which both in Saxo and in Völuspá those events occur which are connected with the dispute between the Asas and Vans. Saxo gives us the explanation of his sudden wrath. and his opponents among the gods on the other. Thus Völuspá's and Saxo's accounts supplement and illustrate each other. In both the question turns on a deed done by Odin. useful. And as he refuses to make compensation for the murder and demands that all the gods take the consequences and share the blame. and it alone. which I shall discuss in connection with the Baldur myth. against the proposition that goðin öll skyldu gildi eiga. HER IDENTITY WITH AURBODA. if Gullveig was justly burnt for this crime. ANGRBODA. Saxo indicates this by the words: Ne vel ipsi. and Saxo makes him take pains to forbid and persecute it. whose kin in that way became friends of the Vans. Frey is obliged to demand satisfaction for a murder perpetrated on a kinswoman of his wife. the Vans have replied in council. however. And while Völuspá makes Odin suddenly interrupt the deliberations and hurl his spear among the deliberators. GULLVEIG-HEIDR. for which certain gods do not wish to take the responsibility. then he ought justly to be deposed from his dignity stained by the same crime as the ruler of all the gods. Völuspá indicates it by letting the Vans present. The kinship of blood demands its sacred right.Thus the chain of events in Saxo both begins and ends with sorcery. 35. One dark point remains. as shall be shown below. the Vans must act as they do regardless of the moral character of Gullveig. because he has himself practised that for which he has punished Gullveig. In both the documents the gods meet in council before the breaking out of the enmity. was driven to marry the giant maid Gerd. THE MYTH CONCERNING THE SWORD GUARDIAN AND FJALAR. and that. should afráð gjalda.

Gerd's mother. says: Ól úlf Loki við Angurboðu. So long as the heart in a dead body had not gone into decay. Her heart had not been burnt through or changed to ashes. soul and body. sometimes we find hjarta used entirely in the sense of soul. þaðan er á foldu flagð hvert komið. "the ancient one in the Ironwood". hún var Gymis dóttir. Hyndluljóð 40-41 (Völuspá in skamma 12-13). Gerd's mother is. (a) Gullveig-Heid identical with Angurboða. joy and sorrow. if it can be shown that GullveigHeid is Gerd's mother.The duty of the Vana-deities becomes even more plain. Loki [át] af hjarta lindi brenndu. It can. under peculiar circumstances. it was believed that the principle of life dwelling therein still was able. in fact. fann hann hálfsviðinn hugstein konu. but that the flames were not able to destroy the seed of life in her nature. for Loki finds and swallows the heart. in Hyndluljóð 30 (Völispá in Skamma 2). það var bróður frá Byleists komið. called Aurboða. of the soul of living beings. then demands satisfaction for the murder of his own mother-in-law. A number of linguistic phrases are founded on the idea that goodness and evil. kindness and severity. for Frey. courage and cowardice. and is the wife of the giant Gymir: Freyr átti Gerði. and in this condition it had together with the other remains of the cremated woman been thrown away. (en Sleipni gat við Svaðilfara). varð Loftur kviðugr af konu illri. to operate on the limbs and exercise an influence on . be demonstrated that Aurboða is identical with Gullveig-Heid. From the account we see that an evil female being (ill kona) had been burnt. Our ancestors looked upon the heart as the seat of the life principle. eitt þótti skass allra feiknazt. supported by the Vana-gods. jötna ættar og Aurboðu. It was only half-burnt (hálfsviðinn hugsteinn). are connected with the character of the heart. as in the expression hold og hjarta. (b) evidence that Gullveig-HeidAngurboða is identical with Aurboða. The evidence is given below in two divisions: (a) Evidence that Gullveig-Heid is identical with Angurboða.

. The woman possessing the half-burnt heart. proves that the attempt to destroy her with fire was unsuccessful... The swallowed heart redeveloped the feminine in him (Loki lindi af brendu hjarta). So he does now. in skæða. First among the children is mentioned the wolf.. who is the mother or rather the father of the wolf. her own offspring. which is called Fenrir. skass valkyrja.. we find in part recapitulated in Helgakviða Hundingsbana i. although there on a former occasion did not remain more of her than a half-burnt heart. . and "there fosters Fenrir's kinsmen" (Völuspá 40). where Sinfjotli compares his opponent Gudmund with the evil female principle in the heathen mythology. and which in Ragnarok shall cause the death of the Asa-father. 43.. . 37-40.. Saxo. The myth about Gullveig-Heid-Angurboða.. which at the close of this period are to issue from the Ironwood. Loki had revealed his androgynous nature. bartu skrök saman. Unsuccessful burning of an evil woman. In such cases it was regarded as important to pierce the heart of the dead with a pointed spear (cp. To this event point Njord's words about Loki.its environment. The fact that Angurboða now dwells in the Ironwood. M. the vala in question. Þú vart. and its influence upon Loki.. "the old one in the Ironwood". as it was remembered in the first period after the introduction of Christianity. contains the evil woman's soul. Sinfjotli says: Þú vart völva í Varinseyju. and No." who in historical times and until Ragnarok dwells in the Ironwood. particularly if the dead person in life had been endowed with a will at once evil and powerful. and where Gudmund in return compares Sinfjotli with its evil masculine principle.. is called Angurboða (ól úlf Loki við Angurboðu).. Her regeneration after the cremation. Hist. and break into Midgard and dye its citadels with blood (Völuspá 41). These points apply equally to Gullveig-Heid and to Angurboða. is most remarkable.. Loki.. and that she arose again in bodily form after this cremation. after he has swallowed it. and became the father of the children from which the trolls (flagð) are come which are found in the world. . It fertilised him with the evil purposes which the heart contained. skollvís kona. 95). 2. Thus the myth about Angurboða is identical with the myth about Gullveig-Heid in the two characteristic points: 1. Once before when he bore Sleipnir with the giant horse Svaðilfari. Loki became the possessor of the evil woman (kviðugr af konu illri). in Lokasenna 33: áss ragr er hefir börn of borið. The half-burnt heart. N. Petersen and other mythologists have rightly seen that she is the same as "the old one. accordingly. and became the mother and nourisher of were-wolves.

The vala must therefore be Gullveig-Heid of the myth. Níu áttum við á nesi Ságu úlfa alna. and that she. 8) relates that a giantess. Nowhere is any other daughter of Hrímnir mentioned. This refers to the war between the Asas and Vans. In allusion to the cremation of Gullveig-Heid fire is called in Þórsdrápa Hrímnis drósar lyftisylgr. partly in Asgard at Alfather's. been connected with the poems about Helgi Hundingsbani and Sigurd Fafnisbani. Hrímnir's daughter.Hyndl. knows only one daughter of this giant. and mentions no sister of hers. Now it is said of her in the lines above quoted. Thus the identity of Gulveig-Heid and Angurboða is still further established by the fact that both the one and the other is called the mother of the Fenris family. The passage quoted is not the only one which has preserved the memory of GulveigHeid as mother of the were-wolves. and that she. during her sojourn on earth. in Christian times and by Christian authors. in the Ironwood. svévís kona. but. and there she was the cause of a war in which all the warriors of Asgard took part.. Gudmund's answer begins: Faðir varattu fenrisúlfa. The fantastic and horrible saga about these were-wolves has. a brother Hrossþjófr (Heiðr og Hrossþjófr Hrímnis kindar . as it has come down to our days. The evil woman with whom one of the two heroes compares the other is said to be a vala. ii. eg var einn faðir þeirra. um sakar þínar. mundu einherjar allir berjast.Völuspá). The circumstance that the giantess in question first dwelt in Asgard and thereupon in Midgard. indicates that she is identical with Gullveig-Heid. that she gave birth to wolves. Hyndluljóð states that Heiðr is Hrímnir's daughter.ötul. then on earth. who infested the woods and murdered men. Of Angurboða we already know that she is the mother of the real Fenriswolf. on whose account the war between the Asas and Vans broke out.. on the other hand. according to Völuspá. ámátleg að Alföður." the drink which Heid lifted up on spears had to drink. And while it is stated in the above-cited strophe that the giantess who caused the war in Asgard and became the . It is the second feud among the powers of Asgard. and she is the same as Gullveig-Heid. produces other wolves which are called by Fenrir's name (Fenris kindir . and that these wolves were "fenrisúlfar". Völsungasaga (c. who has practised her art partly on Varin's Isle. "the lifting drink of Hrímnir's daughter. The myth. and this identity is confirmed by the statement that she is a daughter of the giant Hrímnir. first dwelt in Asgard as the maid-servant of Frigg. became the wife of a king. 30 = Völuspá in skamma 4). and with him the mother and grandmother of were-wolves.

Perhaps the wood was a copper or bronze forest before it became an iron wood. The war between the Asas and Vans was caused by the burning of Gullveig by the former. is an exile in the Ironwood. 98. and the masculine effemninated.). which. Hund. in various guises. plays Freyja into the hands of the giants.] of the East during the historical age down to Ragnarok is explained by what Saxo says .viz. Before that crisis comes Angurboða has fostered that host of "sons of world-ruin" which Loki is to lead to battle. 103). and treacherously delivers her to the powers of frost. and Gullveig. and which have their personal representatives in Ivaldi's sons. After the reconciliation with the Asas this . 101. and hatred of the gods are personified. Their identity is apparent from various other circumstances. in whose hand it is to be the death of Frey. in the great epic of the myth. Compare ghalgha. That the woman who in antiquity. the feminine and the masculine representatives of the evil principle. after his return and reconciliation with the Vans. shows that Varin's Isle and Varin's Fjord were located in that very country. c. which hitherto had been friendly. Gaglviðr (Cod. her regeneration after the cremation. in which the feminine assuming masculineness. and a magic sword which she has kept in the Ironwood is given to Surt. when Loki is chained. bear to the world an offspring of foes to the gods and to creation. again. 26. too. Loki entices Idun from the secure grounds of Asgard. the same woman as mother of the Fenrir race are common to Gullveig-Heid and Angurboða. and this continuous thread of evil is twisted from the treacherous deeds of Gullveig and Loki. but may be regarded as completely demonstrated by the proofs given. i. Gullveig's activity in anitiquity as the founder of the diabolical magic art.. Here. as one who awakens man's evil passions and produces strife in Asgard itself. Loki plans enmity between the gods and the forces of nature. is to be compared with khalkos = copper. and Galgviðr (Cod.. The interference of both is interrupted at the close of the mythic age. It may be that we here have a fossil word preserved in Völuspá meaning metal. the connection between Gullveig-Heid and Angurboða is manifest. Gullveig causes the war between the Asas and Vans. ghalghi (Fick. 2. in the guise of Angurboða. where Hrímnir's daughter was supposed to have been for some time the wife of a king and to have given birth to were-wolves. banished the agents of the black art both from heaven and from earth. Thus we have found that the three characteristic points unsuccessful cremation of an evil giantess. into a single being. Hauk. so to speak. thirst for blood. bronze. with Völsungasaga. Gullveig. formed a continuity spanning all ages. Reg. the lord of harvests (see Nos. The activity of the evil principle has. and Gullveig deceives the sons of men already in the time of Heimdal's son Borgar.). visited Asgard and Midgard was believed to have had her home in the Ironwood [* In Völuspá the wood is called both Jarnviðr. ii. Before this they have for a time been blended. Both finally act their parts in the destruction of the world. a comparison of Helg. that Odin. has its complement in Angurboða's activity as the mother and nourisher of that class of beings in whose members witchcraft. Both appear at the dawn of mankind: Loki has already at the beginning of time secured access to Allfather (Lokasenna 9). 89.mother of fenris-wolves was a vala on Varin's Isle (völva í Varinseyju). 578) = metal. as we shall see.

The reconciliation between the Asas and Vans has. but. Etgeir is a corruption of Egther. Origine. and Isung's wood is a reminiscence of Isarnvidr. According to Hyndluljóð. the Asa-god who caused the banishment becomes a king. which was thought to be situated in the utmost East. Saxo speaks of him as Egtherus. 248.. after making peace and becoming reconciled with the Vans.punishment cannot again be inflicted on the regenerated witch. Bjarmians and Finns are in Saxo made the heirs of the wicked inhabitants of Jotunheim. . who is gýgjar hirðir. which means sword-guardian. and also guards a sword brought to the Ironwood. whose character. while they on their part. skilled in magic.Völuspá). where it is stated that a Gothic king compelled the suspected valas (haliorunas) found among his people to take their refuge to the deserts in the East beyond the Moeotian Marsh. and of the Loki progeny which she there fosters. In this manner the Christian Goths got from their mythic traditions an explanation of the source of the eastern hosts of horsemen. reinstate Odin in his dignity as universal ruler and father of the gods. the guardian and watcher of the giantess. as described by Saxo. 249. (b) Gullveig-Heid-Angurboða identical with Aurboða. then. is Vidolf. together with a giant. but both the clans of gods agree that she must not show her face again in Asgard or Midgard. this statement in Hyndluljóð makes us think of her particularly. who watches over precious implements in Isung's wood. 52. fits well for such a daughter. equally skilful in magic (cp. and as Hrímnir's daughter has been born and burnt several times. 24. sentence them to banishment from the domains of gods and men. Thus the dispute which caused the war between Asas and Vans was at last decided to the advantage of the latter. The vala Gullveig-Heid and her like become in Jordanes these haliorunæ. That the tradition preserved in Saxo and Jordanes corresponded with the myth is proved by the fact that we there rediscover GullveigHeid-Angurboða with her offspring in the Ironwood. with Nos. instead. In the Ironwood dwells Angurboða. He is a master in sorcery. whose ugly faces and barbarous manners seemed to them to prove an other than purely human origin. Stress should be laid on the fact that Jordanes and Saxo have in the same manner preserved the tradition that Odin and the Asas. Loki and the giants of the Ironwood become these woodsprites. and a chief of Bjarmians. she may also have had several fathers. an ally of Finns. 53). ch. all the valas of the myth come from Vidolf. where they mixed with the wood-sprites. This vocation has given him the epithet Egther (Eggþér . and thus became the progenitors of the Huns. has been turned into history by Jordanes in his De Goth. Among them. son of Gandaricus Magnus (the great ruler of the Gandians. Odin). and that she remains there undisturbed until the destruction of the world. Hist. and the teacher of the arts practised by the valas. as this conclusively shows. The myth concerning the banishment of the fatuous vala to the Ironwood. The Asas must allow her to live to the end of time. the Ironwood. Vilkinasaga knows him by the name Etgeir. do not apply the death-penalty and burning to Gullveig-HeidAngurboða and her kith and kin. and Loki's and Angurboða's wonderful progeny become the Huns. and also skilful in the art of medicine. In the Vilkinasaga he is the brother of Vidolf. been based on an admission on the part of the Asas that the Vans had a right to find fault with and demand satisfaction for the murder of Gullveig-Heid. But the medical art he practises in such a manner that those who seek his help receive from him such remedies as do harm instead of good. He has charge of her remarkable herds. far away from the human world. Isarnho. after being satisfied. As Gullveig-Heid-Angurboða is the chief of all valas.

iii. Logi's. and who is the guardian of the strange herds. Gól um honum . 323. 216 ff. She appears to be the daughter of his brother. quoted in the Younger Edda. 144). The approach of the fimbul-winter was also attended by an earthquake (see Nos. on his way to Fjalar. he met with on his way to Utgard-Loke. the cause of earthquakes (Younger Edda.] (a) He is the same giant as the Younger Edda (i. 28. does not play an idyl on the strings of his harp does not need to be stated. and whose devoted daughter Gunnlod he causes bitter sorrow. Here it will suffice to point out that when Odin flies out of Fjalar's dwelling with the skaldic mead. (c) Fjalar is the son of the chief of the fire-giants. then this is in harmony with Fjalar's nature as a fire-giant and as a son of Surt. Sat þar á haugi og sló hörpu gýgjar hirðir. 104-105). The statement in Vilkinasaga compared with that in Hyndluljóð seems therefore to point to a near kinship between Angurboða and her sword-guard. to Jaravall" (Völuspá 14. therefore. The giant from whom Odin robs the skaldic mead. a strophe by Eyvind. Thus he is allied with the powers of frost. The cock. is called in Hávamál sometimes Fjalar and sometimes Suttung (cp. 3). 144 ff. 242).Only by threats can he be made to do good with his art (Hist. and dwells in the subterranean dales of the latter. That the giant who is hostile to the gods.and playing a harp. 89. see Nos. Völuspá makes Fjalar on his visit to the sword-guardian in the Ironwood appear in the guise of the red cock. is represented as sitting on a mound .. 15. where Thor. When. A full account of this in No. In regard to the value of this account. according to the Younger Edda. and that this drink while it remained with Fjalar was "the drink of Surt's race" (sylgr Surts ættar. Surtr.) the name Fjalarr also appears. says Völuspá. 13-14.) calls Utgard-Loki. it is "from Surt's deep dales" that he "flying bears" the precious drink (hinn er Surts úr sökkdölum farmögnuðr fljúgandi bar. 32). (d) Fjalar. Angurboða's shepherd. meets with the same adventures as. see the investigation in No. In Völuspá's description of the approach of Ragnarok. He is visited by a being in the guise of the red cock. Fjalar's identity with Utgard-Loki is proved by Hárbarðsljóð 26. The latter is a fire-giant. Fornms. p. the fire's ruler (Younger Edda. who are foes of the gods. What the heathen records tell us about Fjalar is the following: [* In Skáldskaparmál's pseudo-mythic account of the Skaldic mead (Younger Edda. takes part in the attack of Þjazi's kinsmen and the Skilfings from Svarin's Mound against "the land of the clayey plains. and who seek to conquer the Teutonic domain. happy over that which is to happen. Egther. 89. 324). and skilled in producing optical delusions. (b) He is the same giant as the one called Suttung.. 81). with Frosti. 152). glaður Eggþér. 28.like Aurboða's shepherd in Skírnismál . is Fjalarr (44).

is armed with the best of the mythical weapons. At the approach of Ragnarok.this sword is found again in the Ragnarok conflict. nowhere-supported myth. This circumstance of itself is a very strong reason for their identity. The sword is then guarded by Angurboða's shepherd. who was wasting away with longing and anxiety. They yield in order to save the life of the harvest-god. that which Þjazi finished with a purpose hostile to the gods (see No. Surt. the sword concealed by Mimir (see Nos. in the Ironwood from Angurboða's sword-guard. demands. the chief of the firegiants. lies in the very spirit of Teutonic poetry and ethics. That what Odin does against Fjalar . the sword found by Svipdag (see Nos. and consequently belongs to her. the one given by Frey to Gymir and Aurboða in exchange for Gerd. Gulli keypta léztu Gymis dóttur og seldir þitt svo sverð. When we now add the important fact in the disposition of this matter. the sword secured through him by Frey. 89. Fjalar's father. 101. The famous sword of the myth. its former possessor. in behalf of a near kinsman. Fjalar. one of the gods of Asgard (Völuspá 52). 87 and elsewhere). but also gives us to understand that this bargain shall cause his death in Ragnarok.í galgviði fagurrauður hani sá er Fjalar heitir (Völuspá 42). which the Asa-father once laid on the pulseless breast of his favourite son Baldur. especially since Odin's act. that Aurboða's son-in-law. in which poem we learn that the gods most unwillingly part with the safety which the incomparable sword secured to Asgard. hve þú vegur (Lokasenna 42). en er Múspells synir ríða myrkvið yfir veizt-a þú þá. goes to the Ironwood to fetch for his father the sword by which Frey. a sound application of methodology would still bid us accept this identity rather than explain the matter by inventing a new. 98. but not until the giants had refused to accept other Asgard treasures. vesall. though done from a good motive. and thus making the sword pass from Aurboða to another giantess. was morally reprehensible. What Fjalar's errand to Angurboða's sword-guard was appears from the fact that when the last war between the gods and their enemies is fought a short time afterwards.when he robs him of the mead. among them the precious ring Draupnir. the sword which had belonged to a valtívi. Surt's son. the sword which Aurboða enticed Frey to give her is now found in the possession of Angurboða. wielded by Surt. 103). Fjalar. and causes Frey's death (Völuspá). which in the myth is the most precious of all drinks. This passage not only tells us that Frey gave his sword in exchange for Gerd to the parents of the giantess. The red cock has from time immemorial been the symbol of fire as a destructive power. Frey. it having been secured by Surt's son. satisfaction from the Asas . and which casts the splendour of the sun upon the world. . In other words. and when he deceived his daughter . is to fall. 101).is calculated to awaken Fjalar's thirst for revenge and to bring about a satisfaction sooner or later. Gymir and Aurboða. 87. If there were no other evidence of their identity than this. This bride-purchase is fully described in Skírnismál.

But have our mythic fragments preserved any allusion to show that Aurboða. as we know. 97). Thus the question whether Aurboða ever dwelt in Asgard is answered in the affirmative. is the owner of Frey's sword.Younger Edda. 1. spreading its allembracing branches.when they had killed and burnt Gullveig-Heid-Angurboða. who surround Menglad. though she is the daughter of a giant. Aurboða has. is a kinswoman of the Vans . the less so. We know in regard to Loki's appearance in Asgard. who calls her "Gymir's primeval cold vala" (úrsvöl Gymis völva . Eir. since all that our mythic fragments have to tell us about Gymir's wife confirms the theory that she is the same person. 2). it was not long before she perceived that her wish would come to pass (Völsungasaga. i. and beauty. this Aurboða. and Frid are the dises of splendour. But in the midst of this circle of dises. as we know. and the promise was sealed with blood (Lokasenna 9). and Frid. Blid. They are mighty beings. MengladFreyja is. then it must be admitted that this fact absolutely confirms their identity. like Gullveig-Heid-Angurboða. practised the arts of sorcery: she is one of the valas of the evil giant world. This is told to us in a strophe by the skald Refr. and can give aid in distress to all who worship them (Fjölsvinnsmál 40). ever dwelt among the gods in Asgard? Asgard is a place where giants are refused admittance. Björt. on which grow fruits which soothe kelisjukar konur and lighten the entrance upon terrestrial life for the children of men (Fjölsvinnsmál 22). pp. Hrímnir's daughter is. Exceptions from this prohibition must have been very few. Frigg heard their prayers and sent them in the guise of a crow the daughter of the giant Hrímnir. Svipdag also sees Aurboða (Fjölsvinnsmál 38). like Angurboða. is a vala of giant race. and it is Frigg's and her vocation to dispose of these fruits for the purposes for which they are intended. now. i. Above them Svipdag sees Mimir's tree . the goddess of love and fertility. in the circle around . and the myths must have given good reasons for them. If. a giantess who had been adopted in Asgard as Odin's "wish-maid". Anrboða did actually dwell in Asgard. was one of the certainly very few of the giant class who was permitted to enter within the gates of Asgard. in spite of a threefold burning. in further likeness with Angurboða. 114). A king and queen had long been married without getting any children. the passage quoted informs us that she is a vala. that it is based on a promise given to him by the Asafather in time's morning. and. Under all circumstances. and. like Gullveig-Heid-Angurboða. whose very names. tell us that they are goddesses of lower or higher rank.if now this same Aurboða. Blid. Björt. 496). Eir is an asynja of the healing art (Younger Edda. he sees Menglad sitting on a hill surrounded by goddesses. Gullveig-Heid. We have discovered her. and concerning the giant-daughter who was admitted to Asgard as a maid-servant of the goddesses. 96. They beseeched the gods for an heir. like Angurboða. and when the queen had eaten it. 97). like Angurboða. who was destined to be his wife (see Nos. There it is related that when Svipdag came to the gates of Asgard to seek and find Menglad-Freyja.the world-tree (see No. Hrímnir's daughter took an apple with her. She might be called "primeval cold" (úrsvöl) from the fact that the fire was not able to pierce her heart and change it to ashes. The Völsungasaga has preserved a record concerning these fruits. 326. benevolence. Of this we are assured by the poem "Fjölsvinnsmál". who. then it seems to me that there can be no doubt in regard to the identity of Aurboða and Angurboða.

It can be the feminine form of boði. meaning fermenting water. and for some time performed the duties of a maidservant at her home. froth. cp. and it must have been in behalf of a near relation that Frey and Njord demnanded satisfaction from the Asas when the latter slew Gullveig-Heid. ejus aliquamdiu pedissequam egisset. 4) relates a tradition that Freyja kendi fyrst med Ásum seið. which had formerly belonged to Frey. For we have seen that Gullveig-Heid. (Gigas fæminam subornat. had succeeded in ingratiating herself in her favour. Doubtless Völuspá and Saxo have reference to Gullveig-Heid-Aurboða when they say that Freyja. on account of its poetics. we will not omit. Veig means a fermenting liquid. which means precious metal. 100) tells that a woman. try to betray her into practising the same arts. In his historical account relating how Freyja (Syritha) was robbed from Asgard and came to the giants but was afterwards saved from their power. was delivered into the hands of the giants. consequently closely related to him. At the same time we have found that Gullveig-Heid has for some time had an occupation in Asgard of precisely the same kind as that which belongs to a dis serving under the goddess of fertility. The demonstration that Gullveig-Heid-Angurboða is identical with Aurboða may now be regarded as completed. it would be strange if the myth did not make her. So far as the very names Gullveig and Aurboða are concerned the one can serve as a paraphrase of the other. There is no doubt that the statement is correct. hanc tandem a paternis procul . where she has occupied a subordinate position as maid-servant. We must consider that nearly all mythic characters are polyonomous. but they were employed there in the same manner. the aur of many significations may be referred to eyrir. Thus the similarity between Aurboða and Gullveig-Heid is not confined to the fact that they. for the sake of completeness. dwelt in Asgard. and that she possessed the sword. although giantesses. but this she did in order to entice her in a cunning manner away from her safe home to a place where the giant lay in ambush and carried her away to the recesses of his mountain country. who was secretly allied with a giant. and that Aurboða is mentioned as particularly belonging to the circle of serving dises who attended Freyja. No. after she had gained Freyja's confidence. foam. that Freyja was the first to practise sorcery in Asgard. Saxo (Hist. Ynglingasaga (ch. through some treacherous person among her attendants. aurar. Thus Gull and Aur correspond. boða has two significations. pl. But of Gullveig-Heid's and Aurboða's identity there are also other proofs which. Of the one as of the other it is related that she was a vala of giant-race. In the same manner veig in Gullveig can correspond to boða in Aurboða. succeeded in getting admission to Asgard. and was there employed by Frigg or Freyja in the service of fertility. and that the Teutonic mythology particularly. Under such circumstances it is utterly impossible from a methodological standpoint to regard them otherwise than identical. quæ cum obtenta virginis familiaritate. and by which Frey is to fall. and is thought to be borrowed from the Latin aurum (gold). The first part of the name Aurboða. the sorceress and spreader of sorcery in antiquity. No other names compounded with boða occur in Norse literature than Aurboða and Angurboða.Menglad-Freyja. Aurboða is Frey's mother-in-law. 331. As this giantess was so zealous in spreading her evil arts among the inhabitants of Midgard. is burdened with a highly-developed polyonomy.. that she nevertheless dwelt for some time in Asgard.

there is no reason for assuming the mere possibility. and that the person found guilty was at once slain by Thor. and of which I . but also informs us how the treason was punished: Þá gengu regin öll á rökstóla.penatibus. and as Aurboða's character and part. which must be an epithet of a giantess known by some other more common name. og um það gættust. and that this woman was allied with the giant world. while she held a trusted servant's place with the goddess. For those familiar with the contents of the myth." or "who had delivered Freyja to the race of giants". These Völuspá lines stand in Codex Regius in immediate connection with the abovequoted strophes which speak of Gullveig-Heid and of the war caused by her between the Asas and Vans. reduxit. They inform us that the gods assembled to hold a solemn counsel to find out "who had filled all the air with evil.) Thus Saxo informs us that it was a woman among Freyja's attendants who betrayed her. correspond with such an act of treason. which is hostile to the gods. hverir hefði loft allt lævi blandið eða ætt jötuns Óðs mey gefna. Þórr einn þar vá þrunginn móði. We also find elsewhere in our mythic records that an exceedingly dangerous woman met with precisely this fate. then it follows that she received her deathblow from Thor's hammer. indicates that some effort worthy of being remembered in the myth had been made to burn her. All that we learn about Hyrrokin confirms her identity with Aurboða. for the epithet Hyrrokin means the "fire-smoked". hann sjaldan situr er hann slíkt um fregn. If it is not. who is neither mentioned nor known. In the symbolic-allegorical work of art. But the very appellation Hyrrokin. which not only mentions the fact that Freyja came into the power of the giants through treachery. this epithet was regarded as plain enough to indicate who was meant. A strophe by Thorbjorn Disarskald. quæsita callidius digressione. that the betrayer of Freyja may have been some one else. but that the effort resulted in her being smoked rather than that she was burnt. With this it is important to compare Völuspá 25-26. Now if this person is Gullveig-Aurboða. it must refer to the thrice in vain burnt Gullveig. before the Asas made in common the unsuccessful attempt to change her body into ashes. to be looked upon as an unhappy and misleading epithet. played in the epic of the myth. therefore. who grew most angry. Aurboða is the only woman connected with the giants in regard to whom our mythic records inform us that she occupied such a position with Freyja. quam ipse mox irruens in arctiora montanæ crepidinis septa devexit. ginnheilög goð. There she is called Hyrrokin. preserved in the Younger Edda. states that Hyrrokin was one of the giantesses slain by Thor. which toward the close of the tenth century decorated a hall at Hjardarholt.

þar er bára brestr. 40) and Skadi. "Gymir's ancient-cold vala often carries the ship amid breaking billows into the jaws of Ægir. AND ULL IN THE CONFLICT. the latter leave the assembly hall and Asgard.. When the Asas had refused to give satisfaction for the murder of Gullveig. 36. Skadi loved Þrymheim.. had indicated that the treaty of peace between him and the Vans was broken. and Freyja and her husband Svipdag. among whom are Heimdal (see Nos. SKADI. and the same gale belongs to Aurboða. and Angurboða are different names for the different hypostases of the thrice-born and thrice-burnt one. besides all that clan of divinities who were not adopted in Asgard. and that Hyrrokin. Austr býr in aldna í Járnviði (Völuspá). THE VICTORY OF THE VANS. Aurboða. undinna festa. and when Odin.shall give a fuller account elsewhere. 42-44). on whose snow-clad plains she was fond of running on skis and of felling wild beasts with her arrows. THE SIEGE OF ASGARD. Þjazi's daughter and he were altogether too different in disposition to dwell in peace together. That Aurboða represents the gale from the east finds its natural explanation in her identity with Angurboða "the old. on the other Njord. From the other side of Eystrasalt (the Baltic) Gymir sings his song (Ynglingatal 25). 94) have both preserved the record of a song which describes their different tastes as to home and surroundings. FRIGG. 53 ff. opt í Ægis kjapta úrsvöl Gymis völva. "the fire-smoked. THE VAFERFLAMES. 39. The gods are now divided into two hostile camps: on the one side Odin and his allies.." is an epithet common to all these hypostases. but when Njord had remained nine days and nine nights among the mountains he was weary of the rocks and of the howling of . the rocky home of her father Þjazi. for Ægir. THE BREACH OF PEACE BETWEEN THE ASAS AND VANS." who dwells in the Ironwood in the uttermost east. represents in the physical interpretation of the myth the east wind coming from the Ironwood. 131). into whose jaws she drives the ships. is the great open western ocean. This is evident from the fact that they afterwards return to Asgard and attack the citadel of the Asa clan. Ull (Saxo. Frigg (Saxo. but belong to the race of Vans and dwell in Vanaheim. THE WORLD WAR (continued). According to statements found in the myths.) and the Younger Edda (p. by hurling his spear. Aurboða. Frey. with whom she did not live on good terms. 130. THE DEFENCE AND SURROUNDINGS OF ASGARD. Saxo (Hist. Hist. So far as Skadi is concerned the breach between the gods seems to have furnished her an opportunity of getting a divorce from Njord." Gymir. Hist. Aurboða's husband. the storm which from the land side carried Baldur's ship out on the sea is represented by the giantess Hyrrokin. 38. The result of the investigation is that Gullveig-Heiðr. in a poem by Refr: Færir björn. In the same capacity of storm-giantess carrying sailors out upon the ocean appears Gymir's wife.

it is said that Skadi "now" occupies her father's "ancient home" in Þrymheim. and the topographical counterpart of the word is Ásgarðr. and longed for the song of swans on the sea-strand. and begat with her many sons.Hist. Thus it must have been after his banishment from Asgard. as is apparently corroborated by Odin's words in Grímnismál 42 (Ullar hylli og allra goða). Over the eddies of the stream floats a dark. according to the tradition preserved in Saxo. The wall is built of "the limbs of Leirbrimir" (Fjölsvinnsmál 12). whose bickering tongues strike their victims with unerring certainty.wolves. after the reconciliation between the Asas and Vans. Midgard and the lower world. and which must be captured by the enemy before the great cordon which encloses the shining halls of the gods can be attacked. While Odin was absent and deposed as ruler of the world. but it is that connection between the lower worlds and Asgard which the gods daily use. 52. ignitible mist. and hefir hermanns atgervi (Younger Edda. Þrymgjöll . This is explained by the fact that Njord and Frey. and Eyvind Skaldaspillir relates in Háleygjatal that there was a time when Odin dwelt í Manheimum together with Skadi. are in their very nature gods of peace and promoters of wealth and agriculture.Fjölsvinnsmál 10). skjótbrinni. then the gate itself becomes a chain for him who has attempted such a thing (Forn er sú grind en það fáir vitu.vafrlogi. Her epithet in Grímnismál." celebrated in ancient songs . Ull has occupied so important a position among the ruling Vans that. and constructed by its architect in such a manner that it is a safe protection against mountain-giants and frost-giants (Younger Edda. where are also found a race of mennskir menn (see Nos. 53. excellent in a duel. 63). 130). 59. But when Skadi accompanied him thither she could not long endure to be awakened every morning by the shrieking of sea-fowls. that Odin had Skadi for his wife.Fjölsvinnsmál 10). It was this fire which the gods kindled around Asgard when they saw Þjazi approaching in eagle guise. Ollerum quendam non solum in regni. they bestowed upon him the task and honour which until that time had belonged to Odin (Dii . though valtívar and brave warriors when they are invoked. while Ull is by nature a warrior. but Njord is not there named. In a strophe by Thord Sjarekson (Younger Edda. shining. The bridge Bifrost is not therefore superfluous. whose strong currents make it difficult for the mythic horses to swim to it (see Nos. skír brúðr goða. Outside of the very high Asgard cordon and around it there flows a rapid river (see below). He is a skilful archer. Few there are who understand the lock of that gate.Grímnismál 22. i. It is the vafurlogi. With Manheimar is meant that part of the world which is inhabited by man. .. Also.Grímnismál 22. Fjöturr fastur verður við faranda hvern er hana hefur frá hliði . that is to say. Thor's stepson Ull has held a high position in Asgard. hve hún er í lás lokin . sed etiam in divinitatis infulas subrogavere . also seems to indicate that she had conjugal relations with more than one of the gods." "the quick fire. "the bickering flame. The home of the Asas is surrounded by the atmospheric ocean. and if anybody brings it out of its proper place in the wall-opening where it blocks the way for those who have no right to enter. 102). 262) we read that Skadi never became devoted to the Vana-god (nam-a snotr una goðbrúðr Vani). From the mythic accounts in regard to the situation and environment of Asgard we may conclude that the siege by the Vans was no easy task. the moat of the citadel. vafreyði. while he was separated from Frigg and found refuge somewhere in Manheimar. 93). . In it . In the wall is a gate wondrously made by the artist-brothers who are sons of "Sólblindi" (Valgrind . 65. If it is kindled it explodes in flames. 134). In Grímnismál 11.

The "quick fire. [* The author of Skáldskaparmál in the Younger Edda has understood this passage to mean that the Asas. It is said to be "wise." and Thor is the "ruler of the chariot of the vaferfire-storm" (váfr-eyða hreggs húfstjóri). Oaks struck by lightning is no unusual occurrence. Hvergelmir's waters are sucked up by the northern root of the world-tree. "Haustlaung. Dvalinn. carried out a lot of shavings. zigzag flames . These are also found enveloping the home where dwelt the storm-giant Gymir and the storm-giantess . 33). when they saw Þjazi approaching. spread into its branches and leaves. The dark metallic colour which is peculiar to the thunder-cloud was regarded as coming from that very material which is the "black terror-gleam" of which lightning is formed.have their source in that great subterranean fountain Hvergelmir. but such as they are originally. How a water could be conceived that evaporates a dark ignitible mist we find explained in Þórsdrápa. according to popular belief based on observation. terrestrial. and these strophes appear to have belonged originally to an independent song which made a speciality of that sort of symbolism. the oak-stinger. and the "dwarf"-artist. bickering. The river that foams around Asgard thus has its source in the thunder-clouds. the water and the vafermist. the latter is ignited and rushes away in quick. says that when Þjazi approached the citadel of the gods "the gods raised the quick fire and sharpened their javelins" . is the vafurlogi. 59. &c." Thjodolf's poem.Hófu skjót. It is úr ódökkum. 93). the wolf-giant Grafvitnir's sons as serpents. 63." which implies that it consciously aims at him for whose destruction it is kindled.] The material of which the ignitible mist consists is called "black terror-gleam". Eikþyrnir. ofdökkum ógnar ljóma (Fáfnismál 42) (cp. see Nos. but know their mark and never miss it. They do not proceed blindly. Fortunately for the comprehension of our mythic records such symbolising is confined to a few strophes in the poem named.subterranean. are symbolised as stags. in Grímnismál 26. When Thor splits the cloud he separates the two component parts. that tree which the lightning most frequently strikes. and evaporate from its crown into a water-tank situated on the top of Asgard. and celestial . and hence it consists not only of foaming water but also of ignitible vafermists. That these are "wise' was a common Aryan belief. that is to say. they rise through its trunk.their irreconcilable foe burnt his pinions. Fjölsvinnsmál 31).(en skófu sköpt) ginnregin -brinna. In its capacity of discharger of the thunder-cloud. not as we find them after they have been split by Thor. symbolised as a "stag " [*] who stands on the roof of Odin's hall and out of whose horns the waters stream down into Hvergelmir. which were kindled (!).the vaferfires. Eikþyrnir is the great celestial water-tank which gathers and lets out the thunder-cloud. Dáinn. myrkvan vafrloga Skírnismál 8-9. the tank is called Eikþyrnir. The oak is. The thunder-storm is the "storm of the vaferfire. the bridge Bifrost as a fish (see No. and fell to the ground. the wanderer Rati (see below) as a squirrel. Thence they come and thither they return (Grímnismál 26. [* In the same poem the elf-artist. the former falls down as rain. All waters . Thus the thundercloud contains the water that evaporates a dark material for lightning." skjót-brinni. swollen with a celestial water that evaporates vafermist.] But Asgard is not the only citadel which is surrounded by vafermists. and to have been incorporated in Grímnismál in later times. In this tank the Asgard river has its source.

the sorceress who knows all of Asgard's secrets. were disposed of in advance in order that the persons themselves. There he is hailed by the watch of the citadel.) On the outer side of the Asgard river. This horse must accordingly have been in the possession of the Vans when they conquered Asgard. makes it indespensable when this obstacle is to be overcome. 3). The quality of this steed. impossible for anyone who has not got a certain mythical horse to ride . When Svipdag proceeded toward Menglad's abode in Asgard. In regard to the weapons of attack we must remember that Thor at the outbreak of the conflict is deprived of the assistance of his splendid hammer: it has been broken by Svipdag's sword of victory (see Nos. the mythic fragments.a point which it was necessary for the myth to assume. an assumption confirmed by what is to be stated below. Epics which in their present form date from Christian times make vaferflames burn around castles. and horses. give us but very little information. and thence he gets a glimpse over the gate of all the glorious things which are hid behind the high walls of the citadel. though they must have been favourite themes for the heathen skaldic art. that is. foreknowledge applied to warlike ends (24). and of picturing not only their various characters. according to the myth." . otherwise the Vans could hardly be represented as conquerors. The irresistible weapons which in a purely mechanical manner would have decided the issue of the war. This is a belief of a later age. he first came to this forgarðar (Fjölsvinnsmál 1.Aurboða. (In the great epic Sigurd's horse Grani is made to inherit the qualities of this divine horse. with their varied warlike qualities. Nor do the Vans have the above-mentioned sword at their disposal: it is already in the power of Gymir and Aurboða. pricked by sleep-thorns. have especially distinguished themselves by their strength and courage. which from the opening in the wall can be dropped down across the river (see below). To get over or through the vaferflame is. 136. which is the best of all horses (Grímnismál 44). as we might expect from Odin's brave sons. by prescient wisdom or by blind daring. which here had an opportunity of describing in a characteristic manner all the gods involved. 103) . which enables it to bear its rider unscathed through the vaferflame. 101. In this war the Vans have particularly distinguished themselves by wise and well calculated undertakings. A record of this is found in the words of Thorbjorn Disarskald (Younger Edda. but also their various weapons. and directly opposite the Asgard gate. he asks for that purpose mar þann er mig um myrkvan beri vísan vafurloga. The Asas. "Thor with Odin's clan-men defended Asgard with indomitable courage. When Skírnir is to go on Frey's journey of courtship to Gerd. where goddesses. 256): Þórr hefir Yggs með árum Ásgarð of þrek varðan. This we learn from Völuspá. and is allowed to ride it on and for the journey (Skírnismál 8-9). might get to the foreground and decide the fate of the conflict by heroism or prudence.probably Sleipnir. where it makes the final victors conquer Asgard through vígspá. which the Icelandic records have preserved. Of the events of the wars waged around Asgard. equipments. the eight-footed steed of the Asa-father. 210). lie projecting ramparts (forgarðar) to protect the drawbridge. are slumbering. at the time when Frey sent Skírnir to ask for the hand of their daughter Gerd. Outside the river Asgard has fields with groves and woods (Younger Edda.

is found to be taken from the myth concerning Njord. relates the final catastrophe: brotinn var borðveggur borgar ása." which should be compared with the poetical paraphrase for battle-axe: Gauts megin-hurðar galli "the destroyer of Odin's great gate. The ruler of the lower world (Mimir) and Hoener are the only ones of whom it can be said that they remained faithful to Odin. in which was built a . "Broken was the bulwark of the asaburg. Asbjorn. strength. while he and Hoener were held as hostages among the Vans (Ynglingasaga. Gunbjorn. then Mimir lost his life in an effort at mediation between the contending gods. which is related as history and greatly corrupted. They are called Bjorn. The island was fortified by a very high wall (præaltum vallum). To their trophies and riches many peoples had paid tribute.But in number they must have been far inferior to their foes. The conclusion which must be drawn from these utterances is confirmed by an account with which the sixth book of Saxo begins. The myth has given the honour of this undertaking to Njord. But the source from which Saxo received information in regard to Fridlevus' conflict with them did not mention more than seven of these twelve. says Saxo. This is clear from the above-quoted passage: Njörðr klauf Herjans hurðir . distinguished for courage. In all the names is found the epithet of the Asagod Bjorn. but at the point when the story begins they had been abandoned by them. and which doubtless is a fragment of the myth concerning the conquest of Asgard by the Vans corrupted and told as history. Asgard was at length conquered. But to carry out the plan which chiefly involved the finding of means for crossing the vaferflames kindled around the citadel and for opening the gates of Asgard. ch. 4). Völuspá 24. says Saxo further. There were at that time twelve brothers. &c.a paraphrase that indicates that Njord burst the Asgard gate open with the battle-axe. and fine physical appearance." . and on this account they had been obliged to confine themselves on an island surrounded by a most violent stream which fell from the brow of a very high rock. They were "widely celebrated for gigantic triumphs". knáttu vanir vígspá völlu sporna. and of these seven Saxo gives the names. through warlike prudence were the Vans able its fields to tread. The event is transferred by Saxo to the reign of King Fridlevus II. and if we can trust the Heimskringla tradition."Njord broke Odin's doors open." Völuspá's words seem to indicate that the Vans took Asgard by strategy. and the whole surface of which glittered with raging foam. It should here be remarked that every important statement made by Saxo about this Fridlevus. on a closer examination. the clan-chief of the Vans and the commander of their forces. and this is confirmed by a source which shall be quoted below. not only cunning but also courage was required. The brothers had had allies. Simply the circumstance that Odin and his men had to confine themselves to the defence of Asgard shows that nearly all other divinities of various ranks had allied themselves with his enemies.

floated on the eddies of the stream. Hence it must have swum back across the stream. and must have diminished considerably their sense of security. His forces had. who. Then he went to the gate and let it fall across the stream. but the precious horse became Fridlevus' booty. But when the siege in question takes place. Thus the gate is. back on the island. so that the gate turning thereon could. a drawbridge of that kind with which the Germans became acquainted during the war with the Romans already before the time of Tacitus (cp. stole into the hall where the brothers were wont to assemble. be lowered and form a bridge across the stream. and rode through the eddies of the stream. There his companion's life had to be sacrificed. King Fridlevus now surrounds this citadel with his forces. saw them go out to reconnoitre the island. and when they saw the drawbridge down and the way open. iv.remarkable gate. with iv. During the following night the brothers found their horse. clad in the shining robes of Fridlevus. telling how Njord at the head of the Vans conquered Asgard. and the adopted Asa-gods. The horse was celebrated for his size and speed. taken from the myth about Njord. was cast into the stream. Fridlevus exchanged clothes with the dead man. in the king's splendid robes. The fact that we here have a transformation of the myth. advanced toward the citadel. during the night. for on one occasion when he was on the outer side of the stream. originally twelve. hid himself under a projection over the hall door. and told as history. and saw them return. the owner of the horse. Bjorn. and had gone some distance away from his horse. at the same time. they stormed the fortress and captured it. and in the beginning nothing else is gained by the siege than that the besieged are hindered from making sallies into the surrounding territory. And when it was afterwards found that the dead body of a man. they took it for granted that Fridlevus himself had perished in the stream. Fridlevus was able to manage the matter in such a way that the accident served rather to lull them into increased safety. 51. These are arrayed at some distance from the citadel. by a movement regulated by chains. and also a remarkably strong dog. It was so built that the hinges were placed near the ground between the sides of the opening in the wall. in order that the king's plan might be carried out. and in so doing he did not always take sufficient care. makes sorties from the citadel. secure in the conviction that there was no danger at hand. Meanwhile. attended by a single companion. Within the fortification there was a most strange horse. and it was the only steed with which it was possible for a rider to cross the raging stream around the island fortress. according to Saxo. he set the horse at liberty. listened to their conversation. Having passed this obstacle safely. as stated. he fell into an ambush laid by Fridlevus. The citadel cannot be taken unless the above-mentioned horse gets into the power of Fridlevus. (b) The brothers were. But the real facts were as follows: Fridlevus. He saved himself by rushing headlong over the bridge. The most of what Saxo relates about this Fridlevus is. Annal. Then Fridlevus gave spur to the steed which he had captured. which was drawn up behind him. climbed on a ladder over the wall. safe and sound. is evident from the following circumstances: (a) The conqueror is Fridlevus. which formerly had watched the herds of the giant Offotes. This was of course a severe loss to the besieged. which is the wellestablished number of Odin's clansmen: his sons.. had in the night ridden from his camp to the river. Saxo finds in his source only seven of the twelve . 47).

(g) Just as Asgard has an artfully contrived gate. In Saxo's account. it is Njord himself who removes the obstacle. and the Asas must defend themselves on their own fortified ground.an ambiguous expression which alludes to the mythic sagas concerning the victories of the Asas over Jotunheim's giants (gigantes)." placed in his way. The kindled vaferflames. Saxo's description of the gate implies that any person who does not know its character as a drawbridge. This explains the words of Fjölsvinnsmál about the gate to that citadel. at the time of the event.. which did not suit an historical narration. falls. The name Bjorn. The reason for the diminishing of the number is to be found in the fact that the adopted gods .had left Asgard. or of Odin's wolf-dog Freki. but these abandon them. . a shining froth. The brothers have formerly had allies. like the Asa citadel. i. which they all bear. (e) The stream which roars around the fortress of the brothers comes ex summis montium cacuminibus. but lays violent hands on the mechanism which holds it in an upright position. (c) Before this the brothers have made themselves celebrated for extraordinary exploits. who. by an immensely high wall (præaltum vallum). within which Freyja-Menglad dwells: Fjöturr fastr verðr við faranda hvern. which cannot be crossed unless one has that single steed which um myrkvan beri vísan vafrloga. and are in fact identical with the leaders of the besiegers. is an Asa epithet (Younger Edda.Njord. so has also the citadel of the brothers. the terrible dog of the giant Offotes. it is Fridlevus himself who accomplishes the same exploit. and have enjoyed a no less extraordinary power. viz. but these have abandoned them (deficientibus a se sociis). which in uniform. Asgard is surrounded by a river belt covered with vaferflames. Frey. then we have left the number seven given. eddying billows everywhere whirl on the surface of the stream (iota alvei tractu undis uniformiter turbidatis spumeus ubique candor exuberat). "Odin's great gate. are explained by Saxo to be a spumeus candor. and is crushed under it. and Ull . we will not now decide. (h) In the myth. and nations have submitted to them as victors. and is surrounded by a stream which is impassable unless one possesses a horse which is found among the brothers. and it is on this account that they must confine themselves within their citadel. The Asas have had the Vans and other divine powers as allies. or of some other saga-animal of that sort. (f) The only horse which is able to run through the shining and eddying foam is clearly one of the mythic horses. er hana hefr frá hliði. Whether this is a reminiscence of Fenrir which was kept for some time in Asgard. and enriched them with treasures (trophæis gentium celebres.mentioned as enclosed in the citadel besieged by Fridlevus. If we also deduct Baldur and Höðr. (d) The island on which they are confined is fortified. They shone on account of their giganteis triumphis . and this belongs to the Asas. spoliis locupletes). Eikþyrnir. a foaming whiteness. who stands on the summit of the world of the gods. It is named along with another prodigy from the animal kingdom of mythology. The Asgard stream comes from the collector of the thundercloud. are dead and removed to the lower world. 553).

which lately had become the booty of the enemy. The impassibility of the Asgard wall is limited to mountaingiants and frost-giants. has room for several besides the owner. once more in possession of the steed. which is explained by the fact that he has transformed a myth into history. that our myths tell of no other siege than the one Asgard was subjected to by the Vans. since the wall he got over in this manner is said to be præaltum? Could he have taken it with him on the horse's back? Or did the besieged themselves place it against the wall as a friendly aid to the foe. without damaging the "historical" character of his story. must be Sleipnir. as if he really were Odin. And where else should they have found it. Thus. THE WORLD WAR (continued). repeat the myth's probable description of the event. who was already in possession of the only means for crossing the stream? Both assumptions are alike improbable. When Fridlevus is safe across the stream. Sleipnir's ability in this direction is demonstrated in the account of how it. The horse which can gallop through the bickering flame can also leap over the highest wall. if we regard the stream with the bickering flames as breaking against the very foot of the wall? Finally. his name. they cannot have been of the same importance as this one. he raises a ladder against the wall and climbs up on to it. which. found within the wall their precious horse again. Now. The circumstance that Odin and his sons had to surrender the reign of the world did not imply that mankind should abandon their faith in the old gods and accept a new religion. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE CONFLICT FROM A RELIGIOUS-RITUAL STANDPOINT. leaps over the wall to Baldur's high hall in the lower world (Younger Edda. Whence did he get this ladder. for he could not.(i) In Saxo's narration occurs an improbability. for a god riding Odin's horse the wall was no obstacle. after Njord had leaped over the wall and sought out the above-mentioned place of concealment. which must have been colossal. judging from its qualities. Odin has the means of escaping from the enemy after all resistance has proved impossible. The name was given to Ull. The Asas give up their throne of power. it should be added. even though they are not equal to that of their father. and. Thor has his thundering car. Saxo had to take recourse to a ladder. Saxo has preserved a tradition which is of no small interest. was not to be obliterated. 178). the gods are. honoured by the nations. as we have seen. No doubt the myth has also stated that the Asas. and consequently they could not so easily have left traces in the mythic traditions adapted to history or heroic poetry. which are in harmony with the story of the Asgard siege. and the other Asas have splendid horses (Grímnismál. 37. When the citadel of the gods is captured. he was to receive the sacrifices and prayers that hitherto had . nor could a historicised account of a mythic siege which did not concern Asgard have preserved the points here pointed out. according to the Younger Edda. In regard to the significance of the change of administration in the world of gods. and the Vans now assume the rule of the world. with Hermod in the saddle. which. Hitherto the Asas and Vans had been worshipped in common. Younger Edda). If other sieges have been mentioned. when Odin was deposed.

or sacrifices on account of their abundance. This view seems to have gotten the upper hand after the banishment of Odin. It was claimed that sacrifices and hymns addressed at the same time to several or all of the gods. The expression. which advocates the opposite and incomparably more moderate view in regard to sacrifices. er hann aftur um kom. The correctness of Saxo's statement is fully confirmed by strophe 145 in Hávamál. according to the myth. This is precisely what Saxo tells us. The result of this was. This view came. represented tendencies which.been addressed to the banished one (Hist. But in connection with this information. did not have the efficacy of pacifying and reconciling angry deities. The one view was more ritual. and the shift involved nothing but the person. there was no change of religion. Hence it follows that before Odin returned to his throne another more exacting doctrine in regard to sacrifices had. the Celts. and that he then proclaimed to the people the view in regard to the real value of prayers and sacrifices which is laid down in the strophe. while the Asa doctrine represented the tendencies of the believers in the time-honoured Aryan custom of those who maintained the priestly authority of the father of the family. May it not be the record of conflicting views within the Teutonic religion . ey sér til gildis gjöf. betra er ósent en sé ofsóið. from another statement in Saxo. secured prevalence. which from its very nature might have produced among the Teutons the same hierarchy as resulted from an excess of sacrifices among their Aryan-Asiatic kinsmen. we also learn. He is made to proclaim it to the people "after his return to his ancient power". would have resulted in hierarchy. The ancient faith was to be maintained. That the question really has existed among the Teutonic peoples. þar hann upp um reis. That prayers on account of their length. an increase of sacrifices and a more highly-developed ritual. and decided it in precisely the same manner as history has decided it among the Teutonic races. and their eastern kinsmen. of course. had they been victorious. but that to each one of the gods should be given a separate sacrificial service (Saxo. Betra er óbeðið en sé ofblótið.views represented in the myth by the Vana-gods on the one side and the Asas on the other? The Vana views. but had returned. and demanded more attention paid to sacrifices. should . and who defended the efficacy of the simple hymns and sacrifices which from time out of mind had been addressed to several or all of the gods in common. This myth has discussed the question. 130). er hann aftur um kom. It is difficult to repress the question whether an historical reminiscence is not concealed in these statements. according to the strophe. at least as a subject for reflection. refers to the fact that Odin had for some time been deposed from the administration of the world.. I take it. the Iranians and Hindoos. Hist.. 43). þar hann upp um reis. spontaneously suggests itself in the myth alluded to above. that the myth concerning the war between Asas and Vans was connected with traditions concerning a conflict between various views among the believers in the Teutonic religion concerning offerings and prayers. among whom priestcraft and ritualism have held a far less important position than among their western kinsmen. from Odin's own lips. Svo Þundur um reist fyr þjóða rök.

foes. Saw she valkyires far travelled equipped to ride to Godthjod. and Hadding long refuses to propitiate Frey by a demanded sacrifice (Saxo. He understands human nature. and between the Teutonic tribes on the other. and should be able to secure a more ready hearing. The gods. a war between all the Teutonic races. Thor. 49. Hist.a purpose prompted by selfishness. (3) Hadding. and is connected with. LOKI'S APPEARANCE ON THE STAGE. This is their duty as kinsmen. who begat the son Halfdan. The ruling Vans favour Svipdag. but also indicates that it was waged on the earth. 38. Halfdan's sons.. vítt um komnar. and the latter is again a continuation of the feud between Halfdan and Svipdag. is a doctrine which Odin himself rejects in the strophe above cited. hence he too had duties of kinship toward Hadding and Gudhorm. (2) Gudhorm. where the gods. This war. who is Freyja's husband and Frey's brother-in-law. Then Sá hún valkyrjur. The conflict between the gods and the war between Halfdan's successor and heir are woven together. and Heimdall interfere. Odin. in Hadding's eyes. the son of Halfdan and Alveig (in Saxo called Signe. THE WAR IN MIDGARD BETWEEN HALFDAN'S SONS. She not only gives an account of its outbreak and events among the gods. Thor was Halfdan's associate father. consequently Svipdag's half-brother. HADDING'S YOUTHFUL ADVENTURES.give evidence of greater piety and fear of God. consequently Gudhorm's half-brother. that favour Svipdag are. The conflict between the gods has its counterpart in. The Teutonic race comes to the front fighting under three racerepresentatives . 50). having assumed human nature. the son of Halfdan and Groa. and knows that when a man brings abundant sacrifices he has the selfish purpose in view of prevailing on the gods to give a more abundant reward . the son of Orvandel and Groa. for Heimdall. simultaneously waged between the clans of the gods on the one hand. is what the seeress in Völuspá calls "the first great war in the world". Godthjod is the Teutonic people and the Teutonic country. daughter of Sumbel). to protect Hadding. It is like the Trojan war. divided into parties. was the lad with the sheaf of grain who came to the primeval country and became the father of Borgar.(1) Yngvi-Svipdag. assist the Trojans or assist the Danai. as we shall see. on the other hand. THE WORLD WAR (continued). görvar að ríða til Goðþjóðar. GROA'S SONS AGAINST ALVEIG'S. The banished Asas support Hadding from their place of refuge. . not by piety.

in "Svetia" probably. and this duty he performed when he with his irresistible sword felled his stepfather. the goddess of growth. where he concealed them with the giants Hafli and Vagnhofdi . He resembled a very aged man. says Saxo. Saxo has preserved a partial record thereof.Gudhorm in Hafli's rocky gard and Hadding in Vagnhofdi's.less to Gudhorm. It is by the name Brache that Thor appears as the protector of Halfdan's sons.. Groa's son. the son of Alveig. since Jotunheim. [* The form Loki is also duplicated by the form Lokr. and it is his bounden duty to bring about Svipdag's death. the Asa-god Thor appears partly as Thor deus and Thoro pugil. quorum alterum Gro. Asa-Bragr. From one of these he is saved by the Asa-father himself." found in myths concerning Loki. the sons of the Teutonic patriarch were in danger of falling into the power of Svipdag. since Svipdag had slain Halfdan. and brought Gudhorm and Hadding to Jotunheim. Vagnophto et Haphlio gigantibus non solum alendi. The revenge for bloodshed was sacred in the Teutonic world. if not with his own nature. 36). Hist. per educatorem suum Brache nave Svetiam deportati. The latter is preserved in the sense of "effeminated man. Svipdagero Daniam obtinente. The giants Hafli and Vagnhofdi dwell. He placed Hadding in front of himself on the horse. Guthormus et Hadingus. 108. Hadding is no longer safe in Vagnhofdi's mountain home. alterum Signe enixa est. and also that of his mother's father. The lad became curious and wanted to see whither they were going. His purpose is doubtless to get into the favour of the reigning Vans. but Hadding sends answer that he prefers to avenge his father's death to accepting favours from an enemy (Saxo. since it was his duty to avenge the disgrace of his mother Groa. which name Saxo formed from Thor's epithet. In Saxo. If the offer to Hadding had been accepted. 34). the reigning Vans. [* Filii Gram... Svipdag's offer of peace and reconciliation is in harmony. He offers Gudhorm and Hadding peace and friendship. Among those who plot against Hadding is also Loki (Lokerus . and rode away. 324).] Svipdag waged war against Halfdan. according to Saxo. as shall be shown later. 109). whom Saxo himself identifies as the god Thor (Hist.Saxo. who relates this story. Gudhorm. The lad is exposed to Loki's snares.] the banished ally of Aurboða. and when the Asas were expelled. the death of his father Orvandel (see Nos. Through a hole in the mantle he got an opportunity of . we might have looked for peace in the world. but with all its weight to Hadding. wrapped his mantle about him. one of whose eyes was lost (grandævus quidam altero orbus oculo). verum etiam defensandi traduntur (Saxo.. accepts the offer. But thereby the duty of revenge for bloodshed was transferred to Halfdan's sons . The myth may have contained much information about the efforts of the one camp to capture him and about contrivances of the other to frustrate these efforts. 35. and promises them kingship among the tribes subject to him. and the bloody thread of revenge shall continue to be spun if Svipdag does not prevent it by overpowering Hadding. Connecting itself with Halfdan's robbery of Groa. on this occasion a rider to Hadding. who is himself a son of Groa. the red thread of revenge for bloodshed extends throughout the great hero-saga of Teutonic mythology. and.When Svipdag had slain Halfdan. and Svipdag makes him ruler of the Danes. and the most distant east were called Svíþjóð in kalda. Svipdag makes an effort to cut the thread. Hist. and partly as Brac and Brache. the northernmost Sweden. There came. at least with that of his kinsmen. Halfdan's protector. Hist. 40. Compare the phrase "veykr Lokr" with "hinn veyki Loki". Thor interested himself in their behalf. 41). Now the future is threatened with the devastations of war.

40).) Thus Hadding has become a powerful hero.." doubtless for the reason that the myth has referred those adventures to the far east.in Saxo a lion. But when his guards are put to sleep by Odin's magic song. Hardgrep. shows that the potion of which the old man is lord contains something which is called "Leifnir's flames.. And the prophecy is fulfilled. Hadding bursts his bonds. to revenge on him his father's death. its heart. The rider. but it also follows from Saxo's narrative.. and the horse is Sleipnir. and his task to make war on Svipdag. are the scenes of Hadding's juvenile adventures lie on the other side of the Baltic down toward the Black Sea. is Odin. Saxo has also found in his sources that sword-slain men. He is associated with "Curetians" and "Hellespontians. 51). and found to his astonishment and fright that land and sea were far below the hoofs of the steed." and that he who has been permitted to drink it. rescued from the captured Asgard. (The saga of Sigurd Fafnisbani has copied this feature. now lies before him as the goal he is to reach. and over whom freeing incantations have simultaneously been sung. who had fallen in love with the youth. is able with his warm breath to free himself from every fetter which has been put on his enchanted limbs (see Nos. concerning Odin's freeing incantations by which "fetters spring from the feet and chains from the hands". In perfect harmony with the myths. 42-44)." which produced in Hadding enormous physical strength. for he forbade him to look out any more. The rider must have noticed his fright. That this consisted of the tribes of Eastern Teutondom is confirmed by documents which I shall hereafter quote. though Odin is far away. . The one-eyed old man is endowed with wonderful powers. the one-eyed old man. according to Saxo. in the myth presumably some one of the wolf or serpent prodigies that are Loki's offspring. Sigurd eats the heart of the dragon Fafnir and gets wisdom thereby.looking down. 43. When he landed with the lad at his home. although he has referred the war to narrower limits than were given to it in the myth. 96. They have dwelling-places and plains for their warlike amusements appointed in the lower world (Hist. The reason for this is that Odin is not at that time the ruler there. The latter's daughter. and eats. slays the beast. The old man predicts that Hadding will soon have an opportunity of testing the strength with which the drink and the magic songs have endowed him. in obedience to Odin's instructions.) A comparison with other passages. The regions which. Saxo refers Odin's exile to the time preceding Hadding's juvenile adventures. and makes Odin's return to power simultaneous with Hadding's great victory over his enemies (Hist. 103). The place to which the lad is carried by Odin is the place of refuge secured by the Asas during their exile í Manheimum. When we next find Hadding he is at the head of an army. and gave him a drink of the "most splendid sort. Hadding falls into the power of Loki. He chains him and threatens to expose him as food for a wild beast . which I shall discuss later. accompanies him. he sang over him prophetic incantations to protect him (Hist." cannot come to Valhall. (Compare Hávamál 149. Hadding leaves Vagnhofdi's home. and particularly made him able to free himself from bonds and chains. and to recover the share in the rulership of the Teutons which Halfdan had possessed. whom Odin chooses during "the first great war in the world.

beiddum björnu. From this it is evident that the war is one between the tribes of North Teutondom. the son of the one-eyed old man. Giants also take part in the conflict. and when we add that the first battle which Saxo mentions in this war was fought among the Curetians east of the Baltic. has in the mythic traditions had a much greater empire. and as his tributary king in Denmark his half-brother Gudhorm. and the tribes of East Teutondom. whom Saxo makes a tributary king in Yngvi-Svipdag's most southern domain. The circumstance that the different divine clans had their favourites in the different camps gives the war a peculiar character. From these parts of Teutondom did not come Hadding's friends. 38). 53). constructing a Danish history from mythic traditions. 34).. Svipdag. In the Gróttasong (13-14) these maids sing: En við síðan á Svíþjóðu framvísar tvær í fólk stigum. contend on the side of the foster-son and the beloved Hadding (Hist. the latter in a man's attire. Denmark. and has ruled over the tribes of Western and Southern Teutondom.. 48). In these cloud-masses we must recognise the presence of the thundering Thor. Gudhorm. has conceived the forces under Hadding's banner as having been gathered in the East.since he. But the tribes of the western Teutonic continent have also taken part in the first great war of mankind. then the one-eyed old man comes to their rescue and calls forth dark masses of clouds from the other side. too. 39. Saxo also is aware that the Saxons. as shall be shown hereafter. Vagnhofdi and Hardgrep.. gengum í gegnum gráserkjað lið. When fog and pouring rain suddenly darken the sky and fall upon Hadding's forces from that side where the fylkings of the North are arrayed. led by Svipdag and supported by the Vans on the one side. like the other records to which I am coming later. THE WORLD WAR (continued). led by Hadding and supported by the Asas on the other. From Icelandic records we learn that Hafli and the giantesses Fenja and Menja fight under Gudhorm's banners. the Teutonic tribes of the German lowlands. The elements are conjured on one and the other side for the good or harm of the contending brother-tribes. has his eyes fixed chiefly on Denmark. on one occasion were the allies of Svipdag (Hist.. which force back the rain-clouds and the fog (Hist. en brutum skjöldu. . according to Saxo's own statement. but his enemies. The armies see before a battle supernatural forms contending with each other in the starlight. and recognise in them their divine friends and opponents (Hist. Steyptum stilli. then it is clear that Saxo. 45. THE POSITION OF THE DIVINE CLANS TO THE WARRIORS. Over the Scandian tribes and the Danes rule.

The friends of both parties among the gods. þus Heardingas þone häle nemdon. Ing is Yngvi-Svipdag. have already identified these forms. and Vagnhofdi among the rest abandons his rocky home to fight by the side of his foster-son and daughter. veittum góðum Gothormi lið. 30) is called fangvinr Hafla. separated by a sea from the Scandian tribes. then the myth could scarcely avoid giving a similar part to the giant Hafli. "he who wrestled with Hafli". and the Teutonic tribes who recognised him as their chief." The Heardings are the Haddings . The heroic poems are fond of parallels of this kind. Thus the armies of the Swedes and Danes go by sea to the seat of war.studdum annan. and before him J.. Hadding himself. and thus make the foster-fathers. and gathered its tribes around him for a war with Gudhorm. at the head of the eastern Teutons. faithfully supports the young chief whose childhood he protected. "was first seen among the EastDanes". who. and it is confirmed by the fact that Thor paraphrased (Grett. he descends from Asgard and reveals himself in the primeval Teutonic country on the Scandian peninsula. Vagn hastened to follow: Thus the Heardings called this hero. who. "betakes himself eastward over the sea" to attack them. The Anglo-Saxon strophe confirms the fact that they dwell in the East. the giant Vagnhofdi. The Norse Haddingr is to the Anglo-Saxon Hearding as the Norse haddr to the Anglo-Saxon heard.that is to say. And as Hadding's foster-father. hasten to attach themselves to the cause which they have espoused as their own. In regard to the rune which answers to I there is added the following lines: Ing väs ærest mid Eástdenum geseven secgum oð he siððan eást ofer væg gevât. contend with each other. That the giant Hafli fought on the side of Gudhorm is probable from the fact that he is his foster-father. Væn æfter ran. He calls Swedes and Danes to arms against Hadding's tribes. Since Thor and Hafli formerly were friends . When Svipdag learns that Hadding has suddenly made his appearance in the East. like the foster-sons.else the former would not have trusted Gudhorm to the care of the latter their appearance afterwards as foes can hardly be explained otherwise than by the war between Thor's protégé Hadding and Hafli's foster-son Gudhorm. with his warriors. "Yngvi (Ingi) was first seen among the East-Danes. is marching against their halfbrother Gudhorm. Grimm. and requests its tribes to join the Danes and raise the banner of war against Halfdan's and Alveig's son. men and giants. This mythic situation is described in a hitherto unexplained strophe in the Old English song concerning the names of the letters in the runic alphabet. Vigfusson. Then be betook himself eastward over the sea. when he left Asgard. Ing. What the . the kinsmen and friends who embraced his cause.

and fallen by the weapons of Vagnhofdi and Hadding. while Hadding hurls his spear against him. so it is said. in connection with Odin's appearance at Asmund's. is used as a paraphrase of the word and name Vagn. whom "the Haddings so called. be meant in Grímnismál (49). Surtr. And so it is with Vagn and Vagnhöfði. Thus the greatest agent of sorcery is descended from Surtr. According to Saxo.. and then Vagnhofdi is brought (advehitur) by some one of these gods to the battle-field and suddenly stands by Hadding's side. The story about Thor's. so that the Asa-god and his companions always mistake things for something else than they are. who came to the battle-field and placed himself at his side. 44). Hist. The word and name Kjálki. en þá Kjalar. As the army which was to cross the Baltic must be regarded as immensely large. in the Lessö seaway. The same Asmund may. 406-407. which. has represented the ships of the Swedes as numerous.authorities of Tacitus heard among the continental Teutons about the mighty fleets of the Swedes may be founded on the heroic songs about the first great war not less than on fact. Odin did not want this monstrous ship to reach its destination. In Hyndluljóð 33 (Völuspá in skamma 5). they are different names for the same person.. [**] Thus Odin has once "drawn Vagn" (wagon). swinging a crooked sword [*] against Asmund. tells that he once by the name Kjalar "drew Kjalki" (mig hétu Jálk að Ásmundar. as Hyndluljóð states that all magicians of mythology have come of some Svarthöfði. Fjalar is a son of Surtr (see No. When the Anglo-Saxon rune-strophe says that Vagn "made haste to follow" after Ing had gone across the sea. The meaning of this is . too. and it is also illustrated by a passage in Grímnismál 49. Then Hadding invoked the gods who were the friends of himself and his race (Hadingo familiarium sibi numinum præsidia postulante subito Vagnophtus partibus ejus propugnaturus advehitur). and. who fought at the head of his men. The Asmund who is known in the heroic sagas of heathen times is a son of Svipdag and a king among the Sviones (Saxo. and with both his hands on the hilt of a sword which felled all before it. 89). 45). and in part as of immense size. forced his way forward against Hadding himself. That Odin in the Icelandic tradition appears as his enemy thus corresponds with the myth. is mentioned as belonging to a King Asmund. Thus Svarthöfði is identical with Svartr. A confused record from the songs about the expedition of Svipdag and his friends against the East Teutons. then this is to be compared with Saxo's statement (Hist. concealing himself under the name Jálkr. with his shield thrown on his back. where a ship called Gnoð. pp. found in Icelandic tradition. so the myth. and capable of carrying 3000 men. Vagnhofdi. In this connection we must first of all think of Fjalar. with all its men and contents. as Gisli Brynjulfsson has assumed. er eg Kjálka dró). The hero Vagn. occurs in Fornaldarsögur. This statement in Saxo corresponds with and explains the old English strophe's reference to a quick journey which Vagn made to help Heardingas against Ing. Thjalfi's. and Loki's visit to him is a chain of delusions of sight and hearing called forth by Fjalar. all the mythical sorcerers (seiðberendur) are said to be sprung from Svarthöfði. As the word höfði constitutes the second part of a mythic name. the compound form is a synonym of that name which forms the first part of the composition. but was saved by the sudden and miraculous landing of Vagnhofdi. as also Sleði. once visited Asmund. where it is said that Hadding in a battle was in greatest peril of losing his life." is Hadding's foster-father. who is the greatest sorcerer in mythology. and Svipdag's son Asmund. The Scandian fylkings advanced against Hadding's. he has given brilliant proofs of his bravery in the war against Hadding. Svartr. but sank it. Svartr and Svarthöfði must be identical. where we learn that Odin.

but not by the gods or by the heroes of Midgard. in order that they may mutually destroy each other (see below). kyrr þú hreina. after the end of the conflict. used by the giants. Saxo ascribes the victory won over Hadding to Loki. It follows of itself that. now brings. but he does not do so. as it appears from several passages in the sagas. in the same or a similar manner. His purpose is to frustrate every effort to bring about reconciliation. while dii ex machina. HEIMDAL THE PROTECTOR OF HIS DESCENDANT HADDING. seggr síðförull. as an evil intriguer. and as a skilful arranger of the fylkings on the field of battle. seg hvattú heitir!] 40. LOKI IN THE COUNCIL AND ON THE BATTLE-FIELD. not directly but indirectly. Odin might himself have saved his favourite. has long been regarded by our heathen ancestors as a foreign form of weapon. and in which the clans of gods on both sides take part. HADDING'S DEFEAT. Hadding's fylkings are so thoroughly beaten and defeated that he. and by means of persuasion and falsehoods to increase the chances of enmity between Halfdan's descendants. and places him near his foster-son. We have already seen that he sought to ruin Hadding while the latter was still a boy. in a war whose deepest root must be sought in Loki's and Aurboða's intrigues. instead. THE WORLD WAR (continued). He afterwards appears in various guises as evil counsellor. Loki should not be excluded by the skalds from influence upon the course of events. 118. [* The crooked sword. where the hero of the saga cries to Gusi. is nothing but a defenceless fugitive. ii. who survived the battle and accompanies her beloved in his wanderings in the wildernesses. wandering in deep forests with no other companion than Vagnhofdi's daughter. he brings Vagnhofdi to protect him. Vagnhofdi to the battlefield. and deprive every distress in which they have taken part of its more earnest significance. Homer never violated this rule without injury to the honour either of his gods or of his heroes.] [** Compare Fornaldarsögur. when they appear in person on the battle-field with their superhuman strength.clear from what is stated above. who on a former occasion has carried Hadding on Sleipnir's back through the air. who comes running after him with "2 hreina ok vagn" Skríð þú af kjálka. and he might have slain Svipdag's son Asmund with his spear Gungnir. The first great conflict in which the warriors of North and West Teutondom fight with the East Teutons ends with the complete victory of Groa's sons. This episode is also interesting from the fact that we can draw from it the conclusion that the skalds who celebrated the first great war in their songs made the gods influence the fate of the battle. His activity among the heroes is the . and Odin. This is well calculated from an epic standpoint. who is the friend of him and of his cause. Hadding calls on Odin. diminish the effect of the deeds of mortal heroes.

ii. who had compelled him to return from life in the lower world to life on earth. Bikki is a name-form borrowed from Germany. It is also a noticeable fact that while Loki in the first great battle which ends with Hadding's defeat determines the array of the victorious army . and the hand seized Hardgrep with its iron claws and tore her into pieces (Saxo. 36 ff. Blind bölvísi (in Saxo Bolvisus).). Saxo tells one of these adventures.as Bikki. The latter would in this wise recover the power of speech and prophecy. The frightened Haddinng waked Hardgrep. A closer examination shows that everywhere where this counsellor appears his enterprises have originally been connected with persons who belong to Borgar's race. but not yet buried. Hadding's father (Helg. 70) on a piece of wood. but they are found both in Thjodolf's poem Haustlaung. He has wormed himself into the favour of both the contending parties . He and Hardgrep. Sifka. The original Norse Loki-epithet is Bekki. and bade Hadding cut it off with his sword. seized the mysterious hand. Under his own name. he lies in waiting for and seeks to capture the young Hadding. namely. As Blind bölvísi he lies in waiting for and seeks to capture the young "Helgi Hundingsbani. Thus the ancient Teutonic saga has mentioned and compared with one another two different kinds of battle-arrays . The husband was dead. the leader of the warriors forward and the leader of the warriors back . and a prediction that an avenging Niflheim demon would inflict punishment on her for what she had done. As a cunning general and cowardly warrior he appears in the German saga-traditions. Hardgrep engraved speech-runes (see No." "the opponent". cynical. Bikki. there appeared a gigantic hand groping under the ceiling of the bower. For the purpose of learning Hadding's destiny. and in Eilif Gudrunarson's Þórsdrápa.counterpart of his activity among the gods. She then rose in all her giant strength. in that wedge-form which after that time and for many centuries following was the sacred and strictly preserved rule for the battle-array of Teutonic forces. in the German and Old English traditions as Sibich. and asked Hadding to place it under the tongue of the dead one. and there is every reason to assume that it is his activity in the first great war as the planner of Gudhorm's battle-line that in the Norse heathen records secured Loki the epithets sagna hrærir and sagna sviptir. But what the dead one sang in an awe-inspiring voice was a curse on Hardgrep. A following night. Hist. The merry. Loki. He attempted to do this. but from the wounds he inflicted on the ghost's hand there issued matter or venom more than blood. with King Gudhorm (whose identity with Jormunrek shall be established below).it is in the other great battle in which Hadding is victorious that Odin himself determines how the forces of his protégé are to be arranged.as Blind illi with King Hadding .the one invented by Loki and the other invented by Odin.for only on this basis can the victory be attributed to him by Saxo . Sifeca. Vagnhofdi's daughter. In the later Icelandic traditions he reveals himself as the evil counsellor of princes in the forms of Blind illi. sly.. which means "the foe.whereof Hromund Greipson's saga has preserved a distorted record . came late one evening to a dwelling where they got lodgings for the night.). Halfdan." that is to say. Hund. So it came to pass.epithets which otherwise would be both unfounded and incomprehensible. blameworthy. Halfdan's son. when Hadding and Hardgrep had sought shelter in a bower of twigs and branches which they had gathered. During his wanderings in the forests of the East Hadding has had wonderful adventures and passed through great trials. Sibeke. annd profoundly evil Mefisto of the Teutonic mythology is bound to bring about the ruin of the Teutonic people like that of the gods of the Teutons. .

If we now add that Heimdall is Hadding's progenitor. "the shining one.When Hadding in this manner had lost his companion. HADDING'S JOURNEY TO THE EAST. he considered himself abandoned by everybody. He sent him a faithful helper. Hiberniu. and in Ragnarok the two opponents kill each other. through decided successes on the battle-field. by name Liserus (Saxo. that is. In Saxo's account. In the meanwhile he has succeeded in accomplishing the revenge of his father and slaying Svipdag (Saxo. as to the name itself: in the very nature of the case it must be the Latinising of some one of the mythological names or epithets that Saxo found in the Norse records. Sivardus. Hist. THE WORLD WAR (continued). Hist.this under circumstances which I shall explain below (No. Such a person and described by a similar epithet is inn hvíti áss. But as no such root as lis or lís is to be found in the old Norse language and as Saxo interchanges the vowels i and y.. He is a man of years when he. He is no longer the exile wandering about in the forests.. And in the myth it is the keen-sighted and faithful Heimdall who always appears as the opposite of the cunning and faithless Loki. LOKI'S PUNISHMENT. this shining messenger is particularly to oppose Loki (Hist. the Teutonic patriarch. 40). Hence he must have spent considerable time in the place of refuge which Odin . before this conflict is fought out. Hist. but appears once more at the head of warlike hosts. Siritha. No. hvítastr ása (Heimdall). RECONCILIATION BETWEEN GROA'S DESCENDANTS AND ALVEIG'S. Some time later there has been a change in Hadding's affairs. 42) . Sybbo. Sibbo.] 41.. who was Svipdag's son (Saxo. Ivarus. When Odin sent a helper thus described to Hadding. acquires and secures control of a great part of the domain over which his father." "the bright one". reigned. Hybernia. Syritha. it still appears from Saxo's narrative that it takes a long time before he becomes strong enough to meet his enemies in a decisive battle with hope of success. has slain a young grandson (son's son) of Svipdag.. 106). 82)."THE HUN WAR. RECONCILIATION BETWEEN THE ASAS AND VANS. Loki has to contend with Heimdall when the former tries to get possession of Brísingamen. 46). Ysora. Who was Liserus in our mythology? First. [*] we must regard Liserus as a Latinising of Lýsir. a son of Asmund. Hadding's shining protector thus has the same part to act in the heroic saga as the whitest of the Asas in the mythology. then we are forced by every consideration to regard Liserus and Heimdall as identical (see further. Yvarus." HADDING RETURNS AND CONQUERS. Hadding was a mere boy when Svipdag first tried to capture him. Thrygir. but the one-eyed old man had not forgotten his favourite. 40)." "the one giving light. Syvardus . and on account of blood kinship owes him special protection in a war in which all the gods have taken part either for or against Halfdan's and Alveig's son. But although he accomplishes various exploits. it must have been a person belonging to Odin's circle and subject to him. The proof that the hero-saga has left a long space of time between the great battle lost by Hadding and that in which he wins a decided victory is that he. Isora. [* Compare the double forms Trigo.

and thus Frotho is enabled to resist their assault. the Asas and Vans." lived in exile. 238). and there is no reason for doubting the mythical correctness of this statement. They do not assume in common the responsibility for the murder of Gullveig-Angurboða. Odin's exile lasted. The reconciliation must have been demanded by the dangers which their enmity caused to the administration of the world." he who with persuasive words makes Ull friendly. In the time intervening important events have taken place in the world of the gods. son of Fridlevus (Njord). and as the latter are in the greatest need of the assistance of the mighty Asa-father and his powerful sons in the conflict with the giant world. only ten years. 252). is for the greatest part a historicised version of the myth about the Vana-god Frey (see No. but exceeded every measure of human life. and belonged to the number of Frotho's enemies. That question was: How did it happen that Midgard was not in historical times exposed to such attacks from the dwellers in Jotunheim as occurred in antiquity. Saxo (Hist." Hadding's protector. The chief hero of the Asas. by which Thor is described in Þórsdrápa as "gulli Ullar. and at that time threatened Asgard itself with . But the dispute which caused the conflict between him and the Vans was at the same time manifestly settled to the advantage of the Vans. the chief warrior of the Vans (Younger Edda. Although he had been Frotho's enemy. and every doubt that his account of the war of the "Huns" against Frotho has its foundation in mythology. The two clans of gods. the aged Yggr comes to him and informs him what the "Huns" are plotting. [* Deseruit eum (Hun) quoque Uggerus vates. The record of a friendly settlement between Thor and Ull is preserved in a paraphrase. Odin was invited to occupy again the high-seat in Asgard. and when the destruction of the world approaches.. became once more dangerous to the earth on account of the war among the gods. renders the Vans. The memory of this expedition was preserved during the Christian centuries in the traditions concerning the great Hun war. but remains there unharmed until Ragnarok. who had banished him. then Njord shall leave the Asas threatened with the ruin they have themselves caused and return to the "wise Vans" (í aldar rök hann mun aftur koma heim með vísum vönum Vafþrúðnismál 39). The "Hun war" has supplied the answer to a question. called by Saxo Liserus. "whose age was unknown. 231 ff.. then these facts explain sufficiently the reconciliation between the Asas and the Vans. have become reconciled. and under the protection of that subject of Odin. The giants.. this service. vanishes when we learn that the attack of the Huns against Frotho-Frey's power happened at a time when an old prophet. What he relates about this Frotho. vir ætatis incognitæ et supra humanum terminum prolixæ. with all the prerogatives of a paterfamilias and ruler (Saxo. Uggerus is a Latinised form of Odin's name Yggr. whose purpose it is to destroy the world of man. Hist. 44). according to Saxo. i. and belongs to the chain of events here discussed. out of consideration for the common welfare of mankind and the gods.] When Odin. was the stepfather of Ull. Thor. She is banished to the Ironwood. During this time they made a desperate effort to conquer Asgard occupied by the Vans. This reconciliation was also in order on account of the bonds of kinship between them.) refers this to Frotho III's reign. qui Frothonem transfugæ titulo petens quidquid ab Hunis parabatur edocuit (Hist. which those believing in the myths naturally would ask themselves. 102). by name Uggerus.opened for him. and is the same mythic character as Saxo before introduced on the scene as "the old oneeyed man.

too. The fact that he is relegated to the realm of the dead. when a new fimbul-winter is to set in. The sea. The great defeat once suffered by Hadding must be balanced by a corresponding victory. Hadding and a surviving grandson of Svipdag are united in so tender a devotion to one another that the latter.. before the time immediately preceding Ragnarok. all that he here tells. wherefore Thor in Hárbarðsljóð 23 explains his attack on giants and giantesses with mikil mundi ætt jötna. so that the Teutonic dynasties of chiefs may trace their descent both from Yngvi (Svipdag) and from Borgar's son Halfdan. It therefore became necessary to open his grave. was so filled with the bodies of the slain that boats could hardly be rowed through the waves. that is. Hadding wins a great battle and enters upon a secure reign in his part of Teutondom. and Gudhorm. the beheading included. In regard to this name. Then are tied new bonds of kinship and friendship between the hostile races. he does not care to live any longer either. upon an unfounded report of the former's death. These statements in regard to Mitothin's death seem at first glance not to correspond very well with the mythic accounts of Loki's exit. in accordance with the rule for forming such epithets. The place where Loki is fettered is situated in the extreme part of the hell of the wicked dead (see No. vætr mundi manna undir Miðgarði. 43). who. Hist. without entering upon difficult conjectures concerning the first part of the word. but meets death voluntarily (Saxo. and pierce his breast with a sharp stick (Hist. and when the giant world shall rise again in all its ancient might. and about the manner of preventing these from doing harm to the living. is founded on the mythic accounts of Loki. The reconciled gods must lay aside that seed of new feuds between them which is contained in the war between Hadding. He is captured and slain. After the reconciliation between the Asas and Vans they succeed in capturing Loki. and here calls Loki Mitothin. we may. ef allir lifði. strove to disseminate the practice of witchcraft in the world and to displace Odin.destruction? The "Hun war" was in the myth characterised by the countless lives lost by the enemy. 78).. and then the contending kinsmen must be reconiciled. 240). he says. He was compelled to take flight and to conceal himself from the gods. 60). Thor's hammer is able to keep the growth of the giants' race within certain limits. is unable to survive him and takes his own life. 234. must refer to a mythic person who has had a certain relation with Odin. This we learn from Saxo. and on land a person could make a three days' journey on horseback without seeing anything but dead bodies of the slain (Hist. Mitothin is a thoroughly evil being. From the time of the "Hun war" and until then. like Aurboða. It is also clear that Saxo's narrative has been influenced by the medieval stories about vampires and evil ghosts. the favourite of the Asas. Hadding's rising star of success must be put in connection with the reconciliation between the Asas and Vans. but from his dead body arises a pest. 59. cut his head off. is taken by Saxo from the heathen records in which he has found his account of the first great war. be sure that it.. and at the same time been his antithesis. Saxo relates this in connection with Odin's return from Asgard. And this happens. so that he does no less harm after than before his death. that the "Hun war" of antiquity had so weakened the giants in number and strength that they could not become so dangerous as they had been to Asgard and Midgard formerly. the favourite of the Vans. Nevertheless. and thus give room for doubt as to his identity with the latter. And when Hadding learns this. And so the answer to the question was. and is there chained in a subterranean cavern until . In the rivers their bodies formed bridges. According to Saxo. and that it.

Thorkil. 78). the protector of Asgard. the home of the spirits of disease (see No. although the weapon there is a sword. That amputated limbs continue to live and fight is a peculiarity mentioned in other mythic sagas. the cause of epidemics. 432). . and that it is Loki's daughter who rides the threefooted steed. And thus it is explained how the myth could make his head act the part of a weapon. until measures were taken to prevent it. 264 . who fells his foe. cujus olentes pili tam magnitudine quam rigore corneas æquaverant hastas . 60). the awful exhalation from it causes the death of several persons standing near (Hist. who has his prison in a cave under a rock situated in a sea.. 432. though in his own peculiar manner. what the myth contained about Loki's ruin. The shining god. of her who rules in Niflheim. No. 192). the original patriarch and benefactor of man. which was a logical consequence of his acts and happened long after his removal to the realm of death. 82). seeks and finds him in his cave of torture. 100. or possibly a spear (þig á hjörvi skulu binda goð . 431. was himself pierced or "struck through" to death by a head (svá er sagt. og verðr hvárr annars bani .. the dragon-demon. Thus Loki is. where Loki's prison is . Lokasenna also states that he lies with a pierced body. But that which finally and conclusively confirms the identity of Loki and Mitothin is that the latter. Res). and Heimdall and Loki mutually slay each other (Loki á orustu við Heimdall. has been a sufficient reason for Saxo to represent him as dead and buried. hann var lostinn í hel með manns höfði . pulls a hair from the beard on his chin and brings it with him to Denmark. the father of the Midgard-serpent (see further.Younger Edda. ed. Heimdall.Younger Edda. which appears when an epidemic breaks out (see No. When a hair from the beard of the tortured Loki ("a hair from the evil one") could produce this effect. is the father of the feminine demon of epidemics and diseases. að hann var lostinn manns höfði í gögnum . In this connection it is to be remembered that Loki. Among male beings of his character this applies to Loki alone. That he after death causes a pest corresponds with Saxo's account of Ugarthilocus. . according to the Icelandic records. When Heimdall and Loki mutually cause each other's death. though a thoroughly evil being and hostile to the gods. In this duel we learn that Heimdall.see No. to which he. proceeds at the head of the hosts of "the sons of destruction". contends here for the last time with the Satan of the Teutonic mythology. then his whole body removed to the kingdom of death must work even greater mischief. Saxo here relates. In regard to the statement that Loki after his removal to the kingdom of death had his head separated from his body. freed from his cave of torture in the kingdom of death. Loki is slain in Ragnarok. his hair and beard grow in such a manner that "they in size and stiffness resemble horn-spears" (Ugarthilocus . While the demon in chains awaits Ragnarok.Hist. .Lokasenna 49). this must mean that Loki's head is that with which Heimdal is pierced after the latter has cut it off with his sword and become the bane (death) of his foe. 433). is said to have risen through the enjoyment of divine favour (cælesti beneficio vegetatus). according to the Icelandic mythic fragments. when all the dead in the lower world shall return. and should not surprise us in regard to Loki. When this hair afterwards is exposed and exhibited.Younger Edda. over which darkness broods for ever (the island Lyngvi in Amsvartnir's sea. That Mitothin takes flight and conceals himself from the gods corresponds with the myth about Loki. In the midst of the conflict he seeks or is sought by his constant foe. The hardy sea-captain.Ragnarok. 67). Light is thrown on this episode by what Saxo tells about Loki's head.

Curians. and Menja. Saga. and that Hamal himself was the field-commander of his foster-brother.42. in the original model of the battle. to arrange the battalions in the form of a wedge.. Therefore the names of several of the heroes who take part in the battle are an echo from the myth concerning the Teutonic patriarchs and .. that is. 337).). THE ORIGINAL MODEL OF THE BRAVALLA BATTLE. [**] Several centuries later Odin. 304). We also learn in our Norse records that fylkja Hamalt. Hamall. Hardr. [*] Now Saxo relates (Hist. Swedes. in one of the records accessible to Saxo. 40. it is highly improbable that the Amalians did not also act an important part in the first great world war. HALFDAN AND HAMAL. according to other records a son of Borgar himself . Hamal's father. In the saga description produced in Christian times the Bravalla battle is a ghost of the myth concerning the first great war. Thereby the Bravalla battle has obtained so universal and gigantic a character. The trace is found in the phrase fylkja Hamalt. had been Halfdan's foster-father (Helg. taught this art to Harald Hilditönn. There being so close a relation between the progenitors of these great hero-families of Teutonic mythology. that is. The phrase can only be explained in one way. has already been mentioned above as the foster-brother of the Teutonic patriarch. 63: Hamalt syndiz mér hömlur hildings vinir skilda. and Esthionians here fight on that side which. Hagall. "to draw up in line of battle as Hamal did. Har. FOSTER-BROTHERS. The repetition has its reason in the fact that Harald Hildit¨nn. Fornalds. Goths. and that an old man (Odin) whom he has taken on board on a sea-journey had taught and advised him to do this. It has been turned into an arbitrarily written version of the battle which ended in Hadding's defeat. ii. Norsemen. ii. Halfdan (Helgi Hundingsbani).Hist. according to Saxo). and thus the devoted friend of Borgar. Fornm. occurring several places (Sig. xi. according to Saxo. 2.. "arranged the battle-array as Hamall first did it". According to Norse tradition. To Hamal has also been ascribed the origin of the custom of fastening the shields close together along the ship's railing. on Hadding's. was a son of Halfdan Borgarson (Hist. Saxons (according to Saxo. THE AMALIANS FIGHT IN BEHALF OF HALFDAN'S SON HADDING. which appears from the following lines in Harald Hardradi's Saga. 361. since all the Teutonic tribes. the main part of the army). In the ancient records of the North. The fleets and armies are immense on both sides. took part in it. we discover a trace which indicates that the Amalians actually did fight on that side where we should expect to find them. Shield-maids (amazons) occupy the position which in the original was held by the giantesses Hardgrep. 52) that Hadding's army was the first to draw the forces up in this manner. the consequence of which is that features of Hadding's saga have been incorporated into the saga produced in a later time concerning the saga-hero Harald Hilditönn. Fenja. and consequently a son of Hadding's father. Hund. HAMAL AND THE WEDGEFORMED BATTLE-ARRAY. But the mythology has not made Odin teach it twice. Livonians." means the same as svínfylkja. was represented by the hosts of Svipdag and Gudhorm. and Slavs fight on the other side.. and consequently surely their first families of mythic origin. ii. Danes (few in number. The mythic progenitor of the Amalians. ch. Faf. 23 .

show how arbitrarily the mythic records were treated at that time. ii. 304). but on the contrary confirms. Fafn. On a sea-journey Sigurd takes on board a man who calls himself Hnikarr (a name of Odin). On the geographical line which unites Teutondom with Asia it was also in vogue. Gram (Halfdan). has also incorporated this episode. Od (Óður... and Ingi (Yngvi).). There appear Borgar and Behrgar the wise (Borgar). was not only the first but also the only one who received this instruction from the Asa-father. 52: Germani celeriter ex consuetudine sua phalange facta. with the passage quoted in this connection: hildingr fylkti Hamalt liði miklu. see Nos. son of Halfdan Borgarson. 18). THE DIETERICH SAGA THUS HAS ITS ORIGIN IN THE MYTH CONCERNING THE WAR BETWEEN MANNUS-HALFDAN'S SONS. He advises him to "fylkja Hamalt" (Sig. Brahi (Brache. (Fornm. 43. Asa-Bragr. and Cæsar suggests the same (De Bell. að rani (the swine-snout) var á framan á fylkingunni. and the Hindooic law-book. EVIDENCE THAT DIETERICH "OF BERN" IS HADDING. 102). learned this arrangement of the forces from Odin many centuries after he had taught the art to Hadding. The statement that Harald Hilditönn.. 6) says that the Teutons arranged their forces in the form of a wedge (acies per cuneos componitur). a surname of Freyja's husband. Thus our knowledge of this custom as Teutonic extends back to the time before the birth of Christ. but which. called Manus'. Haddir (Hadding). xi. Possibly it was then already centuries old. see No. the wedge-shaped array of battle was known to the Scythians and Thracians.] The myth has rightly described the wedge-shaped arrangement of the troops as an ancient custom among the Teutons. does not disprove. Svipdag. and that Hamal was Hadding s general.. son of Halfdan Borgarson. 101). 28a). 96-98. The Aryan-Asiatic kinsmen of the Teutons had knowledge of it.. all of whose events are more or less . ac. [* Compare the passage. Gall. ok lukt allt utan með skjaldbjorg. in the manner in which they are presented in the new saga. Ruthar (Hrútr-Heimdal. especially as we have already seen that Hadding's and Hamal's families were united by the sacred ties which connect foster-father with foster-son and foster-brother with foster-brother. and that Hamal was the first one who arranged his forces in the shape of a wedge. that Odin gave Hadding this means of victory. And as we now have side by side the two statements. which absorbed materials from all older sagas. all of which names we recognise from the patriarch saga. 1623).the great war. The appearance of Hamal and the Amalians on Hadding's side in the great world war becomes a certainty from the fact that we discover among the descendants of the continental Teutons a great cycle of sagas.] [** The saga of Sigurd Fafnisbani. see No. Tacitus (Germ. the theory that Hadding. 100. Eiríkr konungr fylkti svá liði sínu. ascribes to it divine sanctity and divine origin.. i. According to Ælianus (De instr. then it is all the more necessary to assume that these statements belong together.

but must be changed into a faithful vassal and "markgrave" under Attila. Both epithets belong to one and the same saga character. On the one side of tbe slowly advancing borders between the two religions there developed and continued a changing and transformation of the old sagas. The Saxons were converted to Christianity by fire and sword in the latter part of the eighth century. but also as Hartung.that is. and take possession of his paternal inheritance. was forced to take flight to the far East. Attila . Theodericus). for we have already seen that Hadding is known in Anglo-Saxon poetry as Hearding. the old mythic songs." "the great ruler". as he could no longer be Odin. must be the mightiest king in the East ever heard of . and was obliged to take flight from the persecution of a kinsman and his assistants to the far East. And for this he was indebted to the assistance of the brave Amalians. by which he was presumably celebrated in song among all Teutonic tribes.that this revolution required a period of more than eight hundred years before it had conquered the last fastnesses of the Odinic doctrine. but that he never got a beard. It follows that Saxo must have received the songs concerning the ancient Teutonic heroes in a far more original form than that in which the same songs could be found in Germany. where he remained a long time. inasmuch as it tore down the ancient mythical structure and applied the fragments that were fit for use as material for a new saga structure . as we have thus seen. and how he was there received by a mighty king. substantially the same as Hadding's. however. who. before he possessed a kingdom. Odin's faithful servant.and how Attila gave him as protector a certain Rüdiger. and. persecuted by a brother and the protectors of the latter. These are the chief points in the saga cycle about Dieterich of Bern (Þjóðrekr. until after various fortunes of war he was able to return. In the deep forests of Sweden heathendom did not yield completely to Christianity before the twelfth century. whose very name contains an echo of Ruther (Heimdal). Hadding is the epithet which belongs to him as a youth. This is sufficient to explain the name Hadding. Thus one might. on the other side of the borders of faith." "the fair-haired". the continental Teutons knew him not only as Dieterich. conquer. but little affected by the tooth of time. Hadding means "the hairy one. Dieterich (Þjóðrekr) means "the ruler of the people. be the white Asa-god. When we compare sagas preserved by the descendants of the Teutons of the Continent with sagas handed down to us from Scandinavian sources. Thidrek. there was protected by Odin. we must constantly bear in mind that the great revolution which the victory of Christianity over Odinism produced in the Teutonic world of thought. to choose the nearest example at hand. and the fortunes of the young prince are. as we shall see. and how he through him received the assistance of Hrútr-Heimdall. where heathendom still prevailed. It is also possible that the name "the hairy" has in the myth had the same purport as the . on the south side of this border. while. sang of how Dieterich. sing on the northern side of this faith-border. Dieterich is the epithet which represents him as the king of many Teutonic tribes. In the time of Saxo's father there were still heathen communities in Smaland on the Danish border. about how Hadding. while the Christians. still continued to live in their original form. the main purpose of which was to obliterate all that contained too much flavour of heathendom and was incompatible with Christianity. who could not. The Vilkinasaga says of him that he had an abundant and beautiful growth of hair.intimately connected with the mythic kernel: that Amalian heroes with unflinching fidelity supported a prince who already in the tender years of his youth had been deprived of his share of his father's kingdom. when the persecutions of Svipdag and his half-brother Gudhorm compelled him to fly to the far East.

when the latter made the vow to let his hair grow until he was king of all Norway (Harald Harfagri's Saga. a King Hartung who came from some land in the East. 105. however. so does Paulus Diaconus (Hist. 31). If we unite the scattered features contained in these sources about Hartung we get the following main outlines of his saga: (a) Hartung is a king and dwells in an eastern country (all the records). Below it shall also be shown that the most remarkable details are common to them all. and so common and so sacred that it must have had foothold and prototype in the hero-saga. one and the same in root and in general outline.epithet "the fair-haired" has in the Norse account of Harald. belongs to the same race. As shall be shown later (see Nos. and commander of his troops. at least not in the beginning. and recovered his kingdom. who in the German saga has the same place under Dieterich. We also find that Hartung. iii. king von Riuzen. cp. The custom of not cutting hair or beard before an exploit resolved upon was carried out was an ancient one among the Teutons. 109). like Dieterich.. 42) given reasons why Hamal (Amala). 15). to the East. is the aged "master" Hildebrand. conquered his enemies. Although it had nearly ceased to be heard in the German saga cycle. All these features are found in the saga of Hadding. Tacitus mentions it (Germania. Attila the king of the East as his protector. that he thereupon returned. Can it be demonstrated that what the German saga tells about Hildebrand reveals threads that connect him with the saga of the original patriarchs. He is Attila's man ("Dieterichs Flucht"). and that not only his position as Dieterich's aged friend and general. was Hadding's assistant and general in the war against his foes. Norway's first ruler. an independent ruler there. Grimm. W. and the chief of the same race as the celebrated Velint . Dieterich's faithful companion. the foster-brother of Halfdan Borgarson. He is Volund's nephew (brother's son). and also conquers that of the Swedish king (Vilkinasaga). I have above (No.belonged to (Vilkinasaga). but also his genealogy. The hero. by which form of the name the hero reappears in Vilkinasaga as a king in Russia. 7) and Gregorius of Tours (v. like him. after the death of the Swedish conqueror. 139. Thus the original identity of Hadding and Hartung is beyond doubt. Heldensage. still the name Hartung has there left traces of its existence. A comparison of the different versions of "Rosengarten" with the poem "Dieterichs Flucht" shows that the name Hartung von Riuzen in the course of time becomes Hartnit von Riuzen and Hertnit von Riuzen. refer to this saga? And can a satisfactory explanation be given of the reason why Hildebrand obtained in the German Dieterich saga the same place as Hamal had in the old myth? . and that Hadding of the myth was the prototype of Harald. teacher. The poem "Rosengarten" (variant D. that he got. like him. Volund (Wayland) . 253) also mentions Hartunc. D. that is to say. the banisher of Hadding. but is subject to Attila (who in the Dieterich's saga has supplanted Odin as chief ruler in the East). Hartung's and Dieterich's sagas are.that is to say. therefore. Hadding's. (d) The Swedish king is of the race of elves. (b) He is not. 4). that he fled. is banished from his country. Svipdag. his own kingdom. (c) A Swedish king has robbed him of his land and driven him into exile. "Anhang des Heldenbuchs" mentions King Hartung "aus Reüssenlant". (e) Hartung recovers.

Hildebrand is happy and secure. after his return from the East. They had the same mother Drott. calls him Heribrantes sunu. and that the Hildings from the beginning were akin to the Teutonic patriarchs. and Halfdan's sons. but not the same father. Hildeger's saga and Hildebrand's are also related in subject matter.. 357): Danica te tellus. who believed that his father was dead and calls Hildebrand a deceiver. Hildeger's character is profoundly tragic. i. me Sveticus edidit orbis. Borgar's transformation from stepfather to the father of a Hilding shall be explained below.Hildebrand." Berchtung's son (concerning Berchtung. according to the tradition in Saxo. Herbrand again is. Asmund Kappabani's saga) that he has fought within and slain his own beloved son. Wolfdieterich: Berchtung . A Popular Song about Hildebrand: Hildebrand . Hildeger was. and forces him to fight a duel. Fundinn Noregur: Hildir . [**] [* In nearly all the names of members of this family. When the old "master" has demonstrated that his Hadubrand is not yet equal to him in arms.Hildebrand is. The fragment ends before we learn the issue of the duel.] In the German tradition Hildebrand is the son of Herbrand. who has taken the dead man's name. father and son ride side by side in peace and happiness to their . 356-359). Hist. about Hildebrand's meeting with his son Hadubrand. Drot tibi maternum. Halfdan. Flateyjarbok. as his very name shows. en mig sjálfan á Svíþjóðu.Hildebrand . according to the poem "Wolfdieterich.Hildir & Herbrand.Hildir & Herbrand. All that the names appear to signify is that their owners belong to the Hilding race. The Old High German fragment of the song. 6).Vigbrand . quondam distenderat uber. This already shows that the German saga about Hildebrand was originally connected with the patriarch saga about Borgar. Hild. [*] like Hildeger who appears in the patriarch saga (Saxo. Hildeger complains in his death-song in Saxo (cp. Borgar's son. considered himself as belonging to the South Scandinavians and Danes. but Vilkinasaga and a ballad about Hildebrand have preserved the tradition in regard to it. Halfdan.. the half-brother of Halfdan Borgarson.Hildebrand .Hildebrand Hadubrand.or -brand. Hildeger counted himself a Swede on his father's side. Hac genitrici tibi pariter collacteus exto. 25: Hildir .Herbrand .Helgi . Vilkinasaga: Hildebrand . in the German tradition we find a Hilding (Herbrand) who is Borgar-Berchtung's son. appears as a part of the compound word. and hence the dying Hildeger sings to Halfdan (Hist.] [** Compare in Asmund Kappabani's Saga the words of the dying hero: þig Drótt of bar af Danmörku. In a Norse tradition preserved by Saxo we find a Hilding (Hildeger) who is Borgar's stepson. In the Old High German song-fragment Hildebrand seeks.Alebrand. see No. The fortunes of both the kinsmen are at the same time like each other and the antithesis of each other. Examples: Old High German fragment: Herbrand . Asmund Kappabani's Saga: Hildebrand .The Younger Hildebrand. his son Hadubrand. a Hilding.Hildebrand.

The kinship pointed out between the Teutonic patriarchs and the Hildings has not. Theoderich. and not a word is said about blood revenge between Halfdan's and Hildeger's descendants. however.home. that is to say. The question as to whether we find threads which connect the Hildebrand of the German poem with the saga of the mythic patriarchs. Thus Hildebrand brings from Sweden a princess. are pendants and each other's antithesis. who. and the Amal family . and when the latter before he died declared his devotion to his slayer. slays a kinsman. In "Wolfdieterich" Hildebrand's father receives land and fief from Dieterich's grandfather and carries his banner in war. Persons who in the German poems have names which refer to their Amalian birth are by Hildebrand treated as members of a clan are treated by a clan-chief. the pith of the pith. On the other hand. This crisis came when Hadding-Þjóðrekr of the ancient myth was confounded with the historical king of the East Goths. Hildebrand himself performs toward Dieterich those duties which are due from a foster-father. who passionately loves war and combat.has certainly been just as distinctly pointed out in the German sagacycle as in the Norse before the German met with a crisis. Hildeger. occupied the position of a subordinate friend toward Halfdan's father Borgar. At all events we rediscover the aged Hildebrand as the teacher and protector of the son of the same Halfdan who slew Hildeger. Dieterich's foster-father and general. and from this it follows that Hamal. Hildeger's conduct toward his half-brother Halfdan. if he survived Halfdan. the Hilding family. The oldest and most important hero. has given him the fatal wound. as a rule. and he is able to end it by pressing his young opponent to his paternal bosom. Thus Halfdan and Hamal were foster-brothers. Among the kindred families to which Dieterich and Hildebrand belong there was the same difference of rank as between those to which Hadding and Hamal belong. Amalians (see "Biterolf"). The East . The relation between the kindred families . the progenitor of the Amalians. without being aware of the kinship. Hamal's relation to Hadding is therefore entirely analagous to Hildebrand's relation to Dieterich. It seems to have proclaimed that blood revenge was inadmissible. and seeks to ward off and allay the son's love of combat before the duel begins. and gives her as wife to a son of Amelolt serving among Dieterich's Amelungs. to judge from this. inflicts in his eagerness for strife a deep wound in his own heart when he kills his own son. excluded a relation of subordination of the latter to the former.the patriarch family. Amalgart. Hamal's father Hagal was Halfdan's fosterfather. show a relation of subordination to the real father of the foster-son. and whose mantle the dying one wishes to wrap himself in (Asmund Kappabani's saga). and. which. was bound to assume a foster-father's duties towards the latter's son Hadding. The pith of that army which attached itself to Dieterich are Amelungs. is one of the touching scenes in the grand poems about our earliest ancestors. when a kinsman. the ideal of a noble and generous enemy. who was not yet of age. and his last words to his brother. ignorant of the kinship. Both the conflicts between father and son. has now been answered. Master Hildebrand has in the German saga-cycle received the position and the tasks which originally belonged to Hamal. which to some extent confused the old connection. and especially with the Hamal (Amala) who appears in this saga. Hildebrand acts wisely. and to Amelolt Hildebrand has already given his sister for a wife. is old master Hildebrand himself. within the Hilding family. members of Hamal's race. prudently.

In regard to the name-form Amal. who traced his ancestry to Amal (Hamal). and the Hilding family was partly obscured and partly abolished. whereby the distinction between this race of rulers . The Dieterich and Otacher of historical traditions became identified with Þjóðrekr and Óttar of mythical traditions. Still the strong stream of the ancient myths became master of the confused historical increments. in which traces were found of the historical Theoderich-Dieterich. the hero saga of the Teutonic myths was cut off from its roots in the mythology. A writer acquainted with the chronicle of Jordanes took the last step and made Theoderich's father Thiudemer the father of the mythic Hadding-Þjóðrekr. friendly but subject to the Hadding family. but this vocation had to be transferred to master Hildebrand. accompanied by his faithful Amalians. Closs remarks. (c) That when Hamal thus was changed from an elder contemporary of HaddingÞjóðrekr into his earliest progenitor. &c. according to Jordanes (De Goth. a son of Thiudemer. so that the Dieterich of the saga has but little in common with the historical Theoderich.the line of Teutonic patriarchs begun with Ruther-Heimdall . who in the myth is the grandfather of Hadding-Þjóðrekr. Nor did the similarity of names alone encourage this blending of the persons. who also in the myth must have been closely connected with Hadding. After the dissemination of Christianity. to a kingdom in the East. a name which suggested the historical Otacher (Odoacer). sic. and the scene of various of his exploits. so the Dieterich of the historical saga also had to suffer persecutions in his tender youth from Otacher. resign this dignity and confine himself to being the progenitor of the Hildings. et Pall. As the Hadding-Þjóðrekr of mythology was in his tender youth exposed to the persecutions of Ottar. in his edition of 1886: AMAL. he is in Saxo the progenitor of the Hilding Hildeger. . must. 14). &c. Ravenna (Raben). Orig.together with the Amal family. He was. Another result of Hadding-Þjóðrekr's confusion with the historical Theoderich was that Dieterich's kingdom. who also bore the name Óðr and Óttar (see Nos. as he was not an Amal. 96-100). As we have seen. was transferred to Italy: to Verona (Bern). the Old High German Otar. nisi quod hi Hamal aspirate. together with Hamal.. cum Epit. he could no longer serve as Dieterich's foster-father and general. The mythic Hadding-Þjóðrekr had warred with Svipdag. [* The texts of Jordanes often omit the aspirate and write Eruli for Heruli. son of Augis (Hagal). one of his chief and constant helpers. (b) That Hadding-Þjóðrekr himself became a descendant of Hamal. was no longer able to distinguish the one Dieterich from the other. The latter name-form corresponds to the English and German Otter. and had to take flight from them to the far East. separated from him by several generations of time. Popular tradition. and take flight. There was also another reason.Goth Theoderich counted himself as belonging to the Amal family. The historical Theoderich had fought against Odoacer. Dieterich himself became an "Amelung" like several of his heroes.] The result of the confusion was: (a) That Hadding-Þjóðrekr became the son of Thiudemer. (d) That Borgar-Berchtung. the husband of Freyja. Ambr. and. which had grown out of the soil of the myth. and that his descent from the Teuton patriarchs was cut off. and hence this confusion was natural and necessary.

as heathen deities. and be replaced as best they could by others. must.) Odin and Heimdall. Old German mâra. and Vilkinasaga makes him sojourn in the East thirty-two years." that is to say. when in the Vilkinasaga Thidrek (Dieterich) teases Högni (Hagen) by calling him the son of an elf. and splendid persons: compare the Old Norse mæringr. who then. and many other events must occur before the epic connection of the myths permitted Hadding to return as a victor. as we have already seen. Mæringaburg is changed to Meran. it was used in the more special sense of a man descended from "the shining one. The Banings means "the destroyers. The ten-year rule of the Vans in Asgard must end. and he reminds us that. in the Anglo-Saxon version of the Hadding saga." refrain from mentioning the ancestors of their hero." that is. Mæringaburg of the Anglo-Saxon poem is the refuge which Odin opened for his favourite. Hadubrand says of his father Hildebrand. the saga of "Dieterich of Bern" also lets him remain a long time with Attila. honoured. This appears from the expression Bekka veóld Baningum. the men of Loki-Bicke (Bekki). these "mæringar" have. However this may be. noble man. The myth made Hadding dwell in the East for many years (see above). dwelt in the East and there became the protectors of Hadding. from Heimdall through Borgar." a suitable appellation of those who follow the source of pest. Attila. The Banings are no more than the Mærings. that. 106. As a result of this. when he betook himself to the East with Dieterich. The song about Hildebrand and Hadubrand make him remain in exile. Ruther-Heimdall was." and it is possible that. sumarô enti wintrô sehstic. according to the myth. time allcorrupting Loki. But the original meaning of mærr. Högni answers that Thidrek has a still worse descent. An old English song preserved in the Exeter manuscript. "Nibelunge Noth" and "Klage. is "glittering" "shining" "pure. changed into Rüdiger. be removed from the Christian saga. and BorgarBerchtung (Hadding's grandfather in the myth) is Duke of Meran. the English bane. long before Hadding's victory and restoration to his father's power (see No. The famous ruler in the East. The interpretation of the word is to be sought in the Anglo-Saxon bana. though Attila was dead before Theoderich was born. Therefore. a tradition has been handed down within the German saga-cycle to the effect that "Dieterich of Bern" belonged to a genealogy which Christianity had anathematised. was supposed to be . In the German poems. which they could not relate without wounding Christian ears. is explained by the fact that Hadding-Þjóðrekr's father in the myth. in Codex Exoniensis. which in Grimm's eyes is mystical. for Svipdag-Ottar perishes and disappears in the myth. Two of the German Dieterich poems.Accordingly. Mæringaburg means a citadel inhabited by noble. Wilhelm Grimm suspects that the reason for this is that the authors of these poems knew something about Dieterich's descent. and where the former dwelt during his exile in the East. Halfdan Borgarson."the corrupters. honoured. had their antitheses in the "baningar. The matter. makes Theodric remain þrittig wintra in exile at Mæringaburg. Despite the confusion of the historical Theoderich with the mythic Hadding-Þjóðrekr. Otacher soon disappears from the German saga-cycle. before mæringr received its general signification of a famous. an historical name. as he is the son of the devil himself. floh her Otachres nîd. "he fled from Otacher's hate". was better suited than anyone else to take Odin's place. It is his fathers who have gone to the gods that Hadding finds again with Odin and Heimdall in the East.

is also preserved in the form. This explains the remarkable dénouement of the Dieterich saga.) The German saga is also able to tell of a war which Dieterich waged against a dwarf king. and calls the dwarf Andvari (Sig. nay. who had concealed his treasures in the bottom of a lake. the largest and stateliest ever seen. he could breathe fire and make the cuirass of his opponent red-hot. Fafn. and who was obliged to ransom his life with a golden treasure of the same weight as his body (Hist. and he disappeared for ever. and in his capacity of a Teutonic patriarch he had received divine worship (see Nos. became in the Christian mind synonymous with hell. together with the mythic account of his journey through the air on Odin's horse Sleipnir. and. Manuscripts of the Vilkinasaga speak of a fateful bath which Thidrek took. that he. in the form that Dieterich was able with his breath to burn the fetters laid upon him (see "Laurin"). 41.descended from Thor. Saxo tells that Hadding made war on a King Handuanus. 23 and 30). that the steed was the devil. The record of the giving of this gift to Hadding meets us in the German saga. 106). In Saxo we read that Hadding once while bathing had an adventure which threatened him with the most direful revenge from the gods (see No. It has already been stated (No. The Sigurd saga has a record of this event. too late. were remembered in Christian times in the form that he once on a black diabolical horse rode to hell. Groa (Gróugaldur 10) gives her son Svipdag "Leifnir's fires" in order that if he is chained. The tradition in regard to this. his enchanted limbs may be liberated (leifnis elda læt eg þér fyr legg um kveðinn). 38) that Hadding from Odin received a drink which exercised a wonderful influence upon his physical nature. Otto of Friesingen (first half of the twelfth century) states that Theodoricus vivus equo sedens ad inferos descendit. thanks to it and to the incantation sung over him by Odin. ii. 47). While the hero was bathing there came a black horse. The war has furnished the materials for the saga of "Laurin". and Dieterich gets possession of many of his treasures. Anhang des Heldenbuchs says that Dieterich was the son of a "böser geyst". It has also been pointed out that this drink contained something called Leifnir's or Leifin's flames. Saxo relates that Hadding on one occasion was invited to descend into the lower world and see its strange things (see No. He found. Andvani. the magnanimous and celebrated hero. There is every reason for assuming that these "flames" had the effect of enabling the person who had partaken of the potion of Leifnir's flames to free himself from his chains with his own breath. and connects it with his journey to hell. with its fields of bliss and places of torture. 67). . too. The king wrapped himself in his bath towel and mounted the horse. he was able to free himself from the chains afterwards put on him by Loki. It made him recreatum vegetiori corporis firmitate. namely. on the advice of Odin. the conquered dwarf-king's life is spared. In the German as in the Norse saga. 42. supported by Otacher-Ottar (Svipdag). The heathen lower world. that when Dieterich was in distress. The Kaiser chronicle says that "many saw that the devils took Dieterich and carried him into the mountain to Vulcan"... God sent him eines löwen krafft von herczenlichen zoren ("Ecken Ausfarth"). Handuanus is a Latinised form of the dwarf name Andvanr. Here. was captured by the devil. the heart of a wild beast (Saxo says of a lion) gained extraordinary strength. Hadding-Þjóðrekr's rival to secure the crown was his brother. when he became angry. Hadding's descent to the lower world. The traditiorn that Hadding by eating.

Hostius.which agrees with the myth. In the Beowulf poem the king of the Danes is called eodor Inguina. In the myths they are Scandiniavians and neighbours to the Ingævones.. But already in an early day the brother was changed into uncle on account of the intermixing of historical reminiscences. the lord of the Ingævones. To the name Hadding corresponds. As to geography. airmana) is linguistically connected with the word Hermino. and it is probable. as already indicated. Goth. a saga which originally was connected with that of the mythic Jörmunrek. Thus the "Raben battle" corresponds to the mythic battle in which Hadding is defeated . It is possible. the Anglo-Saxon Hearding. might readily enough correspond. had his support among the East Teutonic tribes. the former dwelt along the middle Rhine. Herminones. which out of sympathy for their hero give him victory in this battle ("the Raben battle") nevertheless in fact acknowledge that such was not the case. a great king. and possibly also Hadding's to that of the Istævones (see No. provided the vowel i in the Latin form can be harmonised with a in the Teutonic. as already shown. the old German Hartung. istvæones. on the other hand. Nat. who are the East Teutons of mythology. the very names Gudhormr and Jörmunrekr already point as such to the mythic progenitor of the Hermiones. robbed of his crown. This is openly avowed in the Dieterich poem "Die Klage". Pomponius Mela says that the land of the Cimbrians and Teutons was washed by the Codan bay (iii. that the Teutonic irmin (jörmun. In the Roman authors the form Herminones is found by the side of Hermiones as the name of one of the three Teutonic tribes which descended from Mannus. Teutons. 25). several tribes had already before the time of Pliny pressed forward south of the Hermiones to this river. and has applied to him the saga of Svanhild and her brothers Sarus (Sörli) and Ammius (Hamðir). Hazdiggós) the words istævones. Those poems. in the German Ermenrich (Ermanaricus). whose kingdom was destroyed by the Huns. both the Roman and Teutonic records agree that the northern Teutonic tribes were Ingævones. The Sigurd epic. which expanded with plunder from all sources. The German saga-cycle has preserved the tradition that in the first great battle in which Hadding-Þjóðrekr measured his strength with the North and West Teutons he suffered a great defeat. which calls Istævo Ostius. the protection of the Ingævones. that -horm in Gudhorm is connected with the form Hermio. and freâ Inguina. Pliny says that Cimbrians. and of the latter. Tacitus says that they live nearest to the ocean (Germ. Jordanes already has confounded the mythic Jörmunrekr-Gudhormr with the historical Gothic King Hermanaricus. 22). has added to the confusion by annexing this saga.. iv. before he makes his second and successful attempt to regain his kingdom. was known to the author of Anhang des Heldenbuchs.. 2). The Hasdingi (Asdingi) mentioned by Jordanes were the chief warriors of the Vandals (Goth. Orig. according to the myth. and Chaucians were Ingævones (Hist. since Hadding. As to the Hermiones and Istævones. 3). a ruler over many people. The brother's name in the Norse tradition is Gudhormr. In that case. Ermenrich-Jörmunrekr means. and there may be a mythic reason for rediscovering this family name among an East Teutonic tribe (the Vandals). 28). for they make him return to the East after the battle and remain there many years. That the vowel i was an uncertain element may be seen from the genealogy in Codex La Cava. like Þjóðrekr. just as Yngvi-Svipdag's name points to the progenitor of the Ingvæones (Ingævones). as already pointed out by several linguists. To the form Hasdingi (Goth.

Saxony. Denmark. and continental Teutondom are the scene of the mythic events. and that. and the final episode of which is the first great war in the world. &c. and their descent from the myth concerning the earliest antiquity and the patriarchs.was thrust aside and forgotten. and should again be incorporated in our mythology together with the myth in regard to the primeval time. and Istævones. there is not one which has contributed so much as the rejection of this myth toward giving "Norse mythology" the stamp which it hitherto has borne of a narrow. and at the same time in its main outlines Teutonic. Swabia. Svithiod (Sweden). above all. It has also been demonstrated that Halfdan. as shall be shown in the present work. Scania. mythology. The original identity of Hadding's and Dieterich's sagas. Greece. Wallachia. Gudhorm's and Hadding's father. Norway is not at all named in it. see Nos. the main outline of which has been restored. in many respects important. on the other hand. Nor was there anything in this myth that particularly appealed to the Norse national feeling. Ermenrich. and the German tradition has upon the whole faithfully. England. Hermiones. For that reason the latter had to yield. For the mythic descent of the Burgundian dynasty from an uncle of Svipdag I shall present evidence in my chapters on the Ivaldi race. that could be handed down to our time . I now regard as demonstrated and established. more or less influenced by the centuries. in regard to the olden time and its events in the world of gods and men . illiberal town mythology. and Yngvi-Svipdag's stepfather. continued to live far down in the middle ages. who in the genealogy in the St. is to blame that the myth. In regard to the ancient Aryan elements in the myth here presented. ancient already in the days of Tacitus. Russia. in giving what is now called "Norse mythology" its present character. that the songs about Mannus and his sons. and by non-Teutonic people from the East . which accepted and developed the learned hypothesis of the middle age in regard to the immigration of Odin and his Asiamen. either from a scientific or poetic point of view. is identical with Mannus. 82 and 111. which. The Norse-Icelandic school. . Among the many causes co-operating in Christian times. have. Besides the "Raben battle" has from a Teutonic standpoint a trait of universality. Dieterich is supported by East Teutonic warriors. not the songs themselves. and in harmony with the myth. but the main features of their contents. and the North.by Ingævones and Hermiones.among Aryan myths one of the most important. and so could claim mercy. Gaelen Codex are counted among the Hermiones. The learned hypothesis and the ancient myth could not be harmonised. therefore. the Netherlands. and. by chiefs from Thuringia.. built chiefly on the foundation of the Younger Edda. Hessen. and in the genealogy in the La Cava Codex are counted with the Ingævones. have been preserved to our time. The war between Hadding-Dieterich and Gudhorm-Ermenrich is identical with the conflict begun by Yngvi-Svipdag between the tribes of the Ingævones. in many respects a caricature of the real Norse.from Poland. One of the results of this investigation is. by the Burgundians. grouped the allies and heroes of the hostile brothers. is.

The Danish prince advised that they return. and with his Danish namesake he set out on his journey. and rushed with his sword in the other against the dragon. the earth of living men. the-acre-of-the-not-dead. age. but it was separated from the lands inhabited by men in such a manner that it was not impossible. to get there. Far down in Christian times there prevailed among the Scandinavians the idea that their heathen ancestors had believed in the existence of a place of joy. and saw before them the great plain lit up by the sun and covered with flowers. In company with a Danish prince. and they were unharmed. tells the following: Erik. They travelled through Syria and the immense and wonderful India. and with a few textual modifications in Fornaldarsögur Norðurlanda. They were seen to vanish between the jaws of the monster. the son of a petty Norse king. But the Norwegian Erik seized one of his men by one hand. and came to a dark country where the stars are seen all day long. they thought themselves enveloped in smoke. One day the king talked with the Norwegian Erik about religion. which aspires to heaven itself. and which rises in Paradise. from which came sweet fragrance. and death were excluded. from which sorrow. and said it lies in the East beyond the farthest boundaries of India." . and after many years he got back to his native land. This place of joy was called Ódáinsakur. and the fame of it spread over all Norway. but nevertheless exceeding perilous. he betook himself first to Mikligard (Constantinople). After having traversed its deep forests. blemishes. With the other companions the Danish prince then returned by the same route as he had come. who also was named Erik.and asked him if he knew where it was situated. 44. made the vow to seek out Odainsakur. and was greatly benefited by their warlike skill. The king believed that Odainsakur was identical with Paradise. they saw when it began to grow light a river.IV. THE MYTH IN REGARD TO THE LOWER WORLD. but that no one was able to get there because it was enclosed by a fire-wall. MIDDLE AGE SAGAS WITH ROOTS IN THE MYTH CONCERNING THE LOWER WORLD. On the stone bridge lay a dragon with wide open mouth. one Christmas Eve. but just above the ground were felt breezes that . where the king engaged the young men in his service. and had given them a letter of recommendation to the authorities and princes through whose territories they had to pass. Still Erik was bound by his vow. either on the surface of the earth or in the lower world. pain. There flowed rivers of honey. When Erik and his fellow-countryman had been swallowed by the dragon. for he considered it impossible to conquer the dragon or to pass it. sickness. but it was scattered. the air was still. It was situated not in heaven but below. Jörð lifandi manna. Erik conjectured that the river was the one called by the king in Mikligard Pison. A saga from the fourteenth century [Eireks saga Víðförla] incorporated in Flateyjarbók. . after the king had instructed them as well as he was able in regard to the way. ERIK VIDFORLI'S SAGA. On the other side of the river there was a plain. over which there was a vaulted stone bridge. He told his royal teacher of the vow he had taken to find Odinsakur. and the result was that the latter surrendered the faith of his ancestors and accepted baptism."frá honum heyrði vér sagt á voru landi.

Odainsakur seemed like a desert. for to the latter only spirits could come. and they thanked God that they had reached their destination. Further on in the domain of the real myth.conveyed the fragrance of the flowers. 45. He was wise and mighty. and objects cast no shadow. In the saga of Hervör [Hervarar saga ok Heiðreks]. He asked whether Erik wished to remain where he now was or to return home. and there Erik was called víðförli. 519) that his father's name was Þrándr. Within the tower there was a room. ICELANDIC SOUCES IN REGARD TO GUDMUND. that his aunt (mother's sister) was a certain Svanhvít [Swan-white]. Both the adventurers went far into the country in order to find. inhabited parts. if possible. They continued to travel in that direction. these two regions are on each other's borders. MIDDLE AGE SAGAS (continued). and said he was one of the angels who guarded the gates of Paradise. Saga. who had been at his side when he vowed to go in search of Odainsakur. Therefore. 103). and offered sacrifices to him. Paradise. The angel permitted the two travellers to remain in Odainsakur for six days to rest themselves. was so glorious that. 102. Then they returned by way of Mikligard to Norway. and the land of the spirits. but the district in which it was situated was called the Glittering Plains (Glæsisvellir). Still they discovered a tower in the distance. Odainsakur is mentioned. and that he belonged to the race of Þjazi's daughter Skaði. in comparison. and also Erik's guardian angel. or jörð lifandi manna. along the shores of Gandvík. and in a heathen sense pious." According to the saga-author. Gudmund (Goðmundr) was the name of a king in Jötunheim. KING ON THE GLITTERING PLAINS. It is never dark in this country. and whose mother is a swan-maid (goddess of growth). without foundation or pillars. Erik wished to return to report what he had seen. carpeted with velvet. The angel informed him that Odainsakur. and there stood a beautiful table with delicious food in silver dishes. There were also splendid beds. His home was called Grund. and he and his men became so old that they lived many generations. who called him by name. where he now was. iii. But the country seemed to be uninhabited. the saga states (Fornald. Jötunheim is situated north from Hálogaland. A ladder led up to it. and on coming nearer they found that the tower was suspended in the air. the story continues. While Erik slept there came to him a beautiful lad. Still. . Both the men were now convinced that they had come to Odainsakur. and no one ever dies there. was not the same place as Paradise. "That place (Odainsakur) is for everyone who comes there so healthy that sickness and age depart. After his death the people worshipped him as a god. we shall discover an Erik who belongs to Þjazi's family. the far-travelled. and wine in golden goblets. the heathens believed that Odainsakur was situated in his country. and the river which Erik had seen has its source in Paradise. They refreshed themselves and laid themselves to sleep. In regard to Erik's genealogy. and there without any visible addition of Christian elements. This latter Erik also succeeded in seeing Odainsakur (see Nos. The wise and mighty Gudmund died after he had lived half a thousand years.

They said they were gifts from Gudmund on the Glittering Plains. Then it happened at Yule that Helgi came in to the king in the hall. Helgi was invited to remain. after having slain three of King Ólafr's men. The result was that the heathen beings. but King Ólafr's prayers had at length made it difficult for Gudmund and his daughter to retain him. in which king Gudmund's kingdom. during which two men carried Helgi away. RULER OF THE LOWER WORLD. The Northman Helgi Þórisson was sent on a commercial journey to the far North on the coast of Finmark. Glittering Plains. before reaching the land which is deprived of the light of day. but the way thither was full of dangers and well-nigh inaccessible for mortals. He relates (Book VIII. With these he returned to his father. but he got lost in a great forest. who handed Ólafr two gold-plated horns. the daughter of Gudmund on the Glittering Plains. but before they parted Helgi received from Ingibjörg two chests full of gold and silver. and make a journey sub Chao ["beneath the realm of night" . who was very skilful in the magic arts. none knew whither. 46. Incredible treasures were preserved in that land. but mentioned to nobody how he had obtained them. leave sun and stars behind. A certain Geruthus. the following episode is incorporated [Helga þáttur Þórissonar]. Another year passed. and over whose . and he stayed three days with Ingibjörg. but upon the whole Helgi had nothing but good to report about this heathen. the Danish historian. The Glittering Plains are here said to be situated near Bjarmaland. 262-267) that King Gorm had resolved to find a mysterious country in regard to which there were many reports in the North. is a country tributary to Jötunheim. Ólafr filled the horns with good drink and handed them to the messengers.The same Gudmund is mentioned in Bósa saga ok Herrauðs. and with him two strangers. known in the traditions.Fisher]. who were Gudmund's messengers. just as in Þorsteins þáttur Bæjarmagns. The next Yule night there came a great storm. The fire was extinguished. His sorrowing father reported this to Ólafr Trygggvason. Saxo. Meanwhile he had commanded the bishop who was present to bless the drink. They who had any knowledge of the situation of the land insisted that it was necessary to sail across the ocean surrounding the earth. Helgi was at that time blind. Then there came to the king two men. The king asked him many questions. as a ruler of the Glittering Plains. The year passed. dwelt there. and at the same time there was great noise and confusion in the hall. and before his departure Ingibjörg picked his eyes out. whose ruler is Geirröðr. and Helgi explained that he had spent most happy days at Gudmund's. cast the horns away. SAXO CONCERNING THIS SAME GUDMUND. The chief one of the maidens was Ingibjörg. and Gudmund's men disappeared with Helgi. and disappeared again. in order that Norway's daughters should not fall in love with them. and the horses' trappings shone like gold. also knows Gudmund. The young maidens raised a splendid tent and set a table with dishes of silver and gold. as it is given in Flateyjarbók. Then Gudmund's daughters got ready to leave. There he met twelve red-clad young maidens on horseback. In the history of Ólafr Tryggvason. MIDDLE AGE SAGAS (continued). With his gifts Gudmund had intended to deceive King Ólafr. who brought Helgi with them.

waited upon them. who had a talent for inventing excuses. and invited Gorm to accompany him thither and taste of the delicious fruits. But the feast was a peculiar one. conducted them across it. Gorm himself was prudent enough to decline the honour. and the woods are full of wild beasts. Guthmundus invited them to be his guests and led them by paths down along a river. at which twelve of his sons. now found one for the king's lips. still continued to show them friendliness. docens. . The Danes felt a desire to cross the bridge and visit the land on the other side. for from unconsidered words they get power to do harm. a friendly person and the most faithful protector in peril. Then they came to a place where a golden bridge was built across the river. but Guthmundus warned them that nature with the bed of this stream has drawn a line between the human and superhuman and mysterious. most fair of face. and when they expressed their desire to see the domain of Geruthus. where a feast was spread before them. The host. sailed past Halogaland. though displeased with the reserve of the guests. nec mortalibus ultra fas esse vestigiis. and so came to the mysterious dwelling of Guthmundus. He offered King Gorm a daughter in marriage. The place for anchoring he had chosen in such a manner that they thence had the shortest journey to Geruthus. The Danes heeded the advice of Thorkillus not to come into too close contact with their strange table-companions or the servants. and had to pay the penalty with the loss of their memory and with enfeebled minds. King Gorm left Denmark with three ships and a numerous company. to Bjarmaland. after strange adventures on his way. for he was the brother of Geruthus.) They therefore continued the march on that side of the river on which they had hitherto gone. In the evening twilight the travellers saw a man of unusual size coming to meet them. (Cujus transeundi cupidos revocavit. and anchored near its coast. Thorkillus. and then a journey in the lower world. to its snow-clad fields there comes no summer warmth. and to their joy he greeted them by name. With the experienced sailor Thorkillus as his guide. Guthmundus. and as many daughters. they ate and drank of the provisions they had taken with them from home. The inhabitants are monsters with whom it is dangerous for strangers to enter into conversation. First there was a perilous voyage to be made.mountains and valleys darkness broods. situated beyond the known land of the same name. and came. and promised to wait there until they returned. Guthmnundus mentioned to the king that he had a villa. through its deep wild forests flow rapid foaming rivers which well forth from the rocky recesses. Danger threatened even those who were weak in reference to the enticing loveliness of the daughters of Guthmundus. Thorkillus informed them that they should regard the coming of this man as a good omen. but four of his men could not resist the temptation. and instead of tasting the courses presented of food and drink. the like of which are unknown elsewhere. When Thorkillus had explained the perpetual silence of his companions by saying that they were too bashful to enter into conversation with one whose language they did not understand. eo alveo humana a monstrosis rerum secrevisse naturam. and that the ground on the other side was by a sacred order proclaimed unlawful for the feet of mortals. he accompanied them all to the river. all of noble appearance. This they did because Thorkillus knew that mortals who accept the courtesies here offered them lose all memory of the past and remain for ever among "these non-human and dismal beings". One more trial awaited them. Therefore Thorkillus was to do the talking alone for all his companions. In this Bjarmia ulterior it is always cold.

nearly three hundred in number. But then the building shook in its foundations. and when they looked about them again they found the entrance to another treasury. the women had also received their punishment from the same god. and filth and rottenness and a terrible stench were everywhere. whose rage Thorkillus. which killed their robbers. with his body pierced and nailed to the rock. Within the city was a crowd of beings horrible to look at and to hear. was waiting for them. The latter would all have lost their lives had not their retreat been covered by two excellent archers whom Gorm had with him. three of Gorm's men laid greedy hands on these works of art. true to his promise.The land which they now entered was the home of terrors. the floors were made of serpents encased in foulness. which pierced the heart of him who bore it. knew how to calm. together with a splendid head-gear and a belt. Human heads were raised on stakes which surrounded the bulwarks of the city. But the greed got its reward. On iron benches. but as he could not persuade them. surrounded by a hurdle-work of lead. from which shot numerous braids down into the cisterns. which seemed to be built of dark mists. the tooth became a sword. Near by was found a gold-plated tooth of some strange animal. the horn into a dragon. beings which hitherto had been lying as if half-dead or lifeless started up and joined other spectres who attacked the Danes. and thus gave the signal to the others to plunder. They had not gone very far before they discovered before them a city. These were plated with seven sheets of gold. the roofs were composed of sharp stings. and there lay also three women with their backs broken. But their anxiety seemed unfounded. round as to form. where Guthmundus. kept watch outside of the gates. . Here he proposed to them that they should remain. who asked if these robbers were longer to be tolerated. But of the men. although innocent. there remained only twenty when they finally reached the river. At the same time he warned them most strictly not to touch any of the treasures that might entice their eyes. The arm-ring changed into a venomous serpent. All that sight and soul can conceive as terrible and loathsome was gathered within this rocky citadel. with whom the king had ventured into this part of the lower world. Thorkillus himself could not govern his greed when he saw these robes. again. but Thorkillus inspired them with courage. the voices of shrieking women were heard. Despite the warnings. The gates were located high up in the bulwark. and also an arm-ring of great size. Higher up in a rocky niche sat the aged Geruthus. which contained a wealth of immense weapons. and it was necessary to climb up on ladders in order to get to them. however. should meet with some misfortune. and above them hung objects of silver. he gave them presents and let them return to their ships in safety the same way as they had come. When the travellers left these places of punishment they came to a place where they saw cisterns of mead (dolia) in great numbers. Wild dogs. there lay giant monsters which looked like lifeless images. Thorkillus explained that it was this Geruthus whom the god Thor had pierced with a red-hot iron. The others who witnessed the fate of their comrades expected that they too. there lay an immense horn decorated with pictures and flashing with precious stones. and near it. When they had reached its entrance the travellers were overpowered by its awful aspect. The door-frames were covered with the soot of centuries. He took hold of the mantle. the finest work of art. among which was kept a royal mantle. the walls were draped with filth. Further in was a sort of mountain-fastness. and carried them in a boat to his own domain. At the thresholds crowds of monsters acted as doorkeepers and were very noisy.

One winter's day while Hadding sat at the hearth. The question who this Fjallerus was in the mythology is discussed in another part of this work (see No.47. and there grew the plants which she had shown him." In the beginning the journey was through a territory wrapped in darkness. Thence the woman brought him to a plain which glittered as in sunshine (loca aprica. fogs. there rose out of the ground the form of a woman. and makes him a sub-regent in Scania. FJALLERUS AND HADINGUS (HADDING) IN THE LOWER WORLD." says Saxo. Then she wrapped him in her mantle and carried him away down into the lower world. The path led to a river. which was difficult to pass through or to surmount. the son of Horvendillus. 100). been permitted to see a subterranean world. but the head came back to the neck of the cock. Nor did the woman make any effort to enter there. and mists. according to Saxo. MIDDLE AGE SAGAS (continued). Before reaching this river Hadding had seen from the path he travelled a region in which "a few" or "certain" (quidam). and with a distinct crow it announced "that it had regained its life and breath". who had her lap full of cowbanes [hemlock]. "must have determined that he should be transferred living to those places. the above-mentioned Hadding.Fisher]. She jerked the head off a cock which she had taken with her. and now imitated the sword-games they had played on earth. but very noble beings (proceres) were walking. This was one side of the river. they reached a place surrounded by a wall. in the midst of winter. According to Saxo he was banished from the realm by King Amlethus. dressed in beautiful frocks and purple mantles. either alone or with him: "It would not have been possible for the smallest or thinnest physical being". Hadding desired this. On the other side there was bustle and activity. which are not to be sought until after death. A FRISIAN SAGA IN ADAM OF BREMEN. and while they stood near the wall. They were. son of Halfdan. The other of these two is King Hadingus (Book I. 30-31). There Hadding saw two armies engaged in battle. 48. Two other Danish princes have. the souls of warriors who had fallen in battle. and over which there was a bridge. so fresh flowers could bloom. translation of "The Glittering Plains"). "a place which is unknown to our people" (Book IV. They therefore returned the way they had come. "The gods of the lower world. But before this. Then Hadding perceived that they proceeded along a path "which is daily trod by the feet of walkers" ["worn away by long ages of travellers" . in whose rapids spears and other weapons were tossed about. his fair guide explained to him. and showed them as if she was about to ask whether the king would like to see that part of the world where. or Odainsakur. and threw it over the wall. MIDDLE AGE SAGAS (continued). the woman demonstrated to Hadding by an experiment that the walled place had a strange nature. . 92). Continuing their journey. Saxo calls the one Fjallerus. and so retired to Undensakre (Odainsakur).

and in his heathen environment. perhaps. and the saga later makes this conjecture turn out to be incorrect. In the form in which Adam heard the saga. ANALYSIS OF THE SAGAS MENTIONED IN NOS. 49. But the giants. and stop near the threshold of heathendom. 44-48. wherein giants lie concealed. and its relation both to it and to the still older myth shall be shown later (see No. represented by great dogs. Adam. heard reports about Odainsakur. neither mentions a place which can be compared with Odainsakur or with the Glittering Plains. so far as the age of their recording in writing is concerned. The latest cannot be referred to an earlier date than the fourteenth century. thanks to our Lord and to Saint Willehad. As much as the adventurers could carry of these treasures they took with them and hastened to their ships. get into a darkness which the eyes scarcely can penetrate. 94).The series of traditions above narrated in regard to Odainsakur. or. Saxo began working on his history between the years 1179 and 1186. before him. The saga of Erik Vidforli states that its hero had in his own native land. The generation to which Saxo's father belonged witnessed the crusade which Sigurd the Crusader made in Eastern Smaland. through a period of considerable length. it reminds us in its main features of Saxo's account of Gorm's journey of discovery. Nevertheless. The Mikligard king who instructs the prince in the doctrines of Christianity knows. the oldest were put in writing toward the close of the twelfth. believe that these views are from a heathen time and of heathen origin. are exposed to a maelstrom which threatens to drag them down ad Chaos. extends. We must still add to this series of documents one which is to carry it back another century. and their ruler Gudmund. in whose forests the Asa-doctrine until that time seems to have prevailed. nothing of such a country. This document is a saga told by Adam of Bremen in De Situ Daniæ. I have omitted it among the literary evidences above quoted. his authority Adalbert (appointed archbishop in the year 1043). He simply conjectures that the Odainsakur of the heathens must be the same as the Paradise of the Christians. The others succeeded. and also in regard to the neighbouring domains as habitations of the souls of the dead. One of the Frisians was overtaken and torn into pieces before the eyes of the others. then we find that they themselves. And as it. and made it as credible as possible by excluding all distinctly mythical elements. Thus these literary evidences span about two centuries. on the other hand. with or without reason. . Frisian noblemen make a voyage past Norway up to the farthest limits of the Arctic Ocean. rushed after them. and even more. its point of departure has been located in Friesland. and the Odinic religion is believed to have flourished in the more remote parts of Sweden even in Saxo's own time. If we consider the position of the authors or recorders of these sagas in relation to the views they present in regard to Odainsakur and the Glittering Plains. doubtless for this reason. At the entrances of the underground dwellings lay a great number of tubs and vessels of gold and other metals which "to mortals seem rare and valuable". the Glittering Plains. not in Denmark. contains subterranean caverns. surrounded as by a wall of high rocks. in getting safely on board their ships. has turned the saga into history. but finally come quite unexpectedly out of darkness and cold to an island which.

and where the stars are visible all day long. All the rest agree in transferring to the uttermost North the land which must be reached before the journey can be continued to the Glittering Plains and Odainsakur. Hadding's descent to the lower world occurred. the giant. in Jotunheim. the Glittering Plains. in an antiquity many centuries before King Snow. one of the first kings of Denmark. Hervarar saga says that the Glittering Plains and Odainsakur are situated north of Halogaland. after a voyage to Finmarken. lies the land of the happy spirits. known only by hearsay. and Paradise as soon as we leave this saga and pass to the others. and therefore the heathens believed that Odainsakur was situated in his domain". and tries to give reasons why it was believed in heathen times that Odainsakur was situated within the limits of Gudmund's kingdom. Saxo makes Gudmund Geirrod's (Geruthus') brother. Nor do we find a trace of Syria. well known in the mythology." when he is invited to make a journey to the lower world. Gorm's saga in Saxo says it is necessary to sail past Halogaland north to a Bjarmia ulterior in order to get to the kingdoms of Gudmund and Geirrod. Thus the older and common view was that he who made the attempt to visit the Glittering Plains and Odainsakur must first penetrate the regions of the uttermost North. and pits this first king of Norway. in Saxo. India. as a representative of the new and true doctrine against King Gudmund of the Glittering Plains as the representative of the heathen doctrine. a foreground to the Glittering Plains and Odainsakur is a land over which the darkness of night . as it were. according to Saxo.The author of Hervarar saga mentions Odainsakur as a heathen belief. Hadding is. The man who compiled the legend about Helgi Þórisson connects it with the history of King Ólafr Tryggvason. The saga of Þorsteinn Bæjarmagn says that they are a kingdom subject to Geirrod in Jotunheim. Gorm's reign is referred by Saxo to the period immediately following the reign of the mythical King Snö (Snow) and the emigration of the Longobardians. who laboured for the introduction of Christianity. in the chain of which it forms one of the later links. On the other side of Odainsakur. progenitor of the Skjoldungs. The saga of Þorsteinn Bæjarmagn puts Gudmund and the Glittering Plains in a tributary relation to Jotunheim and to Geirrod. and an unknown land which wants the light of the sun. the grandson of Skjold. and bordering on it. Paradise. and he believes he is discussing ancient traditions when he relates Gorm's journey of discovery and Hadding's journey to Jotunheim. That these last ideas have been influenced by Christianity would seem to be sufficiently clear. The author would not have done this if he had not believed that the ruler of the Glittering Plains had his ancestors in heathendom. Those of the sagas which give us more definite local descriptions in addition to this geographical information all agree that the region which forms. The reason is: "Gudmund and his men became so old that they lived through several generations (Gudmund lived five hundred years). The saga of Helgi Þórisson makes its hero meet the daughters of Gudmund. The saga of Erik Vidforli makes the way to Odainsakur pass through Syria. the ruler of the Glittering Plains. Hadding's saga in Saxo makes the Danish king pay a visit to the unknown but wintry cold land of the "Nitherians. Bósa saga states that they are situated in the vicinity of Bjarmaland. India.

Both these Jotunheims are connected with each other. That part of the world which is inhabited by the goddesses of fate and by Mimir is thus inhabited by giants. is called a giant." and on whose soil a mortal being must not set his foot. Bósi's. Some of the accounts cited say that the Glittering Plains are situated in Jotunheim. rivers of honey (a Biblical idea. The land of flowers is separated from the Elysian fields of those fallen in battle by a river which hurls about in its eddies spears and other weapons. the giant Gudmund. to a subterranean land where flowers grow in spite of the winter which reigns on the surface of the earth. One of the Jotunheims is located on the surface of the earth in the far North and East. and hence the Eddas employ the plural form. Gorm's saga in Saxo makes the Danish adventurers leave sun and stars behind to continue the journey sub Chao. and Helgi Þórisson's sagas. 89. who guard one of the fountains of Ygdrasill's roots. are giantesses. one of the roots of the world-tree extends down "to the frost-giants". A river separates the Glittering Plains from two or more other domains. are ruled by Gudmund. according to Gorm's saga. of which at least one is the home of departed souls. while in that Bjarmaland whence the Glittering Plains can be reached reign eternal winter and cold. fogs. Through the same darkness. "which separates that which is mortal from the superhuman. Darkness. This statement does not contradict the fact that they are situated in the lower world. which we are here discussing. Through this darkness one comes. A river separates this plain from the land of the spirits. and mists envelop Hadding before he gets sight of the splendidly-clad proceres who dwell down there. but see Nos. Therefore those traditions recorded in a Christian age. Þorsteinn Bæjarmagn's. Urd and her sisters. The other Jotunheim is subterranean. 123). and is a subterranean Jotunheim. Erik Vidforli's saga claims that the stars there are visible all day long. There dwells. one comes to Gudmund's Glittering Plains. Through the same darkness one comes. and the shining meadows whose flowers are never visited by winter. According to Grímnismál 31.broods. and perpetual light. These statements from different sources agree with each other in their main features. Jötunheimar. The Frisian saga in Adam of Bremen also speaks of a gloom which must be penetrated ere one reaches the land where rich giants dwell in subterranean caverns. There is a bridge of gold across the river to another region. according to Hadding's saga. to a plain full of flowers. Further on one can pass in a boat across the river to a land which is the place of punishment for the damned and a resort of ghosts. As just indicated. There are also the Glittering Plains. since these. delicious fragrances. where there is a pleasure-farm bearing delicious fruits. who guards another fountain in the lower world. From the upper there is a path leading to the lower. according to the saga of Erik Vidforli. The other main part on this side the river thus has another purpose than that of receiving the happy or damned souls of the dead. have referred to the Arctic . The myths mention two Jotunheims. and that departed souls are found only on the farther side of the river. with his sons and daughters. Mimir. according to Hervör's. according to Gorm's saga. separated from the Midgard inhabited by man by the uttermost sea or the Élivágar (Gylfaginning 8). They agree that the lower world is divided into two main parts by a river.

When Hermod on Sleipnir rides to the lower world (Gylfaginning 49) he first journeys through a dark country (compare above) and then comes to the river Gjöll. The word nifl (the . Otherwise this war would not have been the first. all those chosen by the Vans.Ocean and the uttermost North as the route for those who have the desire and courage to visit the giants of the lower world. before the first great "folk"-war broke out in the world. The river which is mentioned in Erik Vidforli's. must have been referred to some other place than Asgard (excepting. after the reconciliation with Odin. In Gorm's saga the bridge across the river is also of gold. Gorm's. in case they chose einherjar. descended to the lower world. Thus Valhall has not before this war had those hosts of einherjar who later are feasted in Valfather's hall. In Gorm's saga the bulwark around the city of the damned is guarded by great dogs. coming from Niflhel. the proper place of punishment. then none of the einherjar chosen by him could be received in Valhall during the war. and Hadding's sagas has its prototype in the mythic records. the right to divide with him the choice of the slain). In Völuspá 24 we read that when the first "folk"-war broke out in the world. is. But as Odin. of course. is banished from Valhall and Asgard. In Hadding's saga we also read of a weapon-hurling river which forms the boundary of the Elyseum of those slain by the sword. When it is said in Hadding's saga that he on the other side of the subterranean river saw the shades of heroes fallen by the sword arrayed in line of battle and contending with each other. 36-41). bloody about the breast. for the reason that the Vanadís Freyja gets. then it follows that the statement of the saga. who. and it is forbidden mortals to cross to the other side. In Vegtamskviða [Baldurs draumar 2-3] is mentioned an underground dog. though chosen by Odin. which we know was destined to receive the souls of the dead. who broke through its bulwark and captured Asgard. then this is no contradiction of the myth. on the contrary is a consequence of the connection of the mythical events. and does not return before peace is made between the Asas and Vans. according to Saxo. over which there is the golden bridge called the Gjöll-bridge [Gjallarbrú]. It is evident that no great battles can have been fought. after the breaking out of this war. And as Hadding. In harmony with this. This other place can nowhere else be so appropriately looked for as in the lower world. On the other side of Gjöll is the Hel-gate [Helgrindur]. and that there could not have been any great number of sword-fallen men. which leads to the realm of the dead. A subterranean river hurling weapons in its eddies is mentioned in Völuspá 36. Saxo (Book I) relates that at the time when King Hadding reigned Odin was banished from his power and lived for some time in exile (see Nos. which is probable. Hence it follows that the heroes fallen in this war. according to which the heroes chosen on the battle-field come to Asgard and play their warlike games on the plains of the world of the gods. according to Saxo. making him see in the lower world those warlike games which else are practised on Asgard's plains. the citadel of Odin and his clan was stormed by the Vans. the same Hadding during whose reign Odin was banished from Asgard. far from contradicting the myth.

In the classical Latin this word is used in regard to wine-cisterns of so immense a size that they were counted among the immovables. In Hávamál 140 Odin relates how he. and Són applied. they came to another place in the lower world where the gold-plated mead-cisterns were found. fog. But if we may trust Skáldskaparmál 6. and also a drink dipped out of Óðrærir. which is found within the city. 60). or whether the subterranean dolia in question are objects in regard to which our earliest mythic records have left us in ignorance. it might be expected that these circumstances would not be forgotten in those stories from Christian times which have been cited above and found to have roots in the myths. That Geirrod after his death is transferred to the lower world is no contradiction to the heathen belief. In Hávamál 107 Odin expresses his joy that Óðrærir has passed out of the possession of the giant Fjalar and can be of use to the beings of the upper world. In Völuspá the hall is made of serpents braided together. Bishop Gebhard. to which the epithets Óðrærir. is not unlike Völuspá's description of that dwelling of torture called Náströnd ["corpse-shore"]. succeeded in getting runic songs up from the deep.and smoke-openings in the roof (see further Nos. On this supposition.German Nebel). As Mimir's and Urd's fountains are found in the lower world (see Nos. means mist. where Thor with one blow of his Mjölnir sends a giant niðr undir Niflhel (see further. 63. written by Saxo's younger contemporary. Saxo's description of that house of torture. In Saxo's time. which forms one part of the word Niflhel. it is the drink and not one of the vessels which in Hávamál is called Óðrærir. In Gorm's saga the city in question is most like a cloud of vapour (vaporanti maxime nubi simile). air. No. the epithets by which the mead-wells . In Saxo the floor of the house consists of serpents wattled together. and this is also reported as having happened.Urd's and Mimir's and their contents are mentioned in mythological songs had come to be applied also to those mead-buckets which Odin is said to have emptied in the halls of the giant Fjalar or Suttung. Saxo himself points out that the Geruthus (Geirröðr) mentioned by him. is dolium. Saxo speaks of soot a century old on the door frames. and usually were sunk in the cellar floors. and the roof of sharp stings. not only of men but also of other beings. belong to the myth about the Asa-god Thor. through self-sacrifice and suffering. The Latin word used by Saxo. as appears from the meaning of the words. whose heads from above spit venom down on those dwelling there. which I translate with cisterns of mead. and his famous daughters. 77 and 78). Boðn. The question now is whether he actually did so. was the liquor. and earlier. according to which beautiful or terrible habitations await the dead. This application also lay near at hand. since these wells and these vessels contained the same liquor. That the word dolium still in Saxo's time had a similar meaning appears from a letter quoted by Du Cange. The size is therefore no obstacle to Saxo's using this word for a wine-cistern to mean the mead-wells in the lower world of Teutonic mythology. Compare Gylfaginning 42. and as Mimir is mentioned as the guardian of Heimdall's horn and other treasures. Völuspá of ljórar. He who gives him the songs and the . it is the drink and not the empty vessels that Odin takes with him to Valhall. They were so large that a person could live in such a cistern. and not the place where the liquor was kept. 93). When in Saxo's saga about Gorm the Danish adventurers had left the horrible city of fog. and since it originally.

"Bölthorn's celebrated son". the purest mead . hang down and are intertwined in the mead-reservoirs of the lower world. and the author of this song. Mimir's fountain contains. of understanding.drink. and Són applied both to the subterranean mead-wells and to a giant's mead-vessels. Also the root over Mimir's fountain is sprinkled with its water (Völuspá 27)." Veit hún Heimdallar hljóð um fólgið undir heiðvönum helgum baðmi. of wisdom. since the one who pours out the drink is a man." says Gylfaginning 16. Boðn. The greater reason he would have for selecting the Latin dolium to express an idea that can be accommodated to both these objects. Here again Óðrærir is one of the subterranean fountains. form. round-shaped objects of silver. "that everything that is put in the well (consequently. thus have a colour like that of "the membrane between the egg and the egg-shell. partake of the waters of the fountains. Over these mead-reservoirs there hang. The seeress in Völuspá knows that it is hid "beneath the hedge-o'ershadowing holy tree. Paraphrases for the liquor of poetry. may thus have seen the epithets Óðrærir. The adjective aurigr. quibus pensiles ex argento circuli erebros inseruerant nexus). poems handed down to his time. or supposed heathen. Boðn. calls the vessels which Odin empties at the giant's Óðhrærir. and no doubt Mimir's. Over Mimir's and Urd's fountains hang the roots of the ash Ygdrasill. according to Saxo's description. for the latter is called hvítr aurr (Völuspá 19) and the former runs in aurgum fossi upon its root of the world-tree (Völuspá 27). is a man. Saxo. and this water. Near by Yggdrasill. which sends its root-knots and root-threads down into their waters. "and the water is so holy. as we know. Meanwhile a satire was composed before the time of Saxo and Sturluson about Odin's adventure at Fjalar's. the contents of which the Younger Edda has preserved. seems to be of the same kind as that in Urd's fountain. also. and Són (Skáldskaparmál 5-6)." and consequently recall both as to position. according to Völuspá 27. of poetry. But in the second stanza of Forspjallsljóð [Hrafnagaldur Óðins] Urd's fountain is also called Óðrærir (Óðhrærir Urðar). according to Saxo. which describes a quality of the water in Mimir's fountain. point to fountains or wells. which in close braids drop down and are spread around the seven times gold-plated walls of the mead-cisterns (Inde digressis dolia septem zonis aureis circumligata panduntur.the liquid of inspiration. as far up as the liquid of the wells can get to them. . Ygdrasill's roots. who reveals a familiarity with the genuine heathen. all that which the norns daily sprinkle with the water) becomes as white as the membrane between the egg and the egg-shell". Heimdall's horn is concealed. so far as its colour is concerned. But not only the rootlets sunk in the water. is formed from the noun aurr. The norns take daily from the water and sprinkle the stem of the tree therewith. but also the roots from which they are suspended. and accordingly is the ruler of the fountain of the drink. with which the liquid is described which waters the root over Urd's fountain. not to vessels. and colour the round-shaped objects "of silver" which. such as "Boðn's growing billow" (Einar Skálaglamm) and "Són's reed-grown grass edge" (Eilífr Guðrúnarson) [Skáldskaparmál 10].

When he comes down to the sea-strand. was a man in whose home one might fare well and be happy. conceal with silence. he consents and has them taken over in a boat. and . because he is "the most pious being and man's protector in perils". Baugreginn. by treachery. smithied by the same master as made the sword (see Nos. and Gudmund. where Mimir reigns. Thus Gorm and his men have on their journeys in the lower world seen not only Náströnd's place of punishment in Niflhel. Near the gorgeous horn Gorm's men see a gold-plated tooth of an animal and an armring. he does not. Gudmund prohibits it. 98. The saga is a legend which represents Christianity. [The word biti = a tooth (cp. but it is within the limits of his authority to let them see the places of punishment and those regions which contain the mead-cisterns and the treasure chambers. but in his narrative it produces the greatest contradiction. and as the Glittering Plains are situated in the lower world. Hoddrofnir. and embraces in order to induce his guests to remain with him for ever. The animal tooth becomes a sword when it is taken into the hand. aside from his heathen religion and grudge toward Olaf Tryggvason. 101). Gudmund offers fruits. Two of the sagas. or what he has read in records. 87. Nevertheless. as it seems.] Near by is a treasury filled with a large number of weapons and a royal robe. with Olaf Tryggvason as its apostle. represented by Gudmund. bite) becomes in the composition leggbiti. he considers the crime sufficiently punished by the loss of life they have suffered. he shows unlimited patience when the guests insult him by accepting nothing of what he offers. with conscious cunning. Mimir is known in mythology as a collector of treasures. he is greeted by the leader of the discoverers with joy. tries to do so. Helgi Þórisson's and Gorm's. cast a shadow on Gudmund's character. He conducts them in safety to his castle. and takes them across the river to his own safe home. he must be a lower world ruler. who is unable to take revenge in any other manner. The sagas call him the king on the Glittering Plains. Olaf destroys with his prayers the happiness of Gudmund's daughter. He does not deem it proper to show them the unknown land at the golden bridge. but admits that Gudmund. but also the holy land. This is demanded by the fundamental idea and tendency of the legend. in conflict with heathenism. He is therefore called Hoddmímir. as is the case with so many of the characters in saga and history.Near one of the mead-cisterns in the lower world Gorm's men see a horn ornamented with pictures and flashing with precious stones. He compels her to abandon her lover. Among the treasures taken care of by Mimir is the world's foremost sword and a wonderful arm-ring. It is therefore natural that the latter cannot be presented in the most favourable light. When a handful of them returns after the attempt to plunder the treasury of the lower world. What the author of the legend has heard about Gudmund's character from older sagamen. the name of a sword. In the former this shadow does not produce confusion or contradiction. When Gorm and his men desire to cross the golden bridge and see the wonders to which it leads. When they in another place farther up desire to cross the river to see what there is beyond. Saxo has preserved the shadow. and he does it in a tempting manner and. drinks. however. where Gorm's ships are anchored.

The answer to the question whether a mythical original of this picture is to be discovered will be given below. 44-48. It is left to his power and pleasure to give admittance to the mysterious meadows. I shall return to this subject (see No. for fimbul-songs. and he was worshipped as a god after death. nor death can surmount. 50). as in the legend about Helgi Þórisson. King in a domain to which winter cannot penetrate. Is Gudmund an invention of Christian times. THE QUESTION IN REGARD TO THE IDENTIFICATION OF ODAINSAKUR. the shadow has been thrown by younger hands upon an older background painted in bright colours. a wonderful sword. . Honoured as if he were not a giant. desire to return to their native land. Here. which is another expression for heathen wisdom. in a heathen sense pious ("a great sacrificer"). In Saxo we find an idea related to the antique Lethe myth. Hervarar saga says that he was wise. 50. ANALYSIS OF THE SAGAS MENTIONED IN NOS. whose bulwark neither sickness. and a splendid arm-ring are kept. Pious and still a giant. and at the same time a giant. Therefore. but a divine being. But before that we must call attention to some points in the Christian accounts cited in regard to Odainsakur. we meet with the same idea. Old as the hills. where the mead-cisterns of the lower world are found. Within that domain an enclosed place. nor age. The change for the worse which Gudmund's character seems in part to have suffered is confirmed by a change connected with. Ruler in the lower world. Bósa saga says that he was greatly skilled in magic arts. contrary to his wishes. according to which the liquids and plants which belong to the lower world produce forgetfulness of the past. and so honoured that sacrifices were offered to him. although he is placed in an environment which in general and in detail reflects the heathen mythology? Or is there to be found in the mythology a person who has precisely the same environment and is endowed with the same attributes and qualities? The latter form an exceedingly strange ensemble. and can therefore easily be recognised.when they. and should be found in his mythological prototype. and incantations. but yet subject to death. and running parallel to it. runes. Thorkil (Thorkillus) warns his companions not to eat or drink any of that which Gudmund offers them. he loads them with gifts and sees to it that they get safely on board their ships. With these peculiar characteristics are united wisdom and wealth. It follows that Saxo s sources have described Gudmund as a kind and benevolent person. These are the features which together characterise Gudmund. mighty. and where the most precious of all horns. in the conception of the forces in those things which belonged to the lower world of the Teutonic heathendom and to Gudmund's domain. and elsewhere. if there is one. In Guðrúnarkviða in forna 21.

as to Baldur's subterranean dwelling. who is Hadding's guide in Hades. are not found there. To the unknown place. 51. . In the Christian group of ideas there is no place for Odainsakur. The domain surrounded by the wall receives nothing which has suffered death. But in the night there came a beautiful lad to Erik. but is a separate place on them. who are there no longer exposed to aging and death. and death are excluded. or at all events within Gudmund's domain. In the lower world the Christian Church knows a Hades and a hell. a place which Gudmund does not consider himself authorised to show his guests. Here is therefore a question of importance to our subject. The ecclesiastical belief knows an earthly Paradise. Thus according to Hervarar saga. who is on duty on the borders between Odainsakur and Paradise. or. GUDMUND'S IDENTITY WITH MIMIR. even the mead-fountains and treasure-chambers. shows him both the Glittering Fields (loca aprica) and the plains of the dead heroes. which is not opened for them. The purpose of Odainsakur is not mentioned in Erik Vidforli's saga. that which existed in the beginning and was the home of Adam and Eve. is not stated. physically living persons.Odainsakur is not made identical with the Glittering Plains. as will be remembered. This Erik Vidforli's saga is also able to state. Was there occasion for it among the ideas of the heathen eschatology? The above-quoted sagas say nothing about the purposes of Odainsakur. Its very name. The author of the saga has made him an angel. although they are permitted to see other mysterious places in the lower world. inasmuch as it makes a definite distinction between Odainsakur and the land of the spirits. they must have come there as living beings in a physical sense. persons who have not paid tribute to death. and Field-of-living-men (Jörð lifandi manna). age. and its very proximity seems to be enough to keep death at bay (see No. All the sagas are silent in regard to who those beings are for whom this wonderful enclosed place is intended. Erik Vidforli and his companion find on their journey on Odainsakur only a single dwelling. An underground place for physically living people. Who the couple are who own this house. 47). for diseases. leads a golden bridge. and seem to have placed it at the disposal of the travellers. it is encircled by a wall of fire. they are protected from perishing. and one that demands an answer. however. Acre-of-the-not-dead (Odainsakur). but that it is guarded by the angel with the flaming sword. There is no intelligible connection between it and the Christian environment given to it by the saga. a splendid one with two beds. The subterranean goddess. If human or other beings are found within the bulwark of the place. has nothing to do in the economy of the Church. The former mentions. which doubtless is to indicate the splendour of the place. The correctness of the statement is confirmed by comparison with Gorm's and Hadding's sagas. but stops with him near a wall. makes it clear that it is not intended for the souls of the dead. and when once there. but the path to them is through the gates of death. between Odainsakur and Paradise. as Erik's saga expresses it.

98. and makes Odin embalm his head. There still remains an important point. and that this descent was. Skáldskaparmál 9 . 87. Völuspá 46 predicts that Odin. an authority which the gods never appear to have disputed. The liquid contained in the fountain is the object of Odin's deepest desire. according to mythology. which accordingly also bears his name and is called Mimir's tree (Mímameiður . to get a drink from it. The wonderful horn (Völuspá 27). where terrible cold reigns."here he is called Mím's friend") could be used by the skalds as an epithet of Odin. Of this friendship Ynglingasaga 4 has preserved a record. and the ring (Saxo: Book III. Gylfaginning 15. must subject himself to great sufferings and sacrifices (Völuspá 27-28.Hér er hann kallaður Míms vinur . meiður Míma Fjölsvinnsmál 24). 97. an enclosed place. and. age. Mimir is the collector of treasures. In all these points the Gudmund of the middle-age sagas and Mimir of the mythology are identical. asks for the precious mead of the fountain. of course. He. Mimir is the friend of the order of the world and of the gods. Over the fountain and its territory Mimir. . Saxo's account of the adventure of Hotherus (Book III. guards the sacred ash. The firm friendship between All-father and this strange giant of the lower world was formed in time's morning while Odin was still young and undeveloped (Hávamál 141).Hávamál 139). it is situated under one of the roots of the world-tree (Völuspá 2728. 101. The intercourse between the Asa-father and him has been of such a nature that the expression "Mimir's friend" (Míms vinur . shall converse with Mimir's head. like the one to Gudmund's domain. 103). He has neither authority nor power over it. from which weaknesses. and continued until the end of the gods and the world. the lord of the fountain which bears his name. cp. and when Odin.a Paradise of the peculiar kind. yet inaccessible to people in general.Sonatorrek 23.I dare say the most characteristic figure of Teutonic mythology is Mimir. immediately before the conflagration of the world. in order that he may always be able to get wise counsels from its lips. The domain of his rule belongs to the lower world. when Ragnarok approaches. in the care of Mimir. he peers downward into the deep. Sigurdrífumál 14 represents Odin as listening to the words of truth which come from Mimir's head. Nos. from the world-tree. like Urd. rides to Mimir's fountain to get advice from the deep thinker for himself and his friends. exercises unlimited control. the sword of victory. but for certain lifandi menn. In Gudmund's domain there is a splendid grove. Nor does he or anyone else of the gods seek to get control of it by force. and it is as a gift or a loan that he afterwards receives from Mimir the invigorating and soul-inspiring drink (Hávamál 140-141). that it is not intended for the souls of the dead. and thence brings up the runes (nýsta eg niður.Fjölsvinnsmál 20. he. 70. Though a giant. Instances are mentioned showing that Odin. In the myth concerning Mimir we also find such a grove. nam eg up rúnar . He has a sphere of power which the gods recognise as inviolable. also Hávamál 138-141). The same treasures as Gorm and his men found in the land which Gudmund let them visit are. and death are banished . according to Gylfaginning 51. 70) shows that there was thought to be a descent to Mimir's land in the form of a mountain cave (specus). the world-tree (Völuspá 28). to be found in the uttermost North. It makes Mimir lose his life in his activity for the good of the gods. Gylfaginning 15).

Vafþrúðnismál 45. They have assumed that Lif and Leifthrasir are. much I have tried. rising out of the sea. beyond doubt. Mimir's or Treasure-Mimir's grove (Mímis holt . and among others Odin asks this question: Fjöld eg fór. en þau leynast munu í holti Hoddmímis. they are concealed in Hodd-Mimir's grove. What human persons shall still live when the famous fimbul-winter has been in the world?" Vafthrudnir answers: Líf og Leifþrasir. much I have tested the powers. is furnished with human inhabitants." In support of its statement Gylfaginning quotes Vafþrúðnismál. fjöld eg reynda regin: Hvað lifir manna. Morgundöggvar þau sér að mat hafa. Lif and Leifthrasir. like all other people living at that time. Gylfaginning 53). fjöld eg freistaðag. From them come so great an offspring that all the world is peopled. LIF AND LEIFTHRASIR. Thence (from Hodd-Mimir's grove and this human pair) are born (new) races. and then relates how the earth. This poem makes Odin and the giant Vafthrudnir (Vafþrúðnir) put questions to each other. are concealed during the conflagration of the world in Hodd-Mimir's grove. have from the above expression drawn a conclusion which implies a complete misunderstanding of the traditions in regard to Hodd-Mimir's grove and the human pair therein concealed. who become the progenitors of the races that are to people the earth after Ragnarok. en þaðan af aldir alast. Hoddmímis holt ." Gylfaginning says that the two human beings. Gylfaginning describes the destruction of the world and its regeneration. "Lif and Leifthrasir (are still living). and they feed on the morning dews. "During the conflagration (í Surtarloga) two persons are concealed in Treasure-Mimir's grove. Their names are Lif (Líf) and Leifthrasir (Leifþrasir). They have morning dews for nourishment.Uppsala Codex of Gylfaginning 53. . This is. who have not paid sufficient attention to what Gylfaginning's source (Vafþrúðnismál) has to say on the subject. MIMIR'S GROVE.52. The grove is called after its ruler and guardian. þá er inn mæra líður fimbulvetur með firum? "Much I have travelled. But mythologists. in accordance with mythic views.

27. Thus it is explained why the myth finds it of importance to inform us how Lif and Leifthrasir support themselves during their stay in Mimir's grove. are assumed to have come and gone. According to this interpretation. Their food is the morning dew. where they were protected from the destructive element. The morning dew from Yggdrasil was. They continue to remain there while the winter rages. then it follows that the liquid of its morning dew is . Lif and Leifthrasir are supposed to sit in perfect unconcern. visits the earth and destroys its inhabitants. the idea that they were there only during Ragnarok. Gylfaginning 16). nourishing qualities. and after it the regeneration. Not until after the end of this winter do giants and gods collect their forces for a decisive conflict on Vigrid's plains. Gylfaginning 51 claims that it continued for three years "without any intervening summer". And as the world-tree is sprinkled and gets its lifegiving sap from these fountains. it evaporates from the world-tree. If sufficient attention had been paid to the above-cited evidence furnished by Vafþrúðnismál in this question. a sweet and wonderful nourishment. finally. a fimbul-winter. and one or more mornings. which stands. For Vafþrúðnismál plainly states that this human pair are in perfect security in Mimir's grove. Anent the length of the fimbul-winter. It would not have occurred to the myth to present and answer this question had not the sojourn of the human pair in the grove continued for some length of time. and drops thence "in dales" (Völuspá 19. and during all the episodes which characterise the progress of the world towards ruin. and after the sun had been swallowed by the wolf and the stars had fallen from the heavens (Gylfaginning 51. And. and until they could come down from their hiding-place in Yggdrasil upon the earth which has risen from the sea. Völuspá 58)! And with this terrible catastrophe before their eyes. ever green and blooming. and all the strange conjectures based thereon. as Gylfaginning reports. and the statement of Gylfaginning would not have been interpreted to mean that Lif and Leifthrasir inhabited Mimir's grove only during Ragnarok. and. are unfounded. eating the morning dews! For the scientific reputation of mythical inquiry it were well if that sort of investigations were avoided when they are not made necessary by the sources themselves. There they were supposed to live on morning dews until the end of Ragnarok. and when this conflict is ended. over Urd's and Mimir's sacred fountains. Consequently Lif and Leifthrasir must have had their secure place of refuge in Mimir's grove during the fimbul-winter. while a long and terrible winter. and in the popular traditions of the Teutonic middle age the dew of the morning retained its reputation for having strange. and there become the progenitors of a more happy human race. then comes the conflagration of the world. during the conflagration and regeneration of the world. and argued that when Surt's flames destroy all other mortals this one human pair have succeeded in climbing upon some particular branch of the world-tree. the misunderstanding might have been avoided. They have explained Mimir's grove to mean the world-tree. which precedes Ragnarok. according to the mythology. with attendant morning dews.inhabitants of the surface of the earth at the time when the conflagration of the world begins. Yggdrasil was a tree whose trunk and branches could be grasped by human hands. also. while fire and flames enveloped all creation. accordingly. According to the myth.

Its cascades contain living beings. The worldtree survives the conflagration. in order that his son. But by the following investigation the problem shall be solved. a wholly new beginning of life. The idea of improvement and perfection is most clearly held forth in regard to both the physical and spiritual condition of the future world. A work of art from antiquity is also preserved in the new world. No. At what time Mimir's grove was opened as an asylum for Lif and Leifthrasir. In that perfection of nature the fields unsown by men shall yield their harvests. wisdom. then the human race of the new era would also have started from a new creation of a human pair. 20. see further. Völuspá 62 . and there is not the slightest reference to a new act of creation to produce the green vegetation. Vafþrúðnismál 51 (Víðar og Váli. which contain the elixir of life. and are inhabited after regeneration by Baldur and Hodur (Völuspá 63 .jörð úr ægi). Animals and plants survive . 63. and elsewhere). Vanaheim is not affected by the destruction. All that is weak and evil shall be redeemed (böls mun alls batna . but the earth risen from the sea was decorated with green. Nos.sígur fold í mar). that the Asa majesty himself. The Ida-plains are not annihilated. and poesy (cp. is found again among the flowers on the new earth (Völuspá 8 . The ocean does not disappear in Ragnarok. After Ragnarok. the perfectly blameless Baldur. No. 72.though the animals and plants on the surface of the earth perish. Gods survive (Völuspá 61. Valfather. may be the centre in the assembly of the chosen gods. 64 (æsir. for the coming age of the world.gullnar töflur í grasi finnast.Búa þeir Baldur og Höður Hrofts sigtóftir). but rescues itself. for Njord shall in aldar rök (Vafþrúðnismál 39) return thither "to wise Vans". the myth applies radical measures . But the fundamental idea is that the life of the new era is to be a continuation of the present life purified and developed to perfection. for the present earth sinks beneath its surface (Völuspá 58 .Tefldu í túni. and over them flies the eagle in search of his prey (Völuspá 60. 21 fellir-at hann eldur né járn). for Lif and Leifthrasir are destined to become the connecting link between the present human race and the better race which is to spring therefrom. Höður og Baldur. see further. The game of dice. as in the beginning of time. with which the gods played in their youth while they were yet free from care. and the new earth after regeneration rises from its deep (Völuspá 60 . on this point there is not a word in the passages quoted from Vafþrúðnismál. Völuspá 61 . Odin's dwellings of victory remain. Gylfaginning 53). But the mythology would fail in its purpose if it did not apply equally radical measures in . must retire from the scene.substantially the same as that of the subterranean fountains.Völuspá 63). which she passes through unscathed (Vafþrúðnismál 46-47). for it defies both edge and fire (Fjölsvinnsmál. they are the scene of the assemblings of the gods (Völuspá 7 Hittust æsir á Iðavelli. cp. whether this happened during or shortly before the fimbul-winter. The life which in time's morning developed out of chaos is not destroyed by Surt's flames. 55). and was born before Ragnarok.Finnast æsir á Iðavelli). The myth about Lif and Leifthrasir would then have been unnecessary and superfluous. Móði og Magni). Hænir). To secure the restored world against relapse into the faults of the former. The new sun is the daughter of the old one. 55). purified. If the regeneration had been conceived as a new creation. 82. or perchance long before it. and from the standpoint of this fundamental idea Lif and Leifthrasir are necessary.so radical. Human beings survive. The Teutonic mythology has not looked upon the regeneration of the world as a new creation.

The realms of Mimir and the lower world have. and their places of punishment of the wicked. looked at their remarkable fountains. which. therefore. is to be considered as evidence that the claim has actually been met by the mythology. Thus this claim is met also. But that this difficulty of entrance also was meant to . which can be entered only by such beings as can pass through the smallest crevices (Hadding's saga) [*] . and that the mythology itself has been developed into its logical conclusion. it is necessary: 1. That Lif and Leifthrasir when they enter their asylum. I simply want to point out what the claim is.the choice and care of the human beings who are to perpetuate our race after Ragnarok. set aside for living men. with neverfailing veins.and. who have seen their wonders. for if the progenitors have within them the seed of corruption. it will be developed in their descendants. From the standpoint that there must be a logical harmony in the mythological system. Has the mythology forgotten to meet this logical claim? The demand is no greater than that which is made in reference to every product of the fancy of whatever age. is found an enclosed place. as we shall see later. according to the sagas . according to the myths themselves . the above-cited mythic traditions have preserved from the days of heathendom the memory of a grove in the subterranean domain of Gudmund-Mimir. Mimir's grove. and in the next place I desire to investigate whether there is evidence that the claim has been honoured. 2. all we know at present is that there. It would therefore appear that all contact between those who dwell there and those who take part in the events of our world is cut off. nourish the life of the world-tree. and from which even those mortals are banished by divine command who are admitted to the holy fountains and treasure chambers of the lower world. met completely. (c) Against everything threatening their very existence. their plains for the amusement of the shades of heroes. and protected against sickness. in the lower world. But there is one place which has been inaccessible to them. In regard to the second point (2b). the very one which death cannot enter. or that a conclusion which may logically be drawn from the premises of the mythology. and death. is approached neither by the frost of the fimbul-winter nor by the flames of Ragnarok. not for the dead. are physically and spiritually uncorrupted persons. As to the third point (2a). we know already from Vafþrúðnismál that the place of refuge they received in the vicinity of those fountains. That during their stay in Mimir's grove they are protected against: (a) Spiritual degradation. aging. I do not mean to say that a logical claim made on the mythology. a field proclaimed inviolable by divine command (Gorm's saga). (b) Physical degradation.now and then been opened to bold adventurers. So far as the last point (2c) is concerned. a place surrounded by a wall. and who have been permitted to see the regions of bliss and places of punishment theme. This claim is.

The effects of this are felt down through the historical ages even to Ragnarok. But in that very primeval age in which time most of the events of mythology are supposed to have happened. the corruption of mankind has its climax in "the axe. creation had already become the victim of corruption. at a time when mankind as a whole had not yet become the prey of physical and moral misery. the condition of the world did not cause them anxiety. The first great war broke out in the world (Völuspá 21. There was a time when the life of the gods was happiness and the joy of youthful activity. free from care.Tefldu í túni.] Thus we have yet to look and see whether the original documents from the heathen times contain any statements which can shed light on this subject.and knife-ages ". quem femina (the subterranean goddess who is Hadding's guide) nequiequam transilire conata cum ne corrugati quidem exilitate proficeret. if there is to be a guarantee that the human race of the new world is not to inherit and develop the defects and weaknesses of the present historical generations. 53. * [Prodeuntibus murus aditu transcensuque difficilis obsistebat. by which the mankind of our age is stained. and. MIMIR'S POSITION IN THE MYTHOLOGY. 24.en þaðan af aldir alast: "Thence (from Lif and Leifthrasir in Mimir's grove) races are born". 26). But the golden age ended in physical and moral catastrophies. Freyja.og þar um aldur alast: "And they (Lif and Leifthrasir) have there (in Mimir's grove) their abiding place through ages". AT WHAT TIME DID LIF AND LEIFTHRASIR GET THEIR PLACE OF REFUGE IN MIMIR'S GROVE? THE ASMEGIR. which was hostile to the gods and hurtful to man (Völuspá 22). The separation of Lif and Leifthrasir from their race and confinement in Mimir's grove must have occurred before the above catastrophies in time's beginning. on the earth the sorceress Heid (Heiður) strutted about teaching the secrets of black magic. providing both date from a time when the main features of the myth about Lif and Leifthrasir were still remembered.exclude the moral evil. teitir voru). The corruption of nature culminates in the fimbul-winter of the last days. The air was mixed with treacherous evil. THE NUMINA OF THE LOWER WORLD. In regard to the point (1). Of course only the one of these versions can. is not expressly stated. Examples of versions equally justifiable from a mythological standpoint can be cited from other literatures than the . the question it contains as to whether the mythology conceived Lif and Leifthrasir as physically and morally undefiled at the time when they entered Mimir's grove. But this does not hinder both from being equally legitimate from a mythological standpoint. foreseeing power opened Mimir's grove as as asylum for them. The version of this line quoted above was . can find evidence that a wise. they amused themselves with the wonderful dice (Völuspá 8 . It is necessary to begin this investigation by pointing out the fact that there are two versions of the last line of strophe 45 in Vafþrúðnismál. be the original one. from a text-historical standpoint. was treacherously delivered into the hands of the frost giants. in the old records. the goddess of fertility and modesty. The Uppsala Codex has instead . can only be solved if we.

he employs the past tense of the verb. Edda. Nor is the other version much younger. Who of the . and in regard to which he also desires information from Fjolsvinn. Thorl. he employs. It is necessary to make a most thorough analysis of the passages in order to find the signification of this word again. viii. If we in the choice between the two versions pay regard only to the age of the manuscripts. Outside of the gate is a person who is or pretends to be the gatekeeper. and which I wish to know. When he speaks of what he has seen before and elsewhere. er eg fyr garð sák innan ásmaga? "Tell me that which I ask of you. In strophe 33 he says: Segðu mér það. Without drawing any conclusions. and Fjolsvinn gives him information. 11. the strophe may also be translated in the following manner: "Tell me. too. and from a mythological standpoint that. xxvi. and what I wish to know.segðu mér hvað það bjarg heitir. Fjolsvinn: Who made that which I saw within the castle wall of the ásmegir?" [*] * [Looking simply at the form. It would. which is copied about the year 1300 [*] . Svipdag asks questions about them. The conversation turns chiefly upon the remarkable objects which Svipdag has before his eyes. and calls himself Fjolsvinn. Both times it is used in such a manner that we perceive that it is a mythological terminus technicus having a definite. since it is of importance to the subject which we are discussing. what I ask of you. has the preference. * [S. the hero in Gróugaldur and in Fjölsvinnsmál. is in the latter poem represented as standing before the gate of a citadel which he never saw before. The young Svipdag. however. I simply point out the fact that the oldest version we possess of the passage says that Lif and Leifthrasir live through ages in Mimir's grove.Norse. then the one in Codex Upsalensis. But before Svipdag came to the castle. but it must be mentioned that most of them agree that the Codex Regius predates the Uppsala Codex. When the questions concern objects which are before him at the time of speaking.] [Modern scholars indeed believe the Uppsala Codex to be written at the time stated here. he has made a remarkable journey (alluded to in Gróugaldur). the present tense of the verb (as in strophe 35 . Sæmund. Jonsson's Edda. as the logic of language requires. What this application was is not known.] In two places in the poetic Edda (Vegtamskviða [Baldurs draumar] 7. is beyond doubt correct. 33) which he compares with those which he now sees. hardly be prudent to put the chief emphasis on this fact. but within the walls of which the maid whom fate has destined to be his wife resides. Snorra St. and he has seen strange things (thus 9. er eg sé brúði á). Fjölsviður.. He and Svipdag enter into conversation. Fjolsvinn. within which his chosen one awaits him. Bugge. so far as the manuscript in which it is found is concerned. limited application. and Fjölsvinnsmál 33) occurs the word ásmegir. er eg þig fregna mun og eg vilja vita: Hver það gerði. I shall begin with the passage in Fjölsvinnsmál.

several objections of facts. since Delling. providing Dvalin's and Delling's real home and the scene of their activity can be determined. Var and Vegdrasil. Dori and Uri. a gate (cp. and thus made the confusion complete. to close.demands first of all that we should find out where the myth located their dwelling seen by Svipdag. Dellingur og varðar. ásmaga has as its nearest neighbour garð. Dóri og Úri. a fact which is of mythological importance in other respects. The dative loki from lok. Dori and Ori (Nafnaþulur. Both are said to be dwarfs in Dvalin's group of attendants or servants (í Dvalins liði . This is particularly important in respect to Delling. written in one word (instead of liþsci alfr).] Thus Svipdag has seen a place where beings called ásmegir dwell. not to hver. líðski álfr. It also presupposes that Svipdag knew that the ásmegir had made the things in question which were within the castle wall. The formal possibility pointed out has also a formal probability against it. One manuscript has in the text. pl. and caused him to ask Fjolsvinn about the name of its builder. Varr og Vegdrasill. Of this Munch made Lidskjalfr. however. the cunning elf. not hver. loki. whose cunning is especially emphasised. "Uni and Iri. has been interpreted as Loki. loka. has been entrusted with this task. Gylfaginning 14).Völuspá 14). enclose). the "dwarfs" Varr (Nafnaþulur).namely. since his office as gate-keeper at the castle of the ásmegir demands that he must have his home where his duties are required. Svipdag would then be asking Fjolsvinn who had made that which he once in the past had seen within a castle wall without informing Fjolsvinn in regard to which particular castle wall he has reference. Fjolsvinn enumerates not less than eight architects. since what Svipdag has seen within its gates has awakened his astonishment and admiration. At least three of these are known by name in other sources . Ori and Bari.namely. is watchman at the gate. Óri og Bári. lúka. This result can be gained. It is well enclosed and guarded by the elf Delling.] Fjolsvinn answers (Fjölsvinnsmál 34): Uni og Íri. and should therefore be referred to garð. ." [*] * [I follow the text in most of the manuscripts. The problem to the solution of which I am struggling on . The gen. another in the margin. even though both the translations gave an equally satisfactory meaning so far as the facts related are concerned. it would follow from Fjolsvinn's answer that the dwarfs he enumerates are sons of Asas. Both the last-named are also found in the list of dwarfs incorporated in Völuspá [as quoted in Snorri's Prose Edda]. and that he only wished to complete his knowledge by finding out which one or ones of the ásmegir it was that had made them. Lidscialfr. to find the explanation of what beings those are which are called ásmegir . Delling. And finally. of which Bugge has given various versions.ásmegir made what I saw within the castle wall?" Against this formal possibility there are. The citadel must also have been distinguished for its magnificence and for other qualities. but that is not the case. The myth must have laid great stress on the fact that the citadel was well guarded.

" the artist-clan of the mythology. Dvalin must have occupied a conspicuous place among the beings to whom he belongs. the latter can be regarded as settled. The problem as to whether Modsognir is identical with Mimir should therefore be decided by the answers to the following questions: Is that which is narrated about Modsognir also narrated of Mimir? Do the statements which we have about Dvalin show that he was particularly connected with Mimir and with the lower world. made by Mimir the Old. Have we any similar report of Mimir? The German middle-age poem. then the epithet were badly chosen if it did not refer to Mimir. with the assistance of Durin (Durinn). and created dwarfs resembling men. Among them is Dvalin. and give evidence in favour of one and the same solution of the problem. That he either belonged to the circle of holy powers himself. the foremost among all artists. It cannot be disputed that the word looks like an epithet. That Modsognir possessed a promethean power of creating. for he is the only one of them all who is mentioned as having a number of his own kind as subjects (Völuspá 14 . All the indices which are calculated to shed light on a question should be collected and examined. and who daily drank of it (Völuspá 28 . carried out the resolution of the gods. even if it is correct beyond a doubt. was bestowed the dignity of chief of the proposed artist-clan [þar (in the assembly of the gods) var Móðsognir mæztr um orðinn dverga allra]. Mime der alte. which has taken the place of a more common name. Mótsognir.drekkur mjöð Mímir morgun hverjan). Still nothing can be built simply on the definition of a name. who was the most excellent smith in the world.dverga í Dvalins liði). The author of the dwarf list must have assumed That Modsognir was one of the older beings of the world. who originally was the sole possessor of the mythic mead. we should take Modsognir to be one of the more remarkable characters of the mythology. To be . or. Poet. Accordingly. or stood in a close and friendly relation to them." relates that its hero possessed a sword. Several of the "dwarfs" created by Modsognir are named in Völuspá 11-13.or this name is merely a skaldic epithet.we look in vain for the name Modsognir elsewhere . the realm of Mimir? Of Modsognir it is said (Völuspá 10) that he was mæztr um orðinn dverga allra: he became the chief of all dwarfs. since he carried out the resolve of the gods. The author of the dwarf-list in Völuspá makes all holy powers assemble to consult as to who shall create "the dwarfs. "Biterolf. Egilsson (Lex. Only when they all point in the same direction.To some extent this is also true of Dvalin. in other words. and that he. for the assembly of gods here in question took place in the morning of time before the creation was completed. since the field of his operations cannot have been utterly foreign to the citadel on whose wonders his sub-artists laboured. and which by reference to a familiar nota characteristica indicates a mythic person well known and mentioned elsewhere.) defines it as the mead-drinker. But either he is not mentioned anywhere else than in this place . If the definition is correct. In the opinion of the author of the list of dwarfs. The wording of strophe 10 indicates that on a being by name Móðsognir.

The great smiths of the Rigveda hymns. Sigurd-Sven. These echoes reverberating far down in Christian times of the myth about Mimir. as chief of smiths. we find Mimir mentioned as Hodd-Mimir. And as shall be shown hereafter. or in whose smithy they work. as naddgöfugr jötunn. And on a closer examination it appears that Mimir's mead-well is the source of all these powers. the chief smiths are in the poetic Edda put in connection with Mimir as the one on whose fields they dwell. in whose workshop the sons of princes and the most famous smiths learned the trade of the smith. iv. the king of the gold-rings (Sólarljóð 56). make from a single goblet three equally good. Wayland). 70). In the mythology. which is based on both German and Norse sources. make horses for Indra. which in the mythology are represented as creating. The "mead-drinker" is the chief and master of all these artists. 38:8. with the one exception of Hertrich.. In the Teutonic mythology Sindri and Brokk forge from a pig skin Frey's steed. It should be remembered what he relates about the imcomparable treasures which are preserved in Gudmund-Mimir's domain. among which in addition to those already named occur arma humanorum corporum habitu grandiora (Book VIII. 110:3. iv. and ordaining with wisdom. and an arm-ring which produces wealth (Book III. who was Mimir's co-labourer. which looks like a boar. the giant celebrated for his weapons (Gróugaldur 14). (Biterolf.) Vilkinasaga. den ich nenne.. This they do although they are "mortals. Durch ir sinne craft so hæten sie geselleschaft an werke und an allen dingen. states that Mimir was an artist. If we consult the poetic Edda.. 144. we also perceive in Saxo. as Baugreginn. the treasure-dropping one (Sigurdrífumál 13). In Hávamál (138-141) Odin relates that there was a time when he had not yet acquired strength and wisdom. which the "dwarfs" Sindri and Brokk made. daz man in dar bi erkenne: Der war Hertrich genant.. forming. still less anyone else. or Hodddropnir. 266) ["weapons too massive to be worn by human beings" . But by self-sacrifice he was able to prevail on the celebrated ." who by their merits acquire immortality. The ring Draupnir. i. 34:9. and elsewhere). diffuse vegetation over the fields. artistic and creative powers are closely related to each other. the Ribhus. possesses itself creative power and produces every ninth night eight gold rings of equal weight with itself (Skáldskaparmál 43). Among his apprentices are mentioned Velint (Volund). and about Mimingus. create a cow and her calf. and Eckihard.Fisher].. and make brooks flow in the valleys (Rigveda.compared with him was not even Wieland (Volund. and assisted him in making all the treasures he produced: Zuo siner (Mimir's) meisterschefte ich nieman kan gelichen in allen fürsten richen an einen.. Treasure-Mimir (Vafþrúðnismál 45). and the sons of Ivaldi forge from gold locks that grow like other hair. as Hoddrofnir. who possesses the sword of victory. . 20:6.

Odin's greatest and most celebrated achievement was that he. and the creation of Midgard. drawn from Odrerir: Þá nam eg frævast og fróður vera og vaxa og vel hafast. in regard to the somamead as the liquid from which the gods got creative power. therefore. therefore. while they at the same time made implements and weapons. since it makes him the possessor of the precious fountain. with his brothers. and keeper of treasures and the ruler of a group of dwarfs. unless Odin should have specifically mentioned the works he performed after receiving the drink. the raising of the crust of the earth. verk mér af verki verks leitaði. and animals. Then I began to quicken. It is equally manifest that among the works which he considered himself able to perform after the drink from Mimir's fountain had given him strength. We are thus also able to understand why Odin regarded this first drink from Odrerir so immensely important that he could resolve to subject himself to the sufferings which are mentioned in strophes 138 and 139. It is. and become wise. came from the lower world and from Mimir. . had possessed no eloquence nor ability to do great deeds. who smithied flowers. This could not be said more clearly than it is stated in the above strophe of Hávamál. makes him drink therefrom every day. underground artists. Thus the creative power with which the dwarf-list in Völuspá endowed the "mead-drinker" is rediscovered in Mimir. each word I sought resulted in a new word. but that he acquired all this from the power of the mead. But when Odin by a single drink from Mimir's fountain is endowed with creative power and wisdom. just as Rigveda's Ribhus. It is evident that Odin here means to say that the first drink which he received from Mimir's fountain was the turning-point in his life. thanks to which Odin was made able to form the upper world. received his creative power and his wisdom. This is precisely the same idea as we constantly meet with in Rigveda. orð mér af orði orðs leitaði. and grass. and receives from his hands its value. The world-tree has also grown out of the lower world and is Mimir's tree. had made no progress in wisdom. who dwells in the deep and has charge of the mead-fountain there and of the mighty runes. and opened the veins of the earth for fertilising streams.Bolthorn's son. From Mimir's fountain and from Mimir's hand Odin has. that the myth regarded Mimir as endowed with Promethean power. and places him nearer to the deepest source and oldest activity of these forces in the universe than Odin himself? The given and more instantaneous power. that before that time he had not blossomed. to give him (Odin) a drink from the precious mead. each deed I sought resulted in a new deed. perfectly logical when the mythology makes him its first smith and chief artist. and before he got wisdom and the power of activity? It must be evident to everybody that this would be unreasonable. created Midgard. we must place in the front rank those for which he is most celebrated: the slaying of the chaos-giant Ymir. Would it then be reasonable to suppose that he performed this greatest and wisest of his works before he began to develop fruit. and desire to accomplish great deeds. wisdom. how can the conclusion be evaded. to grow and to prosper. for originally these were and remained creative forces personified.

97-98). As skald and runic scholar. They learned the runes from Ásviðr. v. Leika. then caution dictates that we keep open the highly probable possibility that Mimir himself is meant by Ásviðr. but also sage and skald. and as no one . means a young girl. and in whose amusement one takes part at least as a spectator. In the Snofrid song. We have still to point out two statements in regard to him.Fornm. No. Since the other teachers of runes belong to the clans. But all knowledge of runes came originally from Mimir. and like him he has tasted the mead of poesy (munnvigg Dáins . pp. 208. Dvalin. if we assume that Ásviðr was a giant. his creative activity. He was one of the few chosen ones who in time's morning were permitted to taste of Mimir's mead. which is attributed to Harald Fairhair. The examples which we have of the . 26) mentioned three apprentices. Hauksbók and Gylfaginning).. and his friendly relation to the gods. He is mentioned side by side with Dvalin. x. is an artist created by Modsognir (Völuspá 11. Thus we discover in Mimir Modsognir's governing position among the artists. Sol is said to have been his leika (Alvíssmál 16 . Dvalin is one of the most ancient rune-masters. whom one keeps at his side. which rings forth from beneath the fingers of Dvalin (hrynr fram úr Dvalin's greip ."Odin among Asas. The myth in regard to the runes (cp.particularly no one among the giants . Dvalin among dwarfs" . Saga. Sörla þáttur. of Freyja's splendid ornament Brisingamen. He is there said to have assisted in the fashioning of the sword Tyrfing (Fornaldarsögur I. Nor were the giants neglected. and taught the knowledge of runes among his kinsmen. stood in the relation of disciple under the ruler of the lower world. the drapa is likened unto a work of art. All that has here been stated about Dvalin shows that the mythology has referred him to a place within the domain of Mimir's activity. Nafnaþulur). Dvalin. Saga. 582). as a feminine word and referring to a personal object. Hervarar saga.That Mimir was the profound counsellor and faithful friend of the Asas has already been shown.has so much right as Mimir to this epithet. það er sló Dvalinn). i. to elves and dwarfs (Hávamál 143). which therefore is called his drink (Dvalins drykkr . cp.sumar hafa mennskir menn). which has its counterpart in Odin's epithet. Flat. Míms vinr (Mimir's friend). created by Modsognir. Odin. one of those who brought the knowledge of runes to those beings of creation who were endowed with reason (Hávamál 143). a maiden. who afterwards spread the knowledge of runes each among his own class of beings. that is.nema sverð seljið. therefore. And as Mimir himself is a giant. Dain and Dvalin taught the runes to their clans. But in the earliest antiquity no one partook of this drink who did not get it from Mimir himself. 200 . was by birth Mimir's chief disciple. his protégés (Sigurdrífumál 18 . is in the Norse sagas of the middle ages remembered as an extraordinary artist. who in the beginning was ignorant of the mighty and beneficent rune-songs (Hávamál 138-143). Dain among elves. II. Dain.Skáldskaparmál 10). 209).Fornm. p. the Asas (Hávamál 143).kalla dvergar Dvalins leika. to which they teach the knowledge of runes .there can be no danger of making a mistake. and as the name Ásviðr (= Ásvinr) means Asa-friend. like Dvalin. celebrated also in Anglo-Saxon poetry (Fornald. and among men. This beautiful poetical figure is all the more appropriately applied. since Dvalin was not only the producer of the beautiful works of the smith. The other disciples were Dain (Dáinn) and Dvalin (Dvalinn).

who is the father of his leikr . if the dwarf-list is correct (Völuspá. From regions situated below Midgard's horizon. too. the chief of the Varns (Billing veold Vernum .Mimir. The sunset-glow has another genius. As the husband of Nott and the father of Dag. Delling occupies the same place among the divinities of nature as the dawn and the glow of sunrise among the phenomena of nature. mythology has also located the dwarf Þjóðrerir ("he who moves the people").Cod. Nott. who is Dvalin's leikr.) We have here found two points of contact between the mythic characters Dvalin and Delling. and it makes no journey around the world. and elsewhere. uppheimur . who is his teacher. the lad or youth with whom Dvalin amused himself (Hrafnagaldur 24. hyggju Hroptatý . and he. cp. Delling is the watchman of the castle of the ásmegir. so the son of Nat and Delling. also have their halls where they take their rest. are presupposed to have the same home. and his body-guard keeps watch with kindled lights and burning torches (Hávamál 97.Hávamál 160). Nott has her home and. who is the mother of his leikr.have their dwellings in Mimir's domain. Thus the whole group of persons among whom Dvalin is placed . is a creation of Modsognir. Hauksbók). en álfum frama.Grímnismál 39).Völuspá 3. Nott. Nott. 320). the king of dawn. success to the elves. There she takes her rest after the circuit of her journey has been completed. Sol. On the eastern border of the lower world is the point of departure for their regular journeys over the heavens of the upper world ("the upper heavens. Parents can call a foster-daughter their leika. Billing. is secure when she comes to her forest of the Varns behind the western horizon (til varna viðar . who on her way is pursued by two giant monsters in wolf-guise." upphiminn .use of the word indicate that the leika herself. In the lower world Sol and Nott's son. Delling of the eastern. Dag. Dag. Vafþrúðnismál 20. Sol. Delling. 100). a doll or toy. and the person whose leika she is. In the neuter gender leika means a plaything. But where Delling's wife and son have their dwellings there we should also look for Delling's own abode. Dag. Dag. which Dvalin's artists decorated. and belong to the subterranean class of the numina of Teutonic mythology. as shall be shown hereafter. who sings songs of awakening and blessing upon the world: "power to the Asas. Thus Billing is the watchman of the western boundary of Mimir's domain. The dawn is merely a reflection of Midgard's eastern horizon from Delling's subterranean dwelling. Exon. Unlike his kinsmen. It can be seen only when Nott leaves the upper heaven and before Dag and Sol have come forward. Dag. Delling has no duty which requires him to be absent from home a part of the day. Sisters are called leikur. is Delling's son. . There rests his daughter Rind bright as the sun on her bed. is called leikr Dvalins. and even in this sense it can rhetorically be applied to a person. her birthplace in dales beneath the ash Ygdrasil. From a mythological standpoint it would therefore be possible to entrust the keeping of the castle of the ásmegir to the elf of dawn. who is his leika. and Sol. There in western halls (Baldurs draumar 11) dwells Billing. In the same manner as Sol is called Dvalin's leika. Sol. And outside the doors of Delling.Alvíssmál 12). and Dag draw their chariots upon the heavens. who is his leikr. since they live together. wisdom to Hroptatyr" (afl gól hann ásum.

flet fagurleg flóuð gulli?" "For whom are the benches strewn with rings and the gold beautifully scattered through the rooms?" And the vala answers: Hér stendur Baldri um brugginn mjöður. he found there below a hall decorated for festivity. where the ásmegir are mentioned by this name. Ch." Thus there stands in the lower world a hall splendidly decorated awaiting Baldur's arrival. consisting of the noblest liquid of creation. When Odin had rode through Niflhel and come to green pastures (foldvegr). "Here stands for Baldur mead prepared. . Vegtamskvida 6-7 [Baldurs draumar] tells us that Odin. and there in the regions of the elf of dawn. shields are overspread. liggur skjöldur yfir. the benches are strewn (cp. pure drink. That Svipdag. 16 (Heimskringla. p. and the pure wonderful mead of the lower world is already served as an offering to the god. when Baldur gets to the lower world. breiða bekki. the strength-giving soma-madhu of Teutonic mythology. and he asks the prophetess: Hveim eru bekkir baugum sánir. Here we have an opportunity of taking a look within their castle. Only the shields which cover the mead-vessel need to be lifted off and all is ready for the feast. who has seen the citadel of the ásmegir.From this it follows: That the citadel of the ásmegir is situated in Mimir's lower world. and that is in Olaf Tryggvason's saga. skírar veigar. and the ásmegir are waiting impatiently. made these preparations? The vala explains when she mentions the ásmegir and speaks of their longing for Baldur. búa bekki) with costly things. The conclusion to which we have arrived in regard to the subterranean situation of the citadel is entirely confirmed by the other passage in the poetic Edda. As at other great feasts. In the old Norse heathen literature there is only one more place where we find the word ásmegir. he is to enter the citadel of the ásmegir and there be welcomed by a sacrifice. It is this longing which has found utterance in the preparations already completed for his reception. has made a journey in the lower world before he found Menglod and secured her as his wife. strá bekki. being alarmed in regard to the fate of his son Baldur. made a journey to the lower world for the purpose of learning from a vala what foreboded his favourite son. in so good season. Thus. and of seeing the hall decorated with lavish splendour for the reception of an expected guest. Who or what persons have. en ásmegir í ofvæni.

Einar says: Og herþarfir hverfa. slíku. We read in this saga that Jarl Hakon proclaimed throughout his kingdom that the inhabitants should look after their temples and sacrifices. The persons in the foreground are the men in Hakon's realm and Hakon himself. and that "the mighty promoter of the meeting of the red target of the goddess of war" refers to the warlike Hakon himself. Translation: "And the ásmegir required in war. turn themselves to the sacrificial feasts. at least on that point of which the skald happens to be treating. and Hakon on his part is allowed to borrow the appellation rauðbríkar rækir (the promoter of the red target). but this appellation is then furnished with the adjective phrase Hlakkar móts (of the meeting of the goddess of war). Thus Hakon's subjects are allowed to borrow the appellation ásmegir. and the earth again yields bountiful harvests. The rule also requires that. The persons in this background are the ásmegir and a mythical being called "the promoter of the red target. The mighty promoter of the meeting of the red target of the goddess of war has honour and advantage thereof. but this is then furnished with the adjective herþarfir (required in war)." To these thoughts the skald has given a garb common in poetry of art. til blóta. ásmegir. The persons in the foreground are permitted to borrow the names of the corresponding persons in the background. &c. sheds much and important light on the subject. by adapting them to a mythological background. 119). Nú grær jörð sem áðan." rauðbríkar rækir. Now grows the earth green as heretofore. whereby they are specifically distinguished from the ásmegir of the mythical background. Put in prose: Og herþarfir ásmegir hverfa til blóta. and the good results this was supposed to have produced for the jarl himself and for the welfare of his land. Nú grær jörð sem áðan. the relation between the persons in the foreground. st. and when analysed it.164. This is both an honour and an advantage to Hakon. mentions his interest in the heathen worship. but on the condition that the borrowed names are furnished with adjectives which emphasise the specific difference between the original mythic lenders and the real borrowers." There can be no doubt that "the ásmegir required in war" refer to the men in the territory ruled by Hakon. and so was done. named Einar Skalaglam. Jarl Hakon's hird-skald. too. Hakon's men stand in a subordinate relation to Hakon himself. and can be compared with. who in the poem "Vellekla" celebrated his deeds and exploits. For the sake of completeness this passage should also be considered. and hence the meaning of the passage in its plain prose form is simply this: "Hakon's men again devote themselves to the divine sacrifices. ríkur Hlakkar móts rauðbríkar rækir fremst slíku. and so must the ásmegir stand in a subordinate relation to that being which is called . the persons in the mythological background should hold a relation to each other which resembles. rauðbríkar fremst rækir ríkur. Hlakkar móts. whereby Hakon is specifically distinguished from the rauðbríkar rækir of the mythical background.

then the paraphrase hlakkar móts rauðbríkar rækir would equally well designate him as Hakon. for his subjects. who impatiently awaited his arrival. must have been the same for his ásmegir. and thereupon the earth must have regained a fertility. Hakon is.rauðbríkar rækir. that Baldur. This sun-god must also have been upon the whole a god of peace. his counterpart in the mythological background. This peaceful sun-god must have descended to the lower world and there stood in the most intimate relation with the ásmegir referred to the domain of Mimir. which becomes an attribute of the historical rækir of the foreground. which before that had been more or less denied it. We shall later on give other examples of this. but like Hakon a war-loving shield-bearer. and thus rauðbrík is applied here. as it then would contain neither a nota characteristica for him nor a differentia specifica to distinguish him from the mythic person. which is frequently used to designate the sun. one who exhorts them to piety and fear of the gods. "of the meeting of the war-goddess" (that is. this rauðbríkar rækir. Only on these conditions is the figure of comparison to the point. Had he not been so. If this needed confirmation. is a solar divinity. and after his descent to the lower world he is no longer connected with the feuds and dissensions of the upper world. the mighty warrior. which is an attribute of the mythic rækir of the background. From this or these sacrificial feasts the peaceful sun-god must have derived advantage and honour. the mythological scholars are almost a unit in assuming to be the case on account of the general character of the Baldur myth. for he is here represented as their chief and leader in the path of piety and the fear of the gods. and of such a character that it could be presented unchallenged to heathen ears familiar with the myths. Accordingly. namely Hakon jarl. In the mythology the ásmegir must have held some sacrificial feast. We have already seen that he was received in the lower world with great pomp by the ásmegir. providing the skald in this strophe as in the others has produced a tenable parallel. and thus it could not be used to designate Hakon alone. A common paraphrase for the shield is the sun with suitable adjectives. and the earth grows green again. The adjective phrase is here Hlakkar móts. and (RAUÐBRÍKAR i rækir) must have had advantage and honour. The fact suggested by the Vellekla strophe above analysed. whose epithet rauðbríkar rækir he has been allowed to borrow. then. physically interpreted. then we have it immediately at hand in the manner in which the word is applied in the continuation of the paraphrase adapted to Hakon. and that they sacrifice to him that bright mead of the lower world. Rauðbríkar rækir. whereby the red target (= sun). Compare röðull. The myth must have mentioned a sacrificial feast or sacrificial feasts celebrated by the ásmegir. Though Baldur was celebrated for heroic deeds he is substantially a god of peace. From all this it follows with certainty that rauðbríkar rækir of the mythology is Baldur. "the promoter of the red target"? In the mythological language rauðbrík (red target) can mean no other object than the sun. is changed to a shield. whose wonderfully beneficial and bracing . qualifying the red target). namely. rauðbríkar rækir of the mythology must be a masculine divinity standing in some relation to the sun. Hakon's subjects offer sacrifices. and this is an advantage and an honour to Hakon. and the earth must have regained its fertility. Who is. It should be added that Einar's greatness as a skald is not least shown by his ability to carry out logically such figures of comparison.

beings whose dwelling. Soon afterwards he is visited by Hermod. go to offer sacrifices. In this case the subterranean ásmegir would be by their very descent members of that god-clan that resides in Asgard. In other words. are symbols of fertility. was strengthened by the soma-sacrifice brought him by the ásmegir. and the veil which is to beautify the goddess of earth. the ásmegir are beings who are not to be used in war. and which restored the fertility of the earth. which we have now discussed. and whose father and clan-patriarch is Odin. Now in the lower world he is strengthened with the bracing mead of Mimir's domain by the ásmegir who gladly give offerings. Baldur. and the earth regains her green fields. Already before Baldur's funeral pyre. Accordingly. Asa-descendants. if chosen with the proper care. at the instigation of their chief. and with a veil for the goddess of earth. Fjörgyn-Frigg. the shield's Baldur." "those who are to be used in war". from which the use of weapons is banished. To what category of beings do the ásmegir then belong? We have seen the word applied as a technical term in a restricted sense. The ring from which other rings drop. Hakon's men are designated in the strophe as herþarfir ásmegir. at the instigation of their chief. and how he sent back with Hermod the treasures of fertility which had gone with him and Nanna to the lower world. Hermod upon the fastest of all steeds hastened to find him in the lower world (Gylfaginning 49). the sun-god Baldur (rauðbríkar rækir) go to offer sacrifices. the parallel presented in Einar's strophe. The peaceful Baldur is thereby benefited. HISTORY: Warlike inhabitants of the earth (herþarfir ásmegir). we thus have the myth telling how the sun-god Baldur. and Hermod returns from him and Nanna with the ring Draupnir for Odin. is as follows: MYTHOLOGY: Peaceful beings of the lower world (ásmegir). on his descent to the lower world.influence shall be discussed below. and purpose suggest a realm of peace. The earth grows green again. Hakon (Hlakkar móts rauðbríkar rækir). The earth grows green again. then that adjective would not serve to distinguish Hakon's men from them. . then the adjective herþarfir. is to contain a specific distinction between them and the mythological beings whose name they have borrowed. The shield's Baldur (Hakon) is thereby benefited. The word herþarfir means "those who are needed in war. In the background which Einar has given to his poetical paraphrase. had for a long time before his death been languishing. if the real ásmegir were of such a nature that they could be called herþarfir. When they are permitted to borrow the name of the ásmegir. Consequently. the sun-god. The possibilities of application which the word with reference to its definition supplies are: (1) The word may be used in the purely physical sense of Asa-sons. environment.

in regard to Odin: "Og fyrir því má hann heita Alföður. and their offspring are also in a moral sense Odin's children. Einar would never have called the inhabitants of Norway. Thus it is also demonstrated that the ásmegir are identical with the subterranean human persons Lif and Leifthrasir and their descendants in Mimir's grove. en sunna med goðum. It is also a beautiful poetic thought that it is the elf of the morning dawn . To this must be added. megir Heimdallar (Völuspá 1). aldaföðr). að hann er faðir allra goðanna og manna og alls þess. álfar fagrahvel.he . and they all. who all have been "needed in conflict" in the wars around Asgard and Midgard. and other passages). and Alvíssmál 16 (to be compared with 18. that is. as they are subject to his guidance and care. eygló jötnar. the subjects of jarl Hakon. and moral evil (see above). age. Gylfaginning 9). and that Baldur is the first one of the Asas and sons of Odin who becomes a dweller in the lower world. in a manner which shows that it does not refer to any of those categories of beings that are called gods (see further. The true meaning of the word in this case is determined by the fact that the ásmegir belong to the dwellers in the lower world already before the death of Baldur. The conception of men as sons of the gods is also implied in the all mankind embracing phrase. who descended to Hades. and this is used in Alvíssmál 16. ** Cp. as persons subordinate to them and in need of their assistance. To subterranean human beings refers also Grímnismál 31. shown by the fact that the elf Delling. a word which Gudbrand Vigfusson has rightly assumed to be identical with ásmegir. that if ásmegir meant Asas. where they reside in a splendid castle kept by the elf of dawn. which says that men (mennskir menn) dwell under the roots of Ygdrasil. * Sól heitir með mönnum. human beings excluded from the surface of the earth. They are the children of the Asa-father in a double sense: the first human pair was created by Odin and his brothers (Völuspá 17-18. and enjoy the society of Baldur. Baldur included. The care with which the mythology represents the citadel of the ásmegir kept. and the father of the succeeding generations (alföðr. He is Allfather. Delling. and that in the highest degree. also Gylfaginning 9. They constitute a body of more or less warlike persons. er af honum ok hans krafti var fullgjört.(2) The word can be applied to men. herþarfir ásmegir. with which the account of Rig-Heimdal's journeys on the earth and visits to the patriarchs of the various classes is connected [**] . from the mankind which dwell in Midgard. kalla dvergar Dvalins leika. are gods of war and victory. which calls them ásliðar. No. 62) [*] . therefore. and are inhabitants of the lower world. and Skírnismál 34. A word resembling ásmegir in character is ásasynir. sickness. is intelligible and proper when we know that it is of the greatest importance to shield Lif and Leifthrasir's dwelling from all ills. The ásmegir are. has been entrusted with its keeping. for herþarfir the Asas are themselves. the counterpart of Heimdal in the lower world. 20 [í helju]. It would also have been malapropos to compare men with Asas on an occasion when the former were represented as bringing sacrifices to the gods. alskír ásasynir.

. when there came from the Elivogs stinging. and live a blameless life corresponding to his wishes. That the ásmegir in the lower world are permitted to enjoy the society of Baldur is explained by the fact that Lif and Leifthrasir and their offspring are after Ragnarok to accompany Baldur to dwell under his sceptre. has been preserved by the Teutonic Aryans around the Baltic. We have now seen that the ásmegir already before Baldur's death dwell in Mimir's grove. The psychological similarity of races may. This follows from the fact that it was he who liberated Freyja. on account of the limitations of the human fancy. The similarity between the Teutonic and Iranian traditions is so conspicuous that the question is irresistible . while there still could be found undefiled men to be saved for the world to come. nor on account of a common descent in antiquity. and dwellings which resemble each other may have been invented and used by races far separated from each other. THE IRANIAN MYTH CONCERNING MIMIR'S GROVE. ice-cold arrows of frost. the other is to precede Ragnarok. This may happen in the same manner as primitive implements. which. from the power of the frost-giants (see Nos. and in the midst of similar conditions and environments. In connection with the efforts to determine the age of the Teutonic myths. The former occurred when Freyja. and there came in the northern lands a famine which compelled the people to emigrate to the South (Saxo. has logically met this claim of poetic justice. We have also seen that Svipdag on his journey in the lower world had observed a castle. 96-102). Book VIII). the goddess of fertility. although they were produced spontaneously by different races in different parts of the earth.Whether it is not originally. The mythology knows two fimbulwinters: the former raged in time's morning.who has been appointed to watch those who in the dawn of a new world shall people the earth with virtuous and happy races. and their kinship with the other Aryan (Indo-European) mythologies. Lif and Leifthrasir were accordingly already at that time transferred to Mimir's grove. which he knew belonged to the ásmegir. tools. but little affected by time. create myths which resemble each other. They are to be his disciples. not by the one learning from the other how these things were to be made. 54. so far as the records make it possible for us to investigate the matter. which put men to death and destroyed the greenness of the earth (Hrafnagaldur 13. from the standpoint of historical descent. an Asiatic race akin to the Teutons. the fact deserves attention that the myth in regard to a subterranean grove and the human beings there preserved for a future regenerated world is also found among the Iranians. knowing their master's commandments and having them written in their hearts. was treacherously delivered into the power of the frost-giants and all the air was blended with corruption (Völuspá 25). and we here find that the mythology.outside of whose door the song of awakening and bliss is sung to the world . This ought to have occurred before the earth and her inhabitants were afflicted by physical and moral evil. the sister of the god of the harvests. Svipdag made his journey in the lower world during the time preceding the first fimbul-winter. and by the Iranian Aryans in Baktria and Persia? But the answer to the question requires the greatest caution. one and the samne myth. when King Snow ruled.

I now make a beginning of this by presenting the Iranian myth concerning Jima's grove and the subterranean human beings transferred to it. But Jima answered: "I am not suited to be the bearer and apostle of the faith. Jima. which did not belong to Ahuramazda's celestial circle. the last word being the same as our word mead). but must be counted among "the mortals. the same materials offered themselves for the accomplishment of the end. In the ancient Iranian religious documents Jima is a holy and mighty ancient being. ch. have handed down from generation to generation similar mythological conceptions and mythical traditions. a mythical unity. A father by the side of his son resembled. when she was slain. The evil created by the demons did not cross the boundaries of Jima's world (The Younger Jasna. relates that Jima and his father were the first to prepare the mead of inspiration for the material world. Especially should this rule be strictly observed when we compare the myths of peoples who neither by race nor language can be traced back to a prehistoric unity. nevertheless.] It is mentioned (in Gôsh Jasht and Râm Jasht) that Jima held two beings in honour. and he taught him the true faith. the Iranians. was in possession of the true wisdom. [In this manner it is explained why the true doctrine did not become known among men before the reformer Zarathustra came. A hymn of sacrifice. and unless it appears that this mythical unity in turn enters as an element into a greater complexity. who through centuries. and that he of all mortals most resembled the sun. nor am I believed to be so" (Vendidad). . or even on several or many resemblances between mythological systems geographically separated. like the Teutons. The cow (Gosh). neither frost nor drought. Comparative mythology will never become a science in the strict sense of this word before it ceases to build hypotheses on a solitary similarity. and the Rigveda-Aryans. a youth of fifteen years. and whose blood. unless these resemblances unite themselves and form a whole. In his kingdom there was neither cold nor heat. that he. and why Jima. which is similar in fundamental structure and similar in its characteristic details. as this work of mine gradually progresses. the same human logic found the manner of satisfying the want. but were regarded as worthy of worship. was the richest in honour of all who had been born. the liquid of inspiration (homa." to the oldest seers and prophets of antiquity. It was the same want which was to be satisfied. 9). and desired that Jima should spread it among the mortals. the soma and soma-madhu of the Rigveda-Aryans. a sufficient material of evidence for the solution of the above problem will be placed in the hands of my readers. the possessor of the mead of inspiration. does not belong to the number of celestial divinities which surround the highest god. the highest god. however. The first mortal with whom Ahuramazda talked was Jima. and the same universal conceptions of form were active in the development of the problems. But it is best not to relax the severity of the rules even when we compare the myths of peoples who. neither aging nor death. fertilised the earth with the seed of life. and even long after their separation. Still he had a will of his own. These two were: 1. like the son. dedicated to the sacred mead. Ahuramazda. that lived in the beginning of time. who. have the same origin and same language.The similarity is the result of similar circumstances. Jima was the favourite of Ahuramazda. I trust that.

watersoaked places. 25. the king. 0 Jima. or in the depths of the valleys. on each of its four sides as a dwelling . the creator. the creator. Avesta. A meeting was held with the best men by Jima. the heavenly breeze. Ahuramazda. . the cows should be driven to well-enclosed shelters. 24. and the snow to melt. or on the heights of the mountains. Before that time the water (the rain) was wont to flow over it. with the best men. in which neither frost nor drought. In the material world there shall come an evil winter. the one rich in flocks. 1878). or on the heights of the mountains. Now give this enclosure (above. 22. 21. A meeting was held with the holy angels of Ahuramazda. killing frost. consequently much snow shall fall on the highest mountains. Vendidad relates the following: [*] * The outlines of the contents are given here from the interpretation found in HaugWest's Essays on the Sacred Language of the Parsis (London. the mighty god Vâyu-Vâta. and there was found. the cows should be driven to well-enclosed shelters. nor aging nor death. nor moral evil. and consequently a hard. In regard to the origin and purpose of the kingdom ruled by Jima. "the well-enclosed shelters") on each of its four 23. To this meeting came. on the tops of the rocks. Vajush. in which were visible the footprints of the cattle and their offspring. O Jima. From three places. or in the depths of the valleys. in the material world. Jima. Now give the enclosure the length of one ." Zend. . O Jima. whether they are in the wildernesses.2. 23. whether they are in the wilderness. with the holy angels. Then said Ahuramazda to Jima: "Happy Jima Vîvan-ghana! In the material world there shall come an evil winter. To this meeting came. Before the winter this land had meadows. the king rich in flocks. From three places. can enter. He is identical with the ruler of the air and wind in Rigveda.

in the middle. 28. who are the largest. nor aught else of those signs which are Angrômainyush's curses put on men. 30. . and give the same and bring thither the seed of length to each of the four your cattle. no dwarf-growths. in order that these beings may have their existence in the enclosures. best. Bring thither seed of all articles of food which are the best tasting and most fragrant on this earth. no blemish . Bring thither seed of all domestic animals that are the largest. Put up a house there of mats and poles. . And make pairs of them unceasingly. Place the landmarks there on a gold-coloured spot.sides the length of one . best. for men. Make. 27. no poverty. and red blazing fires. Gather water there in a canal. 26. of oxen. six. To the bridges of the upper part . . and of birds. Bring thither seed of all plants which are the highest and most fragrant on this earth. no sluggishness. no despondency. There shall be no pride. three. of men. and fairest on this earth. 29. furnished with imperishable nourishment. sides as a field for the cows. in the uppermost part of that territory. nine bridges. the length of one hâthra. and most fair on this earth. . no deceit. with roof and walls. of dogs. Bring thither seed of all men and women. in the lowest part.

though this seems to be presupposed by what is stated.at their rising and setting. and a self-luminous window on the inside. That it is subterranean is. Just creator! Who preached the pure faith in the enclosures which Jima made? Ahuramazda answered: The bird Karshipta. which. 39. 42. sun. visited the earth. however. and as the surface of the earth is devastated by the unparalleled frost. . we cannot without grave doubts conceive the garden as situated in the upper world. And make a door in the enclosure. Every fortieth year two persons are born by two persons. Then Jima made the enclosure. and moon do not show themselves in Jima's garden excepting after long. ch. 33. of three hundred. . 41. And they (who dwell within Jima's enclosures) think that one year is one day. which give light in the enclosures made by Jima? 40. Jima's garden has accordingly been formed in connection with a terrible winter. and it was planned to preserve that which is noblest and fairest and most useful within the kingdoms of organic beings. Which are those lights. Ahuramazda answered: Once (a year) the stars and moon and the sun are there seen to rise and set. That the garden is situated in the lower world is not expressly stated in the above-quoted passages from Vendidad. These persons enjoy the greatest bliss in the enclosures made by Jima. to those of the middle the seed of six hundred.you must bring seed of a thousand men and women. for the stars. thou just Ahuramazda. expressly stated in Bundehesh. . to those of the lower. and as the valleys are no more protected therefrom than the mountains. in the first period of time. defined intervals . .

. was looked upon as subterranean follows from the fact that the Jima of the ancient Iranian records is identical with Rigveda's Jama. There he gathers around the goblet of mead the fathers of antiquity. 88 ff. A terrible winter threatened to destroy everything on the surface of the earth. mentioned in Rigveda. What the Aryan-Asiatic myth here given has in common with the Teutonic one concerning the subterranean persons in Mimir's grove can be summarised in the following words: The lower world has a ruler. The renewed earth is to be filled with the beings who have been protected by the subterranean citadel. and plants shall once more fill the devastated earth. and that it. If the derivation of the word Mimir. It is a glorious country. vol. As Jima's enclosed garden was established on account of the fimbul-winter. and a tree grown out of its soil spreads its foliage over his dwelling.30. refer to an ancient patriarch of human descent. particularly those which mention Mann by the side of Bhriga. so far as certain passages of Rigveda are concerned. 113. When these come to an end. is correct. The people who live there have an instructor in the pure worship . which occurred in time's morning. ix. 35. 106). 6. remembering. and thence men. and also the kingdom of death. in the oldest period of the myth. x. Then the ruler of the lower world built on his domain a well-fortified citadel. it continues to exist after the close of the winter. of which Jama is king (Rigv.. 135. as identical There are strong reasons for the assumption. nor aging. then it is originally the same name as Manu.. the garden which Jima made shall open its gate. and there is the home of the imperishable light (Rigv. 10. and is the possessor of great wisdom. founded this remarkable citadel.. 7. pointed out by several linguists. where it is located under the mountain Damkan. animals. the kingdom of death. according to the ancient Iranian records. and other passages). The lower world. 8). Thither he transferred the best and fairest human beings to be found on earth. and there he drinks with the gods (Rigv. Jama dwells under a tree "with broad leaves". while other passages. Mimi. but enjoys the most friendly relations with the godhead. and preserves through all the historical ages those treasures of uncorrupted men. 8. The purpose of this is mentioned in Minokhird. nor death can come. whose domain and the scene of whose activities is the lower world. The purpose of this garden is not simply to protect the beings collected there during the great winter. ix. animals. where Jima. 9. is. v.1). according to Rigveda. and in the beginning of the regeneration. with inexhaustible fountains. In his kingdom flow inexhaustible fountains.. and after him Abel Bergaigne (Religion Ved. i. within which neither destructive storms. Roth. nor sickness. 105. a sort of catechism of the legends and morals of the Avesta religion. they are to remain there through all historical ages. and plants which in the beginning of time were collected there. 16. i. there comes a great conflagration and then a regeneration of the world. nor physical ills. nor moral evil.). regard Jama and Mann. Jama's kingdom. last by Müllenhoff (Deutsche Alt. x. and like it is to be referred to the idea of thinking. where he serves the mead of inspiration. who does not belong to the group of immortal celestial beings. and decorated the enclosed garden with the most beautiful and useful trees and plants. which the gods are fond of and which he was the first to prepare. There it is said that after the conflagration of the world. cp.

with Völuspá in skamma 14:1-3 . At all events. disappears. the progenitor of the Asa race. The other is the primeval cow. which "play" against the vault of heaven (Völuspá 58:7-8 . The sea rises. Rigveda's Vâyu-Vâta. abandoned. Audhumla liberates from the frost-stones in Chaos Buri. We know who the inhabitants of the grove are. and thus . They must be living persons of flesh and blood. Odinn (Zimmer. and the crests of its waves aspire to heaven itself (cp. and form with them heated vapours. Audhumla is preserved in Gylfaginning 6. and in accordance with these precepts they are to live for ever a just and happy life. overflows the earth sinking beneath its billows. cp. THE PURPOSE OF MIMIR'S GROVE IN THE REGENERATION OF THE WORLD. whose flames do not penetrate thither. The atmosphere. líður lönd yfir). and the land in which it is situated. through this epoch of the world.Haf gengur hríðum við himin sjálfan. Both are there put in theogonic connection with Mimir. whose Norse name or epithet. Mimir's land and Mimir's grove in the world-plan of our mythology. and a seminary where Baldur educates them in virtue and piety. One of the reasons why the fancy has made all the forces and elements of nature thus contend and blend was doubtless to furnish a sufficiently good cause for the dissolution and disappearance of the burnt crust of the earth. men. Was it thought that the grove after the regeneration was to continue in the lower world and there stand uninhabited. The one is the celestial lord of the wind. Its snow and winds (Völuspá in skamma 14:5-6 . Haupt's Zeitschr. and why they. Still the purpose of Mimir's land is not limited to being. since the human race of the regenerated earth must be the same. though dwellers in the lower world. as we have seen. and things? The last moments of the existence of the crust of the old earth are described as a chaotic condition in which all elements are confused with each other. a protection for the fathers of the future world against moral and physical corruption.sígur fold í mar. desolate. and with her becomes the father of Odin (Hávamál 140.. 1875. the ásmegir during Ragnarok. and his son Bor is married to Mimir's sister Bestla.snjóar og snarir vindar) are blended with water and fire.leikur hár hiti við himin sjálfan). Mannhardt and Kaegi). The grove protects. Völuspá 58:2 .Völuspá in skamma 14:4). Vâta's tasks are the same as Odin's. must be living persons.of the gods and in the precepts of morality. At all events. and without a purpose in the future existence of gods. 55. It should be added that the two beings whom the Iranian ruler of the lower world is said to have honoured are found or have equivalents in the Teutonic mythology. who did not come there through the gate of death. as it were (loft bilar . exist after the flames of Ragnarok are extinguished. Vâta is thought to be the same name as Wodan. Vayush. usurped by the sea. Gylfaginning 6). We now know the purpose of Ódáinsakur. Thus the grove. the earth is gone when the rage of the elements is subdued.

with dead bodies under his wings.it is not impediment to the act of regeneration which takes its beginning beneath the waves. The waterfalls contain fishes. The earth risen from the deep has mountains and cascades. The earth risen from the sea had been the lower world before it came out of the deep. could be a home for beings which need air in order to breathe and exist. the corpse-eating demon of the lower world. The eagle cannot be a survivor of the beings of the old earth. and from Sólarljóð (56) we learn . upp koma öðru sinni jörð úr ægi iðja græna. The earth rising from the sea has. Under all circumstances.that Nidi is identical with Mimir (see No. and from which he carried his prey to Nastrond (Völuspá 38-39).. but with the power of pushing water away while it rises to the surface. and his task is done. the necessary atmosphere around it. Nidi's mountains. hasten to the sea. This act of regeneration consists in the rising from the depths of the sea of a new earth. away from the rocks. is not necessarily to be regarded as a miracle in mythology.Völuspá 37). which on its very rising possesses living beings and is clothed in green. Among the mountains which rise on the new earth are found those which are called Niða fjöll (Völuspá 67). the seeress in Völuspá 60 sees after Ragnarok . the cascades. It is more than unnecessary to imagine that the lower world with this Paradise was duplicated by another with a similar Paradise. and the imperishable vegetation which suddenly came to the surface. while yet below the sea. but as the text has . it tries to be as probable and consistent with its premises as possible. There are no more dead bodies to be had for him. Mythology has its miracles. The very name Nidi suggests the lower world. Nidi's mountains are situated on Mimir's fields. As its object is to be trusted.a statement confirmed by much older records . not otherwise. where he from time immemorial had had his abode. Mythology did not need to have recourse to any hocus-pocus to get them there. and that the living creatures on the former were by some magic manipulation transferred to the latter. there is also a hall of gold on Nidi's plains (á Niða völlum . Our ancestors only needed to have seen an air-bubble rise to the surface of the water in order to draw the conclusion that air can be found under the water without mixing with it. from their fountains in the fells. The fact that it. Among the abodes of Hades. but it also has its logic. It resorts to miracles and magic only when it is necessary. It means the "lower one". when it speaks of some one "who must sink. which.. Whether the last line of Völuspá has reference to Nidhogg or not. Lif and Leifthrasir. It cannot have endured in an atmosphere full of fire and steam. nor is there any reason why the mythology should spare the eagle among all the creatures of the old earth. It is. of the same origin as the mountains.) assumes this to be the case. The earth risen from the sea also contains human beings. and above them soars the eagle seeking its prey (Völuspá 60:5-8). therefore. and their offspring. Müllenhoff (Deutsche Alt. namely. Völuspá's seeress discovers on the rejuvenated earth Nidhogg. Thus. like the old earth. mentioned in Völuspá. and he is probably right. 87)." cannot be determined. and a paradise-region in the lower world had for centuries been the abode of Lif and Leifthrasir. flying.

iii. the mythology had no special reason for bringing the tablets from the lower world before Ragnarok. 177. then they naturally should be found on the risen earth. The common interpretation is iðjagræna. Remark. in the meadows of the renewed earth. and Nidhogg with them. where it was stated that the winter was not able to devastate Gudmund-Mimir's domain. again. since these mountains are located in Mimir's realm. Völuspá gives one more proof of this. iii." and this harmonises well with the idea preserved in the sagas mentioned above. have been raised out of the sea. partly that its strange character consisted in the fact that it could itself take part in the game and move the pieces. 61). "There. and partly that it was preserved in the lower world. the tablet-game was refound in the grass. But they had the tablets only í árdaga. in this work. existed through thousands of years below the sin-stained earth. Afterwards. and that Gudmund-Mimir was in the habit of playing with tablets (Fornaldarsögur. The Icelandic sagas of the middle ages have remembered this game of tablets. i. free from care. and the more so. the horn. in the earliest time (Völuspá 8. Völuspá 60 calls the earth rising from the sea iðja græna: Sér hún upp koma öðru sinni jörð úr ægi iðja græna. and as I. having had their abode there for a long time in Mimir's domain. Meanwhile the composition iðja-græna has a perfectly abnormal appearance. 203. 200. 175.the era of virtue and bliss . and there we learn. 72. were the wonderful tablets found left in the grass. The earth of the new era . the Asas played with strange tablets. Lif and Leifthrasir are found after Ragnarok on the earth of the regenerated world. though concealed. now. 73) recurs in Völuspá's statement that the fields unsown yield harvests in the new earth. they must in some way or other have lost them. 339. The existence of Nidi's mountains on the new earth confirms the fact that it is identical with Mimir's former lower world. and that Lif and Leifthrasir did not need to move from one world to another in order to get to the daylight of their final destination. this question is set aside. as the kernel within the shell. and awakens .) If. Thus the idea contained in the expression óskorið ax Haddingja lands (see Nos. "the ever green" or "very green. if the latter was Mimir's domain before. In their youth. ii. In some of these passages the game is mentioned in connection with another subterranean treasure. since Völuspá's description of the regenerated earth under all circumstances shows that Nidhogg has naught there to do but to fly thence and disappear." Thus. Völuspá 61 also relates that they were found in its grass: Þar munu eftir undursamlegar gullnar töflur í grasi finnast.have. Nidi's mountains.hún (she) not hann (he) [nú mun hún sökkvast]. having from the earliest time been preserved in Mimir's realm. do not base anything even on the most probable text emendation. together with the rejuvenated earth.

and which was identical with Asgard (Þar næst gjörðu þeir sér borg i miðjum heimi. and this j must also have been heard in the inflections. Permit me to present in brief a sketch of how the cosmography and eschatology of Gylfaginning developed themselves out of this assumption: .) reads iðja. In regard to the position of Yggdrasil and its roots in the universe. and finally developed its most luxurious and abundant blossoms in the Younger Edda preface and in certain other parts of that work. CRITICISM ON GYLFAGINNING'S COSMOGRAPHY. er kallað er .The Asas were originally men. The first condition. to which Yggdrasil supplies the trunk and the main outlines..suspicion. This caution is the more important for the reason that an examination of Gylfaginning very soon shows that the whole cosmographical and eschatological structure which it has built out of fragmentary mythic traditions is based on a conception wholly foreign to Teutonic mythology. If the conjecture is as correct as it seems probable. and dwelt in the Troy which was situated on the centre of the earth. and that his statements accordingly are to be made a link in that chain of documents which exist for the scholar. and without basing anything on the assumption. who tries to follow the fate of the myths during a Christian period and to study their gradual corruption and confusion. This "learned" conception found its way to the North. Óðreris alda þýtr in Einar Skalaglamm and Boðnar bára tér vaxa in the same skald). græna. and then handed down from chronicle to chronicle. that the Teutons were descended from the Trojans. is of interest not only in regard to the cosmography of the mythology. but especially in regard to the mythic conception of the lower world and the whole eschatology. Iða has originally had a j in the stem (it is related to ið and iði). I may be permitted to present the possibility that iðja is an old genitive plural of iða. the green". however. freed from conjectures and based in all respects on evidence. an eddying body of water. then the new earth is characterised as "the green earth of the eddying fountains. more than 200 years after the introduction of Christianity in Iceland. and that their gods were originally Trojan chiefs and magicians. To get a clear idea. 56. From various metaphors in the old skalds we learn that they conceived the fountains of the lower world as roaring and in commotion (e. on the conception framed by the scholars in Frankish cloisters. there are statements both in Gylfaginning and in the ancient heathen records. of how the mythology conceived the world-tree and its roots. We must bear in mind that the author of Gylfaginning lived and wrote in the 13th century.g." and the fountains are those famous three which water the roots of the world-tree. and translates "the fresh. As a conjecture. which again has its peculiar cosmological character and its peculiar eschatological end. for a fruitful investigation is that we consider the heathen or heathen-appearing records by themselves without mixing their statements with those of Gylfaginning. Müllenhoff (Deutsche Alt. that is. for it appears that each one of the Yggdrasil roots stands not alone above its particular fountain in the lower world but also over its peculiar lower-world domain. THE COSMOGRAPHY.

of wisdom. það köllum vér Trója. this fountain is situated beneath the ash Yggdrasil. The placing of the root is also done with consistency. In this manner two myths were made to do service in regard to one of the remaining Yggdrasil roots. At the time when Gylfaginning was written. The second mythic tradition employed is Urd's fountain. . The third mythic tradition used as material is the world-tree. the heavens. not downward. But from Gylfaginning's premises it follows that if Asgard-Troy is situated on the surface of the earth. Gylfaginning. Thence Gylfaginning draws the correct conclusion that Asgard was supposed to be situated at one end of the bridge and Urd's fountain near the other. hostile to gods and to men. The one myth was taken from Völuspá. Since one of Yggdrasil's roots thus had received its place far up in the heavens. so that we get the following series of wrong localisations: . The conclusion is drawn with absolute consistency (Hvern dag ríða æsir þangað upp um Bifröst Gylfaginning 15). which makes the Asas dwell in Troy. above Bifrost. it became necessary to place a second root on a level with the earth and the third one was allowed to retain its position in the lower world.Ásgarður. where we are told that frost-giants dwell under one of the three roots. and still under one of Yggdrasil's roots. bordering on the earth. Thus this fountain of creative power. Urd's fountain.Down on the earth. of world-preservation. popular traditions told that Gudmund-Mimir was of giant descent (see the middle-age sagas narrated above). Asgard-Troy. Þar byggðu guðin og ættir þeirra og gjörðust þaðan af mörg tíðindi og greinir bæði á jörðu og á lofti . But they are extraordinary architects and succeed (guðin gjörðu brú til himins af jörðu . and hell. The myth had stated that the gods daily rode from their celestial abodes on the bridge Bifrost to Urd's (subterranean) fountain. The first mythic tradition which supplies material for the structure which Gylfaginning builds on this foundation is the bridge Bifrost. According to Völuspá 19.Gylfaginning 9). Urd's fountain must be situated in the heavens. therefore makes the gods undertake an enterprise of the greatest boldness. thence up to the heavens the bridge Bifrost.Gylfaginning 13). and that the Asas accordingly when they ride to Urd's fountain must ride upward. The conclusion drawn by Gylfaginning by the aid of its Trojan premises is that since Urd's fountain is situated in the heavens. which Gylfaginning regards as being Jotunheim. the other was Grímnismál 31. in the land of the frost-giants. where it was learned that Mimir's fountain is situated below the sacred world-tree. From this Gylfaginning draws the conclusion that Mimir was a frost-giant. Thus was produced a just distribution of the roots among the three regions which in the conception of the middle ages constituted the universe. and still later. high above Urd's fountain. and it identifies the root which extends to the frost-giants with the root that extends to Mimir's fountain. which went (down in the lower world) to Urd's fountain. that of building a bridge from Troy to the heavens. one of Yggdrasil's three roots (which in the mythology are all in the lower world). namely. and of poetry receives from Gylfaginning its place in the abode of the powers of frost. this root must be located still further up in the heavens. the earth. The myth had said that this bridge united the celestial abodes with a part of the universe situated somewhere below.

and Mimir's realm and fountain. which in the mythology descended to the well Hvergelmir and to the lower world of the frost-giants. as shall be shown below. Niflhel. Niflhel. in accord with the statements of Gylfaginning. had to assume that the lower world of the heathens was exclusively a realm of misery and torture. Niflheim. and Yggdrasil's third root. to the lower world. Proofs of this shall be given below. was the abode of the damned. although he had the best of reasons for suspecting its correctness. than the following: . Gylfaginning. must undergo a similar change. and particularly of its domain of bliss. with the Trojan hypothesis as its starting-point. and without even thinking of the absurdity in which he involves himself. the goddess of fate and death. which was solely the home of misery and torture. that is to say. In a local sense. which rarely happened. The manner in which it has placed the roots of the world-tree makes us first of all conceive Yggdrasil as lying horizontal in space. But even here he had the courage to be true to his premises. they being transferred to Jotunheim. a sort of counterpart of the hell of the Church. also called Hel. when named after the country over which she ruled. with the regions subject to it. According to the mythology. the name Hel could be applied partly to the whole lower world. so that the same gods who before had cast the horrible child of Loki down into the ninth region of Niflhel are now compelled to send a minister-plenipotentiary to her majesty to treat with her and pray for Baldur's liberation. The goddess of the lower world. the pure and pious Asa-god Baldur comes to Hel. and the third.In this way Gylfaginning. which was more common. partly to Urd's and Mimir's realms of bliss. An attempt to make this matter intelligible can produce no other picture of Yggdrasil. and since Urd (the real Hel) was transferred to the heavens. he goes on and endows the sister of the Midgard-serpent and of the Fenris-wolf with that perfect power which before belonged to Destiny personified. A certain hesitancy might here have been in order. Urd. the name Hel. But after the transformation to which the lower world had been subjected in Gylfaginning's system. and to one of its realms of bliss. has gotten so far that it has separated from the lower world with its three realms and three fountains Urd's realm and fountain. to be logical. This method is also pursued by Gylfaginning's author without hesitation. they being transferred to the heavens. the descent of Baldur to Hel must have meant a descent to and a remaining in the world of misery and torture. and a relation of subject to the daughter of Loki. the latter being regarded as identical with Niflheim and the places of punishment therewith connected. both in its local and in its personal sense. In the mythology these two realms were the subterranean regions of bliss. This should have awakened doubts in the mind of the author of Gylfaginning. was in the mythology. This result carries with it another. This conclusion is also drawn with due consistency. there comes a point where the courage of consistency fails Gylfaginning. But when the lower world had been changed to a sort of hell. there was nothing to hinder Gylfaginning from substituting for the queen of the lower world Loki's daughter cast down into Niflhel and giving her the name Hel and the sceptre over the whole lower world. and Hel was then the opposite of Niflhel. After these separations were made. But finally. extends over the whole lower world.

Yggdrasil has three roots. which are located each under its root. Under one of the subterranean roots dwells the goddess of death and fate. that is the one which stands over heaven. the realms are the heavens. for this is beyond the range of human imagination. Urd. 3. 3. dwells Urd the goddess of fate. How we. Jotunheim. The lower world consists of three realms. Gylfaginning. 1. Yggdrasil has three roots. . One is in the lower world. To each root corresponds a fountain and a realm in the lower world. then. a second stands over Jotunheim on a level with the earth. All three roots are subterranean. each with its fountain and each with its root.But Gylfaginning is not disposed to draw this conclusion. and there is Urd's fountain. On the contrary. who is also called Hel. a third stands over the heavens. are to conceive its roots as united one with the other and with the trunk of this it very prudently leaves us in ignorance. it insists that Yggdrasil stands erect on its three roots. 4. 2. To each root corresponds a fountain and a realm. 2. 4. Under one of the roots. and in her realm is Urd's fountain. The contrast between the mythological doctrine in regard to the three Yggdrasil roots. 1. and the lower world. and Gylfaginning's view of the subject may easily be demonstrated by the following parallels: The Mythology.

Under the third (and only subterranean) root dwell the souls of sinners and those who have died from sickness and age. for the Asas are in reality men who dwelt on earth in the city of Troy. and the realm of the frost-giants is Niflhel (Niflheim).5. 7. 8. Under this root is the well Hvergelmir. The sister of the Midgardserpent and of the Fenriswolf was cast by the gods into the regions of torture under Niflhel. where a subterranean race of men are preserved for the future world. The lower world is called Niflhel or Niflheim. By this is meant. but the root over Urd's fountain. and as the sister of the Midgard-serpent governs the whole lower world. Under this root is the well Hvergelmir and the whole lower world. As Hel means the lower world. 8. not the root over Mimir's well. 6. This root may. she is meant by the 7. therefore. 6. Under the third (subterranean) root dwell frost-giants. but means particularly that region of bliss where Urd's fountain is . Under the second (subterranean) root dwells Mimir. which consists of Niflhel with the nine regions of torture. and contains nine places of torture. The name Hel can be applied to the whole lower world. In his realm is Mimir's fountain and Mimir's grove. The sister of the Midgardserpent and of the Fenriswolf was cast by the gods into the regions of torture under Niflhel. and received the rule over the places where the damned are punished. according to Gylfaginning. Under Niflhel are nine regions of torture. near which the Asas hold their assemblies. It is said that one of the roots stands over mennskir menn (Grímnismál). be said to stand over mennskir menn (Grímnismál). and received the rule over the whole lower world.

but in a confused and contradictory manner. at least in Iceland. not with complacency and assurance. since the lower world has been made into a sort of hell. As shall be shown below. but rejects Völuspá's statements about Nidhogg and the wolf. with which the author interpreted the heathen myths accessible to him. In this new character Hvergelmir becomes the centre and the worst place in Gylfaginning's description of the heathen Gehenna. It was an old custom. and to note at the same time all the passages which may come in my way and which are of importance to the myth concerning the lower world. a caricature which is continued. in the eschatology of Gylfaginning. that booths for the accommodation of the visitors were built around a remote thing-stead. personal Hel. This done. My chief task will now be to review and examine all the passages in the Elder Edda's mythological songs. clear. No doubt because the old dragon. and holy. It continues the chain of its conclusions. Gylfaginning does not stop with the above results. Gylfaginning follows Völuspá in speaking of the other terrors in Nastrond. and in this respect easily recognised by the Christian conception of the middle ages. and the waves sent in the latter direction are shining. on account of its making Troy the starting-point. Gylfaginning makes its Trojan Asas follow the example of the Icelanders. . in order to find out in this manner in which sense or senses these words are there employed. According to Völuspá it is in Nastrond that Nidhogg sucks and the wolf tears the dead bodies (náir). which it also fills with serpents and dead bodies found in Grímnismál (34. The Lokidaughter in Niflhel is her slave and must obey her commands. the Hvergelmir of the mythology is the mother-fountain of all waters. and casts both these beasts down into the Hvergelmir fountain. Gylfaginning throws Nidhogg down into Hvergelmir. and is situated on a high plain in the lower world. partly south to the elysian fields of heathendom. Gylfaginning distributes as best it can the divine halls and abodes of bliss mentioned in the mythology between Troy on the earth and the thing-stead in heaven. where they have no connection with Hvergelmir. and put up houses around the thing-stead. 35). be a fountain of hell. which they selected near Urd's fountain. wherein the words Hel and Niflhel occur. Thence its waters flow partly northward to Niflheim. This may be sufficient to show that Gylfaginning's pretended account of the old mythological cosmography is. is simply a monstrous caricature of the mythology. after they had succeeded in securing by Bifrost a connection between Troy and heaven. for Urd is the personal Hel. is to be found in the hell-fountain of the middle ages. and doubtless also to some extent as a result of the Christian methods of thought. 20). or place for holding the parliament. which is hurled down into the abyss (Revelation. After Hvergelmir has been selected by Gylfaginning as the only fountain in the lower world.situated. chap. it should.

Hellewite." "conceals. The same word for Gehenna is found among the Christian Teutons in England. and. which showed that a subterranean place of punishment was meant. had to find some way of distinguishing with suitable words between the two realms of the lower world mentioned in the New Testament. It came slowly. the Anglo-Saxon Hellia. that part of the lower world where it is necessary to do penance (víti) for one's sins. the Roman Church had very nearly obliterated the boundary line between the subterranean Hades and Gehenna of the New Testament. From England the expression doubtless came to Scandinavia. the translator. there was no longer room in the Christian conception. which contains both fields of bliss and regions of torture. Regions of bliss were no longer to be found there. and to mean the one who "hides. and to retain its heathen signification as long as the Christian generations were able or cared to preserve it. geenna). the middle condition. Hellawisi. On account of its occurrence with similar signification in different Teutonic tongues in their oldest linguistic monuments. This change can be pretty accurately traced in the Old Norse literature. though with various gradations. It is believed to be related to the Latin oc-cul-ere. Hel was therefore permitted to remain a heathen word. the Hellia. Both the compounds bear testimony that the place of punishment in the lower world could not be expressed with Hella. Ulfilas. Hades and Gehenna (Gr. In the North. scholars have been able to draw the conclusion that the word points to a primitive Teutonic Halja. hell. become a realm of torture. and the locality corresponding to this condition. that is to say. and in the Danish Helvede. for the doctrine in regard to the lower world in the Teutonic religion addressed itself powerfully to the imagination. far from being indefinite in its . When the books of the New Testament were for the first time translated into a Teutonic tongue." "preserves". he translated with Halja. but it was necessary to add a word. For Gehenna. and the English Hell. clam. the same skald who with great hesitation permitted himself to be persuaded by Olaf Tryggvason to abandon the faith of his fathers. in the Swedish Hälvete. belongs to the form which afterwards predominated in Scandinavia.57. The Norse Hel is the same word as the Gothic Halja. as a whole. namely. One of these. as appears from a careful examination. he used the borrowed word gaiainna. where we find in the Icelandic Hel-víti. The lower world had. doubtless because the signification of this word corresponded most faithfully with the meaning of the word Hades. The Old High German translation also reproduces Hades with the word Hella. the Old High German Hella. and that the idea of the Christian hell should gradually be transferred to the heathen Hel. It is natural that the memory of this signification should gradually fade. cel-are. Hades. Many centuries before Scandinavia was converted to Christianity. In the Icelandic literature it is found for the first time in Hallfred. and for Hel in the sense in which Ulfilas used Halja. THE WORD HEL IN LINGUISTIC USAGE. lower world divinity. and the Old High German translation Hella. meaning lower world. into a Gothic dialect. For Gehenna it uses two expressions compounded with Hella.

even down to the minutest details. frysa ihjäl. A funeral could be called a Helför (a Hel-journey). fatal illness Helsótt (Hel-sickness). One of these modes of speech still exists: i hjäl (slå ihjäl.outlines. While he was still in Niflhel. according to Vegtamskviða [Baldurs draumar]. which is the Old Norse í Hel. to lie between this world and Hel (between life and death). the deceased could be called Helgengnir (those gone to Hel). it was. Thus it is evident that Hel. the signification of a death-kingdom of such a nature that it could not with linguistic propriety be used in translating Gehenna . What there is to be said about í Hel also applies to such phrases as bíða Heljar. When Odin. to lie on Hel's threshold. Such expressions show by the very presence of Hel that they have been handed down from heathendom. on the contrary. Of friends it is said that Hel (death) alone could separate them (Heimskringla. Not until the thirteenth century could such a description of the heathen Hel as Gylfaginning's be possible and find readers who would accept it. to await Hel (death). Already in a very remote age í Hel had acquired the abstract meaning to death. THE WORD HEL IN VEGTAMSKVIÐA AND IN VAFÞRÚÐNISMÁL. In determining the question. On the way he took he came first to Niflhel. and the former continued his . Thus the rider and the dog came from opposite directions. the usage of the spoken language in expressions where Hel is found. But not even then were the memories (preserved in fragments from the heathen days) in regard to the lower world doctrine so confused. and that the word was used without any additional suggestion of damnation amid torture in the minds of those employing it.we must first consult that which really is the oldest source. svälta ihjäl. The phrase would never have been created if the word Hel had especially conveyed the notion of a place of punishment. described with the clearest lines and most vivid colours. búast til Heljar. to become equipped for the journey to Hel (to be shrouded). or have been formed in analogy with old heathen phrases. Gylfaginning's representation of the heathen Hades is based less on the then existing confusion of the traditions than on the conclusions drawn from the author's own false premises.the realm of death (an example of this will be given below). liggja milli heims og Heljar. in the more general local sense of the word. which came from the direction where that division of the lower world is situated. We do not use this expression in the sense that a person killed by a weapon. which is called Hel. resolved to get reliable information in the lower world in regard to the fate which threatened Baldur. but in such a manner that the phrase easily suggested the concrete idea . referred to a place common for all the dead. he met on his way a dog bloody about the breast. &c. Still less could the heathens have used it in that sense. or frost is relegated to the abyss of torture. but that it was possible to present a far more faithful (or rather not so utterly false) description thereof.). how far Hel among the heathen Scandinavians has had a meaning identical with or similar to that which Halja and Hella had among their Gothic and German kinsmen . Inga saga Haraldssonar 18). he saddled his Sleipnir and rode thither.that is to say. liggja á Heljar þremi. 58. famine.

the spirits of deceased human beings (cp. a road along grassgrown plains. In Vafþrúðnismál 43 the old giant says: Frá jötna rúnum og allra goða eg kann segja satt. and mead was served. Of the runes of giants and all the gods I can speak truly.í helju. belongs to the queen of the lower world. foldvegur dundi. Allvíssmál 18:6. 32:6. The way resounded under the hoofs of the steed. hinig deyja úr Helju halir. . that is to say.e. Hér stendur Baldri of brugginn mjöður.. evidently a watch of the borders between Niflhel and Hel. The name of the dwelling shows that it was situated in Hel. not in Niflhel. had left him in peace. 3.course in the direction whence the latter came. 26:6. for I have been in every world: nine worlds I visited below Niflhel. 20:6. the abode where the ásmegir longingly waited for the arrival of Baldur.halir). with 28:3 . Halir means men. applied to beings in the lower world halir means dead men. which reveals a lavish splendour. Accordingly. The dwelling. The high dwelling was decorated as for a feast. The dog turned. Vegtamskviða distinguishes distinctly between Niflhel and Hel. This latter realm of the lower world Odin now had had behind him ever since he reached the green fields. the noblest and most pious of all the Asas. to Niflhel and the regions subject to it. Sá var blóðugur um brjóst framan. according to Gylfaginning. hann kom að hávu Heljar ranni. so Vafþrúðnismál also distinguishes distinctly between Hel and Niflhel. and since the dog. En ásmegir í ofvæni. því að hvern hefi eg heim um komið: níu kom eg heima fyr Niflhel neðan. Thus Vegtamskviða: 2. and long pursued Odin with his barking. 34:5 . It was. Fram reið Óðinn. is described as the very antithesis of that awful abode which. human beings. particularly in those most remarkable words that thither. thither die "halir" from Hel. mætti hann hvelpi þeim er úr helju kom. Then the rider reached a foldvegr. og galdurs föður gól um lengi. Then Odin finally came to a high dwelling. i. which is called Heljar rann. Reið hann niður þaðan Niflheljar til. Like Vegtamskviða. Odin learned. In Hel is the dwelling which awaits the son of the gods. die "halir" from Hel. 7.

which. makes the former question more complicated. and that it is wicked men (vondir menn) who are obliged to cross the border from Hel to Niflhel. If Hel is a realm of bliss. HVERGELMIR'S FOUNTAIN AND ITS DEFENDERS. it appears that the mythology conceived Hvergelmir as a vast reservoir. THE WORD HELBLÓTINN IN ÞÓRSDRÁPA. that Odin saw the splendid abode where the ásmegir had already served the precious subterranean mead for his son. then why do not the souls of the damned go at once to their final destination. on the other hand. as long as it remains unanswered. may there be subject to a second death. while it was in Hel. but not unimportant weight in the balance which is to determine the question whether that border-line which a second death draws between Hel and Niflhel is the boundary between a realm of bliss and a realm of suffering. What these different conditions are.). nor will I anticipate the investigation on this point. on the contrary. and this poem is (together with Gylfaginning) the only ancient record which gives us any information about the well Hvergelmir under this name (26 ff. but are taken first to the realm of bliss. then why should they who are destined for a better fate. Baldur in the one realm. the only. the mother-fountain of all the waters of the world (þaðan eigu vötn öll vega).this is.nothing less is here said than that deceased persons who have come to the realm called Hel. Thus the same sharp distinction is here made between life in Hel and in Niflhel as between life on earth and that in Hel. and that through this second death they come to Niflhel. who barked at the Asa-majesty. 59. also forces to the front another question. This argues that they who through a second death get over the border from Hel to Niflhel. So far it must be borne in mind that it was in Niflhel Odin met the bloody dog-demon. after they have died the second death on the boundary-line between the two? And if. Vafþrúðnismál does not inform us. for the present. the just Baldur. though he could not hinder the father of the mighty and protecting sorceries from continuing his journey. These two subterranean realms must therefore represent very different conditions. first be brought to it through the world of torture. Hel were the realm of unhappiness and Niflhel offered a better lot. then to the realm of anguish and pain. This expression in Vafþrúðnismál. THE BORDER MOUNTAIN BETWEEN HEL AND NIFLHEL. hinig deyja úr Helju halir. 31). and then be separated from the latter by a second death before they could gain the more happy goal? These questions cannot be answered until later on. In Grímnismál the word Hel occurs twice (28. THE WORD HEL IN GRÍMNISMÁL. whether Hel or Niflhel is the realm of bliss. From what is related. the blood-stained kinsman of Cerberus in the other . still less will I appeal to Gylfaginning's assurance that the realms of torture lie under Niflhel. that is. and if Niflhel with the regions subject thereto is a realm of unhappiness. In the front rank are mentioned a number of subterranean rivers which rise in . and in this case. do not by this transfer get a better fate than that to which Hel invites those who have died the first death.

and Baldur and Hodur who dwell in Hel. Thor being for this reason obliged to wade across four rivers before he gets to Urd's fountain. or entrusted to. (Whether they were all found in the original text may be a subject of doubt. and the two Kerlaugar. The name itself. the elf of dawn.) Three of them are mentioned in other records . and after completing their circuits they return thither. the citadel guarded by Delling. Nor must Thor on these journeys. there is in the lower world a place to which these references apply. the beds of these rivers must have been conceived as crossing the paths travelled by the god journeying to the thingstead. Interpolators may have added from their own knowledge. ii. or on the way thither.a citadel in which the ásmegir and Baldur . The word hodd means that which is concealed (the treasure). Hodd goða.and all three are referred to in such a way as to prove that they are subterranean rivers. This girdle of rivers. like the asas.þær hverfa um Hodd goða). The horses which they use are named in strophe 30. The word goða in Hodd goda shows that the place is possessed by.and probably Hodur too. That the thunder-chariot also is dangerous for higher regions when it is set in motion. Of these last two rivers flowing out of Hvergelmir it is said that they flow down to Hel (falla til Heljar. Gjöll in that account of Hermod's journey to Hel's realm. in case he wished to take the route by way of Bifrost. beings of divine rank.Hvergelmir. For he does not ride like the other gods when they journey down over Bifrost to the thingstead near Urd's fountain. and whirls weapons in its eddies.namely. and with Baldur is to return thence . use the thunder-chariot. Accordingly they must have their courses somewhere in Urd's realm. when we subtract Thor who walks. far up in a subterranean mountain . Hund. and by which solemn oaths are sworn. and decorated by the famous artists of the lower world . and Leiftur in Helg. Slíður flows to the realms of torture. and consequently they too belong to the lower world. Leiftur (which name means "the shining one") has clear waters. But the waters of earth and heaven also come from this immense fountain. of which it is said that it is over these Thor must wade every day when he has to go to the judgment-seats of the gods near the ash Yggdrasil. Over Gjöll there is a bridge of gold to Baldur's subterranean abode. and at the same time a protected sacred place. Thus these are all subterranean. In the German poem Heliand the word hord. for the flames issuing from it might set fire to the Asa-bridge and make the holy waters glow (29). thereof Thjodolf gives us a brilliant description in the poem Haustlaung.Körmt and Örmt. seems to indicate that this is a realm from which it is important to shut out everything that does not belong there. which the mythology unites around a single place. is used about the holiest of holies in the Jerusalem temple. Forty rivers rising there are named. which are holy. Other rivers coming from Hvergelmir are said to turn their course around a place called Hodd goða (27 . corresponding to hodd. 31 . since he is transferred to the lower world. Slíður in Völuspá 36. As we already know. points in the same direction. namely.await the end of the historical time and the regeneration. as by Styx. presumably to hinder or frighten anybody from attempting to cross. which in its main outlines was rescued by the author of Gylfaginning (chapter 49). The liquids or saps which rise in the world-tree's stem to its branches and leaves around Herfather's hall (Valhall) return in the form of rain to Hvergelmir (Grímnismál 26). and seek their courses thence in various directions. and are ten in number. The next strophe (29) adds four rivers . Grímnismál 28). From what has here been stated in regard to Hvergelmir it follows that the mighty well was conceived as situated on a high water-shed.

The tradition on which Saxo's account of Gorm's journey to the lower world is based makes Gorm and his men. What that division of the lower world which lies below the other side of Mount Hvergelmir is called is not stated in Grímnismál.which might prohibit the crossing of the boundary by persons who neither had a right nor were obliged to cross. In regard to the topography and eschatology of the Teutonic lower world. in Vafþrúðnismál halir die from Hel to Niflhel. Nifl. and to complement each other. a high land. (2) this mountain. a world of fog. cloud. Hence it follows that the land on the other side of the Hvergelmir mountain is Niflhel. flow in the vicinity of mankind (gumnum nær . excepting by scalæ. The name Hel alone has evidently had partly a more general application to a territory embracing the whole kingdom of death . when from Gudmund-Mimir's realm they wish to visit the abodes of the damned.Book VIII. mist.28:11). which we for the present may call Mount Hvergelmir. Niflhel means that Hel which is enveloped in fog and twilight. 264). This is Saxo's way of translating the name Niflhel.a mountain or a body of water . first cross a river and then come to a boundary which cannot be crossed. nebula and Gr. an ancient word. and from the latter point of view it is that division of the lower world which is not enveloped in mist and fog. Of several of these rivers it is said that they in their upper courses. and an . whence those rivers of which it is the source flow down in different directions to different realms of Hades. or ladders. from which rivers flow in different directions. is the watershed of the lower world. According to the cosmography of the mythology there was. that open to a city "resembling most a cloud of vapour" (vaporanti maxime nubi simile .range. darkness.else it could not be used as a part of the compound word Niflhel . steps on the mountain wall. are they said to falla til Heljar. where their source is. before they reach Hel. Hvergelmir and this high land are not to be referred to that division of the lower world which in Grímnismál is called Hel. it is now of importance to find out on which opposite sides of the Hvergelmir mountain Hel and Niflhel were conceived to be situated. in which Hel.partly a more limited meaning. which naturally can have no other meaning than that the high land through which they flow after leaving Hvergelmir has been conceived as lying not very deep below the crust of Midgard (the earth). In Vegtamskviða Odin rides through Niflhel to Hel. and thence receives many rivers. and (3) that division of the lower world which is called Hel lies below one side of Mount Hvergelmir. just as he in the story about Hadding's journey to the lower world translated Glæsisvellir (the Glittering Fields) with loca aprica. for not until after the rivers have flowed through the mountain landscape. north of Ginnungagap. Hel and Niflhel thus appear to be each other's opposites. where is found Hvergelmir. related to Lat. nefele. and cold. It also seems necessary that both these Hades realms should in the mythology be separated from each other not only by an abstract boundary line. and combined they form the whole lower world. above which the gates are placed. before the time when "Ymir lived. the source of all waters. as in Vafþrúðnismál and Vegtamskviða. but also by a natural boundary . Thus (1) there is in the lower world a mountain ridge. forms a sharp contrast to Niflhel." Niflheim. darkness. But from Vafþrúðnismál and Vegtamskviða we already know that Hel is bounded by Niflhel. means fog.

though he used them in an arbitrary manner. . Niflhel with its subject regions as a realm of unhappiness. behind Yggdrasil's farthest root. Gylfaginning identifies the two (ch.opposite world. to which they daily ride down over Bifrost. Thus this mountain is the wall separating Hel from Niflhel. sends. and around whose reed-wreathed edge the seed of poetry grows (Eilif Gudrunarson). and in whose silver-white waters swans swim. Niflhel in the lower world has its counterpart in Niflheim in chaos. which stands under Yggdrasil's northern root. and the sacred thingstead of the Asas. but there is no suspicion that the author of Gylfaginning invented them. and most holy water. with flowers which never fade and with harvests which never are gathered. south of the empty abyss." and up there is the death boundary. 5 and 34). clear. The Teutons may also be said to have been compelled to construct a cosmogony in harmony with their conception of that world with which they were best acquainted. When Night has completed such a journey and come to the lower world. Baldur's and the ásmegir's citadel (perhaps identical with Hodd goda). over which Yggdrasil stands for ever green (Völuspá). the walls of which are braided of serpents (Völuspá). this is the strongest argument in favour of his having had genuine authorities for his theo-cosmogony at hand. Of the most of these rivers we now know only the names. the Glittering Fields.26). that of fire and heat. which is nowhere else named in our mythic records. that hall. or gates. the fountain of inspiration and of the creative force. But those of which we do know more are characterised in such a manner that we find that it is a sacred land to which those flowing to the South towards Hel hasten their course. and that it is an unholy land which is sought by those which send their streams to the north down into Niflhel. until Dag with his chariot gets down to the western horizon and in his turn rides through the "horse doors" of Hades into the lower world. North of the mountain roars the weapon-hurling Slíður. Forspjallsljóð [Hrafnagaldur Óðins] does the same. when they are transferred from Hel to Niflhel. Mimir's fountain. Down there in the South is found the mystic Hodd goða. Hel to the south of it. at which "halir" die for the second time. she goes northward in the direction towards Niflheim. Unfortunately it is only Gylfaginning that has preserved for our time these cosmographical outlines. rest for a new journey. characterised by a bridge of gold. Leiftur by a shining. Urd's fountain. The rivers Gjöll and Leiftur fall down into Hel. which in the Gorm story separates Gudmund-Mimir's abode from those dwellings which resemble a "cloud of vapour. From this it follows that Niflhel is to be referred to the north of the mountain Hvergelmir. On that mountain is the gate. also at Nastrond. surrounded by other Hel-rivers.to Niflhel in the North and to Hel in the South. Thus Hel is described as an Elysium. In the North sólu fjarri stands. but is not utterly forgotten in our popular traditions. their own home between the cold North and the warmer South. and Gjöll is. and which is a genuine Aryan conception. over which the "overshadowing holy tree" spreads its branches (Völuspá). rivers down to both sides . The immense water-reservoir on the brow of the mountain. seven times overlaid with gold. after completing her journey around the heavens. to remain in her hall. under which the poem makes the goddess of night. as already stated. and doubtless is the same river as that in whose "heavy streams" the souls of nithings must wade. and locates Niflheim far to the north in the lower world (norður að Niflheim . as already indicated. The fact that his cosmographic description also mentions the ancient cow Audhumla.

by the side of a wolf-demon. and which seek to injure that root of the world-tree which is nearest to them. The myth about Hvergelmir and its subterranean connection with the ocean gave our ancestors the explanation of ebb. and sometimes even casts them up again (see Nos. in spite of his wings. vehementissimo impetu traxit ad Chaos. the ocean. immo de morte sola cogitantes. one of several similar monsters which have their abode in Niflhel and those lower regions. absorberi et denuo remnovi. from and to which "all waters find their way". which led down to the "kettleroarer. 81). where they were welcomed and offered sess ok rekkju (seat and bed). Mad. and plundered their treasures (see No. a winged dragon flying about. infelices nautas jam desperatos.. Sonatorrek). Her realm was only an ante-chamber to the realms of death (Kormak. She had a hall in the bottom of the sea. a roaring). galm = Anglo-Saxon gealm. according to the Icelandic sagas of the middle age. p. Like all the Aryan mythologies. Between the death-kingdom and the ocean there was. one connecting link. quod fluctuatio dici solet" (De situ Daniæ. the Teutonic also knew this sort of monsters. . qui decrescere videntur. High up in the northern channels the bottom of the ocean opened itself in a hollow tunnel. it tortures náir (corpses). and did so long before the word "dragon" (drake) was borrowed from southern kinsmen as a name for them. 15. which by Gylfaginning is thrown into Hvergelmir. 80. is. came to the land of subterranean giants. When the waters of the ocean poured through this tunnel down into the Hades-well there was ebb-tide. Ægir's wife received them hospitably. illud profundum. Tradition tells of dragons who dwell in marshes and swamps. 79. now on the Nida Mountains. 35). The demon Nidhogg. 80. [*] * "Et ecce instabilis Oceani Euripus. 81). whence the vala in Völuspá sees him flying away with náir under his wings. Nowhere (except in Gylfaginning) is it said that he lives in the well Hvergelmir. according to the ancient records. though it is possible that he. Most of the people who drowned did not remain with Ran. On the way up some of the ships of the Frisians got into the eddy caused by the tunnel. and were sucked with terrible violence down into the lower world. Adam of Bremen had heard this tunnel mentioned in connection with the story about the Frisian noblemen who went by sea to the furthest north. in quo fama est omnes maris recursus. therefore. Hanc dicunt esse voraginem abyssi. Nidhogg abides now on Nastrond. Charlemagne's contemporary." "the one roaring in his basin" (this seems to be the meaning of Hvergelmir: hverr = kettle. This statement in Grímnismál is of course true of the greatest of all waters. relates in his history of the Longobardians that he had talked with men who had been in Scandinavia. ed. Paul Varnefrid (Diaconus). Among remarkable reports which they gave him of the regions of the far north was also that of a maelstrom. when it returned water from its superabundance there was flood-tide (see Nos. where. which swallows ships.and flood-tide. 79. that is the northern one. was conceived as an amphibious being which also could subsist in the water. perhaps several. which stands over Niflhel and stretches its rootlets southward over Mount Hvergelmir and down into its great water-reservoir (Grímnismál 34. ad initia quædam fontis sui arcana recurrens.Yet a few words about Hvergelmir. 159). 48).

38. Gylfaginning 5).who are bound by oaths to serve the gods. Here. Urd and her sisters hers. with his sons and the beings subject to him. the river Vimur. left in the mythology without protection and without a guardian? Hvergelmir we know is situated on the watershed. 2. Their chief is Egil. and Helgakviða Hjörvarðssonar 25)). South of Elivágar the gods have an "outgard. After creation this river. Hrönn. a fountain with eddying waters). Egil-Orvandil has made many remarkable journeys to Jotunheim. and forms between Midgard and the upper Jotunheim proper. Perhaps it is for this reason that he has a brother and fellowwarrior who is called Idi (Iði from iða. become integral parts of the northern regions of the lower world. cp. Hvergelmir. ch. the most famous archer in the mythology (Þórsdrápa. in order to get there. a portion of its waters up to it. and is consequently situated in the immediate vicinity of beings hostile to gods and men. 25. 3. He is "the one worshipped in Hel who scatters the clouds which rise storm-threatening over the mountain of the lower world. but there they are scattered by the faithful watchman. and of the damned. he was the most formidable foe of the giants. and the roots of Yggdrasil standing over them. Next after Thor. Hymiskviða 5.The other two subterranean fountains. must. ch. which waters this root and received so important a position in the economy of the world-tree. 25).snotrir víkingar they are called in Þórsdrápa 8 . which. long before the creation of the world. which in its extreme north froze into that ice. the world would be either dried up or drowned. and if Hvergelmir was not allowed undisturbed to conduct the circuitous flow of all waters. are well protected against the influence of the foes of creation. Grímnismál 28. in order to present . Elivágar. where it runs near the crust of the earth. he still enjoys among the inhabitants of Hel so great honour and gratitude that they confer divine honours on him. Now in company with Thor. which is also called Elivágar and Hrönn. like Hvergelmir. The "setur" is called "Iðja setur" (Þórsdrápa 2)." helblótinn hneitir undirfjálfurs bliku (Þórsdrápa 19). Hvergelmir and on the Elivágar renders to the regions of bliss in the lower world are so great that. The storm-clouds which Ari. formed out of its dropping venom the primeval giant Ymir (Vafþrúðnismál 31. The services which he as watcher on Mt. Hræsvelgur. and other storm-demons of Niflheim send to the elysian fields of the death-kingdom. Elivágar separates the realm of the giants and frost-giants from the other "worlds". Hymiskviða 7. 26. This Egil is the guardian entrusted with the care of Hvergelmir and Elivágar. I simply desire to point out here. there flowed from Hvergelmir that broad river called Elivágar. 11. Was the northern root of Yggdrasil. also called Hraunn. and to the latter all the victorious gods of Asgard come every day to hold counsel. although he does not belong to the race of the gods by birth or by adoption. 8. and in connection with Heimdall he zealously watched their every movement. and now alone. there was need of valiant and vigilant watchers. The myth in regard to him is fully discussed in the treatise on the Ivaldisons which forms a part of this work. surmount Mt. like the parent stream ( (cp. Skáldskaparmál. protects and guards his root of the tree. where we have the death-border between Hel and Niflhel fortified with abysses and gates. Skáldskaparmál. into which it empties. Urd's and Mimir's. if anywhere. Already." a "setur" which is inhabited by valiant watchers . when it melted. and Niflhel. sends in its upper course. whence it rises. of the demons. and have their separate guardians. and there the proofs will be presented for the identity of Orvandil and Egil. Mimir. 38. and was Hvergelmir. Yggdrasil needs its northern root as well as the others. As such he is also called Orvandil (the one busy with the arrow). which spreads over the realms of the frost-giants.

for a blow from the staff will remove her thither. Skirnir then offers her the most precious treasure. supported by the eleven golden apples. the ring Draupnir. Once more Skirnir shows her the sword. that Yggdrasil's northern root and the corresponding part of the lower world also had their defenders and watchmen. He wasted with love for her. It is of importance to our theme to investigate and explain the connection in which it is found. . But when the friend of his youth. 116). hjaltvöndr. in Asgard. "which fights of itself against the race of giants". 60. He exhibits the sword so dangerous to her kinsmen. hjörteinn. As bridal gifts he took with him eleven golden apples and the ring Draupnir. with it he will cut off her head if she refuses her consent. is welcomed with ancient mead. Then he resorts to threats." so that her heart shall soften. In the poem this sword receives the epithets Tamsvöndr (26) and Gambanteinn (32). and he threatens to strike her with the "subduing staff. We find. hvítvöndr. benvöndr. and in the poem is called Skirnir.complete evidence later. benteinn. In Skírnismál 27 occurs the expression horfa ok snugga Heljar til. Gambanteinn means the "rod of revenge" (see Nos. sárvöndr. Gerd answers that she is not to be frightened. The poem tells that Frey sat alone. and for his defence Frey's magnificent sword. as names for swords. mey. eggteinn. over the fence. Gerd refuses both the apples and the object of the errand. and presents his errand of courtship. it was. valteinn.). hræteinn. ever since he had seen the giant Gymir's wonderfully beautiful daughter Gerd. but he said nothing. sárteinn. who resided in Asgard. and that she has a father who is not afraid to fight. which also may fell her father (sér þú þenna mæki. morðvöndr. after a quarrel with the watchman of Gymir's citadel. mistilteinn. succeeded in getting him to confess the cause of his longing. and so Skirnir was sent to the home of the giant to ask for the hand of Gerd on Frey's behalf. since he was convinced in advance that neither Asas nor Elves would ever consent to a union between him and her. where sons of men never more shall see her (Grímnismál 26). leaps. but too late for her happiness. means the "staff that subdues". Skirnir rides over damp fells and the fields of giants. THE MYTHIC MEANING OF NÁR. 105. and I also wished to call attention to the manner in which the name Hel is employed in the word helblótinn. found necessary to do something to relieve it. He received one of the best horses of Asgard to ride. DESCRIPTION OF NIFLHEL. hríðvöndr. hævateinn. Tamsvöndr. silent and longing. THE WORD HEL IN SKÍRNISMÁL. THE HADES-DIVISION OF THE FROST-GIANTS AND SPIRITS OF DISEASE. &c. but in vain. blóðvöndr. NÁIR. Both epithets are formed in accordance with the common poetic usage of describing swords by compound words of which the latter part is vöndr or teinn. comes in to Gerd. We find it to be in harmony with the use of the same word in those passages of the poetic Edda which we have hitherto examined.

Hel is here used in its widest sense. mær. has as its first part nár (pl. which Nidhogg. The word Nagrind. do not deserve the name mannasynir. and went down to the lower world. 95). that if he does not hold his tongue the hammer Mjolnir shall send him to Hel fyr nágrindur neðan. but souls. even though the word menn be taken in its most common sense. að mínum munum. are called náir framgengnir. The name must seem strange." so as to refer to a particular division of the lower world. which had its justification and its explanation in the heathen doctrine in regard to the lower world. as we shall find. þar skaltu ganga. The people of the stone-age already knew this. and this is limited by the addition of the words "below the Na-gates. That the body from which this conscious. this our heathen ancestors knew just as well as we know it. But that which now overwhelms her with dismay is the description Skirnir gives her of the lot that awaits her in the realm of death. One of the abodes of torture lying within the Na-gates is called Nastrond (Náströnd). whether it was burnt or buried in a mound or sunk to the bottom of the sea. but went in this upper earth to its disintegration. and is described in Völuspá as filled with terrors. dead body. which descend to the kingdom of death and get their various abodes there. this division is of such a character that it is intended to receive the foes of the Asas and the insulters of the gods.she. the winged demon of the lower world. there sucks. the very existence of a Hades in their mythology demonstrates that they believed that a conscious and sentient element in man was in death separated from the body with which it had been united in life. . This phrase fyr nágrindur neðan must have been a stereotyped eschatological term applied to a particular division. er þig gumna synir síðan æva sjá. And the victims. which means corpse. a particular realm in the lower world. Thor says to Loki. In Lokasenna 63. the giant maid. náir). but must be used in a special mythological sense. if she dies by the avenging wrath of the gods (gambanreiði). after the latter has emptied his phials of rash insults upon the gods. released from their bodies left on earth. She shall then come to that region which is situated below the Na-gates (fyr nágrindur neðan . en eg þig temja mun. How far our heathen ancestors had a more or less material conception of the soul is a question which it is not necessary to discuss here (see on this point No. sentient element fled was not removed to Hades. Howsoever they may have regarded it. "the corpses of those departed".35). It is manifest that the word nár thus used cannot have its common meaning. Thus Na-gates means Corpse-gates. The phrase Na-gates does not stand alone in our mythological eschatology. for it is not dead bodies. The former did not frighten her. and accordingly refers to more than one gate of the kind. and made to embrace giants of the masculine kind. which is always used in the plural. and which is inhabited by frost-giants who.Tamsvendi eg þig drep. This is the former threat of death repeated in another form. whither she is destined . As we find by the application of the phrase to Loki.

að sá gengur gumi og mælir við mig. while yet alive. he be called who has been exposed to die on a skerry or rock. but still it has another character than Nastrond and the other abodes . But however this may be. and that the former is anxious to soar away from its terrible destination. The Icelandic law-book Grágás (ii. then he can rist runes so that the body comes down to him and talks with him (see No. and force him to feel with it. And. or rage which. 266]. murderers. and adulterers (Völuspá 39). the avenging powers have runes. it was perfectly proper to call the gates nágrindr. skerry-nár or rock-nár may. p. at the sight of the Na-gates. their punishment (see below).It not unfrequently happens that law-books preserve ancient significations of words not found elsewhere in literature. Here the word nár is accordingly applied to persons who are conscious and capable of suffering. We may imagine that it is terror. Such runes are known by Odin. but on the supposition that they are such persons as have been condemned to a punishment which is not to cease so long as they are sensitive to it. then we find that this same use of the word in question. 185) enumerates four categories within which the word nár is applicable to a person yet living. svá eg rist og í rúnum fák. which at first sight could not but seem strange. the person placed in a grave. when they are transferred across the border to Niflhel and the world of torture. stretched on iron benches. the person who is hung. and receive quiet and immovable. even while living. who had more elaborate descriptions of the Hades of heathendom than those which have been handed down to our time. That place after death with which Skirnir threatens the stubborn Gerd is also situated within the Na-gates. in a slaying of souls in Hades. 70): Ef eg sé á tré uppi váfa virgilná. Other náir have the peculiarity which their appellation suggests. Gallows-nár can be called. which capture the fugitive. The Sun-song. a Christian song standing on the scarcely crossed border of heathendom. and Hávamál 157 of runes which restore consciousness to náir. Some of the subterranean náir have the power of motion. as this occurs at the gates of Niflhel. translated or reproduced in his accounts of Hadding's and Gorm's journeys in the lower world the word náir with exsanguia simulacra ["lifeless shades" . despair. If he sees in a tree a gallows-nár (virgil-nár). Saxo. speaks of damned ones whose breasts were risted (carved) with bloody runes.Fisher. When they are overtaken by this second death they are for the second time náir. And this is the idea on the basis of which the word náir is mythologically applied to the damned and tortured beings in the lower world. Among them are perjurers. put chains on his Hades-body. severs the bond between the damned spirit and his Hades-body. grave-nár. is a consistent development of the idea that those banished from Hel's realms of bliss die a second time. If we now take into account that our ancestors believed in a second death. in which they who have slandered others find their far-reaching retribution (Reginsmál 4). and are doomed to wade in "heavy streams". Among these streams is Vadgelmir.

1. Their original home in chaos was Niflheim. Those members of the giant race living in Jotunheim on the surface of the earth. which. and Helligrund (Heliand. and. 22). The frost-giants (rimethurses) are the primeval giants (gigantes) of the Teutonic mythology. afterwards brings the hero down to Hel. . and when Nat after her journey on the heavens has returned to her home ( Forspjallsljóð 24. When the giant who built the Asgard wall got into conflict with the gods. and Forspjallsljóð says that hags (giantesses) and thurses (giants). inhabited by deceased ancestors and kinsmen of Gerd. 270.Gylfaginning 42). The horse which was cremated with its master on his funeral pyre. can remember Bergelmir when he var á lúðr um lagiðr. 267. and was buried with him in his grave-mound. whose memory goes farthest back in time. whose feet by contact with each other begat their progenitor. is a subterranean Jotunheim. * With this name of the lower world compare Gudmund-Mimir's abode á Grund (see No. which Skirnir describes as awaiting the giant-daughter. in Skirnir's description of the realm which after death awaits the giant-daughter offending the gods. and neowla grund (Caedmon. the "strange-headed" monster Thrudgelmir (Vafþrúðnismál 29. which again became Ymir. dwarfs. which are situated below Niflhel. 16). and swarthy elves go to sleep under the world-tree's farthest root on the north border of Jormungrund [*] (the lower world). excepting that Niflheim now. Gylfaginning 5). The Hades division. were changed into drops of venom. mythology never destroys life. and the extreme north of its Hades. they received an abode corresponding as nearly as possible to their first home. is an integral part of the cosmic universe. 44. Mythology has given to the giants as well as to men a life hereafter..of torture. As a Hades-realm it is also called Niflhel. frost-giants dwell under one of Yggdrasil's roots . From the Hvergelmir fountain there the Elivágar rivers flowed to the north and became hoarfrost and ice. instead of being a part of chaos. When the original giants had to abandon the fields populated by Bor's sons (Völuspá 4). before they raised the latter from the sea and there created the inhabitable Midgard. called by the giants Aurgelmir (Vafþrúðnismál 3031.consequently in the lower world. Gylfinning 7). 33). so called because they sprang from the frost-being Ymir. 45). rediscover that part of the lower world to which the drowned primeval ancestors of the giant-maid were relegated when Bor's sons opened the veins of Ymir's throat (Sonatorrek 3) and then let the billows of the ocean wash clean the rocky ground of earth. It is therefore quite in order if we. According to Grímnismál 31. At least Vafthrudnir is able to do this (Vafþrúðnismál 35). melted by warmth from the south. It would also have been unreasonable to threaten a person who rejects a marriage proposal with those punishments which overtake criminals and nithings. identical with it. as it seems. Thrudgelmir begat Bergelmir countless winters before the earth was made (Vafþrúðnismál 29. when Dag on a chariot sparkling with precious stones leaves the lower world. As a matter of fact. Thor's hammer sent him "down below Niflhel" (niður undir Niflhel . King Gorm saw in the lower world the giant Geirrod and both his daughters. 25). náir.

[Compare the phrase jötna görðum í (30:3) with til hrímþursa hallar (30:4).). cp. Rimgrimnir is "threeheaded" in Skírnismál (31. The threat is gradually emphasised to the effect that she shall be possessed by Rimgrimnir. Thus we have in one poem a "strange-headed" Thrudgelmir as progenitor of the frost-giants. we find that Skirnirsmal presupposes this same positive and negative quality in Rimgrimnir. and also a weakness for which both Thrudgelmir and Rimgrimnir are blamed. for Odin's many epithets could without hesitation be used by the poets in paraphrases. and several other places. To this is to be added a power which is possessed both by Thrudgelmir and by Rimgrimnir. and that he also inherited the inability to provide for the perpetuation of the race in any other way.35). be punished therefore in the lower world with the complete loss of all that is called love. will. If we make a careful examination. Two frost-giants are mentioned by name. But the name Odin was too sacred for such a purpose. which shows that they are representatives of their clan. he mentions three kinds of beings . tenderness. which. which is a somewhat indefinite or obscure phrase. while those members of the younger giant clan who are there. thus finds in "threeheaded" of the latter poem its further definition. But they have other points of resemblance. cp. Egilsson's Lex. Upon the whole the skalds seem piously to have abstained from using that name in paraphrases. even when the latter referred to celebrated princes and heroes. He calls a king málm-Óðinn. and in this respect gives him the same place as Thrudgelmir occupies in Vafþrúðnismál. is the largest and most important there.] Gerd is also there to have a separate abode (Skírnismál 28). (2) demons. hall (höll). is evident from Alvíssmál 2. Grimnir is one of Odin's many surnames (Grímnismál 47. Glum Geirason [Gráfeldardrápa] is the first known exception to the rule. Thrudgelmir is "strange-headed" in Vafþrúðnismál. according to Skirnir's threats. who tries to reject the love of the fair and blithe Vana-god. even when these referred to a giant. the other Rimnir (Hrímnir 28). since he is also the progenitor of other classes of beings (see Vafþrúðnismál 33.In the subterranean land with which Skirnir threatens Gerd. Skirnir says that she either must live alone and without a husband in the lower world. That Thrudgelmir inherited this power from his strange origin and handed it down to the clan of frost-giants. dwell in single scattered abodes. Gerd. or else vegetate in a useless cohabitation (nara) with the three-headed giant (31). Poet. cp. Ymir cannot be regarded as the special clan-chief of the frost-giants. Thrudgelmir's father begat children without possessing gýgjar gaman (Vafþrúðnismál 32). One is named Rimgrimnir (Hrímgrímnir . judging from its epithet. and sympathy. and consequently Thrudgelmir and Rimgrimnir must be identical. The above epithet places Rimgrimnir in the same relation to the frostgiants as Odin-Grimnir sustains to the asas: it characterises him as the race-chief and clan-head of the former. The "strange-headed" giant of the former poem. in the other poem a "three-headed" Rimgrimnir as progenitor of the same frost-giants. with 35). The frost-giants occupy together one abode. and this threat is made immediately after the solemn conjuration (34) in which Skirnir invokes the inhabitants of Niflhel and also of . and which he paints for her in appalling colours.(1) frost-giants. Rimgrimnir means the same as if Odin had said Rim-Odin. called gards. Gylfaginning 14). and Völuspá 9. the ancient race of giants. (3) giants of the later race.

It would be best for her to confine herself in the solitary abode which there awaits her.the regions of bliss. sons of the Suttungs. Thor says scornfully that he thinks he discovers in Alvis something which reminds him of the nature of thurses. Opi (hysteria). you were not born to have a bride". More plainly. Topi (insanity). The spirits of sickness . shall not leave her in peace. So far as the positive quality is concerned it is evident from the fact that Rimgrimnir is the progenitor of the frost-giants. and he further defines wherein this similarity consists: þursa líki þyki mér á þér vera. it seems to me. synir Suttunga. hear. always vigilant foe of the rimethurses and giants. heyri hrímþursar. sjálfir ásliðar. er þig hafa skal fyr nágrindur neðan. how I forbid. there can hardly be meant others than the ásmegir gathered in the lower world around Baldur. and her drink shall be the most disgusting. asa-champions. how I banish pleasure in men from the maid.such also dwell there. the asa-champions themselves. and up to a mountain top. hve eg fyrirbanna manna glaum mani. These spirits are also counted as belonging to the race of thurses. as witnesses. Skirnir in speaking to Gerd could not have expressed the negative quality of Rimgrimnir in question. and she shall there be looked upon with more hatred than Heimdall. Descended to Niflhel. the watchman of the gods. demons and tormenting spirits shall never leave her in peace. She shall be bowed to the earth by tramar (evil witches). a subterranean eagle-demon has his perch (doubtless . Hrímgrímnir heitir þurs. who shall possess you down below the corpse-gates. This is the only place where the word ásliðar occurs. [*] hve eg fyrirbýð. the ruler of Niflhel. that she shall never gladden or be gladdened by a man in the physical sense of this word: Heyri jötnar. Hear ye giants. Gerd must not count on a shadow of friendship and sympathy from her kinsmen there. and hence it is said in the rune-song that þurs veldr kvenna kvillu.shall increase her woe and the flood of her tears. manna nyt mani. staring gazes shall meet her from Rimnir and all the others down there. is also the queen of diseases. for if she but looks out of the gate. Gerd's food shall be more loathsome to her than the poisonous serpent is to man. "thurs causes sickness of women". although Alvis is a dwarf and the thurses are giants. Tjosul and Otholi (constant restlessness). frost-giants. Rimgrimnir is the giant. where Ari. the agony of the soul personified) shall fill her with his being. enjoyment of men from the maid. In this connection it should be remembered that the daughter of Loki. erattu til brúðar borinn: "Thurs' likeness you seem to me to have. Miserable she shall crawl among the homes of the Hades giants. Morn (a Teutonic Eumenides. who is the wise. Thor also expresses himself clearly on the same subject when he meets the dwarf Alvis carrying home a maid over whom Thor has the right of marriage. they once took an oath not to harm Baldur (Gylfaginning 49) . * With ásliðar. But whether she is at home or abroad.

she may get a glimpse of that land of bliss to which she may never come. To long for death. where the word Helvegir occurs. or some other. when the Midgard-serpent writhes in giant-rage. and the ship of death. and well calculated to make a deep impression upon the hearers.the same Ari which. on the other hand. 61. Toward Hel she shall long to come in vain: Ara þúfu á skaltu ár sitja. Naglfar. One of the signs that Ragnarok and the fall of the world are at hand.that of being with the gods and possessing Frey's love. we will not now discuss. is to join with his screeches in Rymur's shield-song. toward the subterranean regions of bliss. turn toward Hel. she who rejected a higher happiness . beyond and below the mountain. for whom the quaking of Yggdrasil is the signal of battle for life or death. THE WORD HEL IN VÖLUSPÁ. the land situated below Yggdrasil's northern root. so that when it dawns in the foggy Niflhel. I have been somewhat elaborate in the presentation of this description in Skírnismál. where the root is watered by Hvergelmir. that one under which Mimir's glorious fountain. as supposed by Gylfaginning. and Mimir's grove. whether it is Garm. They. Gerd is here supposed to be dead. It is plain that the author of Skírnismál. bound above the Gnipa cave. and long to get to Hel. are described in the poem with but few words. and all his treasures stored for a future world. according to Völuspá 50. the skald has meant something far more concrete than to "long for death". which has not hitherto been understood. are situated. Which this monster is. She must subject herself to these nightly exertions. Hvergelmir. and within the Na-gates. WHO THE INHABITANTS OF HEL ARE. is that the mighty ash Yggdrasil trembles. I have done so. "On Ari's perch thou shalt early sit.in the direction where Hel is situated. she does not need to crawl up to "Ari's perch". and Þórsdrápa (as we have already seen). horfa og snugga Heljar til. but they are sufficient for the purpose. It is also evident that with the root under which the frost-giant dwells impossibly can be meant. Up there she shall sit early in the morning. either arm themselves amid . like that of Vafþrúðnismál. The astonishment and confusion caused by these events among all the beings of the world. because it is the only evidence left to us of how life was conceived in the fore-court of the regions of torture. has used the word Hel in the sense of a place of bliss in the lower world. and that a fettered giant-monster thereby gets loose from its chains. Terror is the predominating feeling in those beings which are not chosen to take part in the impending conflict. gets loose). south over Mt. and constantly turn her face in the same direction ." By the phrase snugga Heljar til. that is. Vegtamskviða. We now pass to Völuspá 40 (Hauk's Codex) [more commonly quoted as Völuspá 47]. Grímnismál. Niflhel.

such beings can impossibly follow this monster and its fellow warriors with their good wishes. .e. At all events it is stated that the inhabitants in Hel are terrified when Yggdrasil quakes and the unnamed giant-monster gets loose. Jötunn. and then rush to arms.a terrible war-cry for the battle (the giants .æsir eru á þingi). Skelfur Yggdrasils askur standandi. en jötunn losnar. Helvegir may also mean the regions. and they whose fright is allayed when the monster is destroyed in the conflagration of the world. Suðrvegr. There are in the strophe only two masculine words to which the masculine þann can be referred . ymur ið aldna tré. and as we have seen that the world-tree falls by neither fire nor edge (Fjölsvinnsmál 20). Austrvegr.jötunn and Yggdrasils askur. thus has the preference. which occurs in the seventh line of the strophe (in the last of the translation) can impossibly refer to any other than the giant mentioned in the fourth line (jötunn). All are frightened on the Helways (in Hel's regions). Modi and Magni. Here Völuspá has furnished us with evidence in regard to the position of Hel's inhabitants towards the contending parties in Ragnarok. and on the other hand Vidar and Vali. The word þann (him). survives the conflagration of Surt. no one can know who is to be victorious. is. The terror which. in fact.gets free from its fetters. are many paths. for in this case it amounts to the same. then þann must naturally be referred to the jötunn. the giant). took possession of the inhabitants of Hel continues so long as the conflict is undecided.the dwarfs. when the world-tree quaked and the unnamed giant got loose. and those beings which are á Helvegum. just as there are many gates and many rivers. and Alvíssmál 10. or they assemble to hold the last council (the Asas . which do not penetrate to Baldur and Hodur amid their protégés in Hel. But the terror ceases when on the one hand the liberated giant-monster is destroyed. they take no part whatever in the conflict. and as it.gnýr allur Jötunheimur). The author may have used the word in either of these senses or in both. Their hearts are on the side of the good powers. as it hitherto had been chained . Surt's spirit. which are friendly to mankind. Norvegr. according to which the Vans call the earth vegir. or kinsman (sefi may mean either). Helvegir may mean the paths or ways in Hel: there. They who are frightened when a giant-monster . who stood breathless outside of their stone-doors. áður Surtar þann sefi gleypir. the fire. as has also hitherto been supposed. The final episode in the conflict on Vigrid's plain is that the Muspel-flames destroy the last remnant of the contending giants. survive the conflict and survive the flames. which stands nearest to þann. Frey and Thor likewise.a most dangerous one. Valfather falls. the old tree trembles. Quakes Yggdrasil's ash standing. This is manifest from the fact that their fright does not cease before the conflict is ended. and that they are not herþarfir. Two classes of beings are mentioned as seized by terror . But they do not take an active part in their behalf. ere Surt's spirit (or kinsman) swallows him (i. hræðast allir á Helvegum. ways). Now we know that among the inhabitants in Hel are the ásmegir Lif and Leifthrasir and their offspring. and the giant gets loose. districts in Hel (cp.

What the interpreters of this much abused passage have failed to see. it might be that a man who never wielded a sword in earnest might fall on the field of battle before he had given a blow. and that Hel . nor could it be considered the opposite. had not the doctrine constructed by Gylfaginning in regard to the lower world. to Hel.) It follows that in Hel's regions of bliss there remained none that were warriors by profession. but not the former. these give the opposite testimony . 53). and the women. but the election partly supplied the gods with an exception to this rule. of course. children. 66. It might.was partly solved by the Teutonic mythology by the naive and simple means of dividing the dispensation of life and death between the divinity and fate. No. is an absurdity as void of support in the records . who are á Helvegum. since their very destiny forbids their taking an active part in the events of this period of the world (see No. during the lapse of countless thousands of years. the others through Hel to Niflhel. namely. did not hinder that fate always stood as the dark. (On election see further. that he might die from sickness or an accident. and therefore with the anxiety of those waiting abide the issue of the conflict. indeed. that. as shall be shown later. The dispensation of life and death regularly belonged to the norns. But for the electing powers of Asgard themselves the election implied a privilege. on the other hand. and Freyja the other half (Grímnismál 14). The question of the relation between the power of the gods and that of fate . the seeress in Völuspá has not forgotten. independently of the election. and who. happen to the greatest general and the most distinguished hero. while. they continue their journey to Asgard. The chosen accordingly have Asgard as their place of destination. All the inhabitants on Hel's elysian fields accordingly are the ásmegir.a question which seemed to the Greeks and Romans dangerous to meddle with and well-nigh impossible to dispose of . Warriors who have not fallen on the battlefield are as much entitled to Asgard as those fallen by the sword. innumerable children and women. provided they as heroes have acquired fame and honour. and the agents of the peaceful arts who have died during countless centuries. the conqueror in hundreds of battles. with Troy as the starting-point. and partly it left to Odin the right to determine the fortunes and issues of battles. It might play a royal crown from the head of the chosen one to that of his enemy. and men who never wielded the sword. Those who have fallen on the battle-field come. This would long since have been understood. have descended to the kingdom of death and received dwellings in Hel. Such is the background and contents of the Völuspá strophe. have no place in the ranks of the einherjes. The election made the person going to battle feigr. It did not even imply additional favour to one who.does not contain warlike inhabitants.on the contrary. Those among them who were not guilty of any of the sins which the Asadoctrine stamped as sins unto death passed through Hel to Asgard. for Odin chooses one half of those slain on the battlefield for his dwelling. of course. .they are not to be employed in war. could count on a place among the einherjes. which. and sends them to die the second death on crossing the boundary to Niflhel. The election contained for the chosen ones no exclusive privilege. are alarmed until the conflict is happily ended. unused to the sword. inscrutable power in the background of all events.as it is of sound sense. But the text does not permit us to think of them alone when we are to determine who the beings á Helvegum are. bewildered the judgment. which was not a favour. and this could not well be regarded as a kindness. which they reach in case they are not found guilty by a sentence which neutralises the force and effect of the previous choice (see below). That the mythology should make the latter entitled to Asgard. but not to remain there.in the limited local sense which the word hitherto has appeared to have in the songs of the gods . For the text says that all.

which are found in the abodes of . when the question is about the lower world. 20. As this is the case. and as the ásmegir dwell in the lower world and the ásasynir likewise. Dag. In all of the thirteen cases man has a way of his own of naming the objects. unless we should be credulous enough to assume that there were in the lower world two categories of beings. These beings are Nott. Halir. In six of these nine cases Alvíssmál refers to the inhabitants of the lower world by the general expression "those in Hel". From this we find that Alvíssmál employs the word Hel in such a manner that it embraces those regions where Nott and Dag. and halir (28). then they must be identical. night. the living human inhabitants of Mimir's grove. In Alvíssmál occur the phrases: those í helju and halir. Mani and Sol. Ásasynir has the same signification as ásmegir. wind. means the souls of the dead (Vafþrúðnismál 43. moon. and that each one of these ways of expression is. For example. sea. vindofnir among Vans. As they none the less dwell in the lower world. 30) that have their sphere of activity in the upper world. in three cases the poem lets "those in Hel" be represented by some one of those classes of beings that reside in Hel. elves and dwarfs have names in common for no less than six objects (cloud. hlyrnir among gods. ásasynir (16). each one with its six names. wind. THE WORD HEL IN ALVÍSSMÁL. No other class of beings has any of the thirteen appellations in common with them. Nine times it is stated how those in the lower world express themselves. tree. and calm). the dwarfs and the inhabitants of the lower world for three (heaven. Likewise the giants. The premise of the poem is that such objects as earth. mead). the appellation must have reference to beings which have their homes and abiding places in Hel when they are not occupied with their affairs in the world above. the Asas and Vans have the same name for two objects (moon and sun). THE CLASSES OF BEING IN HEL. seed. sun. Mani. applicable within one or two of the classes of beings found in the world. heaven. and the souls of departed human beings dwell. Among the last-named are included also souls of the damned. drjúpur salur (dripping-hall) among dwarfs.. Sol. fagraræfur (fair-roof) among elves. In this manner thirteen objects are mentioned. These three are uppregin (10). with the exclusion of the others. &c. both called sons of Asas. fire.62. see above). are expressed in six different ways. The name uppregin suggests that it refers to beings of a very certain divine rank (the Vans are in Alvíssmál called ginnregin. On the other hand. fire. Heaven is called (in Alvíssmál 12) Himinn among men. uppheim among giants.

That the author should make the gods anxious concerning Loki's daughter. with Heimdall as chief. and the part lying between Hel and heaven. who is designated as Gjöll's (the lower world river's) Sunna (Sol. * Of the age and genuineness of Forspjallsljod I propose to publish a separate treatise." which means simply "to kill" (it is Thor who threatens to kill the insulting Harbard). Fjölsvinnsmál 25. 11) to beseech her to explain to them the mystery of creation. he has particularly . HEL IN A LOCAL SENSE THE KINGDOM OF DEATH. It must be admitted that what the anxious gods wish to learn from the wise goddess of the lower world must. heljar. Among the passages in which the word Hel occurs in the poetic Edda's mythological songs we have yet to mention Hárbarðsljóð 27. the gods. heims ef vissi. HEL IN A PERSONAL SENSE IDENTICAL WITH THE GODDESS OF FATE AND DEATH. down to a lower-world goddess (dís). Skírnismál. ártíð. Vafþrúðnismál. but is kept in the background by the definite antithesis in which the word Hel. URD. used in its more common and special sense of the subterranean regions of bliss. refer particularly to the regions where Urd's and Mimir's holy wells are situated. Hel. [*] send messengers. 63. of Hel. aldurtila).torture below Niflhel. and it is within the limits of possibility that the author of the poem also had them in mind. where the expression drepa í Hel is employed in the same abstract manner as the Swedes use the expression "at slå ihjäl. and Grímnismál 31). The poem divides the universe into three great divisions: heaven. in which case he has conformed in the use of the word to Völuspá. stands to Niflhel and the regions subject to it. . Vegtamskviða. But here. pass away. and that he should make the wise goddess by Gjöll weep bitter tears over the future of the sister of the Fenris-wolf. THAT IS. and Þórsdrápa. sun) and as the distributor of the divine liquids ( Forspjallsljóð 9. so far as their desire to know and their fears concern the fate of Hel. the world inhabited by mortals. it appears that the idea of regions of punishment is not thought of. THE WORD HEL IN OTHER PASSAGES. PARTICULARLY ITS REALMS OF BLISS. is possible in the sense that it cannot be refuted by any definite words of the old records. and the happy departed. While a terrible winter is raging. whom they had hurled into the deep abysses of Niflhel. which water the world-tree. but we may be permitted to regard it as highly improbable. and also Völuspá 43. the beginning of heaven. Grímnismál. as wherever Hel has this general signification. life and death. Thus Hel is here used in its general sense. and refers to the whole lower world. it would mean nothing less than the end of the world. according to Forspjallsljóð. for if the latter. æfi.had in his mind the regions of bliss when he used the word Hel.and probably exclusively . though there is not much probability that he should conceive them as having a nomenclature in common with gods. ásmegir. THE RESULT OF THE INVESTIGATION FOR THE COSMOGRAPHY AND FOR THE MEANING OF THE WORD HEL. and of the world. The messengers get only tears as an answer. At all events. if she is able (hlýrnis.

it is sacred. and beneficent. Ahuramazda himself translates the morning song of the cock with the following words: "Rise. the sooty-red cock which crows below the earth. since the cock. . among them Nastrond. With the exception of this special instance. which is the special foe of demons and the powers of darkness. and praise the justice which is the most perfect! Behold the demons are put to flight!" Avesta is naively out of patience with thoughtless persons who call this sacred bird (Parodarsch) by the so little respect-inspiring name "Cockadoodledoo" (Kahrkatâs). Nor have the May-poles forgotten him. In the opposite case it is destructive. the crowing of the cock puts ghosts and spirits to flight. according to an ancient and wide-spread Aryan belief. ye men. In Fjölsvinnsmál 25. with its crowing. the cock which.in regard to Yggdrasil's three roots. Aurelius Prudentius wrote a Hymnus ad galli cantum. whose destiny it is to people the regenerated earth. regardless of Grímnismál 31. and the cock has as a token of Christian vigilance received the same place on the church spires as formerly on the world-tree. and is hardly credible. and of a sooty-red cock which crows under the earth near Hel's halls.Völuspá 43 speaks of Goldcomb (Gullinkambi. situated north of Hvergelmir and inhabited by frost-giants. and it speaks of Hel in an unmistakable. distinctly personal sense. and is with the goddess who has the cowbane stalks when she shows Hadding the flower-meadows of the lower world. and the citadel within which death does not seem able to enter (see No. 47). even of the present time. is a sacred bird. Grímnismál 31 is remarkable from two points of view. Thus there is at least one cock in the lower world's realm of bliss. According to Swedish popular belief. might be transferred to his kinsman. purifying. but nevertheless valuable . and all that Svipdag seems to mean is that Vidofnir. and a similar idea is found in Avesta (Vendidad. wakes those who sleep in Herfather's abode. It contains information . That Vidofnir has done nothing for which he deserves to be punished in the home of Loki's daughter may be regarded as probable. In regard to the roots of the world-tree and their position. Saxo also speaks of a cock which is found in Hades. when it is handled carefully and for lawful purposes. our investigation so far. Svipdag asks with what weapon one might be able to bring down to Hel's home (á Heljar sjöt) that golden cock Vidofnir. The idea of the sacredness of the cock and its hostility to demons was also found among the Aryans of South Europe and survived the introduction of Christianity. in case such a weapon could be found. where. 18). it is true. 15. That there should be one also in Niflhel and in the abode of Loki's daughter is nowhere mentioned. has produced the following result: Yggdrasil has a northern root.brief and scant. which sits in Mimir's tree (the world-tree). Yggdrasil's second root is watered by Mimir's fountain and spreads over the land where Mimir's fountain and grove are located. and doubtless is identical with Goldcomb. Hel is here used to designate the kingdom of death in general. in str. Lif and Leifthrasir and their offspring. the Elysian fields of those fallen by the sword. This stands over the vast reservoir Hvergelmir and spreads over Niflhel. In Mimir's grove dwell those living (not dead) beings called Ásmegir and Ásasynir. Fire has two characters . There nine regions of punishment are situated. nothing but good is reported of the cocks of mythology and poetry. But in the North the poets and the popular language have made the red cock a symbol of fire.

between the northern Niflheim and the southern warmer region (Gylfaginning's "Muspellsheim").that is. In regard to the zones or climates. That the root over Urd's fountain has been conceived as the southern one is manifest from the following circumstances. There remains one root: the one under which the goddess or fate. Accordingly both the land where Mimir's well and grove are situated and the land where Urd' s fountain is found are within the domain Hel. . mennskir menn. where the human beings Lif and Leifthrasir and their offspring have their abode. accordingly. living persons.the same skald who wrote the purely heathen Þórsdrápa . Niflhel situated north of the Hvergelmir mountain. where jörð lifandi manna is situated. has her dwelling. where in chapter 15 it says that Mimir's fountain is situated where Ginnungagap formerly was . frost-giants under the second. As. The memory of this fact Gylfaginning has in its fashion preserved.says in one of his poems. that Christ sits suðr at Urðarbrunni. the root over Urd's well was the southern. an expression which he could not have used unless his hearers had retained from the faith of their childhood the idea that Urd's fountain was situated south of the other fountains. written after his conversion. Of this Grímnismál says that she who dwells there is named Hel. Eilif Gudrunarson. Forspjallsljóð puts upon Urd's fountain the task of protecting the world-tree against the devastating cold during the terrible winter which the poem describes. and Hel south of it. The root under which the frost-giants dwell we already know as the root over Hvergelmir and the Niflhel inhabited by frost-giants. it follows that Mimir's well was conceived as situated between those two. We have already shown that the root over Hvergelmir is the northern one. in the south near Urd's fountain. The root under which human beings. . Three roots grow in three directions below Yggdrasil's ash: Hel lives under one.Yggdrasil's third root stands over Urd's fountain and the subterranean thingstead of the gods. Urd. in which the roots are located. annarri hrímþursar." This idea shows that the sap which Yggdrasil's southern root drew from Urd's fountain was thought to be warmer than the saps of the other wells. they have been conceived as having a southern and northern. dwell we also know as the one over Mimir's well and Mimir's grove. who was converted to Christianity . The lower world consists of two chief divisions: Niflhel (with the regions thereto belonging) and Hel. Óðhrærir skyldi Urðar geyma mættk at verja mestum þorra. and that over Hvergelmir and the frost-giants the northern. þriðju mennskir menn. Grímnismál 31 says: Þrjár rætur standa á þrjá vega undan aski Yggdrasils: Hel býr undir einni."Urd's Odrerir (mead-fountain) proved not to retain strength enough to protect against the terrible cold. "human men" under the third.

Vyrd. Beowulf. and the special but most frequent signification. a valkyrie. . that she whose table is called Hunger and whose knife is called Famine was the one who ordered the clear. is at the same time one of Urd's maid-servants. As a person. Without the necessity of travelling the path by which I have reached the result indicated. but these have no prominence as compared with herself. Urd. This result. the realm of death. on the authority of Gylfaginning. who is the more known of the two. has the task of caring for the world-tree and seeing that it is kept green and gets the liquids from their fountains. which seems to preclude the idea that she should be the personal Hel. the elysium of the kingdom of death. We have seen that Hel in its local sense has the general signification. if Gylfaginning and the text-books based thereon had not confounded the judgment. The fact that the word is found in the dialects of several Teutonic branches indicates. Vird. the queen of the realm of death. a feminine psycho-messenger who shows the fallen the way to Hel. is not the regent of the land where her fountain is situated. and the future. The conclusion that Urd is Hel is inevitable. the present. that it belongs to the most ancient Teutonic times. the realm of her sisters.. but must be conquered by clear and convincing arguments. One of them. Expressions handed down from the heathen time and preserved in Old English documents characterise Vyrd as tying the threads or weaving the web of fate (Cod. Ex. 355. the Midgard-serpent and the Fenris-wolf was entrusted with the care of at least one of Yggdrasil's roots. we must consider that it is a force which does not yield to objections simply stated. jointly with Urd and Mimir. though queen of her fountain. to the Old Low German Wurth. particularly of its regions of bliss. where they are to report themselves ere they get to their destination. or is thought by the linguists to indicate. One might then assume Hel to be one of Urd's sisters. It is the same idea having a personal as well as a local form. Colossal as this absurdity is. who on the battlefield does her errands. present. and as the one who writes that which is to happen (Beowulf. that she whose threshold is called Precipice (Gylfaginning 34) was the one who conducted Baldur over the threshold to the subterranean citadel glittering with gold. that she who dispenses life also dispenses death. is identical with the personal Hel. have assumed that the daughter of Loki cast into the abyss of Niflhel is the queen of the kingdom of death. Skuld. and future . There can be no doubt that Urd also among other Teutonic branches than the Scandinavian has bad the meaning of goddess of fate. and that for the following reasons: The name Urðr corresponds to the Old English Vurd. 4836). invigorating mead to be placed before him. 2420). scholars would long since have come to the conviction that Urd and the personal Hel are identical. it has been believed for centuries. the meaning of the word Hel must be analogous to its signification as a place. that the sister of those foes of the gods and of the world. that she who with her serving sisters is the ruler of the past. unless we assume that Urd.this result may seem unexpected to those who.Hence it follows of necessity that the goddess of fate. when it probably had the form Vorthi. and that she whose bed is called Sickness. also governs and gathers in her kingdom all generations of the past. and to the Old High German Wurt. Of Verdandi the records tell us nothing but the name. that Urd is identical with Hel. Here the plural form is also employed. And in dealing with an absurdity which is centuries old.

"the goddess of death" Fisher). Poet. Far down in the Christian centuries the memory survived that Urd was the goddess of the realm of death and of death. was. 156).norna dóms notið hafði). Ynglingatal 28 calls Ingjald's manner of death his Urðr. which demonstrates that she in England. but the one who could determine the length of life. Saxo translates Urðr or Hel with "Proserpina" (Book III.draga urð at e-m: cause someone's death]. and to determine death for anyone was to draga Urðr at him [Lex. was conceived as having sisters or assistants.. the urds. vas deád ungemete neah: death was exceedingly near. To receive the "judgment of the norns" was identical with being doomed to die (Ynglingasaga 47. 92. i. The norns made laws and chose life and örlög (fate) for the children of time (Völuspá). 2: Thiu Wurth is at handun: Urd is near. was the goddess of fate. Thus Urd. the goddess of fate. in such a manner that Urd's personal character is not emphasised. and so also could resolve death. But at the same time as Vyrd. that is. Grimm. which was called Urd's moon. she was also that of death. And in Heliand. The ruler of death was that one who could resolve death. the original laws) frequently has a decided leaning to the idea of death (cp. among the Teutonic branches in Germany and England. So also in the North. identical with death. Wurth ina benam: Urd (death) took him away (cp.. of course. 373). Dôd is at hendi: death is near. J. In Beowulf (4831. Hakon Jarl's örlög was that Kark cut his throat (Nj. 4453) we find the parallel expressions: him vas Vyrd ungemete neah: Urd was exceedingly near to him. 146.. it meant the breaking out of an epidemic (Eyrbyggja Saga. the night before Christmas. and she then sang a song in which she said that she went mournfully to the contest to choose a man for death." Wurth's personality is equally plain. to Snaebjorn to predict a bloody conflict. as Thiu Wurth nâhida thus: Urd (death) then approached. 270). Fate and death were in the idea and in usage so closely related. pl. They must blend into one. Wurth. . and the kind of death. and this. that they were blended into one personality in the mythology. was. the norns. p.Vyrde. Völuspá: Eg sá Baldri örlög fólgin). In the Old Low German poem "Heliand. the original meaning seems to be ur-laws. the goddess of fate. Ynglingatal 32 . too. as in the North. And there are also other expressions. When a bright spot. The word örlög (nom. appeared on the wall. . 2. 75 . In the ancient Norse documents we also find the name Urd used to designate death. Even as late as the year 1237 Urd is supposed to have revealed herself. just as in Heliand and Beowulf. Deutsche Myth. conceived as a queen.

With her they have the authority of judges. the prose (35). in which they have their origin. Hallf.64. the word hamingja is still used in the sense of Providence. who perform the tasks commanded by her as queen. THE PSYCHO-MESSENGERS OF DISEASES AND ACCIDENTS. Njals saga. where. angry at you are the dises! cries Odin to the royal nithing Geirrod (Grímnismál 53).promise me this. 62. What Urd is on a grand scale as the guardian of the mighty Yggdrasill. and insult not a Tyr robbed of his hand!" These are noble counsels. The hamingjur belong to that large circle of feminine beings which are called dises (dísir). Compare Völuspá 20. auðnur. the other in regard to death. and which are attributed (though on doubtful grounds) to this heathen skald. which stands for ever green over her gold-clad fountain. He who was abandoned by his hamingja and gipta was a lost man. The testimony of the Icelandic sagas of the middle ages in this regard are confirmed by phrases and forms of speech which have their root in heathendom. Úfar eru dísir. the hero of the saga. In strophes which occur in Gísla saga Súrssonar. As those beings for whom Urd determines birth. and that the hamingjur were noble beings was a belief preserved through the Christian centuries in Iceland. 49). position in life. . The hamingjur are fostered among beings of giant-race (who hardly can be others than the norns and Mimir). There every child of man is to have a hamingja as a companion and guardian spirit. scorn not the lame. GIPTUR. according to Vigfusson. but the origin of which (from a time when the details of the myth were still remembered) is fully confirmed by a careful criticism. 11. But there are certain phrases preserved in the spoken language which show that they could leave him before death. She does not appear to her favourite excepting perhaps in dreams or shortly before his death (the latter according to Helgakviða Hjörvarðssonar. and how the draumkona (dream-woman) of the good inspirations said to him in sleep: "Be not the first cause of a murder! excite not peaceful men against yourself! . are countless. Most intimately associated with her are her two sisters. That the invisible hamingja could cause one to stumble and fall is shown in Fornm.. heillir). HAMINGJUR. If the favourite became a hideous and bad man. As maid-servants under Urd there are countless hamingjur (fylgjur) and giptur (also called gáfur. (2) MAID-SERVANTS OF DEATH VALKYRIES. and they seem to have been especially so styled. and cause his well-deserved ruin. thou charitable man! Aid the blind. and death. so her servants. soaring over the waters to our upper world (Vafþrúðnismál 48. Three mighty rivers fall down into the world. DISES OF BIRTH. must also be innumerable. and the expressions norna dómur. then his hamingja and gipta might even turn her benevolence into wrath. URD'S MAID-SERVANTS: (1) MAID-SERVANTS OF LIFE . ch. it is mentioned how he stood between good and evil inspirations. FYLGJUR. norna kviður. and they come wise in their hearts. iii. and immediately thereupon the latter stumbles and falls pierced by his own sword. They belong to two large classes: the one class is active in her service in regard to life. this the hamingja is on a smaller scale when she protects the separate fruit produced on the world-tree and placed in her care. They did not usually leave their favourite before death. proofs from purely heathen records are wanting). And they dwell with her under the world-tree.NORNS.

speak of norns whose task it is to determine and assist the arrival of the child into this world . These norns are. is the chief one in this group (Völuspá 31). and that the mythology has associated him intimately with the elf of the morning dawn. The expression kjósa mæður frá mögum. Another division of this class of maid-servants under Urd are those who attend the entrance of the child into the world. as it were accidental. now lost (Fáfnismál 12-13). we note that group of shield-maids called valkyries. 53). There they bring the mead-horns to the Asas and einherjes. but in reference to whom it has not yet been determined which descendant each one is to call hers among the great waiting crowd. and can under all circumstances not mean simply "to deliver mothers of children". 95) for assuming that these dises of birth were Hænir's maid-servants at the same time as they were Urd's. Grímnismál 36. the valkyries have received Asgard as their abode. decorated the citadel. on account of which the favourite received an unexpected.The giptur seem to have carried out such of Urd's resolves. elect as mothers. Here it must then mean to choose.valkyrjur vín bera. As Odin and Freyja got the right of choosing on the battlefield. when they do not ride on Valfather's errands (Völuspá 30. Like Urd and her sisters. Some are Asakinswomen. But the third of the norns. and who have to weave the threads of the new-born babe into the web of the families and events. Urd herself and her sisters may be present for the above purpose (see No. just as the valkyries are Urd's and Odin's maid-servants at the same time (see below). there were guardian spirits (kynfylgjur. and on the other hand women who are to be mothers. "to choose mothers from descendants. who guards the citadel of the race of regeneration against all that is evil and all that ought not to enter (see No. others of elf-race. and the expression "from descendants" is incomprehensible. until those norns which we are here discussing resolve on that point. Skáldskaparmál 9 . select. Foremost among the psycho-messengers (psychopomps). 30 in regard to Halfdan's birth). and conduct the souls of the dead to the lower world. but also for families and clans. the attendants of the dead. their father. er nauðgönglar eru. who at the threshold of life are waiting for mothers in order to become born into this world." seems obscure. through artists of his circle.nornir. elect. according to Fáfnismál 13. and. and again others are daughters of Dvalin. Skuld. and from the indefinite crowd of waiting megir choose mothers for those children which are especially destined for them. if we do not on the one hand conceive a crowd of eventual descendants. ættarfylgjur). they too are called norns. If it is a child who is to be a great and famous man. they for ever remain in the most intimate association with Urd and the lower world. Delling. good fortune. There are reasons (see No. within which a future generation of men await the regeneration of the world. of different birth. . To the other class of Urd's maid-servants belong those lower-world beings which execute her resolves of death. as shall be shown below. Not only for separate individuals. valkyrjur fylgja [Óðni]). The word kjósa is never used in any other sense than to choose. A few strophes incorporated in Fáfnissmál from a heathen didactic poem. In regard to the last-named it should be remembered that Dvalin. og kjósa mæður frá mögum.

it attracted attention even among them. But such a mode of travel was not the rule. ON THE COSMOGRAPHY.Haustlaung 1. The heathens did not conceive the matter in this manner. The mythology had to be prepared for such questions. as in other cases. A horse does not swim as fast and easily as it runs. er þeir á brú fara. accordingly. when it did happen. and the course they took with their favourites was not the one presented in our mythological text-books. fell there after an exchange of blows. if the gods had no advantage from them. 93) informs us that the breadth of the atmospheric sea is too great and its currents too strong for those riding on their horses from the battlefield to wade across (árglaumur þykir ofmikill valglaumi að vaða). THE WAY OF THOSE FALLEN BY THE SWORD. Skáldskaparmál 25). then their horses would have to swim in the sea of air (Bilröst brotnar. The valkyries. compare a strophe of Kormak. who sprang into the boat to make it loose. and. whom King Erik Blood-axe sent in pursuit of him to Saud Isle. Día fjörðr). where the atmosphere is called the fjord of the gods. it had answers wherewith to satisfy that claim on causality and consistency which even the most naive view of the world presents. In the 45th chapter of Egil Skallagrimson's saga we read how Egil saved himself from men. that quakes and rattles when Thor's thunder-chariot passes over it (mána vegur dundi . see No. Mani's way in space would not have been regarded as a road in the concrete sense. While they were searching for him there. The different possibilities of travel are associated with different kinds of exertion and swiftness. og svima i módu marir . p. The answer was: If the Bifrost bridge breaks under its riders. The second fell in a duel on the strand. as well as the gods. Three warriors guarded the boat. Kormak's Saga. and in giving one of them his death-wound ere the latter was able to defend himself. riding at the head of their chosen heroes. had it not been thought that Mani was safer on a firm road than without one of that sort. The saga has . TO VALHALL IS THROUGH THE LOWER WORLD. and in this. The one method is more adequate to the purpose than the other. have found solid roads advantageous. The modern conception of the removal of those fallen by the sword to Asgard is that the valkyries carried them immediately through blue space to the halls above. The solid connections which were used by the gods and which the mythology built in space are. The bridge Bifrost would not have been built or established for the daily connection between Asgard and Urd's subterranean realm if it had been unnecessary in the mythological world of fancy. The third. It is true that the mythological horses might carry their riders through the air without pressing a firm foundation with their hoofs. he had stolen to the vicinity of the place where the boat lay in which those in pursuit had rowed across. Egil succeeded in surprising them. Compare Gylfaginning. To every child that grew up in the homes of our heathen fathers the question must have lain near at hand.65. objects of advantage and convenience. 21. even among the gods. as is to happen in course of time. i. what such roads and bridges were for. Grímnismál (str.Fáfnismál 15. 118. 259. which quotes strophes from a heathen source.

instead of going immediately to Valhal. They were slain by weapons and fell at their posts of duty. Urd's maid-servant. til hásalar Heljar helgengnir. and with fylki the verb fylkja. the others in open conflict. Warriors in regard to whom there was no doubt that Valhall was their final destiny received Hel-shoes like all others. unexpected wound. But the skald Egil. to Hel's high hall. these sword-slain men should have been conducted by valkyries through the air to Valhal. and that this harmony continues in the reports of the first Christian centuries in regard to this subject. that in these ancient records there is not found a single passage in conflict with Egil's idea. to form an army or a division of an army in line of battle. This indicates with sufficient clearness that the dead here in question are men who have fallen on the field of battle . það er tíðska að binda mönnum helskó. maniples or companies in battle array. för dvelja. There he says: at þrymreynis þjónar þrír nökkurir Hlakkar.legions. like all others. Egil's view in regard to the fate which immediately awaited sword-fallen men was general. who as a heathen born about the year 904. assures us positively that these men from King Erik's body-guard. on the contrary. they have gone to the lower world. denotes larger or smaller divisions of an army . According to the conception of the mythological text-books. in the Icelandic literature. if they have deserved this destiny. It would be impossible to explain this custom if it had not been believed that those who were chosen for the joys of Valhall were obliged. went to the lower world and to Hel's high hall there.preserved a strophe in which Egil mentions this exploit to his brother Thorolf and his friend Arinbjorn. an expression which. He certainly would not have said anything of the sort if those for whom he composed the strophe had not regarded this idea as both possible and correct. Thence the swordslain come to Asgard. whom he met after his flight from Saud Isle. and who as a contemporary of the sons of Harald Fairhair must have known the mythological views of his fellow-heathen believers better than the people of our time. but in large troops called fylki. "Three of those who serve the tester of the valkyrie-din (the warlike Erik Blood-axe) will late return. but that they all. sem menn skulu á ganga til Valhallar. as we know. Wherever this custom prevailed." The fallen ones were king's men and warriors. fully agree with his words. All the dead and also those fallen by the sword come first to Hel. to the golden bridge across the river Gjöll. one from a sudden. is most intimately connected. cohorts. to travel á Helvegum. The question now is: Does this Egil's statement stand alone and is it in conflict with those other statements touching the same point which the ancient heathen records have preserved for us? The answer is. When Hermod betook himself to the lower world to find Baldur he came. mentioned to him that the day before five fylki of dead men had rode across the same bridge. In Gisli Surson's saga (ch. who watches the bridge. Consequently all these dead are on horseback and they do not come separately or a few at a time. 24) is mentioned the custom of binding Hel-shoes on the feet of the dead.

From this mythological topographical arrangement it follows of necessity that the valkyries at the head of the chosen slain must take their course through the lower world. by the way of Urd's fountain and the thingstead of the gods. first have to ride down to the lower world. It therefore has its special watchman in the keen-eyed and vigilant Heimdall. Meanwhile the skald himself gives the answer. with those who belonged to his own fylki. When King Erik. The account presupposes that men fallen by the sword. There are still two poems extant from the heathen time. the solid connection was of the greatest importance. the other that of Hakon the Good. intended to make these facts intelligible). It stood outside and below the edge of the earth's crust both in the north and in the south. All the benches of Valhall quake and tremble. if they are to ride on Bifrost bridge to Asgard. In the south it descended to Urd's fountain and to the thingstead of the gods in the lower world (see the accompanying drawing.and are on their way to Hel. and quakes beneath their weight? There is scarcely need of an answer to this alternative. Its lower ends were not conceived as situated among mortal men. What single probability can we now conceive as to what the skald presupposed? Did he suppose that the chosen heroes came on horses that swim in the air. for it is the key to Asgard. Gylfaginning). Else we would not find these fylki on a Hel-way galloping across a subterranean bridge. the gods hear on their approach a mighty din. When in Ragnarok the gods ride to the last conflict they pass over Bifrost (Fáfnismál). as if the foundations of Asgard trembled. each one riding. and it is predicted in regard to Bifrost that in Ragnarok it shall break under . into the same realm as had received Baldur and Nanna after death. The bridge does not lead to Midgard. come riding up thither. The gods used the bridge every day (Grímnismál. Frost-giants and mountain-giants are anxious to get possession of it. The air was regarded as an ether sea which the bridge spanned. It has already been pointed out that Bifrost is the only connecting link between Asgard and the lower regions of the universe. which describe the reception of sword-fallen kings in Valhall. and that the movements of the horses in this element produced a noise that made Valhall tremble? Or that it is Bifrost which thunders under the hoofs of hundreds of horses. in company with his fallen brothers in arms. For the skald makes Bragi say that from the din and quaking it might be presumed that it was Baldur who was returning to the halls of the gods. with five other kings and their attendants of fallen warriors. and not be obliged to betake themselves thither on swimming horses. the connection between Asgard and the lower world is Bifrost: this connection is of such a nature that it quakes and trembles beneath the weight of horses and riders. and although the horses of mythology were able to swim in this sea. Baldur dwells in the lower world. The one describes the reception of Erik Blood-axe. whose final destination is Asgard.

the weight of the host of riders. ride o'er green realms (or worlds) of the gods in order to say to Odin that now a great king is coming to see him. But as valkyries and the elect ride on Bifrost up to Valhal. but the victor Hakon is wounded by an arrow. In his grand poem "Hákonarmál. Thus it is by this road that the psychopomps of the heroes conduct their favourites to their final destination. Hakon the Good. is that. Erik and his riders must have journeyed in Hel." Eyvind Skaldaspillir makes Odin send the valkyries Göndul and Skögul "to choose among the kings of Yngvi's race some who are to come to Odin and abide in Valhall.see Heimskringla). but when they have arrived there they find that a battle is imminent between the Yngvi descendants. and which are beaten by the hoofs of their horses. must be the connecting link between the realms decked with green and Asgard. "We two (Göndul and Skögul) shall now. The latter hears that Göndul. and the sons of Erik. with helmets on their heads. surrounded by his heroes. "maids on horseback. and after the end of the battle he sits on the battlefield. there were realms clothed in green and inhabited by divinities on the route the valkyries had to take when they from a battlefield in Midgard betook themselves back to Valhall and Asgard. The sons of Erik are put to flight. "leaning on her spear." says to Skögul that the wound is to cause the king's death. heimar). The sea he calls blue (blámær . With these green realms Eyvind has not meant the blue ether. according to his cosmological conception and that of his heathen fellow-believers. who confirms what Göndul has said. with wisdom in their countenances. across Gjoll. are green realms of the gods (worlds. the realms of bliss in the lower world were those which might particularly be characterised as the green. Bifrost. and past the thingstead of the gods near Urd's well. Among the realms or "worlds" which constituted the mythological universe. and to which we must confine ourselves. What he expressly states. Hakon is just putting on his coat-of-mail. græna heima goða Óðni að segja. and with shields before them. Thus Bragi's words show that it is Bifrost from which the noise is heard when Erik and his men ride up to Valhall. The grænir heimar through which the valkyries have to pass are therefore the realms of the lower world. He distinguishes between blue and green. and immediately thereupon begins the brilliantly-described battle. Göndul and Skögul." Here we get definite information in regard to which way the valkyries journey between Asgard and Midgard." It is not said by which road the two valkyries betake themselves to Midgard. kvað hin ríka Skögul. The fields through which the road goes. Their groves and blooming meadows and fields of waving grain were never ." are near the king. and now a conversation begins between Hakon and Skögul. which goes down to Urd's well. "with shields cut by swords and with byrnies pierced by arrows ". að nú mun alvaldr koma á hann sjálfan að sjá. But to get to the southern end of Bifrost. quoth the mighty Skögul. and does so with the following words: Ríða við nú skulum.

Mani. but also in that of the lower world goddess Urd (compare Atlakviða 16. Of the mythological divinities. and with the statement in Vegtamskviða that Odin.touched by decay or frost. í Helju hún þann hafði (Atlamál 51). valcyrge." this agrees with the statement in the myth about Hermod's journey to Hel. had been regarded as an inevitable condition for the admittance of the dead into Asgard. there Baldur. and Hodur are to dwell until Ragnarok. valcyrre (valkyrie) could be used to express the Latin parca. In the heroic songs of the Elder Edda. drepa til Heljar. the memory survives that the heroes journey to the lower world. There dwells the divine mother Nott. and that they as psychopomps conducted the chosen Heroes to Hel on their way to Asgard. one of the Niflungs says of a sword-fallen foe that they had him lamdan til Heljar. and as such they were cherished by the popular fancy for centuries after the introduction of Christianity. which. there Delling. Rind. on the other side of which glorious regions are situated. and in other poems from the centuries immediately succeeding the introduction of Christianity. and in Beowulf occur phrases in which Hild and Gud (the valkyries Hildr and Gunnr) perform the tasks of Vyrd. strophe 43. and . where they are called norns). came to a foldvegr. The mythic tradition is supported by linguistic usage. continued to flourish in Christian times both among Anglo-Saxons and Scandinavians. and belonging with her to the class of norns. and all the clan of artists gathered around Mimir. The memory of valkyries. and ornaments. worshipped by the Teutons. the valkyries are changed into "dead women. in such phrases as berja í Hel. there Thor's mother and her brother and sister Njord and Fulla are fostered. THE CHOOSING. and Sol." inhabitants of the lower world. Nanna.. only a small number were fostered in Asgard. 66. færa til Heljar. there was born Odin's son Vali. by which he reaches the hall that awaits Baldur. indicated that those fallen by the sword also had to descend to the realm of death. they who "smithy" living beings. Of one of Atli's brothers who fell by Gudrun's sword it is said. drepa í Hel. have their halls. The basis of the transformation is the recollection that the valkyries were not only in Odin's service. a way over green plains. that "fylki" of dead riders gallop over the subterranean gold-bridge. That the green realms of the lower world are called realms of the gods is also proper. Dag. 24). Sigurd Fafnisbani comes to Hel. for they have contained and do contain many beings of a higher or lower divine rank. 94. When Göndul and Skögul at the head of sword-fallen men ride "o'er the green worlds of the gods." If death on the battlefield. or as the result of wounds received on the field of battle. Billing. who came to choose the hero and invite him to their halls. In Atlamál 28. subordinate to the goddess of fate and death. Among the former. The Low German language has also rescued the memory thereof in the expression gróni godes wang (Hel. vegetation. when he had left Niflhel behind him. In the same poem. THE MIDDLE-AGE FABLE ABOUT "RISTING WITH THE SPEAR-POINT.

since the latter lot was coupled with the possibility of death from disease. When he had learned from Göndul's words to Skögul that the number of the einherjes is to be increased with him. Doubtless it was for our ancestors a glorious prospect to be permitted to come to Odin after death. and no warlike race endowed with normal instincts has even entertained it and given it expression in their doctrine in regard to future life. Erik. he blames the valkyries for dispensing to him this fate. and it would have demanded from faithful believers that they should prefer death even with defeat to victory and life. has died in a lost instead of a won battle. What Sigmund emphasises is. In the ancient records there is not the faintest allusion to such an idea. From Odin's answer to the question we learn that the skald did not wish to make Sigmund express any surprise that a king. whom Odin loves above other kings and heroes. Sigmund. . nor did they need to relinquish the joys of Valhall. learns from Odin that Erik Blood-axe has fallen and is expected in Valhal. sjáum vér hans of hugi. for there remained to them an expedient to which they under such circumustances resorted: they risted (marked. scratched) themselves with the spearpoint (marka sig geirs oddi). the mythical eschatology could not have made death from disease an insurmountable obstacle for warriors and heroes on their way to Valhal." give us examples of choosing from a standpoint quite different from that of favour. They have suggested that Odin did not necessarily fail to get those heroes whom sickness and age threatened with a straw-death. not being chosen on this battlefield. When one of the einherjes. should be snatched away by some other death than that by the sword. and says he had deserved a better lot from the gods (várum þó verðir gagns frá goðum). But this was by no means the case. The absurdity of the theory is so manifest that the mythologists who have entertained it have found it necessary to find some way of making it less inadmissible than it really is. possessed Odin's friendship. then the choosing would under all circumstances have been regarded as a favour from Odin. although between the wars there was a chance of death from sickness.for the honour of sitting at Odin's table. and that he therefore made haste to secure as soon as possible so valiant a hero as Erik among his einherjes. When he enters Valhall he has a keener reproach on his lips to the welcoming Odin: illúðigr mjög þykir oss Óðinn vera. With such a view no army goes to battle. But it is no less certain from all the evidences we have from the heathen time. in case the latter. that honourable life was preferred to honourable death. Under these circumstances. It is too absurd to have existed. and a person who saw inevitable death before his eyes might comfort himself with the thought of soon seeing "the benches of Baldur's father decked for the feast" (Ragnar's death-song). But Odin does not say that he feared that he might have to relinquish the hero for ever. that Odin did not rather take unto himself a less loved king than the so highly appreciated Erik. It would have robbed Valhall of many of Midgard's most brilliant heroes. "Eiríksmál" and "Hákonarmál. 61). The poems mentioned above. although he. and permit the latter to conquer and live. Hákonarmál gives us an example of a king who is chosen in a battle in which he is the victor. As conqueror the wounded Hakon remained on the battlefield. still he looks upon the choosing as a disfavour. he asks why Odin robbed Erik of victory and life. No. Odin's answer is that he is hourly expecting Ragnarok. nor could it be so when regarded from a psychological point of view (see above.

it would have been just such a thing as would on the one hand be noticed by strangers. voluntarily inflicted on himself pain. to have let marka sig geirs oddi. knew nothing of such a practice. but not of a single one who "risted himself with the spear-point". Out of this statement has been constructed a custom among kings and heroes of anticipating a straw-death by "risting with the spear. 67. where Odin. with helmet. is removed by this kind-hearted dis. when death was approaching." although. stately dises. THE PSYCHO-MESSENGERS OF THOSE NOT FALLEN BY THE SWORD. She who comes to those who sink beneath the weight of years has been conceived as a very benevolent dis. as it appears. is said. and the more or less historical sagas. varying in accordance with the manner of death of those persons whose departure they attend. we may conceive it as springing from a sacredness attending a voluntary death as a sacrifice . and warriors who have died on a bed of straw. The fable about the spear-point risting. and which gradually gets too heavy for them to bear. otherwise they certainly would have mentioned it as something very remarkable and peculiar to the Teutons. LOKI'S DAUGHTER (PSEUDO-HEL IN GYLFAGINNING) IDENTICAL WITH LEIKIN. that he was taken hence by the woman. shield. may come on horseback. sitting high in the saddle. are of very different appearance. The fable about this "risting with the spear-point" has its origin in Ynglingasaga 9. as we have seen. is therefore quite unlike the source from which.point. and spear. are unanimously and stubbornly silent about the existence of the supposed custom of "risting with the spear-point. The burden which Elli (age). at least for a time. which moved Bestla's brother to give him runes and a drink from the fountain of wisdom. to judge from the solitary passage where she is characterised. puts on men.If there was such a custom. that is in Ynglingatal 30 (Ynglingasaga 44)." and this for the purpose of getting admittance to Valhall. The Scandinavian records. all Northern and German heroic songs. who is helpful to those bowed and stooping (hallvarps hlífinauma). it sprang. chiefs. .a sacredness which in all ages has been more or less alluring to religious minds. But the well-informed persons interviewed by Tacitus. through ignorance and random writing. hungering and thirsting. and its purpose. To those not destined to fall by the sword Urd sends other maid-servants. and on the other hand be remembered. where it is said of the aged and just king Halfdan Whiteleg. they who presented so many characteristic traits of the Teutons. None of the later classical Latin or middle age Latin records which have made contributions to our knowledge of the Teutons have a single word to say about it. tell of many heathen kings. The psychopomps of those fallen by the sword are. like the former. changed to a king in Svithiod. Vigfusson (Dictionary) has already pointed out the fact that the author of Ynglingasaga had no other authority for his statemnent than the passage in Hávamál. where Odin relates that he wounded with a spear. and who. nor the heroic poems. But all the descriptions we have from Latin records in regard to Teutonic customs. if it ever existed. Utgard-Loki's fostermother (Gylfaginning 47). who. by the generations converted to Christianity. all our own ancient records from heathen times.

are mentioned in Ynglingasaga's Thjodolf-strophes (ch.then she delivers them there. Og til þings Þriðja jöfri Hveðrungs mær úr heimi bauð. the prototype of witches. or Niflhel. Hel. whether they dwell in Valhall. as one who brings the invitation to the realm of death. The person who became leikinn is accordingly visited by Loki's kinswoman. whether they are destined for Valhall or for Hel (in the sense of the subterranean realms of bliss). must do the same. The most of them belong to the spirits of disease dwelling in Niflhel (see No. this poem says (Ynglingingasaga 17) that. may be destined for the realms of bliss . 464) it is said of a man that he was leikinn by some magic being (flagð). must first report themselves in Hel. is definitely stated in the Thjodolf-strophe (norna dóms . vitta vættur and tröllkund. their psychopomps. Ynglingatal 3). Of another person who sought solitude and talked with himself. by some being who resembled her. This arrangement is necessary also from the point of view that the unhappy who "die from Hel into Niflhel" (Grímnismál) must have attendants who conduct them from the realms of bliss to the Na-gates. and in the other Hvedrung's kinswoman (Hveðrungs mær). or for Niflhel.then they die under her care and are brought by her through the Na-gates to the worlds of torture in Niflhel. and who brought psychical or physical disease. Ynglingatal gives us the mythical explanation of this word. In its strophe about King Dyggvi. surely does not belong to the regions of bliss.Other psychopomps are of a terrible kind. the daughter of Loki. þá er Hálfdan. and thence to the realms of torture. As all the dead. 17 and 47) as visited by a being called in the one instance Loki's kinswoman (Loka mær). The same vitta vættur came to King Adils when his horse fell and he himself struck his head against a stone (Ynglingasaga 29). if others have had the same task to perform. That this Loki's kinswoman has no authority to determine life and death. shows that she belongs to the same group as Heiðr. who die on a bed of straw. but only carries out the dispensations of the norns. it is said in Eyrbyggja (270) that he was believed to be leikinn. In Biskupasögur (i. and who is contrasted with the valkyrie Hild by the appellation ljóna liðs bága Grímhildr (Ynglingasaga 13. or be destined for Niflhel . 60). 47). who died from disease. although she herself. Loki's kinswoman came and made him leikinn (alvald Yngva þjóðar Loka mær um leikinn hefir). Far down in Christian times the participle leikinn was used in a manner which points to something mythical as the original reason for its application. King Vanlandi is tortured to death by a being whose epithet. sá er á Holti bjó norna dóms um notið hafði.ch. or. who have the subterranean kinswoman of Loki as a guide. and also that her activity. does not imply that the person invited is to be counted among the damned. Two kings. Those dead from disease. the kinswoman of Loki. as the lower world dis had chosen him. .

untamed. He broke her legs (Leggi brauzt þú Leiknar . the messenger of disease and death. i. and plagues. (All this is stated by Hallfreður Vandræðaskáld. Thus the ugly-grown horse is not forgotten in traditions from the heathen time.. to torture. She is.. 137. but not always fatal. which on its appearance brings sickness.exercises when she makes a person leikinn. 3..In our mythical records there is mention made of a giantess whose very name. 4. Compare Vigfusson's Dict. epidemics. since she seið Leikin (síða means to practise sorcery). When they are not fatal. hræ Saxa. She has once fared badly at Thor's hands. is immediately connected with that activity which Loki's kinswoman . of a three-legged horse. 2. J. Deutsche Myth. black and bloodthirsty like it.Tröllkonur). that is. The horse which this woman of torture and death rides is black. The Danish popular belief (Thiele. and ugly-grown (ljótvaxinn). and is accompanied by other horses belonging to Leikin. and whom she is to conduct to the lower world. Hel rides in the time of a plague on a three-legged horse and kills people. 29. as stated. as Leikin is the "horsewoman of torture and death." and rides the Hel-horse. the sorceress Heid went from house to house and was a welcome guest with evil women. It drinks human blood. sub voce "Kveld". after a song by Veturliði). cp. Now. According to popular belief in Slesvik (Arnkiel. a horsewoman of the night.) [*] Perhaps these loose horses are intended for those persons whom the horsewoman of torture causes to die from disease. 804). The meaning. The original and mythological meaning of kveldriða is a horsewoman of torture or death (from kvelja. Leikn. Of this personal Leikin we get the following information in our old records: 1. The diseases brought by the Hel-horse are extremely dangerous. Nafnaþulur . then the expression síða Leikin can mean nothing else than by sorcery to send Leikin. She is kveldriða. 138) knows this monster. difficult to manage (styggr).] Popular traditions have preserved for our times the remembrance of the "ugly-grown" horse. ljótvaxinn. to its horse). fyr styggvan Leiknar hest á lesti. i. Tryggva sonr. * Tíðhöggvit lét tiggi. [Ólafs saga Tryggv. Grimm. ch. the convalescent is regarded as having ransomed his life with that tribute of loss of strength and of torture which the disease caused him. and in a symbolic sense he has then "given death a bushel of oats" (that is. vinhróðigr gaf víða vísi margra Frísa blökku brúnt at drekka blóð kveldriðu stóði.and she too is a giantess . to those persons who are the victims . Leikin. Völuspá informs us that in the primal age of man. is a misunderstanding.Skáldskaparmál 11. of giant race (Younger Edda. 55. and the word Hel-horse has been preserved in the vocabulary of the Danish language. to kill).

(3) the Christian popular tradition in which the deformed and disease-bringing horse. and like her in all respects. but gets her legs broken. without doubt. however. Kyni is dative of kyn. as in Gylfaginning and in the Slesvik traditions. Sæmund. as of Loki's daughter. The letter u is in this manuscript used for both u and y (compare Bugge. an expression which. she makes him leikinn. Finally. or. [*] * Völuspá 22 (Cod. and not in either one of them the noun seiðr. xi. which Leikin rides in the myth. it should be observed that it is told of Leikin. From that time she is gnúpleit . a monster. The latter reading makes logical sense. The object of the holy sorcery was to bring about something good either for the sorcerer or for others. Preface x. or to find out the will of the gods and future things. Leikin is not slain. and again and again forbidden in the laws. and this kind of sorcery is designated in Völuspá by the term síða kyni. that she once fared badly at the hands of the gods. The reading in Cod. (4) that change of meaning by which the name Hel. which in the mythical poems of the Elder Edda designates the whole heathen realm of death. evidently has some "emendator" to thank for its existence who did not understand the passage and wished to substitute something easily understood for the obscure lines he thought he had found. take her life.a transmutation by which the name Hel. Hauk. to bring by sorcery dangerous diseases to men. as if her bones had been broken and were unable to keep her in an upright position.of the evil wishes of "evil women".. but is cast into Niflhel (Gylfaginning 34). or their queen. seið hon hvars hon kunni. is in its sense connected with the feminine name Leikn. Seið in both the above lines is past tense of the verb síða. a neuter noun.that is to say. and according to the attending ceremonies.. and hence kuni may be read both kuni and kyni. Edd. seið hon Leikin. Of a thing practised with improper means it is said that it is not kynja-lauss. hated by the gods. who visits men with diseases and death. Loki's daughter is not slain. supernatural.). To determine the question whether they are identical.. The sorcery practised by Heiðr is the unholy one. she has a stooping form. we must observe (1) the definitely representative manner in which Völuspá. or she and the Loki-daughter are one and the same person. got to mean the abode of torture and misery and its ruler . was transferred from Urd to Loki's daughter.) says of Heid: seið hon kuni. kyn-free. according to the purpose for which it was practised. There was a sacred sorcery and an unholy one. . meaning something sorcerous. From all this follows that Leikin is either a side-figure to the daughter of Loki. more abstractly. Kynjamein and kynjasótt mean diseases brought on by sorcery. seið hon hugleikin. and which was preserved in the vernacular far down in Christian times. and there designated a supernatural visitation bringing the symptoms of mental or physical illness. (2) the manner in which Ynglingatal characterises the activity of Loki's daughter with a person doomed to die from disease. who did not. and especially its regions of bliss. by the use of the name Leikin. Reg. is represented as the steed of "death" or "Hel". makes the possessor of this name a mythic person.

and to the sacred citadel of the ásmegir. 53). to Mimir's grove. may say that he brings to the light of day the tribute paid to Gilling (yppa Gillings gjöldum.nay. he hears in the opposite direction . Skáldskaparmál 10. 59.guided by various psychopomps: the beautifully equipped valkyries. They come on foot and on horseback . ii. Possibly the souls of children had their special psychopomps. gyllingr (Younger Edda. THE WAY TO HADES COMMON TO THE DEAD. a very unreliable source . on account of the pseudo-myth in Bragaræður about the mead. therefore. those who have lived in accordance with the sacred commandments of the norns and gods and they who have broken them . the Hel. in other words. Women and children. and he sat for nine days and nights á norna stóli before he was permitted to . See Eyvind's strophe.) From this gate the highway of the dead went below the earth in a westerly direction through deep and dark dales (dökkva dala og djúpa Gylfaginning 49). and the gentle maidservant of old age. but of Christian tradition. flowing from north to south (see No. 494). The deceased skald of the Sun-song came to the norns. The paraphrase has hitherto been misunderstood.for Hermod nine days and nights before they came to light regions and to the golden bridge across the river Gjoll. This northern road was not. they who have practised the arts of peace and they who have stained the weapons with blood.that is. to Mimir's realm. but also those who are to dwell in Asgard or in the regions of torture in Niflheim. Thus the dead tread at the outset the same road. to Urd and her sisters. Traditions of mythic origin seem to suggest this. that is to say. the blue-white daughter of Loki. On the other side of the river the roads forked.the Hel-gate grating dismally on its hinges (Sólarljóð 39 .not only they whose destination is the realm of bliss.all have to journey the same way as Baldur went before them. not of the myth. this second road must have led to Urd's fountain and to the thingstead of the gods there. and thus recalls to those living the shades of those in Hades. The Hel-gate here in question was situated below the eastern horizon of the earth.All that we learn of Leikin thus points to the Loki-maid. men and the aged. and it required several days . From the Sun-song we learn that the departed had to continue their journey by that road. The gate has a watchman and a key. and hence a skald who celebrates his ancestors in his songs. Another road went to the south. 68. This led to Baldur's abode (Gylfaginning 49).en Heljar grind heyrðag á annan veg þjóta þunglega). and the same Helgate daily opens for hosts of souls destined for different lots. if we may believe Helreið Brynhildar. even in chariots. When Thor threatens to kill Loki he says (Lokasenna 59) that he will send him á austurvega. but the fragments of the myths themselves preserved to our time give us no information on this subject. One and the same route is prescribed to them all. When the author of the Sun-song sees the sun set for the last time. the road common to all the dead. after he had left this road behind him. down to the fields of the fountains of the world. As Urd's realm is situated south of Mimir's (see Nos. One road went directly north. where death and decay cannot enter (see No. the sombre spirits of disease. 59). 63). It has already been demonstrated that all the dead must go to Hel . The key is called gillingr. in the east .

and all the Asas assemble á þingi. 24). 69. In the former a council is held and resolutions passed in such matters as pertain more particularly to the clan of the Asas and to their relation to other divine clans and other powers. it is on the other hand expressly stated that they go thither to sit in judgment. whence it might seem . Here. some destined for Asgard. and to send a messenger to the lower world to get knowledge partly about Baldur. THE TWO THINGSTEADS OF THE ASAS. that which is pardonable and that which is unpardonable. partly about future events. Hither (á þing goða) comes Thor with the kettle captured from Hymir. innocence and guilt. then. THE EXTENT OF THE AUTHORITY OF THE ASAS AND OF THE DIS OF FATE. and here the Asas hold their last deliberations. What matters are settled there? We might take this to be the proper place for exercising Odin's privilege of choosing heroes to be slain by the sword. It follows that the gods assemble in the Asgard thingstead more for the purpose of discussing their own interests than for that of judging in the affairs of others. that it was done on the basis of the laws which in mythological ethics distinguish between right and wrong. It must be admitted that this dividing must take place somewhere in the lower world. to act as judges.continue his journey (Sólarljóð 51). or which are not of such a nature that they have reference to how the gods themselves are to act under particular circumstances. In assemblies here the gods resolved to exact an oath from all things for Baldur's safety. No matters are mentioned as discussed in this thingstead in which any person is interested who does not dwell in Asgard. They also gather there to amuse themselves and to exercise themselves in arms (Gylfaginning 49). of the one in the lower world. and that the happiness and unhappiness of the dead is determined by this division. and is suggested by the very nature of the case. others for the subterranean regions of bliss. is the end of the road common to all. Baldur's Draumar 4). We shall now see whether the mythic fragments preserved to our time contain any suggestions as to what occurs in this connection. at Urd's fountain and at the thingstead of the gods something must happen. The Asas have two thingsteads: the one in Asgard. THE DOOM OF THE DEAD. the other in the lower world. after Gullveig had been slain in Odin's hall (Völuspá 23. and there is no reason for taking this word dæma. when Ragnarok is at hand (Völuspá 48: Æsir eru á þingi). Of the other thingstead of the Asas. on which account the dead are divided into different groups. When Baldur is visited by ugly dreams. That the thingstead where such questions are discussed must be situated in Asgard itself is a matter of convenience. and a third lot for Niflhel's regions of torture. in any other than its judicial and common sense. On this thingstead efforts are made of reconciliation between the Asas and the Vans. since this right is coordinate with that of the norns to determine life and dispense fate. and right here. when as here it means activity at a thingstead. and all the asynjes á máli (Vegtamskviða 1. Valfather assembles the gods to hold counsel. and intended for the feasts of the gods (Hymiskviða 39).

within certain limits) of the gods . This question now is. The questions are of great importance. This is evident already from the fact that the journey to the thingstead is a troublesome one for the gods. When the dead arrive at Urd's fountain their final doom is not yet sealed. then it would not be in accordance with the high rank given to the Asas in mythology to have them go to the norns for the decision of such questions. It is expressly stated that it is in his own home in Valhall that Odin exercises his right of electing (Grímnismál 8). It may have been for this very reason that the youngest of the dises of fate. who. and on a closer investigation we find how the mythology in more than one way has sought to maintain in the fancy of its believers the independence (at least apparent and well defined. They have not yet been separated into the groups which are to be divided between Asgard. The questions in which the Asas are judges near Urd's fountain must be such as cannot be settled in Asgard. was selected as a valkyrie. like Mimir. 30). dauða orð. At the thingstead near Urd's fountain there daily arrive hosts of the dead. the gods have no authority to determine the life and death of the other mortals. clings to that which is probable rather . This belongs exclusively to the norns. The power they have is immense. but norna dómr. and that the daily event in accordance with which the dead at this thingstead are divided between the realms of bliss and those of torture have nothing in common? That these mythological facts should have no connection with each other is hard to conceive for anyone who. norna kviðr. as the lower world is their proper forum. at least for Thor. Moreover. the norns would have to come to them. in doubtful questions. and their decision in this domain is never called a decision by the gods. Skuld. If Asas and norns did have a common voice in deciding certain questions which could be settled in Asgard. feigðar orð. and Niflhel. The task of the Asas near Urd's fountain is to judge in questions of which the lower world is the proper forum. Urd and her sisters are beings of high rank. At this point of the investigation the results hitherto gained from the various premises unite themselves in the following manner: The Asas daily go to the thingstead near Urd's fountain. The norns elect for every other death but that by weapons. Still it is not on the thingstead at Urd's fountain that Odin elects persons for death by the sword. Hel. and this right be holds so independently and so absolutely that he does not need to ask for the opinion of the norns. to get thither.an independence united with the high rank which they have.that the domain of the authority of the gods and that of the norns here approached each other sufficiently to require deliberations and decisions in common. 29. the questions are of such a character that they occur every day (Grímnismál. but nevertheless they are of giant descent. On the other hand. must wade across four rivers. On the contrary. Can we conceive that the daily journey of the Asas to Urd's fountain and the daily arrival there of the dead have no connection with each other? That the judgments daily pronounced by the Asas at this thingstead. where both the parties concerned and the witnesses are to be found. and as a maid-servant both of Odin and of her sister Urd.

and summons him to appear before the judgment-seat of Odin. Þing-boð means a legal summons to appear at a Thing. who "called him from this world to Odin's Thing". þær um vefur. to appear at some of the accidental deliberations which are held at the thingstead there. at least all those who have died from disease must go to Hel. since both of them died from disease. One of them was visited and fetched by that choking spirit of disease called vitta vættr. 70. although the strophe further on expressly states that she comes to Halfdan on account of "the doom of the norns". all the dead. and as there is a Thing at which Odin and the Asas daily sit in judgment. THE DOOM OF THE DEAD (continued). did not present himself at Odin's court there. not from the lower world and Urd. Here it is Hvedrung's kinswoman who comes with sickness and death and þing-boð to King Halfdan. Otherwise we would be obliged to assume that Hvedrung's kinswoman.than to the opposite. Ynglingatal says that after death they met Odin. Og til þings þriðja jöfri Hveðrungs mær úr heimi bauð. who had died from sickness. after arriving in the lower world. ef þú vilt-at magni þér heiptum gjaldi harm. according to the mythological text-books. Bjóða til þings is to perform this legal summons. ORÐS TÍRR. As. and furthermore we would be obliged to assume that the king. at the seat of judgment. but from Asgard. Loki's daughter. The probability becomes a certainty by the following circumstances: Of the kings Vanlandi and Halfdan. and as. is a messenger. . must descend to the lower world. NÁMÆLI. this should not have happened to either of them. þær um vindur. it must have been this to which Halfdan was summoned. In Sigurdrífumál 12 we read: Málrúnar skaltu kunna. SPEECH-RUNES. The other was visited by Hveðrungs mær. according to mythology. the daughter of Loki. and in this way he was permitted "to meet Odin" (kom á vit Vilja bróður). then certainly King Halfdan. but continued his journey to Asgard. The passage proves that at least those who have died from sickness have to appear at the court which is held by Odin in the lower world. According to the common view presented in our mythological text-books. who died from disease. þær um setur allar saman á því þingi.

Thus it follows that those hosts of people who enter this thing-stead stand there with speechless tongues. if you do not wish that the strong one with consuming woe shall requite you for the injury you have caused. The sorrow or harm one has caused is requited in this Thing by heiptir. Those who are able to apply these mighty runes are very few. For by them they are able to defend themselves against complaints. 60). p. Sigurdrifa. and among them there must be but a small number who have penetrated so deeply into the secret knowledge of runes." In order to make the significance of this passage clear. It has a similar meaning here. who also is skilled in them. The magical málrunes. woven. According to Saxo (Book I. the purpose of which is "to requite with consuming woe the harm they have done". One of the kinswomen present lifts the napkin off from Sigurd's head. Odin employs mál-runes when he rists í rúnum. bursts into tears. This is a reference to mál-runes. wound. and sings a terrible song. By the sight of the features of the loved one Gudrun awakens again to life. weave.er þjóðir skulu í fulla dóma fara. is a dis. Hadding places a piece of wood risted with runes under the tongue of a dead man. Odin boasts that he knows them. so that a corpse from the gallows comes and mælir with him (Hávamál 157). For those who have done so it is of importance and advantage. the word heiptir with mein. The latter then recovers consciousness and the power of speech. sat near Sigurd's dead body. it is necessary to explain the meaning of speech-runes or mál-runes. and place together in that Thing where the host of people go into the full judgments. "Speech-runes you must know.thanks to the mál-runes . freed her tongue. But within the court here in question men come in great numbers (þjóðir). It is in the nature of the myth to regard such forces as personal beings. . mute and almost lifeless (gerðist að deyja). form as it were a garb of protection around the defendant against the magic heiptir. Several kinds of runes are mentioned in Sigurdrífumál. as Vigfusson has already pointed out." (23) that is to say. a giantess who protected him. Among them are mál-runes (speech-runes). unless the accused is able . In Guðrúnarkviða in fyrsta it is mentioned how Gudrun. which "eat" their victims. 23). In Hávamál 151 the word heiptir has the meaning of something supernatural and magical. and is able to speak. and placed together. all of a magic and wonderful kind. The evil Brynhild then curses the being (vættur) which "gave mál-runes to Gudrun. until then sealed as in death.to speak and give reasons in his defence. They have their name from the fact that they are able to restore to a tongue mute or silenced in death the power to mæla (speak). The runes which Hadding applied were risted by Hardgreip. not a daughter of man. They are and remain mute before their judges unless they know the mál-runes which are able to loosen the fetters of their tongues. Of the dead man's tongue it is said in Sólarljóð (stanza 44) that it is til trés metin og kólnað allt fyrir utan. All those runes you must wind. or at least partly explain. In the court they are able to mæla (speak) in their own defence. We have already seen the spirits of disease appear in this manner (see No. In the Hávamál strophe mentioned the skald makes Odin paraphrase.

" (77) "Your cattle shall die. characterises as judgments that "never die. in fact. you yourself shall die. They were the Erinnyes ["furies"] of the Teutonic mythology. between which the earth was established. the Thing in Asgard and the Thing near Urd's fountain . deyr sjálfur ið sama. But in Asgard men do not enter with their tongues sealed in death. Eg veit einn. one thing I know which never dies: the judgment on each one dead. And it must be superhuman beings of higher or lower rank who there occupy the judgment-seats and requite the sins of men with heiptir. which appears in the verb magna. "Full" are those judgments against which no formal or real protests can be made . but the fair fame of him who has earned it never dies.The heiptir were also personified. Inasmuch as the mythology gives us information about only two thingsteads where superhuman beings deliberate and judge . sharply distinguished this thingstead or court from all others.decisions which are irrevocably valid. armed with scourges of thorns (see below)." are those "over each one dead". For the einherjes who are invited to the joys of Valhall there are no heiptir prepared. your kindred shall die. Sigurdrífumál. using the expression á því. Deyr fé. which means both to make strong and to operate with supernatural means.namely. en orðstírr deyr aldregi. The only kind of judgments of which the mythology speaks in this manner. The poem declares that it means that Thing where hosts of people go into full judgments. or any other Thing held on the surface of the earth. deyja frændur. your kindred shall die." . you yourself shall die. (76) "Your cattle shall die. The thingstead here discussed must be situated in one of the mythical realms. This brings us to the well-known and frequently-quoted strophes in Hávamál 76-77: Deyr fé. hveim er sér góðan getur. The word has a double meaning. only in the latter that the gods act as judges. að aldrei deyr. dómur um dauðan hvern. From all this it must be sufficiently plain that the Thing here referred to is not the Althing in Iceland or the Gulathing in Norway. deyja frændur.and inasmuch as it is. He who at the Thing particularly dispenses the law of requital is called magni. we are driven by all the evidences to the conclusion that Sigurdrífumál has described to us that very thingstead at which Hvedrung's kinswoman summoned King Halfdan to appear after death. that is. deyr sjálfur ið sama.

particularly if he was a person of great influence. in order to rescue at least the names of the most distinguished heroes and kings. The assumption that Hávamál with that judgment on each one dead. But can this have been the meaning intended to be conveyed by the skald? And could these strophes."dómur um dauðan hvern". which is said to be imperishable. your kindred and yourself shall die. The lofty strains above quoted do not seem to be written by a person wholly destitute of worldly experience. have been thus understood by their hearers and readers? Did not Hávamál's author. that fame is imperishable. before they got a written literature. then we find that the words of the Hávamál strophes attributed to Odin's lips. But I know one thing that never dies: the reputation you acquired among men. a desperate conflict with the power of oblivion. well-considered. . very seldom is so unanimous. so to speak.Hitherto these passages have been interpreted as if Odin or Hávamál's skald meant to say . too. and Hávamál's author too. left this world without leaving so deep footprints in the sands of time that they could last even through one generation? Every person of some age and experience has known this. but the most stupid twaddle ever heard declaimed in a solemn manner. and free from prejudice that in these respects it ought to be entitled to permanent validity. If we now add that the judgment of posterity on one deceased. especially among the Germans. when interpreted as hitherto. far in the deep forest dies a child. who. But the judgment of the survivors in regard to this child's character and deeds is to be imperishable. are not words of wisdom. that the skaldic art waged. as it seems.What you have of earthly possessions is perishable. hardly known by others than by its parents. had reference to the opinion of the survivors in regard to the deceased attains its climax of absurdity when we consider that the poem expressly states that it means the judgment on every dead person . In the cottage lying far. know as well as all other persons who have some age and experience. and passes away together with the very memory of the deceased? Could it have escaped the attention of the Hávamál skald and his hearers that the number of mortals is so large and increases so immensely with the lapse of centuries that the capacity of the survivors to remember them is utterly insufficient? Was it not a well-established fact. are soon to be harvested by death. which. but that nevertheless thousands of chiefs and warriors were after the lapse of a few generations entirely forgotten? Did not Hávamál's author know that millions of men have. reliable. and the good fame it acquired during its brief life is to live for ever on the lips of posterity! Perhaps it is the sense of the absurdity to which the current assumption leads on this point that has induced some of the translators to conceal the word hvern (every) and led them to translate the words dómur um dauðan hvern in an arbitrary manner with "judgment on the dead man". and the many who listened to and treasured in their memories these words of his. that in the great majority of cases the fame acquired by a person scarcely survives a generation. in the course of thousands of years. were widely known in the heathendom of the North. the posthumous fame pronounced on your character and on your deeds: that reputation is immortal.

and they have either read them without sufficient attention (as. which makes the good meaning absolute. and permits the souls of the dead to be transferred.There are two reasons for the misunderstanding . has to some extent contributed to making us familiar with this idea which was foreign to the heathens. orð og særi. on a closer inspection. on this point Gylfaginning has not a word to say. we must leave its relatively more modern and grammatical sense (word) entirely out of the question. the second word: All heathen temples and idols shall be unholy. 76). without any special act of judgment.the one is formal. the conclusion has been drawn that a court summoning the dead within its forum was not to be found in Teutonic mythology. for instance. gen." &c. The more original meaning of orðstírr is. The composition is of so loose a character that the two parts are not blended into a new word. From the silence of this authority. and sent from Urd's fountain to their . It knows that. to purgatory. From this it followed that scholars have been blind to the passages in our mythical records which speak of a court in the lower world. which postpones the judgment to the last day of time. -s is retained. it is most frequently connected with judgments pronounced in the lower world. or interpreted them in an utterly absurd manner (which is the case with Sigurdrífumál 12). are reduced to nonsense (as is the case with the Hávamál strophes). but who he or they were who determined how far a dead person was worthy of the one fate or the other. were broken. although other Aryan and non-Aryan mythologies have presented such a judgment-seat. according to the doctrine of the heathen fathers. In the Hávamál strophe 76. The sign of the gen. laudatory reputation. is sometimes added. has nothing to say about a court for the dead. See the last line of the strophe (hveim er sér góðan getur). The ecclesiastical conception. to heaven. or given them a possible. which it is impossible to harmonise with the current conception). When orð occurs in purely mythical sources. probably on account of the laws of accentuation. never felt the necessity of conceiving for itself clear and concrete ideas of how and through whom the deceased were determined for bliss or misery. like lofstírr. orðs. which too long has had the reputation of being a reliable and exhaustive codification of the scattered statements of the mythic sources. and is found in the word orðs-tírr (str. 237: "The first word: All shall be Christians. the above-quoted statements of Ynglingatal. but is written as one word. the possibility of an orðs tírr which is not good is presupposed. solemnised by oaths. but still not in a sense so decidedly good but that a qualifying word. Compare Fornmannasögur. where the treaties between the Asas and gods. Tírr means reputation in a good sense. interpretation (thus Sonatorrek 20). and that the Teutonic fancy. and tírr. ii. good people come to regions of bliss. the other reason is that Gylfaginning. good reputation. or to hell. and these older significations have long had a conscious existence in the language. above-quoted. or they have interpolated assumptions. which. góður tírr. and shows that orðstírr. a judgment. but improbable. In Völuspá 26 orð is employed in the sense of an established law or judgment among the divine powers. to be found in the sense of orðs tírr. a command. Its older signification is an utterance (one which may consist of many "words" in a grammatical sense). So far as the meaning of orð is concerned. is not in its sense and in its origin a compound. the wicked to Niflhel. á gengust eiðar. Thus in lofs-tírr. The compound orðstírr is composed of orð. therefore. though always much occupied with the affairs of the lower world and with the condition of the dead in the various realms of death. a result.

26) orðstírr is used as a compound. If the Hávamál skald with orðs-tírr meant "honourable reputation. which frequently occurs. is passed on everyone dead. no matter whether it concerns life or death. Already in Höfuðlausn (str. a mythical ideaassociation between them. Vigfusson (Dictionary. in the most ancient time. honour. The real meaning of the phrase proves to be: reputation based on a decision. which he incorporated in his drapa on Hakon the Good. there arose by the side of its literal meaning another. the judgment of death. From a chronological point of view there is therefore nothing to hinder our applying the less strict sense. have added the condition which he makes in the last line of the strophe: hveim er sér góðan getur. a judgment determining death. and it is said that he thereby gained orðstírr (renown). honour. He compares word (orð) and wurdr (urðr). as he has done. To a subterranean judgment refers also the expression bana-orð. and which itself never dies. we must subtract from orðstírr the meaning of honourable reputation. must have been prepared by a court whose decision could not be questioned or set aside. deyja frændur. and that the judgment must have been one whose influence is eternal. awaited Dag the Wise. a meaning which the word never had. In interpreting Hávamál 76 it would therefore seem that we must choose between the proper and figurative sense of orðstírr. Urðar orð is Urd's judgment. Doubtless there was. "honourable reputation. comes to Fjolnir. goddess of fate). 467) points out the possibility of an etymological connection between orð and Urður. when he came to Vorvi (Ynglingatal 8).destination. then the Hávamál strophe could not be composed later than the middle of the tenth century. When orðstírr had blended into a compound word. honour. and that he applied orðs tírr in its original sense and was speaking of imperishable judgments. If in spite of this we would take the less strict sense. which must come to pass (Fjölsvinnsmál 47). honour. If it was from it Eyvind Skaldaspillir drew his deyr fé. in which the accent fell so heavily on tírr that orð is superfluous and gives no additional meaning of a judgment on which this tírr is based. for the infinity of the judgment itself can only depend on the infinity of its operation. It should also have been regarded as a matter of course that the judgment which. We are therefore forced to the conclusion that the meaning of court-decision. These circumstances are to be remembered in connection with the interpretation of orðstírr. which orð has not only in Ynglingatal and Fjölsvinnsmál. word and weird (fate. who died in 960. The age of the Hávamál strophe is not known. and is fulfilled "where Frodi dwelt" (Ynglingatal 1). was clear to the author of the Hávamál strophe. for the idea "good" would then already be contained in orðstírr." to the passage in question. according to the Hávamál strophe (77)." he could not. That the more or less vague opinions sooner or later committed to oblivion in regard to a . but also in linguistic usage. There is mention of a victory which Erik Blood-axe won. Dauða orð. But there are other hindrances. Höfuðlausn was composed by Egil Skallagrimsson in the year 936 or thereabout. meaning simply honourable reputation. Feigðar orð. on an utterance of authority. judgment. p. and conceive the expression to mean simply reputation in general. orðs-tírr in Hávamál 76.

). one who dies for the second time and comes to Niflhel (see No. careful as he was in regard to sinful deeds. Both begin: deyr fé. which means a corpse. ná may be the abverbial prefix. by the side of.which we have in námæli.deceased person should be supposed to contain such a judgment. When he speaks of his son Gunnar. The latter strophe declares that the judgment on every dead person is imperishable. The strophes are by the skald attributed to Odin's lips. and to have been meant by the immortal doom over the dead. he says (str. The word námæli occurs nowhere else. strophe.. of whom I know that he. and assures us that the judgment on the one as on the other category is everlasting. þann eg veit að varnaði vamma varr við námæli. namely. most intimately connected with each other. It is of importance to our subject to find it out. we must know that the skald in the preceding 19th. dead body. &c. whether it is the adverbial prefix or the substantive ná. . Orð in the one strophe corresponds to dómur in the other. took care of himself for námæli. and thus completes the more limited statement of the foregoing strophe. Both the strophes are. speaks of Gunnar's fate in the lower world.son minn sóttar brími heiptulegr úr heimi nam. that the judgment which gives a good renown is everlasting. and where hosts of people with fettered tongues await their final destiny (see above). of that category to whose honour the eternal judgment is pronounced. The former strophe speaks of only one category of men who have been subjected to an ever-valid judgment. "A fatal fire of disease (fever?) snatched from this world a son of mine. which means near by. 60). who in his tender years was snatched away by a sickness. as in the succeeding 21st. as is evident from the first glance. In the poem Sonatorrek the old Egil Skallagrimsson laments the loss of sons and kindred. and his thoughts are occupied with the fate of his children after death. The second strophe speaks of both the categories. In those compounds of which the first part is ná-. 20): . deyja frændur." To understand this strophe correctly. and its meaning is not known. by the judge himself. The assurances in regard to the validity of the judgment on everyone dead are thus given by a being who really may be said to know what he talks about (eg veit. Odin pronounces judgment every day near Urd's fountain at the court to which King Halfdan was summoned. I venture to include among the most extraordinary interpretations ever produced. namely.. to begin with. The question is now. or it may be the substantive nár. and in a mythical sense one damned.

nágranni. (2) In regard to friendship: náborinn. náfrændi. nábýli. a reading. nákvæmr. Formæli is his speech or plea. The exact meaning is . nálægð. nágrenni. a friend of Odin in the lower world. Mæla. náseta. návera. From the context we find that námæli is something dangerous. to give it another hitherto unknown signification. formæli. Ná from nár can be used as a prefix both to a noun and to an adjective. I should consider it perilous. nýmæli. návistarvitni. formælandi. (3) In regard to correctness. nákominn. and had landed in the realm of happiness. which contains not only happiness but also terrors. as has been done. nákvæmr. In all of them the prefix ná. exactness: nákvæmi. In the following strophe (21) he expressed his confidence that the deceased had been adopted by Gauta spjalli. Gunnar is dead and is gone to the lower world. These three cases exhaust the meanings of the adverbial prefix ná-. Mæli can take either a substantive or adjective as prefix. are used in legal language. nábleikr. The idea of correctness comes from the combination of ná. In another group of words the prefix ná. násessi. a declaration.) . an utterance. But none of these meanings can be applied to námæli. náfrændkona. Formælandi is a defendant in court. The expression is applicable both to Mimir and Hoenir. (In regard to Gauta spjalli. Examples: Guðmæli. nágrindur.is the noun nár. náskyldr. nágöll. náleið.that which comes near to. an oration.Compounds which have the adverbial ná as the first part of the word are very common. nábleikr. nákvæmlega. exact. without evidence from the language. to the point. Námæli should accordingly be an oration. In analogy with the words under (1) it can indeed mean "An oration held near by". náreið. fullmæli. Examples: nágrindr. nágranna. something to look out for. nágrennd. who in another strophe of the poem gives to understand that he had adhered faithfully to the religious doctrines of his fathers. Mæli means a declamation. kvæmlega.implies nearness in space or in kinship. kvæmr. the only place where it is found. as he had no sinful deed to blame himself for. but this signification produces no sense in the above passage. and as the abandoning of solid ground under the feet. and other words. námágr. nálægjast. see further on. is convinced that his son has avoided the dangers implied in námæli. námunda. nábúi. násettr. and which in that sense is precise. mælandi. náverukona. nákvæma.and kvæmi. náungr. nálægr. nákvæmd. Nýmæli is a law read or published for the first time. Here belong nábjargir. tried. (1) In regard to space: nábúð. but his aged father. návistarmaðr. náverandi. nástrandir. návistarkona. a proclamation. násæti. návist. or it has the signification of something correct or exact. nástædr. if we. in regard to nár. or the proclamation of a law.

Hávamál 111) and benches or chairs for the dead (compare the phrase falla á helpalla . The bridge over Gjöll scarcely resounds under the feet of the death-horses and of the dead (Gylfaginning 49). There is also a rostrum (þularstóli á.Námæli must. The women and children bring ornaments that they were fond of in life. 70). The condition in which these shades come to the Thing shows best whether piety prevails in Midgard. therefore. SINS UNTO DEATH. and the sitting of the dead one. Chapter 4. 71. that judgment which gives the dead fair renown. It is a silent journey. which commands respect for the dead and care for the ashes of the departed. á norna stóli . (3) which refers to the dead and affects those who have not been vamma varir. The dead should come well clad and ornamented. The tongues of the shades are sealed (see No. or are drowned. THE HAMINGJA AT THE JUDGEMENT. Make a bath for those who are dead. The appearance presented by the shades assembled in the Thing indicates to what extent the survivors heed the law. and nástrandir are strands for náir. Then strangers should take the place of kindred. like all others.Sörla þáttur. just as nágrindur are gates.Sólarljóð 51). whether from sickness they have died. 70). and it enriches our knowledge of the mythological eschatology with a technical term (námæli) for that judgment which sends sinners to travel through the Na-gates to Niflhel. on the look-out against blameworthy and criminal deeds. or are from weapons dead. Warriors bring their weapons of attack and defence. and both kinds of judgments are embraced in the phrase dómur um dauðan. Námæli is a proclamation for náir. for noble minds take to heart the advices found as follows in Sigurdrífumál 33-34: "Render the last service to the corpses you find on the ground. THE DUTY OF TAKING CARE OF THE ASHES OF THE DEAD. The passage furnishes additional evidence that the dead in the lower world make their appearance in order to be judged. THE DOOM OF THE DEAD (continued). Urðar brunni að . THE LOOKS OF THE THINGSTEAD. Here are seats (in Völuspá called rökstólar) for the holy powers acting as judges. This thingstead has. had its judgment-seats. mean a declaration (1) that is dangerous. Many die under circumstances which make it impossible for their kinsmen to observe these duties. Gylfaginning 52 [?] ) as evidence to the judge that they enjoyed the devotion and respect of their survivors. Those hosts which are conducted by their psychopomps to the Thing near Urd's fountain proceed noiselessly. The opposite of námæli is orðs tírr. Hades-pictures of those things which kinsmen and friends placed in the gravemounds accompany the dead (Hákonarmál 17. SINS OF WEAKNESS. . (2) which does not affect a person who has lived a blameless life. Silent they must receive their doom unless they possess mál-runes (see No.

belonging to the generation immediately preceding that which by Vicelin was converted to Christianity.. for the dead are then in their places. those who ride to Valhall must then have been obliged to dismount. and one between these realms (compare Müllenhoff. The unjust had to wade through this river. Grimm. and we may be sure that their psychopomps have not been slow on their Thing-journey. in a figurative sense.. 420 . Grimm about the need of such shoes for the dead and about a thorngrown heath. iv. comb them and wipe them dry. a conspicuous proof in the eyes of the court that they who have exercised mercy are worthy of mercy.. which they have to cross. and then several places (Müllenhoff. The just are able to cross the river by putting their feet on boards a foot wide and fourteen feet long. This is the first day's journey. which floated on the water. nachtr. v. their very shoes are. 1. but still deserved them. Myth. and pray for their happy sleep. Leb. v. 127). but little corrupted by time and change of religion. and with all their superhuman keenness. Those who have shown mercy to fellow-men that in this life." It was. believed he had made in the lower world. f. Simrock. one to hell. D. is not of Christian but of heathen origin. Myth. There is mentioned an immensely large and beautiful linden-tree hanging full of shoes. 697. Somewhere on the way the Hel-shoes must have been tried. and when they are seated on Urd's benches. and with defendants on the other hand whose tongues refuse to serve them. nevertheless are not infallible. He is not even the one who knows the most among the beings of mythology. They were cut and mangled in every limb. thickly grown with thorns.one to heaven. is probably a genuine mythological idea. Alt. however. Deutsche Alt. On the second day they come to a point where the road forked into three ways . The popular tradition first pointed out by Walter Scott and J. Myth. When the gods have arrived from Asgard. Weinhold. iii. but when they reached the other strand. and suffered immensely..wash their hands and their head.Gylfar straumar grenjuðu . ere in the coffin you lay them. Visio Godeschalci describes a journey which the pious Holstein peasant Godeskalk. 494.. v... Altn.).. 114). 113. do not need to fear torn shoes and bloody feet (W. Compare with this statement Sólarljóð 42. With judges on the one hand who. had to travel thorny paths. The Norse tradition preserved in Gisla saga Surssonar in regard to the importance for the dead to be provided with shoes reappears as a popular tradition. Minstrelsy. the proceedings begin. by their condition. 114. Urd and Mimir know more than he. it . 349. Proofs and witnesses are necessary before the above-named tribunal. These are all mythic traditions. blandnir mjög við blóð. It was not improper for the elect to make their entrance in Valhall in a bloody coat of mail. That in the lower world itself Hel-shoes were to be had for those who were not supplied with them.. and then they came to a river full of irons with sharp edges. not necessary to wipe the blood off from the byrnie of one fallen by the sword. where the dying skald hears the roaring of subterranean streams mixed with much blood . J. for Odin is far from omniscient. first in England. Eyvind Skaldaspillir makes King Hakon come all stained with blood (allur í dreyra drifinn) into the presence of Odin. ii. dismounted from their horses (Gylfaginning) and taken their judges' seats. When the dead had passed this tree they had to cross a heath two miles wide. Scott. in spite of all their loftiness. their bodies were the same as they had been when they began crossing the river. Mannhardt in Zeitschr. deutsch. which were handed down to such dead travellers as had exercised mercy during their lives..

if there were no proofs and witnesses. The hamingja hears of it before anyone else when her mistress has announced dauða orð . They are like members of the same body. But if the death-doomed person is not a nithing. It is of paramount importance that she should do so now. is doing. It is as if a spiritual marriage was entered into between her and the human soul. everlasting in its operations. there was no danger that the judgment over each one dead would not be as just as it was unappealable and everlasting. then she by no means abandons him. that which has been. is to be determined in regard to her favourite. The heathen fancy shrank from the idea of a knowledge able of itself to embrace all. not founded on exhaustive knowledge and on well-considered premises. each one of whom knew the motives and deeds of a special individual. she must be there. It was easier to conceive a divine insight which was secured by a net of messengers and spies stretched throughout the world. The judgment. In Atlamál 28 there occurs a phrase which has its origin in heathendom. the greatest and the least. the home of her nativity (see No. which also is to belong to her (Gisla saga Súrssonar). a norn of lower rank. But on the dictum of the court of death it depends where the dead person is to find his haven. gone. that a judgment. and deeds. a hamingja. and it is doubtless for this reason that the subterranean Thing of the gods was located near her fountain and not near Mimir's. and it means. She (and the gipta.with him whose guardian-spirit she is. might be proclaimed. and shall be in the world of thoughts. as Atlamál uses it. His lips are sealed. where it has been employed in a clearer and more limited sense than in the Christian poem. 64) leaves him then. The phrase is eg kveð aflima orðnar þér dísir. to watch over and protect its earthly life. And she is not only a witness friendly to him. Urd has given to every human soul. a maid-servant. But the judgment on human souls proclaimed by their final irrevocable fate could not in the sight of the pious and believing bear the stamp of uncertain justice. but she is able to speak. The hamingja goes to the lower world. to prepare an abode there for her favourite. purposes. touches her most closely. 64). that he to whom the dises (the hamingja and gipt) have become aflima is destined. During his earthly life she has always defended him. There must be no doubt that the judicial proceedings in the court of death were so managed that the wisdom and justice of the dicta were raised high above every suspicion of being mistaken. And so there was a wide-spread organisation of watching and protecting spirits. already before the hour of birth. Such a net was cast over the human race by Urd. and is his other ego. When the most important of all questions. that of eternal happiness or unhappiness. heill. She is horfin. against her favourite. As such an organisation was at the service of the court. which can be perceived in dreams (Baldurs Draumar 4) or by revelations in other ways. and this is an unmistakable sign of death. but.the doom of death. where her duty and inclination bid her be . although not pronounced on the hamingja.might happen. The great question for her is whether she is to continue to share his fate or not. to go to his ruin. In its very nature the phrase suggests that there can occur between the hamingja and the human soul another separation than the accidental and . which can only be separated by mortal sins (see below). see No. in spite of all warnings. she is a more reliable one than he would be himself. from the standpoint of the court. It hesitated at all events to endow its gods made in the image of man with omniscience. whom she in sorrow and wrath has left.

and there used in an arbitrary manner. With a pleasing frankness. has been announced. If the námæli. and with whom they are unable to dwell in the lower world. and what he had to suffer. wait for the next Thing-day and their judgment. The expression is nornir gráta nái. All the less he will do so as judge. Sitting long by and looking diligently into the drinking-horn certainly did not lead to any punishment worth mentioning. This. if they in other respects have conducted themselves in accordance with the wishes of Odin and his associate judges: if they have lived lives free from deceit. Those who have no hamingjur must. should be to men a hint not to judge each other too severely in such matters (see Hávamál).transient one which is expressed by saying that the hamingja is horfin. is the alpha and the omega of the heathen Teutonic moral code. and with much humour. at Fjalar's. They are those whom the hamingjur in sorrow and wrath have abandoned. But on the way there has been a separation of the good and bad elements among them. the ná-dictum. in the eschatological sense of the word. The high court must have judged very leniently in regard to certain human faults and frailties. then the hamingjur who were "cut off" from their unworthy favourites continue to feel sorrow and sympathy for them to the last. Hence there are persons doomed to die and persons dead who do not have hamingjur by them. Those fallen on the battlefield are not brought to the fountain of Urd while the Thing is in session. very drunk. at all events. and against whom there are no other charges. "the norns (hamingjur) bewail the náir". The person from whom his dises have been cut off has no longer any close relation with them. the Asa-father has told to the children of men adventures which he himself has had in that line. for their duties to kindred and to the dead. á nornastóli. with the character of the hamingjur. the sentence to Niflhel which turns dead criminals into náir. Hákonarmál). He is for ever separated from them. and the sure way to Hel's regions of . Aflima means "amputated. The Christian age well remembered that brave warriors who had committed nithing acts did not come to Valhall (see Hakon Jarl's words in Njála). on account of his uncontrollable longing for Billing's maid. The heathen records confirm that men slain by the sword who had lived a wicked life were sent to the world of torture (see Harald Harfagri's saga.the verses about the viking Thorir Wood-beard. The fact that a dead man sat á nornastóli or á Helpalli without having a hamingja to defend him doubtless was regarded by the gods as a conclusive proof that he had been a criminal. He warns against too much drinking. in connection with respect for the gods. but admits without reservation and hypocrisy that he himself once was drunk. and who had been a scourge to the Orkneyings). who fell in a naval battle with Einar Rognvaldson. the judgment is attended with tears on the part of the former guardian-spirits of the convicts. 27 . may surely count on a good orðs tírr. as they are nithings and are awaited in Niflhel. ch." separated by a sharp instrument from the body of which one has been a member. nay. The same was the case with fondness for female beauty. if care was taken not to meddle with the sacred ties of matrimony. This corresponds. and sends Asas or einherjes to meet them with the goblet of mead at Asgard's gate (Eiríksmál. for the temples. and his fate is no longer theirs. honourable. and without fear of death. This follows from the fact that Odin is in Valhall when they ride across Bifrost. If we may judge from a heathen expression preserved in strophe 16 of Atlakviða. Those who are summoned to the Thing. helpful.

"glad. which belong to the Gjukung group of songs.Sólarljóð 37. not justified as blood-revenge). adultery. mute. cold. Des Todes Seil . cannot escape their awful punishment. Myth.J. When those slain by the sword ride over the Gjoll to Urd's fountain. Those psychopomps that belong to Niflhel await the adjournment of the Thing in order to take them to the world of torture. Grimm. with health. 72.. D. the bridge resounds under the trampling horses. when they ride away from the fountain over Bifrost. scarcely a sound is heard under the hoofs of their horses. Lies uttered to injure others. Among the mythical reminiscences is the Hades-potion. The heroic poems and the sagas of the middle ages have known that there was a Hades-potion which brings freedom from sorrow and care. though they are sometimes taken out of their true connection and put in a light which does not originally belong to them. it is inexorably severe in other matters. but at the same time demonised. something which obliterated the marks of earthly death has happened to those who are judged happy. and in the heroic poems of the Elder Edda. wait for Hel" (Sonatorrek 25): Skal eg þó glaður með góðan vilja og óhryggur Heljar bíða. 134. they left Midgard and started on the Hel-way. Unutterable terrors await those who are guilty of these sins. and with the marks of the spirits of disease. 805) which make every escape impossible. assassination. as the old skald sings of himself. and several other passages). there reappear many mythical details. with serenity and without discouragement. but also forgetfulness of the earthly sorrows and cares. THE HADES-DRINK. murder (secret murder. one that produced at the same time vigour of life and the forgetfulness of sorrows. The life of bliss presupposes health. The shades have become corporal. as shall be shown. Pale. perjury. Before the dead leave the thingstead near Urd's fountain.bliss and to Valhall. The sagas of the middle ages have preserved. If the judgment on the dead is lenient in these respects. He who has observed these virtues may. They leave the death-Thing full of the warmth of life. with speech. without obliterating dear memories or making one forget that which can be remembered without longing or worrying. and more robust than they were on earth. and Urd has chains (Heljar reip . the opening of gravemounds. the memory of how Hel's inhabitants were endowed with more than human strength (Grettla. treason. In the mythology this drink was. In Saxo. . the profaning of temples.

. né eg sakar mundag. and make one desire to remain in Gudmund's realm (Book VIII . the description of this horn and its contents contains purely mythical and very instructive details in regard to the pharmakon nepenthes of the Teutonic lower world. That the author did not himself invent his dragon. and the dragon. cool-cold sea. dragon." The Hadding-land is. in order that I might forget my past afflictions. a paraphrase of the lower world. The dragon engraved on the horn is that of the Hadding-land. obstructs the way to Odain's-acre. which. Færði mér Grímhildur full að drekka svalt og sárlegt. Thus the dragon is such an one as Erik Vidforli's saga had in mind.In his account of King Gorm's and Thorkil's journey to the lower world. 46) makes Thorkil warn his travelling companions from tasting the drinks offered them by the prince of the lower world. does not mean the whole lower world. for the reason that they produce forgetfulness. . Egilsson has already pointed out. according to Erik Vidforli's saga. where it is said that an immense subterranean dragon comes flying from the west (Vestan sá eg fljúga Vánar dreka) ." "On the horn were all kinds of staves engraved and painted. Guðrúnarkviða in forna 21 places the drinking-horn of the lower world in Grimhild's hands.the opposite direction of that the shades have to take when they descend into the lower world . bitter drink.and obstruct "the street of the prince of . "Grimhild handed me in a filled horn to drink a cool. 47).amissa memoria . and animals' entrances. as Sv. Saxo (see No. is demonstrated by Sólarljóð 54. ráða eg né máttag. on the other hand. Heath-fish is a paraphrase of the usual sort for serpent. and the liquor of Son. Voru í horni hverskyns stafir ristnir og roðnir. but found it in mythic records extant at the time. lyngfiskur langur lands Haddingja. pocalis abstinendum edocuit). The paraphrase is based on the mythic account known and mentioned by Saxo in regard to Hadding's journey in Hel's realm (see No. More than one of the kind has been mentioned already: Nidhogg. but the regions of bliss visited by Hadding. unharvested ears of grain. innleið dýra. Hadding-land. This drink was prepared from Urd's strength. In connection with later additions. það var um aukið Urðar magni. Hence a lower-world dragon was engraved on the horn. who has his abode in Niflhel. svalköldum sæ og Sónar dreyra. which I could not interpret: the Hadding-land's long heath-fish. ax óskorið.

others have translated it with "animal gaps". 21) as one of the names of Mimir's fountain. Sónar dreyri. It consists of three liquids: Urðar magn. Urd's strength. Cool (Svöl) is the name of one of the rivers which have their source in Hvergelmir (Grímnismál). Beside the heath-fish and the unharvested ears of grain. the prince of the Glittering Fields (see Nos. So much for the staves risted on the horn. Now as to the drink which is mixed in this Hades-horn. and gives it strength to resist the cold (see No. but also fields of grain which do not require harvesting. 45-51).þeim sæ er und þolli stendur).splendour" (glævalds götu). as we know. The ruler of splendour is Mimir. which gives the warmth of life to the world-tree. There remains the well Hvergelmir. except by a very poor poet. in contrast with útleið. Cool-cold sea is therefore the most suitable word with which to designate Hvergelmir when its own name is not to be used. whether it and the liquid it contains can be recognised as the cool-cold sea. Where we meet with the word it means a way.that is. Of Son Eilif Gudrunarson sings that it is enwreathed by bulrushes and is surrounded by a border of meadow on which grows the seed of poetry. From this it is certain that at least two of the three subterranean fountains made their contributions to the drink. 47). the powers of frost. Compare herewith what Völuspá 63 says about the Odain's-acre which in the regeneration of the earth rises from the lap of the sea: "unsown shall the fields yield the grain" (munu ósánir akrar vaxa). There is no authority that innleið ever meant entrails. As both Gorm's saga and that of Erik Vidforli use it in regard to animals watching entrances in the lower world this gives the expression its natural interpretation. The Hadding-land's "unharvested ears of grain" belong to the flora inaccessible to the devastations of frost. the flowers seen by Hadding in the blooming meadows of the world below (see No. there were also seen on the Hadding-land horn innleið dýra. and the Elivogar rivers flowing thence formed the ice in Niflheim. a way out. 59). That this immense cistern is called a sea is not strange. the well of creative power and of poetry. Son's liquid. Hvergelmir is. since also Urd's fountain is so styled (in Völuspá 20 . cool-cold sea. and the question now is. nor could it be so used in a rhetorical-poetical sense. . the mother-fountain of all waters. Hvergelmir is situated under the northern root of the world-tree near the borders of the subterranean realm of the rimethurses . They all refer to the lower world. The expression refers to the fact that the Hadding-land has not only imperishable flowers and fruits. a way in. svalkaldur sær. nothing else can be meant thereby than the liquid in Urd's fountain. As Urd's strength is a liquid mixed in the horn. Son has already been mentioned above (No. Some interpreters assume that "animal entrails" are meant by this expression. 63). even of the ocean (see No.

and in its stem blend into the sap which gives the tree imperishable strength of life. in such a manner that it recovers the power of speech.. This power is firm in its resolutions against Egil (stendr í föstum þokk á hendi mér). 73. ii. In Sigurdrífumál 12 Odin himself is. and bestows on them the lot of happiness. who gives magn to the dead from the Hades-horn. Vigfusson (Dict. 21). The touching finale of this song. and not forget that they are to meet again. for too bitter tears of sorrow fall as a cold dew on the breast of the dead one and penetrate it with pain (str.All those fountains whose liquids are sucked up by the roots of the world-tree. The dead Helgi says that when his beloved Sigrun is to share them with him. From the standpoint of the Christian time the absurdity becomes probable. The mythic person who possesses this power is by the skald called Fáns hrosta hilmir. The word magna has preserved from the days of heathendom the sense of strengthening in a supernatural manner by magical or superhuman means. of which those who have gone to Hel partake. The sacred things and forces of the lower world are then changed into deviltry and arts of magic. 408) gives a number of examples of this meaning. of course. or a heathen song. No. But in his time there was still extant a tradition. which are at the service of witches. In Ynglingasaga 4 Odin "magns" Mimir's head. "the lord of Fánn's brewing". but. 45). since it magnar. are accordingly mixed in the lower-world horn (cp. at the same time. then it is of no consequence that they have lost earthly joy and kingdoms. though preserved only in fragments. That Grimhild. and that no one must lament that his breast was tortured with wounds (Helg. as we have seen. Hund. and also soothed the longing and sorrow which accompanied the recollection of the life on earth. In Sonatorrek 19 the skald (Egil Skallagrimsson) conceives himself with the claims of a father to keep his children opposed to a stronger power which has also made a claim on them. gives strength. it is lenient toward his children." as the highest judge of the lower world. from a mythological standpoint. So the author of Guðrúnarkviða in forna has regarded the matter. The survivors should mourn over departed loved ones with moderation. and this tradition was used in the description of Grimhild's drink of forgetfulness. THE HADES-HORN EMBELLISHED WITH SERPENTS. THE HADES-DRINK (continued). a human being dwelling on earth. precious liquids. and were destined for happiness. an absurdity. should have access to and free control of these fountains is. which is chopped off. The author of the second song about Helgi Hundingsbani has known of dýrar veigar. 46). Magn is the name of the liquid from Urd's fountain. shows that the power of the subterranean potion to allay longing and sorrow had its limits. a higher and more enduring power of life. and no doubt borrowed from a heathen source. "the one magning. which spoke of the elements of the drink which gave to the dead who had descended to Hel.. . called magni.

Hence the skald can say that Hilmir Fáns hrosta was inexorably firm against him. The Icelandic middle-age sagas have handed down the memory of an aurocks-horn (úrarhorn). then it follows that "Fánn's brewing" and Fánn himself." is engraved and painted on the subterranean horn. embellished with Fánn's image. One of Gorm's men is anxious to secure the treasure. cp. in order that they may imbibe vigour and forgetfulness of sorrow from "Urd's strength.Fánn is a mythical serpent and dragon-name (Nafnaþulur. who desired to keep his sons with him. and Vigfusson's Dict. From the mythic tradition in Guðrúnarkviða (ii). he who determines to whom it is to be handed. on which it was engraved. The serpent or dragon which possessed this name in the myths or sagas must have been one which was engraved or painted somewhere. Its character as such does not hinder it from being endowed with a magic life (see below). sub voce). an artificial serpent or dragon. Orma heiti 2). We are also told that it was carved with figures (nec cælaturæ artificio vacuum). is the master of the Hades-horn. the fountains of the lower world. which was found in the lower world. Like Slidrugtanni and other subterranean treasures. Then the horn lengthens into a dragon who kills the would-be robber (cornu in draconem extractum sui spiritum latoris eripuit). 46) made his journey of discovery in the lower world. for an artificial serpent or dragon is neither the one who brews the drink nor the malt from which it is brewed. like the subterranean horn in Guðrúnarkviða. If the skald has paraphrased correctly. It lay near the gold-clad mead-cisterns. if he has produced a paraphrase which refers to the character here in question of the person indicated by the paraphrase. "the lord of Fán's brewing.. whose sorrowallaying mead is composed of the liquids of the three Hades-fountains. "a long heath-fish. and Son's liquid". When King Gorm (Saxo. was named after it. This is evident from the word itself. Thus it follows that the hilmir Fáns hrosta. and thus they have been initiated as dwellers for ever in the lower world. Sturlaugs saga). and its contents is Fánn's hrosti (Fánn's brewing). And thus the meaning of the strophe here discussed (Sonatorrek 19) is made perfectly clear. Fánn's brewing. cool sea. Book VIII. must have been in some way connected with the lower world. like their possessor. the serpent or dragon on the drinking-horn of the lower world is endowed with life when necessary. he saw a vast ox-horn (ingens bubali cornu) there. or because the horn. is the mythical person who. Its purpose of being filled with their liquids is sufficiently clear from its location.. In no other way can the expression. whose contents (brewing) is called by Egil Fánn's either because the serpent encircled the horn which contained the drink. has insisted on the claim of the lower world to his sons. their father. Egil's deceased sons have drunk from this horn. which is a contraction of fáinn. painted (cp. engraved. No. The possessor of the horn. and was there used to drink from (Fornaldarsögur. [*] . The horn itself is accordingly a Fánn. The object on which it was engraved or painted must have been a drinkinghorn. be explained. that is to say. Egilsson's Lex. and punishes with death him who has no right to touch it. or the horn itself acquires life in the form of a dragon." mentioned by Egil. to Egil's vexation. we already know that a serpent. Poet.

v. the lord of poetry.* The interpretation of the passage. though Gylfaginning is also guilty of this mistake. Can it be any other than the Hades-horn. the Gjallarhorn.). begins with a text emendation. is on the other hand closely connected with the contents of the strophe. and as the one who. The possessor of Finns hrosti is Odin. so to speak. and thus the paraphrase is in harmony with the sense. but he has also been kind in bestowing the gift of poetry. are based on false notions in regard to the adaptability of the Icelandic Christian poetics to the heathen poetry. therefore. and is alone able to make it consistent and intelligible. Egil speaks of Odin as the lord of poetry. 100 ff. the security given is a drinking-horn.there performs a task of the greatest importance. A compact is made between the Asas dwelling in heaven and the powers dwelling in the lower world. Without this power the Asas would have been of but little significance. both to Asgard and to the lower world. As hilmir Fáns hrosta Odin has wounded Egil's heart. is kept there . it appears that the mythology knew of a drinking-horn which belonged at the same time. From Völuspá 27. Odin is its possessor. Fánn is changed to Finn. used at the Thing near Urd's fountain. and usually quote Gylfaginning as authority) we can produce anything we like from the statements of the ancient records. as the judge of the dead. His character as judge at the court near Urd's fountain. With text emendations of this sort (they are numerous. As Müllenhoff has already pointed out (D. and consequently decide what persons are to taste the strength-giving mead of the horn. The paraphrase here used by Egil for Odin's name is Míms vinur (Mimir's friend). The treaty concerned the lower world. synonymous with poetry. on the authority of the Younger Edda. and gets its liquid from the fountains of the lower world. Further on in the poem. and therewith consolation in sorrow (bölva bætur). This two-sided conception of Odin's relation to the poet permeates the whole poem. is employed in the service both of the Asagods and of the lower world? The Asas determine the happiness or unhappiness of the dead. and from Gylfaginning 15. Odin. and a security (veð) is given for the keeping of the agreement. which has hitherto prevailed. 28. Thus the drinking-horn given to Mimir by Valfather represents a treaty between the powers of heaven and of the lower world. to dispense happiness and unhappiness in accordance with the laws of religion and morality. and from the same horn he waters the root of the world-tree (Völuspá 27). . has not only been severe against him (in the capacity of hilmir Fáns hrosta). Finns hrosti is "the dwarf's drink. Mimir its keeper. Alterth. this drinking-horn is not to be confounded with Heimdal's war-trumpet. From Mimir Odin received the drink of inspiration.. without which he would not have been able to act as judge in matters concerning eternity. at the thingstead near Urd's fountain. Urd and Mimir would have been supreme. but after receiving the which he was able to find and proclaim the right decisions (orð) (orð mér af orði orðs leitaði . But the horn has its place in the lower world. What Mimir gave Odin in exchange is that drink of wisdom. in connection with their control of mankind and with their claim to be worshipped. which." and "the dwarf's drink" is. From this "Valfather's pledge" Mimir every morning drinks mead from his fountain of wisdom (Völuspá 28). and secured to the Asas the power necessary. On the part of the Asas and their clan patriarch Odin. Both the things exchanged are. Finn is the name of a dwarf. he says. as Míms vinur (Mimir's friend) he has given him balsam for the wounds inflicted. Odin's character as the lord of poetry has not the faintest idea in common with the contents of the strophe. has authority over the liquor in the subterranean horn.Hávamál 141).

In strophe 32. venomous drink. skírar veigar Here stands for Baldur mead brewed. strength. according to Hyndla's wish. and that "we" must be grateful to him for them. The contents of one and the same drink are referred to by the plural veigar Hér stendur Baldri of brugginn mjöður. In Hyndluljóð 34 dýrar veigar has the meaning of a potion of bliss which Ottar."] Veig in the singular means not only drink. through the judge of the world. and. The half strophe is possibly a part of a death-song which Ref Gestson is known to have composed on his foster-father. and refers to the power of this fountain's water to give. it is the liquids of these wells that are mixed into the wonderful brewing in the subterranean horn. She says she already sees the conflagration of the world. and has also served to strengthen and heal the souls of the dead. Freyja and her Ottar of course included. clear "veigar" - which can only be explained as referring to a drink prepared by a mixing of several liquids. of which the dead Helgi speaks. is to drink. The plural veigar accordingly means strengths. sit near Urd's fountain. ch. to the pious a less troublesome life than that on earth. Freyja answers by including Ottar in the protection of the gods. then this is a Christianised heathen idea. according to Vegtamskviða 7. That this expression "strengths" should come to designate in a rational manner a special drink must be explained by the fact that "the strengths" was the current expression for the liquids of which the invigorating mythical drink was composed. After tasting of it. Originally veigar seems always to have designated a drink of the dead. The three fountains of the lower world are the strength-givers of the universe. In dýrar veigar. so that it is impossible to determine definitely the meaning of the veigar referred to by the skald.With the dýrar veigar (precious liquids). Besides in these passages veigar occurs in a strophe composed by Ref Gestson. awaited the dead Baldur in the lower world. skírar veigar. which is to take her hence for ever. and the earth again grew green (see No. . Gissur. Freyja threatens the sorceress Hyndla with a fire. Hyndla answers the threat with a similar and worse one. each one of which is a veig. and their final destiny. Perhaps Bugge is right in claiming that this was the original meaning of the word. 9. 53). but also power. we must compare the skírar veigar (clear liquids). Hyndla invokes on Freyja and Ottar the flames of Ragnarok and damnation. We only see that they are given by Odin. The water which gives warmth to the world-tree and heals its wounds is to be found in the immediate vicinity of the thingstead. Only half of the strophe is quoted. In strophe 33. When Eilif Gudrunarson. which. and foretelling that he is to drink dýrar veigar. as we have already seen. [Another strophe by the same author refers to helgu fulli "hallowed drinking-horn. there shall nearly all beings "suffer the loss of life" (verða flestir fjörlausn þola). the god who had descended to Hades regained his broken strength. beloved by Freyja. is indicated by Freyja's handing Ottar a pain-foreboding. quoted in Skáldskaparmál. allaying their sorrows and giving them new life. makes Christ. the plural form must not be passed over without notice. who gives the water of eternal life. the skald converted to Christianity.

therefore. Those who have died in their tender years are received by a being friendly to children. and forebodes them evil (illu heilli). Skirnir threatens Gerd that she. but he may also visit and converse with ancestors from the beginning of time.To judge from Hyndluljod 33. 28). In Saxo's descriptions of the regions of misery in the lower world. who is Odin's friend and adviser from his youth until his death. visit kinsmen and friends who have gone before him to their final destination (Sonatorrek 18). As the same poem (str. The Icelandic sagas of the middle ages know the venom drink as a potion of misery. his sessi and máli. The expression means "the one with whom Odin counsels. 23) calls Odin Mimir's friend. When a deceased who has received a good orðs tírr leaves the Thing. told by persons who were eye-witnesses. who are to be the mankind of the regenerated world.str. which Egil Skallagrimson (Sonatorrek 21) calls Gauta spjalli. where the wonderful regions of Urd's and Mimir's realms lie open before his eyes. AFTER THE JUDGEMENT. who also is styled Odin's friend. when the spirits of torture so desire. paths of pleasure. they can produce a howl (mugitus). among her kindred there. of the Asa-children. he must either be Mimir. The ways he travels are munvegar (Sonatorrek 10). therefore. shall be more widely hated than Heimdall himself. the Niflheim inhabited by the frost-giants. since the tongues were made speechless with cold. be compelled to drink it before they enter the world of misery. [Likewise the warlike skald Kormak is certain that he would have . but the manner in which they express this hate is with staring eyes. 74. There broods a sort of muteness over the forecourt of the domain of torture. those doomed to unhappiness must also partake of some drink. it is only the torturing demons that speak.Hákonarmál 12). 60). and accordingly. Mimisholt. not with words (á þig Hrímnir hari. That Mimir was regarded as the friend of dead children corresponds with his vocation as the keeper in his grove of immortality. Egil is convinced that his drowned son Bodvar found a harbour in the subterranean regions of bliss. Eitr means the lowest degree of cold and poison at the same time. and it must therefore be left undecided which one of the two is here meant. But what he first has to do is to leita kynnis. and he may hear the history of his race. the history of all past generations. It is "much mixed with venom (eitri blandinn mjög). but. and would not. or he must be Hænir. and as in the next place Gauta spjalli is characterised as a ruler in Godheim (compare grænir heimar goða . It appears that this potion of unhappiness did not loosen the speechless tongues of the damned. no doubt. according to Skírnismál's description thereof (see No. that is. They must. and force and egg them on. and suffer their agonies without uttering a sound. THE LOT OF THE BLESSED. nay. 95). he is awaited in a home which his hamingja has arranged for her favourite somewhere in "the green worlds of the gods". be serviceable for that purpose. The dead are speechless. Here he finds not only those with whom he became personally acquainted on earth. But Hæner too has an important calling in regard to children (see No. while they sit á nornastóli on the very thingstead. á þig hotvetna stari ." "Odin's friend". the ásmegir.

The procession proceeds up . In Sigurdrífumál 23 it is said that horrible limar shall fall heavy on those who have broken oaths and promises. falls dew "in deep dales. In Egil's paraphrase the bee corresponds to the bird. 52. very unreliable. ARRIVAL AT THE NA-GATES. For they are the proper home of the honey-dew which falls early in the morning from the world-tree into the dales near Urd's fountain (Völuspá). 75. In Reginsmál 4 it is stated that everyone who has lied about another shall long be tortured with limar. 53). and from his bridle the dew drops "in the dales" in the morning (Vafþrúðnismál 14). and it is at the same time very appropriate in regard to a characteristic quality ascribed to the fields of bliss. armed with rods of thorns. but is of a charming kind on the lips of the hardy old viking. When the na-dictum (the judgment of those who have committed sins unto death) has been proclaimed. The poetical figure is taken from the experience of seamen. a work which is. This steed. The same is true of the horses of the valkyries coming from the lower world. Both the expressions tröll brutu hrís í hæla þeim and tröll vísi yður til búrs have their root in the recollection of the myth concerning the march of the damned under the rod of the Eumenides to Niflhel (see further on this point Nos. 94). The locks and fetters of the norns (Urðar lokur. when they shake them. and doubtless this same Teutonic ambrosia is the food of the happy dead. But the earth gets her share directly from Hrimfaxi. Their way from Urd's well goes to the north (see No. 93. The figure may be criticised on the point of poetic logic.] The land to which Bodvar comes is called by Egil "the home of the bee-ship" (býskips bær). they must take their departure for their terrible destination. Lif and Leifthrasir live through ages on this dew (see Nos. They cannot take flight. which seems to have become a word for eschatological punishment in general. or betrayed confidence. The fields of bliss are the haven of the ship laden with honey. that birds who have grown tired on their way across the sea alight on ships to recuperate their strength. Thus they know what they have forfeited. Then their course is past Mimir's fountain." and thence come harvests among the peoples (Helgakviða Hjörvarðssonar 28). satiated with the grass of the subterranean meadows. The dales of the earth also unquestionably get their share of the honey-dew. which was regarded as the fertilising and nourishing element of the ground. 91 and 123). produces with his mouth a froth which is honey-dew. It is ordained that before their arrival at the home of torture they are to see the regions of bliss. and amid the tears of their former hamingjur (nornir gráta nái) they are driven along their path by heiptir. the steed of the Hades-goddess Nott. Heljar reip) hold them prisoners. The technical term for these instruments of torture is limar. and the honey-blossom where the bee alights corresponds to the ship. AFTER THE JUDGEMENT (continued). THE FATE OF THE DAMNED.come to Valhall in case he had been drowned under circumstances described in his saga. however. the splendid dwellings of Baldur and the ásmegir. the golden hall of Sindri's race (see Nos. and to those regions where mother Nott rests in a hall built on the southern spur of the Nida mountains (Forspjallsljóð). THEIR PATH. who without mercy beat their lazy heels. From their manes. 63) through Mimir's domain.

Ari. 95). those who have violated faith and the laws. To that event. or at least for a very long time (oflengi . "good for the realm of damnation.this mountain region through valleys and gorges in which the rivers flowing from Hvergelmir find their way to the south.Sigurdrífumál 22). which are not birds but souls (sálir). Those who have thus marched to a terrible fate are sinners of various classes. see No. the damned have died their second death. loaded with náir under his wings. Sólarljóð enumerates nine or ten kinds of punishments for as many different kinds of sins. Book VIII. ." is he who slays kinsmen and sells the dead body of his brother for rings (Sonatorrek 15). perpendicular mountain-walls (Saxo. cp. and is to some extent confirmed by Sólarljóð. 59). Both in reference to them and to others. and those who have lied about others. 47). flying "numerous as gnats"." and to what this consists of. Niflgóðr. and by the Nida mountains' ladders. and fly with them through Niflheim's foggy space to the departments of torture appointed for them. and alight on the rocks around the Na-gates (see below). The sacredness of the bond of kinship was strongly emphasised in the eschatological conceptions. Howls and barking from the monstrous Niflheim dogs watching the gates (see Nos. standing almost on the border-line between heathendom and Christianity. Ladders or stairways lead across giddying precipices to the Na-gates. and hears the air filled with their horrible screeches (cp. press them under their wings. where he in Nastrond is sucking his prey. it doubtless depended on the investigation at the Thing whether they could be ransomed or not. Then hasten. which is called "the second death. see No. and is slow to take revenge if they have wronged him. Below Niflheim there are nine regions of punishment. are doomed to Niflhel for ever. in compact winged flocks. When the damned come within the Na-gates. Völuspá's Ari hlakkar. The damned leave Hvergelmir in their rear and cross the border rivers Hrönn (the subterranean Elivagar rivers. The seeress in Völuspá 67 sees Nidhogg. soar away from the Nida mountains. Nidhogg. he sees dismal monsters (larvæ atræ. shall reap advantage therefrom after death (það kveða dauðum duga . Niflheim's birds of prey. 46. When the latter are opened on creaking hinges. beyond the abovementioned boundary river. murderers. slítur nái neffölur. the winged demons rush at the victims designated for them. When Sólarljóð's skald enters the realm of torture he sees "scorched" birds. perjurers. Völuspá's inn dimmi dreki) in dense crowds. When King Gorm. Of the unmerciful we know that they have already suffered great agony on their way to Urd's fountain. on the other side of which rise Niflhel's black. From the purely heathen records we know that enemies of the gods (Loki). That these correspond to nine kinds of unpardonable sins is in itself probable. monsters. Whither he was accustomed to fly with them appears from strophe 39. Hræsvelgur. and their like to the south. had reached the Nagates opened for him. 58) announce the arrival of the damned. may be taken as a witness. if this poem. 46). but he who in all respects has conducted himself in a blameless manner toward his kinsmen. adulterers (see Völuspá).Reginsmál 4). I shall return below (see No.

Leikin. among which Gerd is to drag herself hopeless from house to house). Here the demons of restless uneasiness. of convulsive weeping. and between the caves stand gatekeepers (janitores). THE PLACES OF PUNISHMENT. Over all hovers Niflheim's dismal sky. we may. however. obstruct the course of Slid to the Nastrands and to the sea outside. Morn. The river Slid flowing north out of Hvergelmir there seeks its way in a muddy stream to the abyss which leads down to the nine places of punishment. Outside of one of the caves of torture Gorm's men saw club-bearers who tried their weapons on one another. According to the authority used by Saxo in the description of Gorm's journey. At least two of these "homes" have been named after the most notorious sinner found within them.was a phrase synonymous with damning a person to death and hell.reka einn fyrir Geitis gnýskúta . Opi. like Gorm and his men. and here dwells also their queen. and of the spirits of disease. have shrunk back when they have reached the abyss in question and have cast a glance down into it. and of insanity (Otholi. Skírnismál's words about the giant-homes. and an Icelandic document of one called the giant Geitir's. The mortals who. The gates between the clamour-grottos are watched by various kinds of demons. the country is thickly populated. Saxo translates skúti with conclave saxeum." through which travellers come from one of the subterranean caves to another. Saxo calls it urbs. Here live the offspring of Ymir's feet. consider it as mythically correct that some of the nine worlds of punishment below Niflheim. but there is enough daylight for its bottom to be seen. however. of mental agony. and who in the meantime contrive futile plans of attack on Hvergelmir's fountain or on the north end of the Bifrost bridge. The regions over which the flock of demons fly are the same as those which the author of Skírnismál has in view when Skirnir threatens Gerd with sending her to the realms of death. for when Gorm and his men had recovered from the first impression. and the sight thereof is terrible. Thus there must be gates. The place is narrow. oppidum (cp. "a pierced part of the mountain. although the most terrible vapour (teterrimus vapor) blew into their faces. Still.76. they continued their journey to their destination (Geirrod's place of punishment). who are waiting for the quaking of Yggdrasil and for the liberation of their chained leader. and who have conceived the idea of descending into those worlds which lie below Niflheim. Before each gate stand several who in looks and conduct seem to symbolise the sins over whose perpetrators they keep guard. It is to be presumed that some sort of perpetrators of . It is the home of the frost-giants. "To thrust anyone before Geitir's clamour-grotto" . Outside of another gate the keepers amused themselves with "a monstrous game" in which they "mutually gave their ram-backs a curved motion". have been permitted to see these regions. Without the risk of making a mistake. and Topi) have their home. which diffuses a horrible stench. which do not. Saxo speaks of a perfractam scopuli partem. The ground is a marsh with putrid water (putidum cænum). Loki's daughter. there must have been a path down to it. whose threshold is precipice and whose bed is disease. in order that they may take revenge on the gods in Ragnarok. are vast mountain caves. of the subterranean giants. or the most of them. the primeval giants strangely born and strangely bearing. mutually united by openings broken through the mountain walls and closed with gates. The rest that Saxo relates is unfortunately wanting both in sufficient clearness and in completeness. Saxo speaks of one called the giant Geirrod's. The technical term for such a cave of torture was gnýskúti (clamourgrotto).

We learn from Saxo's description that in the worlds of torture there are seen not only terrors. sá er undinn salur orma hryggjum. One of the lower-world demons. there are found in Niflhel goats. an expression which is ambiguous. for hands that come in contact with them are fastened and are held as by invisible bonds. The illusions are characterised by Saxo as ædis supellectilis. tells adventures of his which show that this giant had tried to get possession of Freyja. sleit vargur vera. They are the mockers at religious rites (they who minnst vildu halda helga daga) who are thus punished. probably of the same kind as those above-mentioned. goat. or with a reference to his epithet Geitir. Þar saug Niðhöggur nái framgengna. as his name indicates. where the skald sees in the lower world persons damned. Gorm's prudent captain Thorkil (see No. and it may be with an allusion to the fate which awaits Gymir in the lower world. 46) earnestly warns his companions not to touch these things. was closely connected with Geitir. According to Skírnismál 35. Gerd's father. Gorm and his men came to Geirrod's skúti (see No. In the mythology it was probably profaners of temples who suffered this punishment. norður horfa dyr. Continuing their journey. that is to say. and that the ram-shaped demons amused themselves outside of the torture-cave of debauchees. but may be an allusion that they represented things pertaining to temples. and the expression "to thrust anyone before Geitir's Howl-foot" thus has the same meaning as to send him to damnation. Sá hún þar vaða þunga strauma menn meinsvara og morðvarga og þanns annars glepur eyrarúnu. Féllu eiturdropar inn um ljóra. It is also probable that the latter is identical with the one called Geitir's. The Nastrands and the hall there are thus described in Völuspá 38. is called "Geitir's Howl-foot" (Geitis Gnýfeti). 39: Sal sá hún standa sólu fjarri Náströndu á. . and that he is identical with Gymir. The statement deserves to be compared with Sólarljóð's strophe 65. who Latinised Geitir into Götharus. whose hands are riveted together with burning stones.violence were tortured within the threshold. Saxo. who. 46). trolls in goat-guise. The name Geitir comes from geit. but also delusions which tempt the eyes of the greedy. which was guarded by the club-bearers. that Skirnir threatens Gerd with the disgusting drink (geita hland) which will there be given her by "the sons of misery" (vílmegir).

&c. especially through the openings in the roof (according to Codex Ups. The serpent-venom raining down must have fallen on the floor of the hall.). THE PLACES OF PUNISHMENT (continued).a view which cannot seriously be doubted. Doubtful seems." "There she saw perjurers. v. 77.is as follows: "The doors are covered with the soot of ages.by him adapted to the realm of torture in general . one of four lines. and there is nothing to hinder the venom-rain from being thought sufficiently abundant to form "heavy streams" thereon (see below). flow out over the floor of the hall. Several reasons. The last statement confirms Gylfaginning's view. however." which the damned in Nastrands have to wade through. Remarkable is also Saxo's statement.. convinced that the strophe which begins sá hún þar vaða. Like Müllenhoff (D. whose backs. the roof is closely covered with barbs. four of twelve lines each. and they who seduce the wife of another (adulterers) wade through heavy streams. Alterth. Nevertheless Gylfaginning's view may be correct. As the very name Nastrands indicates that the hall is situated near a water. that the doors are covered with the soot of ages. and partly that they look like loosely-joined . and. Thus fires must be kindled near these doors." Gylfaginning 52 assumes that the serpents. The latter assumption is well founded. the floor is strewn with serpents and bespawled with all kinds of uncleanliness". two of six lines each. while all the eight-lined ones are intrinsically and logically well constructed. And the wolf tore men into pieces. I am. the doors opened to the north. Without allowing myself to propose any change of text in the Völuspá strophes above quoted. whether it be the river Slid with its eddies filled with weapons or some other river. THE HALL IN NASTROND. partly that we can cancel the superfluous lines without injury to the sense. The hall of Nastrands. turn their heads into the hall. 121) and other scholars. but simply the circumstance that the strophe has ten lines is sufficient to awaken suspicions in anyone's mind who holds the view that Völuspá originally consisted of exclusively eight-lined strophes . Braided is that hall of serpent-backs. and that they. There Nidhogg sucked the náir of the dead. vomit forth their floods of venom. form the hall. it consists of forty-seven strophes of eight lines each. may send breakers on shore and thus produce the heavy streams which Völuspá mentions. I have applied these strophes as they are found in the texts we have. As we now have the poem.. As this bespawling continues without ceasing through ages. wattled together. make this probable. and Codex Hypnones. like its counterpart Valhall. Gylfaginning's assumption that "the heavy streams. which I shall present elsewhere in a special treatise on Völuspá. it may be said of the others that have more than eight lines each.in all fourteen not eight-lined strophes against forty-seven eight-lined ones. Venom-drops fell through the roof-holes."A hall she saw standing far from the sun on the Nastrands. murderers. which invariably are text-debasings. five of ten lines each. not to base any conclusions on so-called text-emendations. and in pursuance of the principle which I have adopted in this work. has certainly been regarded as immensely large. Saxo's description of the hall in Nastrands . the walls are bespattered with filth. Of this more below. has been corrupted. the matter thus produced must grow into abundance and have an outlet. and two of fourteen lines each . on the other hand. then this water.

such a construction can hardly ever have occurred in a tolerably passable poem. Slíður heitir sú. (2) Sá hún þar vaða þunga strauma menn meinsvara og morðvarga og þanns annars glepur eyrarúnu. as is the case in that of the present text: Sá hún þar vaða þunga strauma menn meinsvara og morðvarga og þanns annars glepur eyrarúnu. then there remains as many lines as are required in a regular eightline strophe. but there remained the following fragment: (1) Á fellur austan um eiturdala söxum og sverðum. The fourth line of the fragment (1) Slíður heitir sú has the appearance of being a mythographic addition by the transcriber of the poem. and although this effort may need revision in some special points. The dwarf-list is a colossal interpolation of this kind. that in my own efforts to restore Völuspá to eight-lined strophes. but which neither have the slightest connection with the context. Alterth. occur in our present texteditions of this poem. (2) There she saw wading through heavy streams perjurers. The most recent effort to restore perfectly the poem to its eight-lined strophes has been made by Müllenhoff (D. this subject will be thoroughly discussed. upon the whole. These fragments make united ten lines. which of themselves make it evident that Müllenhoff's premises are correct.. nor are of the least importance in reference to the subject treated in Völuspá. and murderers. Here I may be permitted to say. a logical sequence and symmetry. In the treatise on Völuspá which I shall publish later. and also the one immediately preceding (söxum ok sverðum). I came to a point where I had got the most of the materials arranged on this principle. If we hypothetically omit this line for the present.). It is further to be remarked that among all the eight-lined Völuspá strophes there is not one so badly constructed that a verb in the first half-strophe has a direct object in the first line of the second half-strophe.conglomerations of scattered fragments of strophes and of interpolations. Several similar interpolations which contain information of mythological interest. and him who seduces another's wife. If these eight lines actually belonged to one and the same strophe. (1) A river falls from the east through venom dales with daggers and swords. the latter would have to be restored according to the following scheme: . it has upon the whole given the poem a clearness. Slid it is called. v. and.

and thus the river which falls from the east around venom dales has its source in an error. and must have resembled it sufficiently in sound to be transformed into it. compare láta dæluna ganga. Under such circumstances we might here expect after the word austur the word dæla. which now has the appearance of eiturdala. wastewater. then there must. a proverb by which men in animated conversation are likened unto dælur. . . . compare the expression þá var byttu-austur. water flowing out of a gutter or shoot. him who seduces the wife of another. for austur is bail-water (from ausa. Such a substantive. to let the shoots (troughs) run (Grettla. eitur-dæla. . . stream down upon. that is to say. the following appearance: Á fellur austan um eiturdala. or it could be scooped into a dæla. a river. . . This something must be expressed by a substantive. This means something that can falla á. A test as to whether there originally stood austur or not is to be found in the following substantive. (7) og þanns annars glepur (8) eyrarúnu. 98). under this supposition. Thus we have. is austur. . which is now concealed behind the adverb austan. . (6) . as venom here is in question. . The verb which governed þann must then be áfellur. (5) . to bail). (2) which had sufficient resemblance to eitrdala to become corrupted into it. and the only one of the kind. which are opened for flowing conversation. in their present form. have followed a substantive (1) which explained the kind of waste-water meant. a running water. The word dæla was also used figuratively. . . The bail-water in a ship could be removed either by bailing it out with scoops directly over the railing. But in that case á is not the substantive á. found that there is something that fellur á. the verb fellur united with the preposition á. in the original text. and in one of the dotted lines the verb must have been found which governed the accusative object þann. . falls on. a shoot or trough laid over the railing. For if there was written austur. and. The difference between these two kinds of austur became a popular phrase. The lines which should take the place of the dots have. The sea-faring Norseman distinguished between two kinds of austur: byttu-austr and dælu-austr. streams down upon. The latter was the more convenient method. eigi dælu-austur.(1) Sá hún þar vaða (2) þunga strauma (3) menn meinsvara (4) og morðvarga. troughs.

. rushing through. It explains what sort of waste-water is meant. Heavy venom-streams run through the perjurers and murderers before they fall on the adulterers. is venenum. and the one used by Saxo for venom. eisandi uðr veður . How near at hand such a confounding of these words lies is demonstrated by another Völuspá strophe. we are nevertheless compelled to take them into consideration. to see whether the Völuspá strophe thus hypothetically restored corresponds with. It must be admitted that if á fellur austur eitrdæla is the original reading. Disagreeable as the pictures are which we meet with in this comparison.). a running stream. but a very remarkable and instructive passage. Here the venom wades through the crowds of perjurers and murderers. and of banners which wade in the throng of warriors. The former are the venom-troughs. The verb vaða has so often been used in this sense. that it has also acquired the meaning of rushing. Saxo says that the wall of the hall is bespattered with liquid filth (paries obductus illuvie). when it is introduced in lieu of the dotted lines above: Sá hún þar vaða þunga strauma menn meinsvara og morðvarga. The verb vaða is not used only about persons who wade through a water. a river. the strophe in its entirety ought to define. The waste-water of the venom-troughs (that is. The water itself is also able to vaða (cp. We now return to Saxo's description of the hall of Nastrands. which pour their waste-water upon the latter. The Latin word. Which these venom-troughs are. (en) á fellur austur eiturdæla þanns annars glepur eyrarúnu." Thus we get not only a connected idea. to say nothing of arrows that wade í fólki (Hávamál 150). since the preposition á was taken to be the substantive á. We shall now see whether the expression á fellur austr eitrdæla makes sense. the waste-water of the perjurers and murderers after the venom-streams had rushed over them) falls upon him who seduces the wife of another man. where the preposition á in á sér hún ausast aurgum fossi was long interpreted as the substantive á. or is contradicted by. Sveinb. then a corruption into á fellur austan eiturdala had almost of necessity to follow. This constitutes the second test of the correctness of the reading. not illuvies.Eitur-dæla satisfies both the demands above made.Rafns S. and it resembles eitur-dala sufficiently to be corrupted into it. "There saw she heavy streams (of venom) flow upon (or through) perjurers and murderers. Thus we get á fellur austur eitrdæla: "On (him who seduces another man's wife) falls the waste-water of the venom-troughs". it. running.

rows of iron seats. This assumption is corroborated by what Saxo tells. the one row below the other. where the seats rise in rows one above the other. Consessus means "a sitting together. since it is bespattered on the wall of the hall. and as both these terms. That which flows down finally reaches the floor." might be applied to every participator in a Roman dinner. These seducers either constitute the lowest row of the seated delinquents. that their loca are separated by leaden hurdles (plumbeæ crates). the stench in this room of torture is well-nigh intolerable (super omnia perpetui fætoris asperitas tristes lacessebat olfactus). in Saxo united in the expression consessuum loca. that unmixed venom is not meant here. Saxo further says that the floor is bespawled with all sorts of impurity: pavimentum omni sordium genere respersum. until the disgusting liquid thus produced falls on those who have seduced the dearest and most confidential friends of others. and this can be none other than that something flowing down may have an unobstructed passage from one consessus to the other. are found in the hall. Who is not able to see that Völuspá's and Saxo's descriptions of the hall in Nastrands confirm.. illuminating the terrors. It must finally be added that. but reclined at the table. which groups he calls consessus. as we have seen in Saxo. which still must have an upper source. Over the hall broods eternal night (it is sólu fjarri). persons sitting or lying together. Hence Saxo does not mean venom-streams of the kind which. we conclude that the venom-streams come from the openings in the roof. Every such row of sinners becomes "a trough of venom" for the row immediately below it."the ljors" (féllu eiturdropar inn um ljóra). or they wade on the floor in that filth and venom which there flows. and vomit their venom down through the roof-openings . and between them and the floor. are vomited by the serpents down through the roof-openings. and on the iron seats sit or lie perjurers and murderers. persons sitting together. The expression confirms the idea. What there is of light. Below these. forced to drink the venom raining down in "heavy streams". The heads belonging to these serpents are above the roof. together mean rows of benches in a theatre or in a public place. but everything else of the most disgusting kind. according to Saxo. all furnished with leaden hurdles. we must assume that these rows of the damned sitting or lying together are found in different elevations between the floor and ceiling. The word "sit" may here be taken in a more or less literal sense. but the reference is to something else.which means filth that has been poured or bespattered on something." and. and complement each other? From Völuspá's words. The wall consists. The smoke from the fires comes into the hall and covers the door-posts with the "soot of ages" (postes longæva fuligine illitæ). Furthermore. in its entirety. . not from the walls. viz. in a secondary sense. of the backs of serpents wattled together (sá er undinn salur orma hryggjum). consessus and locus. several such consessus. As stated. according to Völuspá. That they are separated by hurdles must have some practical reason. Saxo relates that groups of damned are found there within. explain. though the Romans did not actually sit. The benches upon which they sit or lie are of iron. there are. Consessor. comes from fires (see below) kindled at the doors which open to the north (norður horfa dyr). Every consessus has a locus in the hall. "the one who sits together with. and is then omne sordium genus. all kinds of impurity.

xii. All are punished terribly.With this must be compared what Tacitus relates concerning the views and customs of the Germans in regard to crime and punishment. I trust it will be found that the restoration of á fellur austan um eitrdala into á fellur austr eitrdæla. Those who were sentenced to this death were. In parallel columns I print the strophes as they appear in Codex Regius. and in the form they have assumed as the result of an investigation of which I shall give a full account in the future. The hurdle (crates) which Saxo mentions as being placed over the venom and filth-drinking criminals in the hall of Nastrands has its earthly counterpart in the hurdle (also called crates). In closing this chapter I will quote a number of Völuspá strophes. found its expression. stod fyr norðan aniþa vollom salr or gvlli sindra ettar. en annar stóð á Ókólni. Cowards and those given to disgraceful debauchery they smother in filthy pools and marshes. also be remarked that a similar particularism prevailed through centuries. according to the custom of the age of Tacitus. Traitors and deserters they hang on trees. while scandalous conduct should be punished in such a way that the debauchee is removed from the light of day" (Germania. cowards and debauchees. en sá Brimir heitir. This passage in Germania is a commentary on Saxo's descriptions. The descriptions in the Völuspá strophe and in Saxo show that also in the hall of the Nastrands the punishment is in accordance with the nature of the crime. but also supplies the basis and conditions on which other strophes may get a regular structure and intelligible contents. What might naturally seem probable is corroborated by Germania's words: that the same view of justice and morality. and finally those who get the awful liquid over themselves and doubtless within themselves.). Stóð fyr norðan á Niða völlum salur úr gulli Sindra ættar. . which obtained in the camp of the Germans. bjórsalur jötuns. according to Tacitus. perhaps. casting a hurdle (crates) over them. He says: "The nature of the crime determines the punishment. but in gigantic exaggeration. was thrown over victims smothered in the cesspools and marshes (ignavos et imbelles et corpore infames cæno ac palude injecta insuper crate mergunt). which. Among those who received a similar punishment in the Teutonic Gehenna were partly those who in a secret manner had committed murder and tried to conceal their crime (such were called morðvargar). The dissimilarity in these punishments indicates a belief that crime should be punished in such a way that the penalty is visible. which refer to Teutonic eschatology. and the introducing of these words before þanns annars glepur eyrarúnu not only restores to the strophe in which these words occur a regular structure and a sense which is corroborated by Saxo's eschatological sources and by the Germania of Tacitus. but there is a distinction between those who had to drink the serpent venom unmixed and those who receive the mixed potion. and on the Völuspá strophe in the form resulting from my investigation. (36) A fellr austan vm eitr dala sauxom oc sverþom Sliþur heitir sv. It should. partly debauchees who had violated the sacredness of matrimony. in their doctrines concerning eschatological rewards and punishments.

LOKI'S CAVE OF PUNISHMENT. Vituð ér enn eða hvað? Þar kná Vála vígbönd snúa. h. (38) (35) Hapt sá hún liggja undir hveralundi lægjarnlíki Loka áþekkjan. Sá hún þar vaða þunga strauma menn meinsvara og morðvarga. norður horfa dyr. þar saug Niðhöggur nái framgengna. Sal sá hún standa sólu fjarri Náströndu á. e. féllu eiturdropar inn um ljóra. þar sitr sigyn þeygi vm sinom ver velglyioð v. e. h. e.enn annar stoð a okolni bior salr iotvns en sa brimir heitir. þar situr Sigyn þeygi um sínum ver vel glýjuð. sleit vargur vera. sá er undinn salur orma hryggjum. . e. (37) Sal sa hon standa solo fjárri na strondo a norþr horfa dyrr. þ. oc þann annars glepr eyra rúno þar svg niþhauggr nái fram gegna sleit vargr vera v. Vituð ér enn eða hvað? 78. Hapt sa hon liggia undir hvera lundi legiarn lici loca aþeckian. fello eitr dropar inn vm lióra sa er undinn salr orma hryggiom. heldur voru harðör höpt úr þörmum. GYLFAGINNING'S CONFOUNDING OF MUSPELL'S SONS WITH THE SONS OF SUTTUNG. THE PLACES OF PUNISHMENT (continued). en á fellur austur eiturdæla þanns annars glepur eyrarúnu. Sa hon þar vaþa þvnga stravma menn meinsvara oc morð vargar.

when a fire was suddenly seen in the distance.. who kept mending the fire.. colour. and Saxo has forcibly and very correctly employed this Latin word in order to characterise them in an intelligible manner. Thorkil came to a strand-rock. persons of semi-divine rank (hemithei) are mentioned who are called aquili. The two gigantic persons who mend the fire are called by Saxo aquili. The grotto had an inner door or gate. pp. but gives him information in regard to the way to Loki. The expedition was as a consequence on the point of failing. As to mythic rank. who is Saxo's model in regard to style and vocabulary. he had simply come to it from another side. dökkálfar. dark. That part of the lower world where Loki (by Saxo called Ugartilocus) dwells had not then been seen. pp.Saxo (Book VIII. when they have learned the purpose of his visit. and gives him fire and fuel after he had tested Thorkil's understanding. the grotto forming as it were a vestibule. and found him to be a wise man. Aquilus also has the signification. says the swarthy elf. they therefore correspond with the Roman aquili. E.. ater situ paries. Thorkil in reality sees the same hall again. according to Saxo's previous description. not. sordidum tectum. and he kept cruising so long in its darkness that his supply of fuel gave out. and. a second journey to the uttermost North.Völuspá). Cap. Thorkil then entered a boat with a few of his men and rowed thither. after requesting his men to remain outside. In Marcianus Capella. at the command of King Gorm. one of them reproaches him for the rash boldness of his undertaking. Dan. Thorkil sailed into that sea on which sun and stars never shine. at least. In the northern mythology a particular kind of elves are mentioned . dökkur. and Thorkil entered. In order to find his way back to his ship in the darkness. Saxo makes them receive the unexpected guest in a friendly manner. At the fire which was kindled stood two uncommonly tall men. This now remained to be done. where the hall has its door opening toward the strand (norður horfa dyr . and abode. 69). There was also a door. 267-270) relates that the experienced Captain Thorkil made. 17) knows of the swarthy elves. in order to complete the knowledge which was gained on the first journey. Müller. The soot is now explained by the fire which is kindled in the grotto outside the hall. swarthy. Gylfaginning also (ch. They dwell under the farthest root of the world-tree. Compare P. The journey. and who inhabit the same regions as the souls of the dead (lares and larvæ . from the north. 68.Forspjallsljóð 25). and that which was seen inside that gate is described by Saxo in almost the same words as those of his former description of the hall at the Nastrands (obsoleti postes.black or swarthy elves. are covered with the soot of ages. Hist. Thorkil found a grotto. in which there were narrow "gaps" (fauces). As appears from the context. i. The two swarthy elves keeping watch outside of the hail of Nastrands ought naturally to have been astonished at seeing a living human being entering their grotto. Icel. ii. out of which the light came.. which he had taken with him on the journey. They greet him.Marc. Like the first time. Guided by the light. he had placed in the mast-top a self-luminous precious stone. that they "dwell down in the earth" (búa niðri í jörðu). The traveller then comes . can be performed in four days' fast sailing. frequens anguibus pavimentum). the pillars of which. and have as their neighbours the Thurses and the unhappy dead (náir . near the northern gate of the lower world (jörmungrundar í jódyr nyrðra). the journey is to the east.

which is to carry the hosts of world-destroyers to the great conflict. . washed. From Völuspá we learn that when Yggdrasil trembles at the approach of Ragnarok. Through the darkness a mass of rock rising from the sea (scopulum inusitatæ molis) is with difficulty discerned. which resembled the hall on the Nastrands. who ventured to uncover his head.in the "dagger-and-axe age. This very fact shows that it is to have a large number of persons on board when it departs from Loki's rocky island. But from each person who is left unburied. as we shall see. But one of the men who bared his eyes became blind. they were discovered by flying serpents which had their home on the island (cp. The poem or saga which was Saxo's authority for this story must have described the rocky island where Loki was put in chains as inhabited by many condemned beings.þar saug Niðhöggur.Gylfaginning 43). in this particular. Unknown hands are its builders. He and his men put on clothes of skin of a kind that protects against venom. First they came to a cave of torture. and over which an even denser darkness broods. it then "becomes loose". and in one of them Loki dwells. The place includes several terrible rocky halls. combed. On the fourth day Thorkil. Thorkil jerked out a hair of his beard to take with him as evidence of what he had seen. The material out of which it is constructed is the nail-parings of dead men (Gylfaginning 51 . Saxo also says that there was a harbour. whose hand came outside of the protecting garments. Another. This is confirmed. it appeared that the beard-hair he had taken home was dangerous to life on account of its odour. according to Völuspá. they light torches and crawl in through the narrow opening. Unfortunately Saxo gives but a scanty account of what they saw there. at least. there was diffused in the cave a pestilential stench. the less respect for the dead. this being an excellent protection against demons.to a place where not a blade of grass grows. and in one of them there are many iron benches. by Völuspá. and had a terrible odour. A brook of sluggish water is crossed by wading. when possible. cleaned as to hands and feet." when "men no longer respect each other" (Völuspá). Völuspá 47:8-48 says: . and so cared for that his appearance may be a favourable evidence to the judges at the Thing of the dead in regard to his survivors . &c. and after Thorkil's arrival home. that there were many serpents and many iron seats or iron benches of the kind described above. and then walk along the beach at the foot of the rock until they find an entrance. His hair and beard resembled spears of horn. Völuspá . and a third..probably according to some popular tradition). Naglfar is the largest of all ships. got it cut off. Naglfar. 77). or is put into his grave without being. got the latter separated from his neck by the poison as by a sharp steel instrument. whereupon they entered Loki's awful prison. No. lies so that the liberated Loki can go aboard it. Another grotto which is not described was passed through. comes to the goal of his journey. the ship of the dead. Much building material is accumulated in the last days .from each such person comes building material for the death-ship. When Thorkil and his men had passed out of the interior jurisdiction of the rock. en Naglfari er mest skip . As he did this. . larger than Skíðblaðnir (Skíðblaðnir er beztur skipanna . That it has long lain moored in its harbour is evident from the fact that. There are at least three caves of torture. The less regard for religion. Then they kindle a fire with flint stones. He lay there bound hands and feet with immense chains. The skin clothes protected them against the venom vomited forth. favoured by a good wind. and Thorkil lays to by this rocky island.

guided by Loki. How can this be harmonised with the doctrine based on the authority of Gylfaginning. But this is clearly not the case. in the abovementioned Völuspá strophe and in Lokasenna 42. produced in the thirteenth century by a man who had a vague conception of the mythology of our ancestors. doubtless. through which the swan-maids coming from the South flew into the wintry Wolfdales. A ship comes from the east. en Loki stýrir. the enemy of the moon mentioned in Völuspá as tungls tjúgari. and there is. and. and that they consequently must come from the South. Fara Fífls megir með Freka allir. the hosts of Muspell come over the ocean. according to Völuspá. where Frey. Loki is pilot. The Myrkwood is mentioned in Völundarkviða 1 as a forest. Byleipt's brother travels with them. provided we had this poem handed down in its pure form from the heathen days. We therefore need a third witness to decide between the two. and the question then arises as to which of the two authorities is the authentic one. the heathen poem Völuspá or Gylfaginning. the wood which. where Myrkwood comes to the surface.er Múspells synir ríða Myrkvið yfir. The very arbitrary manner in which the names of the mythical geography is used in the heroic poems. Kjóll fer austan. Naglfar becomes loose. and one of the worst. In the Ragnarok conflict Hati takes part and contends with Tyr (Gylfaginning).Naglfar losnar. In the Norse heathen records the word múspell occurs only twice. is situated in the East. Naglfar. and in which Angurboda fosters the children of Loki and Fenrir. koma munu Múspells um lög lýðir. One of these. that makes excursions from the Ironwood and "stains the citadels of rulers with blood". as shall be shown below. This is evidently not a forest situated near the primeval fountains of heat and fire. not only he. viz. Such an one is also actually to be found. but also the whole . where one chases bears on skees (snow-shoes) to get food. "when Muspell's sons ride over Darkwood". All of Fifl's sons come with Freki. does not indicate that this forest was conceived as situated south of Midgard. reason for assuming that Darkwood is another name for the Ironwood famous in mythology. is the monster Hati. which Völuspá also seems to corroborate with the words Surtur fer sunnan með sviga lævi? The answer is that the one statement cannot be harmonised with the other. Gylfaginning's so-called Muspellsheim? or with the doctrine that Surt is the protector of the borders of this realm? or that Muspell's sons proceed under his command to the Ragnarok conflict. Even the most uncritical partisan of Gylfaginning would certainly unhesitatingly decide in favour of Völuspá. who has surrendered his sword of victory.. is threatened by Loki with the prospect of defeat and death . that the sons of Muspell are inhabitants of the southernmost region of light and warmth. þeim er bróðir Byleipts í för. after it has been "freed from its moorings" and had set sail from the island where Loki and other damned ones were imprisoned. Here it is expressly stated that "the hosts of Muspell" are on board the ship.

As Gylfaginning makes them accompany Surt coming from the South. and there it has the meaning of the Lord's day. that these beings were Loki's fellow-prisoners on the rocky isle where he was chained. The true etymology of Múspell was probably as little known in the thirteenth century. for the reason that Gylfaginning's statements have credulously been assumed as the basis of the investigation. As Loki. Concerning the meaning which the word had among the heathens of the North. and in company with them is Byleipt's (or Byleist's) brother". it occurs under the forms mutspelli and muspilli in the Old Saxon poem Heliand and in an Old High German poem on the final judgment. since it has already been stated. whither he goes to fetch Angurboda's children. and out of it ride in shining squadrons "Muspell's sons" and Surt.offspring of the Fenris-wolf fostered in the Ironwood. Byleipt. this must be the result of a confounding of "Muspell's sons" with "Surt's (Suttung's) sons". Gylfaginning tells us that they are celestial beings. with his flaming sword. that Loki is there as the commander of the forces. They may all be regarded as abortive. and thence the journey proceeds "over Myrkwood" to the plain of Vigrid. the meaning of the following words in the Völuspá strophe quoted above: "Fifl's descendants all come with Freki (the wolf). This is also. The statements of Völuspá and Lokasenna illustrate and corroborate each other. from the terrible rocky isle in the sea over which eternal darkness broods. or the condemnation. as it is now. whence we may presume that the author regarded Múspell as meaning both the land of the fire and the fire itself. Muspell's sons accompany the liberated Loki from his rocky isle. when Gylfaginning was written. 8). Gylfaginning is careful to keep these noble riders far away from every contact . the original home of fire and heat (Gylfaginning 4). claiming that Muspell's sons come from the East. Still. that is. on the side of the evil against the good. I shall not speak of the several attempts made at conjecturing the definition of the word. for the land in question is in the same work called Múspellsheimur (ch. and Helblindi are mentioned as brothers (Gylfaginning 33). Idols and giants contend with each other on Vigrid's plains. who appear in Ragnarok to contend under the command of Surt "to conquer all the idols" (sigra öll goðin Gylfaginning 4) and carry out the punishment of the world. the doom of condemnation. that is. whose name does not suggest any region in the realm of light. Loki's first destination is the Ironwood. and that they accompanied him from there on board Naglfar to war against the gods. doubtless. a realm. doubtless. no one else can be meant with "Byleipt's brother" than Loki himself or Helblindi. and it follows that Völuspá's statement. mainly. that the word in the expression "Muspell's sons" has had a special reference to mythical beings who are to appear in Ragnarok fighting there as Loki's allies. then the heavens are suddenly rent in twain. As a word inherited from heathen times. there is a lack of positiveness. and more probably the latter. all that can be said with certainty is. While Völuspá makes them come with Loki in the ship Naglfar. Thus it is Muspell's sons and Loki's kinsmen in the Ironwood who are gathered around him when the great conflict is at hand. before the time of the authors of Völuspá and Lokasenna. Under the influence of Christian ideas they are transformed into a sort of angels of light. Gylfaginning treats Muspell as a place. are on the battlefield in that division which is commanded by Loki their clan-chief. and are with him on board Naglfar. 5) and Múspells heimur (ch. A closer examination ought to have shown that Gylfaginning's conception of "Muspell's sons" is immensely at variance with the mythical. is original and correct. and while Lokasenna makes them come across the Darkwood. at the head of the fylkings.

and likewise the king of eternal bliss. they could finally get to the rocky isle where Loki lay chained. . it is certain that no other record has any knowledge of that name. In all probability. in mountain grottos deep under the earth (see about him." and then the chief of celestial hosts. As already stated. Saxo speaks of three connected caves of torture there. There were unhappy beings in large numbers with him. lay in the uttermost North. we must distinguish between Múspells megir. more distant than the real Bjarmaland. these adventurers sailed into the Arctic Ocean. The figure by which the inhabitants of a country are called its sons or descendants never occurs.with that mob which Loki leads to the field of battle. . At all events. it must not be forgotten that the same northern regions in the mythical geography to which various events are referred must have been regarded by the Icelanders as lying to the east from their own northern isle. Under such circumstances. Surt. Thus they do not come to assist Loki. in whose night-shrouded waters mythical adventurers sought the gates to the lower world. But this is not the end of his promotion. just as Hvergelmir has its in the world of primeval cold. and might still. Surtur ríður fyrstur. "there are many good abodes and many bad". They could thus come to the coast where a gate to the lower world was to be found. We find that his dark looks did not prevent his promotion. and if they continued this same course to the East. We have seen that Loki is not alone with Sigyn on that isle where in chains he abides Ragnarok. best it is to be in Gimle with Surt (margar eru vistar góðar og margar illar. We should also remember that Muspell in connection with the words synir and megir hardly can mean a land. but to put an end to both the idols and the mob of giants. Múspells synir. must have had its deepest fountain there. Gylfaginning makes him lord in Gimle. norðan and austan. past the Norwegian coast. The Bjarmia ulterior. and Mimir has his fountain in that wisdom which unites the opposites and makes them work together in a cosmic world. so far as I know. which gives the warmth of life to the world-tree. &c. According to the sagas preserved by Saxo. is in Gylfaginning first made the keeper of the borders of "Muspellsheim. Accordingly. The name Surt means black. . who are called Surts ætt. 51). this is a result of the author's own reflections. in the oldest Norse literature. and to found holy laws to prevail for ever. Suttungs synir (Skírnismál 34. who. a realm. In the text found in the Upsala Codex. and eastward to a mythical Bjarmia. . After Ragnarok it is said. og ríða þaðan Múspells synir. synir Suttunga. The old giant. and this has been carried to such a point that a mythologist who honestly believed in Gylfaginning saw in him the Almighty who is to come after the regeneration to equalise and harmonise all discord. In regard to the names of the points of the compass in the poetic Edda. bezt er að vera á Gimle með Surti). 89). according to a heathen skald. from Surt's clan-men. But that the mythology presumed the existence of such a world follows already from the fact that Urd's fountain. Alvíssmál 34). dwells in sökkdalir. Eyvind Skaldaspillir. and the innermost one is Loki's.ch. be designated as a land in the East. from an Icelandic and also from a Norwegian standpoint. og er sú björt mjög . No. en Múspells synir hafa einir sér fylking. It therefore expressly states that they form a fylking by themselves (Í þessum gný klofnar himinninn. it may be suggested as a rule of critical caution not to accept unconditionally Gylfaginning's statement that the world of light and heat which existed before the creation of the world was called Muspell or Muspellsheim. a region. and to the Nastrands.

a suitable name of the sea. His jaws are kept wide open with a sword (Gylfaginning 34). On the isle.Of the one nearest to it. the word is also used in regard to a wolf. festur mun slitna. Loki's son. The dogs which guard the beautiful Menglod's citadel are also called Garms (Fjölsvinnsmál). 79. if you do not hold your tongue. Garm is the foremost of all dogs. In Gylfaginning.an expression which here should be taken in a local sense. sits sorrowing by his side (Völuspá) and protects him as well as she is able against the venom of the serpent (Postscript to Lokasenna. Over him Skadi. silk-like chain Gleipnir. that Freki (the wolf) is with Loki on board Naglfar. villain. In Lokasenna 41 Frey says to the abusive Loki: "A wolf (that is. show that Lyngvi is the scene of demons of the same kind as those which are found around the Na-gates of Niflheim. as a definite place is mentioned in the preceding sentence). and brought from the lower world by Hermod. are transformed into iron chains (Gyfaginning 50). The isle where Fenrir was chained is called in Gylfaginning Lyngvi. it is said that from his mouth runs froth which forms the river Ván (Gylfaginning 34). And as we learn from Völuspá. will be chained next to him" (því næst . a giantdog. one under his loins. and under him are three flat stones placed on edge. which. Fenrir is fettered by the soft. Gylfaginning 50). after being placed on his limbs. Loki lies on a weapon (á hjörvi . . Hati Managarm. made by the subterranean artist. Gnipahellir means the cave of the precipitous rock. According to Grímnismál. en Freki renna. It is the only chain that can hold him. The isle is guarded by Garmur. the probably Icelandic author of Völuspá (or its translator or compiler) has imagined a "grove." whose trees consist of jets of water springing from hot fountains (hvera lundur).Lokasenna 49). you. ITS MISTAKEN IDENTITY WITH THE FRODIMILL. and one under his hams (Gylfaginning 50). who is to bark with all its might when the chains of Loki and Fenrir threaten to burst asunder: Geyr Garmur mjög fyr Gnipahelli. The adventures which Thorkil and his men encountered with the flying serpents. and the body of water in which the isle is situated is called Ámsvartnir. suspends a serpent in such a manner that the venom drops in the face of the nithing. over which eternal darkness broods. faithful to her wicked husband. one under his shoulders. and that cannot be broken before Ragnarok. Sigyn. in connection with the watching Hel-dog. then these evidences go to show that Loki and his son are chained in the same place. THE GREAT WORLD-MILL. who is to take revenge for the murder of her father. Of the bound Fenrir. Fenrir) I see lying at the mouth of the river until the forces of the world come in conflict. Bound hands and feet with the entrails of a "frost-cold son" (hrímkalda magar Lokasenna 49). Saxo tells nothing else than that one has to wade across a brook or river in order to get there.

at least in part preserved as to its details in a song which continued to flourish. Meanwhile. and the still more powerful forces that were fancied by antiquity. and really belongs to the heroic poems connected with the mythology. A being called Hengikjöptur (the feminine Hengikepta is the name of a giantess . The recollection of the lesser Grotti-mill was.Skáldskaparmál 52. make them hollow.Egil Skallagrimson mentions it. who makes them turn his Grotti-mill. and presents the mill to King Frodi Fridleifsson." in order that the ground might "be overgrown with green herbs" . the breakers of the sea which attack the rocks on the strands. the details of the myth concerning the greater. and were cast up thence for amusement by young giant-maids to the surface of the earth. at the same time. The storms and showers which lash the sides of the mountains and cause their disintegration. hardened by greed for gold. The giantesses. 39). peace and good-will among men for his kingdom. with the aid of which it is possible to restore its chief outlines. to the sea itself. This name was gradually transferred by the poets of the Christian age from the mill. perspicuous and imaginative cosmology of Teutonic heathendom. whose names are Fenja and Menja. Nafnaþulur) makes mill-stones out of these subterranean rocks. and which was recorded in Skáldskaparmál. the cosmological mill. Guthorm (see Nos. And as all symbols. and cast the substance thus scooped out along the coast in the form of sand-banks. refuses them the necessary rest from their toils. on the other hand. and there sprang up a tradition which explained how they could be so.all this was symbolised by the larger Grotti-mill. the stones of which they recognise from their childhood. Its stones come from the lower world.We have yet to mention a place in the lower world which is of importance to the naive but. grind on the mill gold and safety for King Frodi. speak of two wonderful mills. having gone to Svithiod to help the king warring there. But when Frodi. since its grist is the mould in which vegetation grows. they grind fire and death upon him. 38. Fate brings about that the same young giantesses. from the heathen time. After the introduction of Christianity. and which smouldered the more brittle layers of the earth's solid crust. and the foundation is crushed under its weight. in the same manner as the lightning which becomes Thor's hammer. Poems. so this symbol becomes to the imagination a real mill. The larger one is simply immense.but it plays a more accidental part. The lesser Grotti-mill is like the greater one of heathen origin . which was grinding beneath the sea. which operates deep down in the sea and causes the phenomena which it symbolises. . and give the mill so great speed that the mill-stone breaks into pieces. but it has left scattered traces and marks. were forgotten. it is akin to the greater. and scattered them as sand and mould over "the stones of the hall. Both mills were now regarded as identical. The myth in regard to the place in question is lost. This greater mill was also called Græðir. and there remained only the memory of the existence of such a mill on the bottom of the sea. a larger and a smaller "Grotti"-mill. the whirlpools and currents of the ocean. are taken prisoners and sold as slaves to King Frodi. in the mythology become epicpragmatic realities.

caused by the waters running through the hole in the mill-stone. and that these women long ground Amlodi's lid-grist. "that Eylúður's nine women violently turn the Grotti of the skerry dangerous to man out near the edge of the earth.. I shall return below. that it belongs to a skerry very dangerous to seafaring men. . .. and there the mill that had belonged to Frodi acquired the qualities which originally had belonged to the vast Grotti-mill of the mythology. "there was produced a whirlpool in the sea. The strophe appears to have belonged to a poem describing a voyage. fyrir löngu liðmeldr . þær er .Contrary to the statements of the song. which relates this tradition as well as the song. "It is said. Amlóða mólu. 80. adds that after Frodi's mill had sunk. and this they continued to do until the following midnight. . without taking any notice of the discrepancies between them. The strophe says that the mill is in motion out on the edge of the earth. the tradition narrates that the mill did not break into pieces. that they had long ground with it.. Mysing commanded them to grind salt.in lid-grist. Then they asked if he had not got enough.. Amlethus. . who on account of circumstances in his home was compelled to pretend to be insane. Mysing.. the greater mill is mentioned in a strophe by the skald Snæbjörn (Skáldskaparmál 33).. . and slew Frodi. and so they did until the ship shortly afterwards sank. but stood whole and perfect. where he relates the saga about the Danish prince. who accompanied him on a walk along the sea-strand. The same mill is suggested by an episode in Saxo. To the epithet Eylúður. THE WORLD-MILL (continued). and took. Young courtiers. and carried them on board his ship. Skáldskaparmál. when the curse of the giant-maids on Frodi was fulfilled." we read in this strophe. The night following the day when they had begun to grind misfortune on Frodi. .. ... also the Grotti-mill and both the female slaves. and to the meaning of lið. . among other booty." Hvatt kveða hræra Grótta hergrimmastan skerja út fyrir jarðar skauti Eylúður's níu brúðir. showed him a sand-bank and said that it was meal. and that it produces a peculiar grist. With distinct consciousness of its symbolic signification. that nine giant-maids turn it (for the lesser Grotti-mill two were more than sufficient). The prince said he knew . but he commanded them to continue grinding.. . and from that time the sea is salt". .. . there came a sea-king. In this manner the tradition explained how the mill came to stand on the bottom of the sea.

and also in Gróugaldur and in Fjölsvinnsmál. (2) the tier of beams. who with his household saved himself in an ark when Bur's sons drowned the primeval giants in the blood of their progenitor. But however this may be. Lúður in this sense makes its first appearance in the sagas of Christian times. the mill itself [illustration]. a loor. and partly with that concerning Hvergelmir's fountain. Book III. while his bones became rocks." and in fact no other meaning of the passage is possible. When Odin asks the wise giant Vafþrúðnir how far back he can remember. the mould. The word lúður (with radical r) has two meanings: (1) a wind-instrument." This expression was misunderstood by the author of Gylfaginning himself. Vafþrúðnismál 21 and Grímnismál 40 tell us that the earth was made out of Ymir's flesh. Of such a counterpart to the Biblical account of Noah and his ark our Teutonic mythical fragments have no knowledge whatever. and upon the whole does not occur in the Old Norse poetry. the rocks out of his bones. but horn or hljóð. p. that is. Of this we are assured. The other meaning remains to be discussed. and the "flesh" of their bodies cast into the primeval sea also became mould. Lúðr. and Fjölsvinnsmál gives him the epithet Leirbrimir. The first thing I remember is when he var á lúður um lagður. the giant answers: "Countless ages ere the earth was shapen Bergelmir was born. so far as Bergelmir is concerned. the sand. that of war-trumpet. which cover the solid ground. the cosmic Grotti-mill. the underlying timbers of a mill. lúður in Vafþrúðnismál does not mean a war-trumpet. partly in the sense of the subterranean mill in its entirety. and which is the oldest event of which he has any knowledge from personal experience.this to be so: he said it was "meal from the mill of the storms" (Hist. 2. and the place where it is found. The first meaning. occurs several times in the poems: in the Grotti-song. as distinguished from rocks. which also informs us that Bergelmir was laid under the mill-stone.. In spite of this fact the signification may date back to heathen times. The mill which ground his "flesh" into mould can be none other than the one grinding under the sea. Heimdall's war-trumpet is not called lúður. and in the above-quoted strophe by Snæbjörn. With earth is here meant. The myth concerning the cosmic Grotti-mill was intimately connected partly with the myth concerning the fate of Ymir and the other primeval giants. but is never used by the skalds. by strophe 35 in Vafþrúðnismál. in Helgakviða Hundingsbana II. which suggests that his "flesh" was changed into the loose earth. Dan. Ymir's descendants. partly in its more limited sense of the timbers or beams under the mill. 85). a wartrumpet. . Clay-gelmir or Moldgelmir. Þrúðgelmir and Bergelmir perished with him. is not found in the songs of the Elder Edda. the primeval giants. unless an entirely new signification is to be arbitrarily invented. Clay-brimir. If this signification is applied to the passage in Vafþrúðnismáll: var á lúður um lagður. and. The poem can never have meant that Bergelmir was laid on a musical instrument. and the misunderstanding has continued to develop into the theory that Bergelmir was changed into a sort of Noah. and the sea from his blood. Vafþrúðnismál calls Ymir Aurgelmir. in a wider sense. we get the meaning that Bergelmir was "laid on a mill.

and in which the first herbs grew. p. &c. and although more reliable editions of the Younger Edda have been published since from which the boat disappeared. and he remarks that the words must "refer to some ancient lost myth". Aurgelmir's grandson. upon whose high timbers he and his household climbed to save themselves from the flood. and from them the races of giants are descended" (nema einn komst undan með sínu hyski: þann kalla jötnar Bergelmi. og hélzt þar. As already pointed out. The confusion begins. nor Þrúðgelmir. Vigfusson is the only one who (in his Dictionary. Ever since the same activity which then took place still continues. We may be sure that the myth would not have laid Bergelmir on "a mill" if the intention was not that he was to be ground. 399) makes the passage á lúður lagður mean what it actually means. which he also cites to corroborate his own words. as stated. og eru af þeim komnar). After the great mill of the gods transformed the oldest frost-giant into the dust of earth. Vafþrúðnismál tells us expressly that Bergelmir. hann fór upp á lúður sinn og kona hans. From Ymir's flesh the gods created the oldest layer of soil. still the mythologists have not had the heart to take the boat away from Bergelmir.But however conspicuous this signification is. When Gylfaginning 7 has stated that the frost-giants were drowned in Ymir's blood. It is more reasonable to suppose that his idea was. that which covered the earth the first time the sun shone thereon. He with his wife betook himself upon his lúður and remained there. Its author has had no other authority for his statement than the Vafþrúðnismál strophe in question. and we have here one of the many examples found in Gylfaginning showing that its author has neglected to pay much attention to what the passages quoted contain. Thus Bergelmir had secured a boat to sail in. however. to become sooner or later green fields. and for this Gylfaginning is to blame. That he did not have a boat in mind is in the meantime evident from the expression: hann fór upp á lúður sinn. it has continued to grind the bodies of his descendants between the same stones into the same kind of mould. still it has been overlooked or thrust aside by the mythologists. This is the meaning of Vafþrúðnir's words when he says that his memory reaches back to the time when Bergelmir was laid on the mill to be ground. that Bergelmir himself owned an immense mill. So far as I know. which is as follows: "One escaped with his household: him the giants call Bergelmir. What Gylfaginning's author has conceived by the lúður which he mentions it is difficult to say. But he remembers when the turn came for Bergelmir's limbs to be subjected to the same fate. It is the mould and sand which the sea since time's earliest dawn has cast upon the shores of Midgard. nor the days when these were changed to earth. an ark. Ymir he does not remember. then comes its interpretation of the Vafþrúðnismál strophe. very different notions. The kind of meal thus produced has already been explained. An argument in favour of the wrong interpretation was furnished by the Resenian edition of the Younger Edda (Copenhagen. 1665). That the original text says that Bergelmir was laid on the timbers of the mill Gylfaginning pays no attention to. and however clear it is that it is the only one applicable in this poem. and with which the bays and strands have been filled. was "laid on a mill" or "on the supporting timbers of a mill". they have allowed the boat to grow into a ship. in Gylfaginning. On the contrary. . There we find the expression fór upp á lúður sinn "amended" to fór á bát sinn. To go upon something and to be laid on something are. Of them he knows only by hearsay.

when they got light and warmth from the sun. and crush you limb by limb. and for rendering the fields fit for habitation. but one that can supply food. and its other meanings (perhaps the more original ones) are that of a board and of a table for food to lie on. then. Latin molere). This is the word (originally bjóðr) with which the author of Völuspá chose to express the quality of the fields and the fields themselves. It is attended on his behalf by one of his servants. and by his kinswoman and helpmate Beyla. After Njord's son. ef eg eðli ættag sem Ingunar-Freyr og svo sællegt setur. who in the mythology is called Byggvir. out of which the harvests grow. The mould. had been fostered in Asgard and had acquired the dignity of lord of the harvests. barley. Frey. So important is the calling of Byggvir and Beyla that they are permitted to attend the feasts of the gods with their master (Frey). Eng. then the grund became gróin grænum lauki. the place for a spread feast). and when he there taunts Frey. you evil crow. the primeval source of fertility. a kind of grain. and to bygg. know I would grind you finer than marrow. Thus the cow in the Teutonic mythology is the same as she is in the Iranian."The glorious Midgard" could not be created before its foundations raised by the gods out of the sea were changed to bjóð (Völuspá). Liðmeldur means limb-grist. meal. Loki spoke: . so that. invited the gods. (44) Loki kvað: Byggvir spoke: Had I the ancestry of Ingunar-Frey and so honoured a seat. mergi smærra mylda eg þá meinkráku og lemda alla í liðu. as in so many other instances. Thus it is used in Haustlaung 5 (af breiðu bjóði. according to Snæbjörn. When Loki uninvited made his appearance there to mix harm in the mead of the gods. the mill is under the care and protection of the Vans. Byggvir becomes wroth on his master's behalf and says: (43) Byggvir kvað: Veiztu. he was the one who became the master of the great Grotti. a name related both to byggja. and to embitter their pleasure. It is the limbs and joints of the primeval giants. Consequently they are present at the banquet to which Ægir. The development of language and the development of mythology have here. settle. That the "flesh" of the primeval giants could be ground into fertile mould refers us to the primeval cow Auðhumbla by whose milk Ymir was nourished and his flesh formed (Gylfaginning). we have the explanation of the liðmeldur which the great mill grinds. according to Lokasenna. has by transformations developed out of her nourishing liquids. The very word mould comes from the Teutonic word mala. When the fields were raised out of Ymir's blood they were covered with mould. which were raised out of the sea by Bor's sons. Here. In its character as an institution for the promotion of fertility. to grind (cp. when the great mill had changed the "flesh" of Ymir into mould. Bjóð does not mean a bare field or ground. gone hand in hand. cultivate. which on Amlodi's mill are transformed into meal.

The reproach implies that the distribution of food is in his hands. (45) Byggvir kvað: Byggvir eg heiti. en mig bráðan kveða goð öll og gumar. því em eg hér hróðugur. Beyla. he enters the Hades gate. In the poetic Edda we still have another reminiscence of the great mill which is located under the sea. and at the same time in the lower world (see below). It is in a poem. possible. and rewards abundantly or niggardly the toil of the farmer. The least disgraceful thing he says of her is that she is a deigja (a slave. Loki spoke: Be silent. When the skald dies. whose skald says that he has seen it on his journey in the lower world.Hvað er það ið litla er eg það löggra sék og snapvíst snapir? Að eyrum Freys muntu æ vera og und kvernum klaka. and Byggvir characterises himself as one who grinds. As the one who with his mill makes vegetation. What little boy is that whom I see wagging his tail and eat like a parasite? Near Frey's ears you will ever be clattering 'neath the millstones. crosses bloody streams. Loki characterises Byggvir as a servant taking charge of the mill under Frey. he boasts of it as his honour that the gods are able to drink ale at a banquet. . Loki doubtless alludes to this unequal distribution. Byggvir spoke: Byggvir is my name. too. is thereupon seated on a horse. though the author treats these materials in accordance with the Christian purpose of his song. gets her share of Loki's abuse. and here it is my pride that Odin's sons drink ale all together. and is able to crush an "evil crow" limb by limb with his mill-stones. and so also bread and malt. sits for nine days á norna stóli. að drekka Hropts megir allir öl saman. who has to work at the mill and in the kitchen). and that she is covered with traces of her occupation in dust and dirt. As we see. all gods and men call me nimble. The mould which comes from the great mill gives different degrees of fertility to different fields. In his description of the "home of torture" in Hades. Byggvir! þú kunnir aldregi deila með mönnum mat. Byggvir! never were you able to divide food among men. and which "grinds mould into food". (46) Loki kvað: Þegi þú. Loki blames him because he is not able to divide the food among men. else it would be impossible to find any sense in his words. Sólarljóð's Christian author has taken all his materials from the heathen mythological conceptions of the worlds of punishment.

The mythology has located Hvergelmir's fountain there (see No. But the cosmic signification is obliterated in Sólarljóð. and thence rose up into the sea. To judge from all this. It is also in perfect harmony with the mythology that the meal becomes mould. The same was said of Hvergelmir. . heathen) women of dark complexion turned the mill. but the grist produced was mould. he heard a terrible din. and that the mould serves as food. and that it causes the maelstrom (svelgr) when the water of the ocean rushes down through the eye of the mill-stone. In the mythology they crush the bodies of the first giants and revolve in Ymir's blood. when the water of the world alternately flows into and out of this great source. taken prisoners and made slaves. were compelled to keep this vast mechanism in motion. and as this vast fountain is the mother of the ocean and of all waters. of the earth. The myth about the greater Grotti. The mould which they ground was to feed their husbands (Sólarljóð 57-58). that the mill is situated both in the lower world and at the same time on the bottom of the sea.and is permitted to make a journey through Mimir's domain. has also been connected with the Hvergelmir myth. In the heroic poem the giant-maids Fenja and Menja. In the mythology "Eyludur's nine women. In Mimir's realm he sees the "stag of the sun" and Nidi's (Mimir's) sons. who "quaff the pure mead from Baugregin's well". and that this was regarded as a heavy and compulsory task may be assumed without the risk of being mistaken. To a certain extent this is correct even from a heathen standpoint. When he approached the borders of the world of the damned. According to Sólarljóð. dangerous to fleets and to crews. Their bloody and tortured hearts hung outside of their breasts. situated at the entrance of hell. is here represented as one of the agents of torture in the lower world. the mill has been conceived as so made that its foundation timbers stood on solid ground in the lower world. Fickle-wise (svipvísar. and served as the channel through which the water flowed to and from the great fountain of the world's waters. It was the lot of slave-women to turn the hand-mill. which silenced the winds and stopped the flow of the waters. Of the mill it is said that it is dangerous to men. and the ever open connection between the waters of heaven. that causes ebb and flood and maelstrom. first to the regions of the happy and then to those of the damned. the mill-stones are stained with blood. and of the lower world. as already indicated. This mill. 59). which was to be food. have to turn Frodi's Grotti. in which the stones resting on this substructure were located." thurs-maids. Sólarljóð has correctly stated the location of the mill on the border of the realm of torture. The mighty din came from a mill. and it seems to be the author's idea that men who have died in their heathen belief are to eat the mould which women who have died in heathendom industriously grind as food for them. The revolving "eye" of the mill-stone was directly above Hvergelmir. Its stones were wet with blood. then this furnishes the explanation of the apparently conflicting statements.

and could not change position in its relation to them. Bifrost. too. No definite statement in our mythical records informs us whether the way of the sun was over or under Asgard. They looked like glistening heads of nails driven into a movable ceiling. The sailors and shepherds of the Teutons very well knew that this revolving was round a fixed point. designates the north star. Fancy knew no other limits than those of the universe. The Teutons. The very circumstance that they continually changed position in their relation to each other and to the stars seemed to prove that they proceeded independently in their own courses. an expression preserved in Eddubrot. The motion of the starry firmament is defined. or rested on its invisible branches. Stationary was also that heaven in which the Asas had their citadels. MUNDILFARI. But high above Asgard is the starry vault of heaven. and to the Teutons as well as to other people that sky was not only an optical but a real vault. When Thor in his thunder-chariot descends to Jotunheim the path of Mani thunders under him (en dundi Mána vegur und Meila bróður . The mill was for a long time the only kind of mechanism on a large scale known to the Teutons. the polar star. The mill-stones and the möndull might be conceived as large as you please. Mani's course lay below Asgard. But the colossal mill in the ocean has also served other purposes than that of grinding the nourishing mould from the limbs of the primeval giants. THE WORLD-MILL (continued). which were hung on the eastern and western mountain-walls of the lower world. the world-spike. always in the same direction. whose coming and direction no man can predict or calculate. and like most men of the present time. which by their motions from east to west produced the progress of sun and moon. Sol and Mani had their fixed paths. always the same. surrounded by a common wall. All this part of creation was held together by the immovable roots of the world-tree. On the other hand. The god Mani and the goddess Sol were thought to traverse these paths in shining chariots. The movable mill-stone was turned by a handle or sweep which was called möndull. They always keep at the same distance and always present the same figures on the canopy of the nocturnal heavens. had a solid bridge-head on the southern and another on the northern edge of the lower world. the world-nail. And this motion is not of the same kind as that of the winds. the lower world (jörmungrund Forspjallsljóð) on which the foundations of the earth rested. THE WORLD-MILL MAKES THE CONSTELLATIONS REVOLVE. therefore. Its motion was a rotating one. [?]. and their daily journeys across the heavens did not to our ancestors imply that any part of the world-structure itself was in motion. And so. It does not. and not as coming in contact with vaults. depend on the accidental pleasure of gods or other powers. like all people of antiquity. it seems to be caused by a mechanism operating evenly and regularly. Sol and Mani might be conceived as traversing their appointed courses independently. and it is probable that veraldar nagli. for the Asgard-bridge. With the countless stars the case was different.Haustlaung 1). Hence the starlit sky was thought to be in motion. the points of departure and arrival of which were the "horse-doors" (jódyr). ii. and keeps equal step with the march of time itself. . which daily revolved around a stationary point. regarded the earth as stationary. Thus the starry sky was the movable part of the universe.81.

Mundilfori was a being of divine rank. to move.There was another natural phenomenon.. and the second part is lúður. the meginverk of the heathen fancy (Grottisong 11. The mill is in the same strophe called skerja Grótti. (In this sense the word occurs in the Grotti-song and in Helgakviða Hundingsbana II. The latter part of the name. Thus Mundilfori has had some part to play in regard to the great giant-mill of the ocean and of the lower world. The mythology knew a person by name Mundilföri (Vafþrúðnismál 23. again. The name means the "island-mill". the influence of which could be traced throughout that ocean in which Midgard was simply an isle. and these must be produced by the great möndull. that he is the father of the personal Sol and the personal Mani (Vafþrúðnismál 23). and which was well known to the seamen of the North and to those Teutons who lived on the shores of the North Sea. and the nine giantesses. Did one and the same force produce both these great phenomena? Did the same cause produce the motion of the starry vault and the ebb and flood of the sea? In regard to the latter phenomenon. föri. we already know the naive explanation given in the myth concerning Hvergelmir and the Grotti-mill. Vigfusson (Dict. who are compelled to turn the mill. since he is called Mundilföri. The word mundill is related to möndull. 4). and as such belonged to the powers of the lower world. These . namely. the Grotti-mill. and is presumably only another form of the same word. produced by the same vast mechanism. 3. cp. the rising and falling of the tide. the Grotti of the skerries. as there was already one at hand. which also was regular. shows that the mythology conceived him as intimately associated with the heavens and with the heavenly bodies. Arinbjarnardrápa 25). The regular motion of the starry firmament and of the sea is. march along the outer edge of the universe. Thus we get an intelligible idea of what Snæbjörn means when he says that Eyludur's nine women turn the Grotti "along the edge of the earth" (hræra Grótta út fyrir jarðar skauti). The name or epithet Mundilfori refers to a being that has had something to do with a great mythical möndull and with the movements of the mechanism which this möndull kept in motion. Of Mundilfori we learn. And the same explanation sufficed for the former. Egil Skallagrimson's way of using the word. therefore. This. Gylfaginning). The handle extends to the edge of the world. There was no need of another mechanism to make the heavens revolve. refers to the verb færa. the mill-handle or mill-sweep. 437) has. and which around this island extends its surface even to the brink of heaven (Gylfaginning). with good reason remarked that mundill in Mundilfori refers to the veering round or the revolution of the heavens. the other looks after the mill-stones and the grist. The one attends to the regular motion of the möndull. to conduct. As the father of Sol and Mani. on the other hand. Mundilfori and Byggvir thus each has his task to perform in connection with the same vast machinery. where Sol and Mani have their abodes and resting-places. Now the word möndull is never used in the old Norse literature about any other object than the sweep or handle with which the movable mill-stone is turned. Eyludur's nine women are the "nine women of the island-mill". accordingly. Thus he is that power who has to take charge of the revolutions of the starry vault of heaven. In the name Eylúður the first part is ey. pushing the sweep before them.

After that "game" the giant-maids betook themselves to the earth and took part in the first world-war on the side hostile to Odin (see No. the earth quaked and cast up large stones. Before the feud broke out between their kin and the gods. pieces of the mill-stones were broken loose and thrown up into space. and the sub-structure of the mill was damaged. Among the tasks to be performed by the world-mill there is yet another of the greatest importance. happened to King Frodi's mill has its origin in the myth concerning the greater mill. Their activity in connection with the great mechanism. It is worthy of notice that the mythology has connected the fimbul-winter and the great emigrations from the North with an earthquake and a damage to the world-mill which makes the starry heavens revolve. The memory of this mythic event comes to the surface in Rímbegla. amid the singing of bliss-bringing songs of sorcery. which they pushed. HIS IDENTITY WITH RIGVEDA'S AGNI. 82. There are different kinds of fire more or less pure and holy.a storm with mighty thundering passed over the country. THE WORLD-MILL (continued). LOKI. HEIMDALL THE PERSONIFICATION OF THE SACRED FIRE. According to a belief which originated in ancient Aryan times. In hundreds of passages this is corroborated in Rigveda. ALSO A FIRE-BEING. both the giant-maids had worked in the service of the latter and for the good of the world. was a fire which was produced by rubbing two objects together (friction). according to the Grotti-song. 39). which states that toward the close of King Frodi's reign there arose a terrible disorder in nature . The purest fire.expressions refer to each other and designate with different words the same idea . as a bond of union between the higher world and mankind. The stooping position of the starry heavens and the sloping path of the stars in relation to the horizontal line was a problem which in its way the mythology wanted to solve. and .the mill that grinds islands and skerries. HIS ANTITHESIS. THE ORIGIN OF THE SACRED FIRE THROUGH MUNDILFARI. For they were brothers (half-brothers) of those mountain giants who were Fenja's and Menja's fathers (the Grotti-song). mondul. Fenja and Menja were kinswomen of Alvaldi's sons. When the conflict broke out the giant-maids joined the cause of their kinsmen. in which they cast up from the deep upon the earth those stones which afterwards became the mill-stones in the Grottimill. a fire is to be judged as to purity and holiness by its origin. The fate which. In the Grotti-song the same event is mentioned as a "game" played by Fenja and Menja. was a counterpart of the activity of the sons of Alvaldi. They gave the world-mill so rapid a motion that the foundations of the earth trembled. This could not happen without harm to the starry canopy of heaven which rested thereon. The phenomenon was put in connection with the mythic traditions in regard to the terrible winter which visited the earth after the gods and the sons of Alvaldi (Ivaldi) had become enemies. who made for the gods the treasures of vegetation. and a fire which is holy as to its origin may become corrupted by contact with improper elements. grinding the blessings of the golden age on the world-mill. that which was originally kindled by the gods and was afterwards given to man as an invaluable blessing.

He is very young. 21. so-called after an ancient patriarch Bhrigu. 3). 4. 17.the belief still exists among the common people of various Teutonic peoples. in order that "a wise one among the ignorant" may educate them. they adopted him and cared for him at "the place of the water" (Rigv. where the Bhriguians now let the fire blaze (x. i. and dwells among them "an immortal among mortals" (Rigv. by whose directions Agni. iii. but not yet among men. When. i. there was a time when Mâtaricvan. 9. 80. 5) was brought to mankind. a guest among men. 9). 1). 40. We are now to see why the gods sent him to men.. 5) "came to be asked questions" (i. "the one born on the other side of the atmosphere" (x. as shall be shown below. 187. 5). related to Sanskrit Manthati. and with him Manu (Manus). 60. bore. d.. Rel. 60. 4. he became "the husband of wives" (i. found the newly-arrived Agni "at the confluence of the waters". and in its direct application always refers to the production of fire by friction (Bergaigne.. and has been brought by the wind when he arrives at the coast where the Bhriguians dwell. iii. 128. is found among our ancient Aryan ancestors. used the fire obtained through Agni (Rigv. x. Spr. viii. in his sacrifices to the gods. ved. 1. The word möndull. The generation of men then living was the race of Bhriguians. He becomes their first patriarch (ii.. 122. 17. which occurs in numerous passages in Rigveda. Wörterb. becomes in the classical Sanskrit language a designation for the wind. iii. 17). The great mill which revolves the starry heavens was also the mighty rubbing machine (friction machine) from which the sacred fire naturally ought to proceed. i. 21). a sacred being and Agni's father in a literal or symbolic sense. He visited them in these fixed dwellings (iv.-germ. In a direct sense. and really was regarded as having proceeded. but he taught them to establish fixed homes around the hearths. 2)." upright. 1. 1) and their first priest (v. "the confluence of the waters" cannot mean anything else than the ocean. Then there was a time when he dwelt in person among the gods. finally. 31.. This Bhrigu. The Bhriguians who did not yet possess the fire. 9). Mâtaricvan. 60. was the first person who. 19. Thus everything tends to show that Agni has traversed a wide ocean. designates the god of fire. and. brought it about that Agni came to our fathers (Rigv. ind. 5. According to Rigveda. a companion of mortals (iv. 7). but were longing for it and were seeking for it (Rigv. and hence bears the epithet yavishtha. at the instigation of Mâtaricvan. ii. twist. Agni arrived among mankind. to swing. viii. from the root manth. into which all waters flow. and other passages). with which the handle of the mill is designated. It can be traced back to the ancient Teutonic manthula. whose very name. he came from a far-off region (Rigv. 11. In Rigveda. iii. on which the fire he had brought now was burning (iii. 4). Before that time they had lived a nomadic life. When they met this messenger of the gods (Rigv.. 20) by men. 68. as the element of light and warmth found in all beings and things. 4) and the progenitor of human . x. 2). Thus Agni came from the distance across a sea to the coast of the country where that people dwelt who were named after the patriarch Bhrigu. 19). he teaches them and "they listen to him as to a father" (i." "benevolent" god Agni. related to the Latin ignis. 1. 10. 232). 2)... there was a time when Agni lived concealed from both gods and men. the sacred fire is personified by the "pure. He remains among those who care for him. 66. He who "knows all wisdom and all sciences" (Rigv. x... and what be does among them. He who came with the inestimable gift of fire long remains personally among men. a swing-tree (Fick. 1.

so that both the halves of the world re-echo his voice (x. we find a similarity between the Teutonic and the Aryan-Asiatic myths. and that his "great. 95. the guard of order (i. 31. 5.that is. instructed men in praying and sacrificing (vi. his vocation as the sower of the blessings of culture among men. 4). This is related of Agni when he came to the earth and dwelt among men. 7). . when we consider that the difference between the Rigveda and Zend languages on the one hand. 8). 2). and protects the world by day and by night from dangers (i. 3 ." father of human sons. In Rigveda (i. He perceives everything. and in such a way that he had seven mothers in his second birth. In regard to Agni's birth. divine nature proceeded from the laps of many active mothers" (i. 12). and without any retouchings. Agni's birth "beyond the atmosphere. such as the waters. where he becomes "the husband of wives. one in heaven. then again the fingers are paraphrased by "the twice five sisters dwelling together" (iv. and can make himself heard as if he had the voice of thunder. taught religion. he is the pure. strong. 1). 12) which can see far (vii." his visit to the farms established by him. 7) he is called the son of the rock. and shining with golden teeth (v. white god (iv. 20. 11. In a more real sense he is said to have three places of nativity: one in the atmospheric sea. 1. and watch the acts of demons (x. He. In Rigveda (x. and one in the waters (i. When it is only to be a figurative expression for the origin of the friction-fire. 1). 1). i. 94. 48. In the case of the former. 2). 8). 1. young. 9. 1). 98. "the work-master's ten untiring maids" (i. 2) three places of nativity and three births are ascribed to him. and the founder of "the races" (the classes among the Teutons). the herbs (ii. is always attentive (i. In Rigveda (x. as in many other instances. as if it were a copy of the Aryan-Asiatic saga concerning the divine founder of culture.descendants (i. 2). 3). initiated them in the art of poetry and gave them inspiration (iii. the stones. x. It scarcely needs to be pointed out that all that is here told about Agni corresponds point by point with the Teutonic myth about Heimdall. 12). iii. 9. 2. being able to penetrate the herbs. x. 7. 3). his "triple powers were sown in triplets in heaven.the two pieces of wood rubbed together are meant (viii. 11. In the case of the latter . 31. through whom he is the founder of the classes or "races" of men (vi. His horses are like himself white (vi. and many other passages). iii. it is the ten fingers of the person producing the friction-fire that are meant. 1. His symbol among the animals is the bull (i. 2). appear in connection with other circumstances to indicate that the old Aryan unity of language and religion lies ages back in antiquity. Here. it is characteristic of him that he is said to have several mothers. the singer of the hymn can say that Agni had ten mothers or two mothers. 1). although their number varies according to the point from which the process of birth is regarded. 45. when two mothers are mentioned . 2). As to his divine nature. 13. On a circular path he observes all beings (vii. and sees and knows them all (x. He established order in all human affairs (iv. 2) nine maternal wombs or births are indicated. and in the waters". a copy fresh from the master's brush without the effects of time. 8). and the oldest Teutonic linguistic monuments on the other. 1. 87. 7. and diffuse himself into plants and animals (vii. 5. the trees. which is surprising. 141. wise. 6). 2.all this we rediscover completely in the Heimdall myth. Sometimes this is stated outright (Rigveda. 1). 146. 1. 49. 43. his appearance as the teacher of wisdom and "the sciences. 15). 23. 187. penetrate the darkness of night (i. 3). 8. viii. 95. 4). . 95. among us. 10. 6. 4). He hears all who pray to him. 96. 1. 6. and searching eyes (iv." his journey across the sea to original man in the savage state. 1.

In the old Norse poetry. are synonymous. ram). Here the identity of sound agrees with the identity of origin. While Agni perceives everything. then we also see the lines along which one originally common symbol of a domestic animal developed into two and among the Rigveda Aryans settled on the "yearling" of the cow. er gras vex á jörðu eða ull á sauðum.is able to produce a noise like thunder which re-echoes through both the world-halves. according to Fick (Wörterb. In the case of Manu and Mann no explanation is necessary. the Anglo-Saxon beorht. "the fast traveller. Bhrigu and Manu are recognisable in the Teutonic patriarch names Berchter and Mann (Mannus-Halfdan). which reoccurs in the Teutonic patriarch Berchter. while he penetrates and diffuses himself in plants and animals. in the human abodes he visits. needs in his vocation as watchman less sleep than a bird. Agni is born of several mothers. Point by point the descriptions of Agni and Heimdall also correspond in regard to their divine natures and attributes. and is called hvíti áss (Younger Edda) or "the whitest of the Asas" (Þrymskviða 15). 307). and among the Teutons on that of the sheep. Agni is the great holy white god.The very names of the ancient Aryan patriarchs. . riding and cavalry are unknown. can be traced to an ancient Teutonic vethru." the Old Saxon berht. Heimdall certainly for the same reason bears the epithet gullintanni. the real meaning of which is "yearling." who. Heimdall rides his horse Gulltoppur." "light. It should here be remarked that according to Ammianus Marcellinus (xix. While Agni's searching eyes can see in the distance and can penetrate the gloom of night. just as Mann (Halfdan) is co-ordinate with Borgar.. Heimdall has the same epithet. opens a way for prayer and sacrifice (Rigv. Heimdall has mothers nine. The descendants of Bhrigu and of his contemporary Bhriguians. and it is related to the Latin vitulus and the Sanskrit vatsala. in Rígsþula. when Ragnarok is at hand. The bull is Agni's symbol. even the inaudible motions in the growing of herbs and animals." a young domestic animal in general. the ram is Heimdall's. If this is correct. "the one with the golden teeth ". Veður (wether. That Agni's span of horses were transformed into Heimdall's riding horse was also a result of time and circumstances. In Ulf Uggason's poem about the work of art in Hjarðarholt. are called Bhargavans. that it to some extent may be said to corroborate the evidence in regard to Agni's and Heimdall's identity. 13." Agni observes the beings in the world. Both symbols are chosen from the domestic animals armed with horns. "bright. vii. On a "circular path. Agni has white horses. In Rigveda. and protects the world by day and by night from dangers. as he goes from house to house and teaches men the "runes of eternity" and "the runes of time". The only discrepancy is in the animal symbols by which Agni and Heimdall are designated." whence is derived the ancient Teutonic berhta. By Bhrigu's side stands Manu. whose name reflects its splendour. The word veður. and the difference is linguistically of such a kind.it is not stated by what means . While Agni . which corroborates the conclusion that Bhrigu is derived from bharg "to shine. is perpetually on the look-out. Agni is "the fast traveller. Heimdall looks out upon the world from Bifrost. 1) the tiara of the Persian kings was ornamented with a golden ram'shead. Heimdall is mikill and heilagr. which again is actually (not linguistically) identical with the Norse Borgarr. Heimdall has the horn.. vörður goða (Grímnismál). iii. it is said of Heimdall that he heyrir og það. it is said of Heimdall that hann sér jafnt nótt sem dag hundrað rasta frá sér. While Agni as the fire-god has golden teeth. Heimdali and the Heimdall epithet Hallinskíði. whose sound all the world shall hear. Heimdall is the watchman of the gods." "clear. "calf". 3). Agni keeps his eye on the deeds of the demons." röskr Stígandi. and faithfully guards the Asa-bridge against the giants.

it may be preserved through hundreds and thousands of years. and. like several other Teutonic gods . e. so that there remains the difficult task of reconstructing out of the former a clear and concise mythology. The hymns. wind." from rata. But the fact is not inexplicable. then. have been preserved. Very strangely. or something of the sort (Fick. As the epithet "the turner" is given to that god who brought friction-fire (bore-fire) to man.for example. and if there be a gradual change as to signification. are lost. so far as the noun Rati is concerned. vrâton. freed from "dissolving views" in which their mythic characters now blend into each other. this signification has continued to flourish in the domain of mythology after it long seems to have been extinct in the domain of language. in spite of the gradual transformation of the languages and the types of the race. "the traveller. in Cod. Rigveda's Vata) .. and who is himself the personification of this fire. Hávamál 106. to travel." "to move about".there the horses of the gods draw the divine chariots. on which not only the main outlines but even the details completely resemble each other. and retained. "the fast traveller. Grímnismál 32. then this is caused by the change of language. of the Younger Edda (skáldskaparmál 15). Wörterb." is Rati. The Teutonic mythology has had an opposite fate: here the genuine religious songs. 294). the songs of the divine worship and of the sacrifices of the Rigveda Aryans. as the representative of the oldest culture connected with the introduction of fire. In the allegorical Grímnismál strophe it is "Rati's tooth" (Ratatoskur) who lets the mead- . popular customs are long-lived. "to travel. this verb (originally vrata. but the epic-mythological poems are lost. for the hymns belong to the divine worship. the hymns of divine worship and of sacrifices. Goth. If an epithet of a god. In the Teutonic mythology the draught horses are changed into riding horses. which may make an old expression unintelligible or give it another meaning based on the association of ideas. Odin (Wodan. And.. to turn anything around rapidly. to twist or turn. in the guise of an eagle. flies away with the mead-treasure concealed in the "deep dales" at Fjalar's under the roots of the world-tree. We have reason to be surprised at finding that the Aryan-Asiatic myths and the Teutonic have so broad surfaces of contact. in this connection. then it must be synonymous with "the borer". and chariots occur only exceptionally. the fire produced by friction. and there remain fragments of the mighty divine epic of the Teutons. even to the decay of the Teutonic heathendom his ancient character as the personal representative of the sacred fire. From all this I am forced to draw the conclusion that Heimdall. A synonym of Heimdall's epithet Stígandi. make a journey) can be traced to an ancient Germanic word which meant to turn or twist. "the traveller. and Bragaræður testify each in its own way that the mythical name Rati was connected with a boring activity.g. This also explains Heimdall's epithet Vindler." has once become fixed by hymns and been repeated in the divine service year after year. iii. and the sacred customs are more conservative and more enduring than all others. Reg. if they are not disturbed by revolutions in the domain of faith. Details of this kind may in this manner survive the ravages of time just as well as the great outlines of the mythology.belongs to the ancient Aryan age. The name is a subform of vindill and comes from vinda. In Hávamál "Rati's mouth" gnaws the tunnel through which Odin. But thus we have also been robbed of the opportunity of studying those very songs which in a higher degree than the epic are able to preserve through countless centuries ancient mythical traits.

His mothers are giaintesses (jötna meyjar). viii. In Bragarædur the name is given to the gimlet itself which produced the connection between Odin's world and Fjalar's halls. His very place of nativity indicates this. Fjalar is a son of Surt." of him who is furnished with "golden teeth". Mundilföri. This is presumably also the case with Járnsaxa. wind. holy fire to whom the glittering objects in the skies must naturally be regarded as akin. The "tongue of Agni" has the same task there as "Rati's mouth" in our Norse records. though in another sense.namely. the god of the friction-fire. Natural agents such as fire. "The cows of the son of the work-master" is a paraphrase for the saps of nourishiment. Atla. whose character as an ancient artist is evident from what is stated in Nos. but representing another side of this element. Rigveda. is Loki. These nine giant-maids. nine in number. Heimdall was born to life in a similar manner. 4-8 .drinking foe of the gods near the root of the world-tree find out what the eagle in the top of the world-tree (Odin) resolves and carries out in regard to the same treasure. To fire refers also Imdur. mentioned as having their activity on the outer edge of the earth . Angeyja and Eyrgjafa. and nine in number. 14. embers. 8. his ray of light penetrated into the darkness where the liquids of nourishment were preserved. x. the worldmill of Mundilfori. The gimlet has here received the name of the boring "traveller. on the outer rim of the earth. In the Teutonic mythology there is also "a son of the workmaster. They are the níu brúðir of Eylúður. "she who gives sandbanks". 4. Hence there are good reasons for assuming that in the epic of the myth it was Heimdall-Gullintanni himself whose fire-gimlet helped Odin to fly away with his precious booty. 61. His mothers have their abodes við jarðar þröm (Völuspá in skamma 7) near the edge of the earth. but Agni split the mountain open with his tongue. "the Isle-grinder. v. In Völuspá in skamma 9 Heimdall's nine giant-mothers are named: Gjálp. cold." mentioned by Snæbjörn (see above). who along the outer zone of the earth (fyrir jarðar skauti) push the mill's sweep before themselves and grind the coasts of the islands. water. 6-9). and therefore also his constant opponent in the mythological epic. We have already found giantesses. and could therefore properly be regarded as a grist of the world-mill. are the same nine giant-maids who on the outer zone of the earth gave birth to Heimdall. the handle. and thunder have in the . and that is where they gave him life (báru þann mann). as already shown. The sacred mead of the liquids of nourishment was concealed in the womb of the mountain with the Dasyus. Hence one of Heimdall's mothers is called Angeyja. he too a fire-being. hostile to the world." and another one is called Eyrgjafa. heat. after Trita (in some passages of Rigveda identical with Vata) had slain a giant monster and found the "cows of the son of the work-master" (cp. indicate the occupation of these giantesses in connection with the world-mill. Greip. Heimdal's antithesis in all respects. By friction Mâtaricvan brought Agni out of the maternal wombs in which he was concealed as an embryo of light and warmth. and has the care of the motions of the starry heavens is accordingly also. In Rigveda Agni plays the same part. "she who crushes the iron". The first two are daughters of the fire-giant Geirrod (Skáldskaparmál 26)." who is robbed of the mead. The iron which our heathen fathers worked was produced from the sea. Angeyja. who is the father of Sol and Mani. the father of Heimdall the pure. and through him they were brought to the light of day. Úlfrún. Eyrgjafa. Eistla. from ím.and swamp-iron mixed with sand and clay. "she who makes the islands closer. turn the vast friction-mechanism. Two of the names. 53 and 89. Imdur. those who with the möndull. Járnsaxa.

a paraphrase for "giant". "whirlwind. became transformed into an expression of his intrinsic wickedness. received Rán as his "maid" (Yngl. but also in that of the giants (Skírnismál). and the lightning did not proceed alone from Mjolnir. although it is the common view among mythologists that it was regarded exclusively as a product of Thor's activity. 83. that the thunder which purifies the atmosphere and fertilises the thirsty earth with showers of rain. The conflicts between Thor and the giants were not only on terra firma. Thus Loki is the son of the burning and destructive lightning. But the violence of the father does not appear externally in the son's character. and kills men that have not offended the gods. Skáldskaparmál 23). his exterior.Teutonic mythology a double aspect. A thunderbolt from the hurricane gave birth to Loki. the son of him who particularly inflicts damaging blows on the sacred oaks (see No. In this too he reveals himself as a counterpart of Heimdall. He long prepares the conflagration of the world in secret. When they work in harmony. The genuine mythical conception was. As a fire-being. There were giant-horses that were able to wade with force and speed through the atmosphere. and not until he is put in chains does he exhibit. "the one inflicting harm. while that which splinters the sacred trees. The blaze-element (see No. sets fire to the woods and houses. The thunderstorm was frequently a víg þrimu. His father is called Fárbauti. the son of Hlodyn. 35) was not only in the possession of the gods. doubtless." and eistr. whose helmet is ornamented with a glittering ram's-horn. "the one dwelling in the east" (the north). of a giant representing the hurricane and thunder. a conflict between thundering beings. Loki and his brothers Helblindi and Byleistr are the children of a giant of this kind. From an ethical point of view." and his mother is Laufey. and his hair grew out in the form of horny spears (see above). which directly or indirectly became wedded to the sea through the swollen streams. who. Thor. and the turbulent elements are represented by beings of giant-race. But when these limits are transgressed. gave birth to Helblindi. the wild passion of his giant nature." a paraphrase for the tree-crown (Gylfaginning 33. accordingly. Hrungnir's Gullfaxi (skáldskaparmál 24). MUNDILFORI'S IDENTITY WITH LODUR. or strikes down the foes of Midgard. After he had been for ever exiled from the society of the gods and had been fettered in his cave of torture. the impurity of the flame which he represents is manifested by his unrestrained sensuousness. 36) and sets fire to the groves. The whirlwind in the hurricane received as his ward Byleistr. "the leaf-isle. in which the lightnings hurled by the ward of Midgard. but was also found in Hrungnir's hein and in Geirrod's glowing javelin. came from the foes of the world. then they are sacred forces and are represented by the gods. but also in the air. were expected to carry their riders to the lightning-conflict in space against the lightning-hurler. by the earthquakes he produces. which was in the beginning beautiful. for instance. crossed the lightnings hurled by the foes of Midgard. This is also true of thunder. he was conceived as handsome and youthful. came from Thor. each within the limits which are fixed by the welfare of the world and the happiness of man. The rain-torrents and waterspouts of the hurricane. . 51 [?]). as. giants are at work.. and these giant-horses with their shining manes. whose name is composed of bylr. as when Thor made an expedition on foot to Jotunheim. however.

like that of the Rigveda-Aryans.gods who particularly represent that order in the physical and moral world which became fixed in creation. which begins with Þrúðgelmir. Buri gives birth to Burr (Bor). To this must be added the important observation that Vei and Vili. and for the purpose of giving protection and defence to their worshippers in times of trouble and danger. and the ignoble. There dwell the smiths of antiquity who made the chariots of the sun and moon and smithied the treasures of vegetation.Ymir and Buri. finally. namely. mentions only two progenitors of the mythological races . and which. has had gods of both kinds . The mythology of the Teutons. Odin and Thor-Indridi in the Eddas. and in all probability one of those "wise rulers" (vís regin) who. whence they have their out-look upon the world they have to protect . Urd and Mimir. Burr. the Vana-god. there the seven sons of Mimir who represent the changing seasons (see No. Mundilfori is the lord of the regular revolutions of the starry firmament. There dwell the nidjar who represent the moon's waxing and waning. as far as it is known. 87). From Ymir develop the two very different races of giants. The former. and. and had no abode in Asgard.the atmosphere and Midgard. the offspring of his arms and that of his feet (see No. seem to have been referred to his care. according to Vafþrúðnismál 39. remain entirely uniform. the Vanand Elf-clans have no other theogonic source than the same as the Asa-clan. in other words. the genius of the blushing sunset. that. such as Vita and Indra in Rigveda. and in the course of ages it developed into a systematic and epic whole with clear outlines sharply drawn in all details. Mundilfori is himself a Vana-god. he is father of Heimdall. Véi (Vé). and where the fountains are found whose liquids penetrate creation. accordingly. Whence came the clans of the Vans and the Elves? It should not have escaped the notice of the mythologists that the Teutonic theogony. Down there dwell. secured a part. That the hierologists of the Teutonic mythology did not leave the origin of these clans unexplained we are assured by the very existence of a Teutonic theogony. whence the world-tree grew. have their natural abode in Jormungrund's outer zone and in the lower world. he is one of the chief gods of the Teutonic mythology. who introduced among men a systematic life in homes fixed and governed by laws. Delling. All natural phenomena. together with the circumstance that the more thoroughly our mythology is studied the more clearly we see that this mythology has desired to answer every question which could reasonably be asked of it. who make their celestial journeys according to established laws. It is manifest that Odin himself with his sons founds the Asa-race.in other words. Nott and Dag. As the father of Heimdall. the noble race to which the norns.The position which we have found Mundilfori to occupy indicates that. and of the regular rising and sinking of the sea in its ebb and flood. belonging to the oldest branch of this race. Mimir and Bestla belong. which appear to depend on a fixed mechanical law and not on the initiative of any mighty will momentarily influencing the events of the world. and Vili (Vilir). under normal conditions. Mundilfori with the dises of the sun and the moon. and the latter has three sons . Unless Buri had more sons. by self-sacrifice. and they have their proper abode in a group of fortified celestial citadels like Asgard.Óðinn. are never counted among the Asas proper. He is the father of the dises of the sun and moon. and where that wisdom had its source of which Odin only. and Billing. the genius of the glow of dawn. he is a clan-founder in which . although not belonging to the powers dwelling in Asgard. 86) . on the other hand. he is the origin of the holy fire. The latter are in their very nature war-gods always ready for battle. "created Njord in Vanaheim and sent him as a hostage to the gods (the Asas)". though brothers of Odin. and gods who particularly represent the powerful temporary interference for the purpose of restoring this order when it has been disturbed.

and demonstrate that he is identical with Mundilfori. particularly of the friction-fire and of the bore-fire. could not be included in his clan. 82) that Heimdall. For the name Lóðurr there is no other rational explanation than that which Jacob Grimm. mention before him a King Lotherus. 123) I shall give an account of the ward of the atmosphere. he was attended by his brothers. to give to the descendants of Ask and Embla the holy fire. From all this it follows that when the authors of mythic genealogies related as history wish to get further back in the Skjoldung genealogy than to the Beowulf Skjold. As a chieftain of the Vans he was their leader when . that he becomes the father of the other original patriarch Skjold. All that Saxo tells about Lotherus is explained by the character of the latter as the chieftain of a Vana-clan. 92. But in our mythic records there is only one name of which Lotherus can be a Latinised form. 121. Danish genealogies. and when the mythological synonymies have not been carefully examined. the fire-producer. Lóðurr. the personified sacred fire. as Müller (Notæ ulterior ad Saxonis Hist. "he who causes or produces the blaze. Hoenir and Lodur are Ve and Vili. 18). and that our records. In other words. Further on (Nos. and this name is. he is identical with Scef-Rig. and that his brothers. and implements. who just before (Gylfaginning 6) are called Ve and Vili. has given. like his descendants. like himself. Skjold. It has above been demonstrated (see Nos. tools. 20. without knowing his position in the epic of mythology. 91. that is to say. the revolver of the starry firmament. and without prominent parts in the mythological events after the creation of the world and of man. which desire to go further back in the genealogy of the Skjoldungs than to Skjold. in the same manner as Agni is the son of Mâtaricvan. as an anthropomorphous god and first patriarch. Mundilfori is the one who appears in the Latinised name Lotherus. when not investigated with proper thoroughness. and Hadding. It has likewise been demonstrated (No. on this occasion. that is to say. Gevarr (Nökkvi. seem to have so little to say concerning them. the Scyld of the Beowulf poem. is the son of the fire-producer (by friction) Mundilfori. 90. had many names. in which we know they took an active part (Völuspá 4. Saxo's included. was assisted by Hoenir and Lodur. then they must go to that mythic person who is Heimdall's father. and by his identity with Mundilfori-Gevarr. this of itself makes it probable that Odin's two brothers were their progenitors and clan-chieftains. for this very reason. Mundilfori. Lóðurr is active in its signification. "to blaze". The assumption that this was the case depends simply upon the fact that they have not been found mentioned among the Asas. is Lóðurr. and as we find besides the Asa-clan two other races of gods. Halfdan. the laws of society. 22) that the anthropomorphous Vanagod Heimdall was by Vana-gods sent as a child to the primeval Teutonic country. to Mundilfori. were clanfounders. 17." and thus refers to the origin of fire. is taken from the mythology. Næfr). There is every reason to assume that they. and the rules for religious worship. further back than to the original patriarch Heimdall. then these are only different names of the same powers. There is no doubt that Lotherus.this race has its chieftain. in the creation of man.) has already pointed out. the eponym of the race. comparing the name with the verb lodern. like him. 21. It is a mistake to believe that Odin's brothers were mythical ghosts without characteristic qualities. the runes. Odin's brothers. It has been demonstrated that. and when the Younger Edda (Gylfaginning 9) says that. When Völuspá says that Odin. and the grandfather of Halfdan. the fire-producer.

he is permitted to determine and indicate the fortunes of those consulting the oracle. that Mimer lost his life in the service of Odin. See No. ut honoris damno tanquam beneficio gratulari crederetur). þá kná Hænir hlautvið kjósa (str. ." that is to say. Mundilfori's character seems at least in one respect to be the opposite of Hoenir's. Saxo makes Lotherus fall at the hands of conspirators. but spared his life. see Nos. The explanation of this statement is to be sought in Mundilföri-Gevarr's fate. still is conscious that he was intimately connected with him and calls him his sessi. is explained by the fact that he. Saxo mentions the insolentia of Lotherus. and that the Vans sent his head to Odin. the poem restoring to the gentle and patient Vana-god. The character of the one deposed is gentle and without any greed for rule like that by which Hoenir is known. according to this record. of which. and the tradition in Heimskringla (Ynglingasaga 3). 123. The banishment of Odin and the Asas by the Vans causes Saxo to say that Lotherus banished from the realm persons who were his equals in noble birth (nobilitate pares). where a strophe is quoted. It is also stated that he took the power from an elder brother. and as the genealogy of the Skjoldungs can be traced back to Heimdall. Odin's friend. is deposed from his dignity as the ruler of Vanaheim and is succeeded by Lodur. Frey. finally. are Skilfings. the rights of which he had been robbed. In spite of the confused manner in which the troubles between the Asas and Vans are presented in Heimskringla. hence Loki's insulting words to her (Lokasenna 26). it still appears that. like Mimir. Hoenir was the chief of the latter on account of an old agreement between the two god-clans. and the Elf Ull. that Vilir and Vei took Frigg to themselves once when Odin was far away from Asgard. To the mythical circumstance. Saxo says of him that he so patiently bore the injustice done him that he seemed to be pleased therewith as with a kindness received (ceterum injuriæ tam patiens fuit. The brother here referred to is not. it must be this personality who is mentioned for his ofdramb. Both these branches of the race have a common origin. remained devoted to the cause of Odin. but Hænir (Véi). administer the affairs of the rest of the world. at the outbreak of the feud with the Asas and after the death of Mimir. and whom he regarded as competitors in regard to the government. that Hoenir lost his throne and his power points also Völuspá. The reason why Hoenir. and the Vans and Elves on the other.the war broke out between the Asas on the one side. that he then always submitted to the counsels of the wise Mimir. in which the founder of the Swedish Skilfing race (the Ynglings) is called Dulsa konr. which does not seem to be aware that Hoenir was Odin's brother. In the Eddas. 36). that bears the surname Dulsi. As was shown above in the account of the myth about Scef. Gylfaginning 11 speaks of his ofdramb. and one of his surnames was Dulsi. before the war between the Asas amid Vans. 91. too. Frigg espoused the cause of the Vans (see No. Skáldskaparmál. and. Odin. founded. however. Dulsi's descendant. although he robbed him of the sceptre. and máli (Skáldskaparmál 22). they looked upon Hoenir as unqualified to be their judge and leader. and beyond him to Mundilfori. in other words. then he is again able to exercise the rights of a god. on the beauty of his children. who had already been adopted in Asgard. after the regeneration. During the war between Asas and Vans. at the outbreak of the war with the Asas. "Then Hoenir becomes able to choose the lot-wood. that. 64). his pride. 89. the Skjoldungs. sinni. while the Vans Njord. Thus Lodur becomes after Hoenir the ruler of Vanaheim and the chieftain of the Vans. Hoenir appears as Odin's companion on excursions from Asgard. the proud.

With Odin, Véi-Hænir and Vili-Lóðurr-Mundilföri have participated in the shaping of the world as well as in the creation of man. Of the part they took in the latter act, and of the importance they thereby acquired in the mythical anthropology, and especially in the conceptions concerning the continued creation of man by generation and birth, see No. 95.

84. NOTT, MOTHER OF THE GODS. It has already been shown above that Nott, the mother of the gods, has her hall in the northern part of Mimir's realm, below the southern slopes of the Nida mountains. There has been, and still is, an interpretation of the myths as symbols. Light is regarded as the symbol of moral goodness, and darkness as that of moral evil. That there is something psychologically correct in this cannot be denied; but in regard to the Aryan religious the assumption would lead to a great error, if, as we might be tempted to do, we should make night identical with darkness, and should refer her to the world of evil. In the mythologies of the Rigveda-Aryans and of the Teutons, Nott is an awe-inspiring, adorable, noble, and beneficent being. Night is said in Rigveda "to have a fair face, to increase riches, and to be one of the mothers of order". None of the phenomena of nature seemed to the Teutons evil per se; only when they transgressed what was thought to be their lawful limits, and thus produced injury and harm, were giant-powers believed to be active therein. Although the Teutonic gods are in a constant; more or less violent conflict with the powers of frost, still winter, when it observes its limits of time, is not an evil but a good divinity, and the cold liquids of Hvergelmir mixed with those of Urd's and Mimir's fountains are necessary to the world-tree. Still less could night be referred to the domain of demons. Mother Nott never transgresses the borders of her power; she never defies the sacred laws, which are established for the order of the universe. According to the seasons of the year, she divides in an unvarying manner the twenty-four hours between herself and day. Work and rest must alternate with each other. Rich in blessing, night comes with solace to the weary, and seeks if possible to sooth the sufferer with a potion of slumber. Though sombre in appearance (svört og dökk - Gylfaginning 10), still she is the friend of light. She decorates herself with lunar effulgence and with starry splendour, with winning twilight in midsummer, and with the light of snow and of northern aurora in the winter. The following lines in Sigurdrífumál 3-4 sound like a reverberation from the lost liturgic hymns of our heathendom. Heill Dagur, heilir Dags synir, heil Nótt og Nipt! Óreiðum augum lítið okkur þinig og gefið sitjöndum sigur! Heilir æsir, heilar ásynjur, Hail Dag, Hail Dag's sons, Hail Nott and Nipt! Look down upon us With benevolent eyes and give us victory! Hail Asas, Hail Asynjes,

heil sjá in fjölnýta fold!

Hail thou bounteous earth!

Of the Germans in the first century after Christ, Tacitus writes (Germ., 3): "They do not, as we, compute time by days but by nights, night seems to lead the day" (nec dierum numerum, ut nos, sed noctium computant: nox ducere diem videtur). This was applicable to the Scandinavians as far down as a thousand years later. Time was computed by nights not by days, and in the phrases from heathen times, nótt ok dagr, nótt med degi, bæði um nætr ok um daga, night is named before day. Linguistic usage and mythology are here intimately associated with each other. According to Vafþrúðnismál 25 and Gylfaginning 10, Nott bore with Delling the son Dag, with whom she divided the administration of the twenty-four hours. Delling is the elf of the morning red (see No. 35). The symbolism of nature is here distinct as in all theogonies. Through other divinities, Naglfari and Ónarr (Anarr, Aunarr), Nott is the mother with the former of Unnr (Udr), also called Audr, with the latter of the goddess Jord, Odin's wife. Unnr means water, Audr means rich. It has above been shown that Unnr-Audr is identical with Njord, the lord of wealth and commerce, who in the latter capacity became the protectors of navigators, and to whom sacrifices were offered for a prosperous voyage. Gods of all clans - Asas, Vans, and Elves - are thus akin to Nott, and are descended from her.

85. NARFI, NOTT'S FATHER, IDENTICAL WITH MIMIR. A PSEUDO-NARFI IN THE YOUNGER EDDA. Nott herself is the daughter of a being whose name has many forms. Naurr, Nörr (dative Naurvi, Nörvi; Nótt var Naurvi borin Vafþrúðnismál 25; Nótt in Naurvi kennda Alvíssmál 29). (niðerfi Narfa - Egill Skallagr., 56, 2; Gylfaginning 10). (Gylfaginning 10; kund Nörva - Forspjallsljóð 7). (Gylfaginning 10; Njörva nipt - Sonatorrek). (Gylfaginning 10). (Höfuðlausn 10). (Helgakviða Hundingsbana I, 4).

Narfi, Narvi Norvi, Nörvi Njörfi, Njörvi Nori Nari Neri

All these variations are derived from the same original appellation, related to the Old Norse verb njörva, the Old English nearwian, meaning "the one that binds," "the one who puts on tight-fitting bonds". Simply the circumstance that Narvi is Nott's father proves that he must have occupied one of the most conspicuous positions in the Teutonic cosmogony. In all cosmogonies and theogonies night is one of the oldest beings, older than light, without which it cannot be conceived. Light is kindled in the darkness, thus foreboding an important epoch in the development of the world out of chaos. The being which is Night's father must therefore be counted among the oldest in the cosmogony. The personified representatives of water and earth, like the day, are the children of his daughter. What Gylfaginning tells of Narvi is that he was of giant birth, and the first one who inhabited Jotunheim (Nörvi eða Narfi hét jötunn, er byggði fyrst Jötunheima Gylfaginning 10). In regard to this we must remember that, in Gylfaginning and in the traditions of the Icelandic sagas, the lower world is embraced in the term Jtunheim, and this for mythical reasons, since Niflheim is inhabited by rimthurses and giants (see No. 60), and since the regions of bliss are governed by Mimir and by the norns, who also are of giant descent. As the father of the lower-world dis, Nott, Narvi himself belongs to that group of powers, with which the mythology peopled the lower world. The upper Jotunheim did not exist before in a later epoch of the cosmogonic development. It was created simultaneously with Midgard by Odin and his brothers (Gylfaginning). In a strophe by Egil Skallagrimson (ch. 56), poetry, or the source of poetry, is called niðerfi Narfa, "the inheritance left by Narvi to his descendants". As is well known, Mimir's fountain is the source of poetry. The expression indicates that the first inhabitant of the lower world, Narvi, also presided over the precious fountain of wisdom and inspiration, and that he died and left it to his descendants as an inheritance. Finally, we learn that Narvi was a near kinsman to Urd and her sisters. This appears from the following passages: (a) Helgakviða Hundingsbana I, 4. When Helgi was born norns came in the night to the abode of his parents, twisted the threads of his fate, stretched them from east to west, and fastened them beneath the hall of the moon. One of the threads nipt Nera cast to the north and bade it hold for ever. It is manifest that by Neri's (Narvi's) kinswoman is meant one of the norns present. (b) Sonatorrek 25. The skald Egil Skallagrimson, weary of life, closes his poem by saying that he sees the dis of death standing on the ness (Digraness) near the gravemound which conceals the dust of his father and of his sons, and is soon to receive him: Tveggja bága Njörva nipt á nesi stendur. Skal eg þó glaður með góðan vilja og óhryggur Heljar bíða. The kinswoman of Njorvi (the binder) of Odin's (Tveggi's) foes stands on the ness. But I shall gladly with a good will and without remorse wait for Hel.

It goes without saying that the skald means a dis of death, Urd or one of her messengers, with the words, "the kinswoman of Njorvi (the binder) of Odin's foes," whom he with the eye of presentiment sees standing on the family grave-mound on Digraness. She is not to stop there, but she is to continue her way to his hall, to bring him to the grave-mound. He awaits her coming with gladness, and as the last line shows, she whose arrival he awaits is Hel, the goddess of death or fate. It has already been demonstrated that Hel in the heathen records is always identical with Urd. Njorvi is here used both as a proper and a common noun. "The kinswoman of the Njorvi of Odin's foes" means "the kinswoman of the binder of Odin's foes". Odin's foe Fenrir was bound with an excellent chain smithied in the lower world (dwarfs in Svartálfaheimr - Gylfaginning 34), and as shall be shown later, there are more than one of Odin's foes who are bound with Narvi's chains (see No. 87). (c) Höfuðlausn 10. Egil Skallagrimson celebrates in song a victory won by Erik Bloodaxe, and says of the battle-field that there trað nipt Nara náttverð ara ("Nari's kinswoman trampled upon the supper of the eagles," that is to say, upon the dead bodies of the fallen). The psychopomps of disease, of age, and of misfortunes have nothing to do on a battle-field. Thither come valkyries to fetch the elect. Nipt Nara must therefore be a valkyrie, whose horse tramples upon the heaps of dead bodies; and as Egil names only one shield-maid of that kind, he doubtless has had the most representative, the most important one in mind. That one is Skuld, Urd's sister, and thus a nipt Nara like Urd herself. (d) Ynglingatal 7 (Ynglingasaga, ch. 17). Of King Dyggvi, who died from disease, it is said that jódís Narva chose him. The right to choose those who die from disease belongs to the norns alone (see No. 69). Jódís, a word doubtless produced by a vowel change from the Old Germanic idis, has already in olden times been interpreted partly as horse-dis (from jór, horse), partly as the dis of one's kin (from jóð, child, offspring). In this case the skald has taken advantage of both significations. He calls the death-dis jódís úlfs og Narva, the wolf's horse-dis, Narvi's kin-dis. In regard to the former signification, it should be remembered that the wolf is horse for all giantesses, the honoured norns not excepted. Cp. grey norna as a paraphrase for wolf. Thus what our mythic records tell us about Narvi is: (a) He is one of the oldest beings of theogony, older than the upper part of the world constructed by Bur's sons. (b) He is of giant descent. (c) He is father of Nott, father-in-law of Naglfari, Onar, and of Delling, the elf of the rosy dawn; and he is the father of Dag's mother, of Unnr, and of the goddess Jord, who becomes Odin's wife and Thor's mother. Bonds of kinship thus connect him with the Asas and with gods of other ranks. (d) He is near akin to the dis of fate and death, Urd and her sisters. The word nipt, with which Urd's relation to him is indicated, may mean sister, daughter, and sister's

daughter, and consequently does not state which particular one of these it is. It seems upon the whole to have been applied well-nigh exclusively in regard to mythic persons, and particularly in regard to Urd and her sisters (cp. above: Njörva nipt, nipt Nara, nipt Nera), so that it almost acquired the meaning of dis or norn. This is evident from Nafnaþulur 26: Nornir heita þær er nauð skapa; Nipt ok Dís nú eru taldar, and from the expression heil Nótt og Nipt in the above-cited strophe from Sigurdrífumál. There is every reason for assuming that the Nipt, which is here used as a proper noun, in this sense means the dis of fate and as an appellation of kinship, a kinswoman of Nott. The common interpretation of heil Nótt og Nipt is "hail Nott and her daughter," and by her daughter is then meant the goddess Jord; but this interpretation is, as Bugge has shown, less probable, for the goddess Jord immediately below gets her special greeting in the words: heil sjá in fjölnýta Fold! ("hail the bounteous earth!") (e) As the father of Nott, living in Mimir's realm, and kinsman of Urd, who with Mimir divides the dominion over the lower world, Narvi is himself a being of the lower world, and the oldest subterranean being: the first one who inhabited Jotunheim. (f) He presided over the subterranean fountain of wisdom and inspiration, that is to say, Mimir's fountain. (g) He was Odin's friend and the binder of Odin's foes. (h) He died and left his fountain as a heritage to his descendants. As our investigation progresses it will be found that all these facts concerning Narvi apply to Mimir, that "he who thinks" (Mimir) and "he who binds" (Narvi) are the same person. Already the circumstances that Narvi was an ancient being of giant descent, that he dwelt in the lower world and was the possessor of the fountain of wisdom there, that he was Odin's friend, and that he died and left his fountain as an inheritance (cp. Mims synir), point definitely to Narvi's and Mimir's identity. Thus the Teutonic theogony has made Thought the older kinsman of Fate, who through Nott bears Dag to the world. The people of antiquity made their first steps toward a philosophical view of the world in their theogony. The Old English language has preserved and transferred to the Christian Paradise a name which originally belonged to the subterranean region of bliss of heathendom Neorxenavang. Vang means a meadow, plain, field. The mysterious Neorxena looks like a gentive plural. Grein, in his Anglo-Saxon Dictionary, and before him Weinhold, refers neorxena to Narvi, Nari, and this without a suspicion that Narvi was an epithet of Mimir and referred to the king of the heathen regions of bliss. I consider this an evidence that Grein's assumption is as correct as it is necessary, if upon the whole we are to look for an etymological explanation of the word. The plural genitive, then, means those who inhabit Narvi's regions of bliss, and receive their appellation from this circumstance. The opposite Old Norse appellation is njarir, a word which I shall discuss below. To judge from certain passages in Christian writings of the thirteenth century, Mimir was not alone about the name Narvi, Nari. One or two of Loki's sons are supposed to have had the same name. The statements in this regard demand investigation, and, as I think, this will furnish another instructive contribution to the chapter on the confusion

of the mythic traditions, and on the part that the Younger Edda plays in this respect. The passages are: (a) The prosaic afterword to Lokasenna: "He (Loki) was bound with the entrails of his son Nari, but his son Narfi was turned into a wolf". (b) Gylfaginning 33. (1) Most of the codices: "His (Loki's) wife is hight Sigyn; their son is Nari or Narvi". (2) Codex Hypnonesiensis: "His (Loki's) wife is hight Sigyn; his sons are hight Nari or Narvi and Vali". (c) Gylfaginning 50. (1) Most of the codices: "Then were taken Loki's sons Vali and Nari or Narfi. The Asas changed Vali into a wolf, and the latter tore into pieces his brother Narfi. Then the Asas took his entrails and therewith bound Loki." (2) Codex Upsalensis: "Then were taken Loki's sons Vali and Nari. The Asas changed Vali into a wolf, and the latter tore into pieces his brother Nari." (d) Skáldskaparmál 23. (1) "Loki is the father of the wolf Fenrir, the Midgard-serpent, and Hel, 'and also of Nari and Ali'." (2) Codex Wormianus and Codex Hypnonesiensis: "Loki is father of the Fenris-wolf, of the Midgard-serpent, and of Hel, 'and also of Nari and Vali'.". The mythology has stated that Loki was bound with chains which were originally entrails, and that he who contributed the materials of these chains was his own son, who was torn into pieces by his brother in wolf guise. It is possible that there is something symbolic in this myth - that it originated in the thought that the forces created by evil contend with each other and destroy their own parent. There is at least no reason for doubting that this account is a genuine myth, that is to say, that it comes from a heathen source and from some heathen poem. But, in regard to the names of Loki's two sons here in question, we have a perfect right to doubt. We discover at once the contradictions betrayed by the records in regard to them. The discrepancy of the statements can best be shown by the following comparisons. Besides Fenrir, the Midgard-serpent, and Hel, Loki has, according to: Gylfaginning 33: Prose added to Lokasenna: Cod. Hypnon. (Gylfaginning 33): Gylfaginning 50: Skáldskaparmál 23: Prose added to the son Nari, the son Nari, the son Nari, the son Nari, the son Nari, Nari is torn into also called Narvi, also called Narfi, also called Narfi. No other son is named; and the son Narfi; and the son Vali; and the son Vali; and the son Ali; Narfi;

Lokasenna: Gylfaginning: NariNarfi

pieces by is torn into pieces by Vali.

The discrepancy shows that the author of these statements did not have any mythic song or mythic tradition as the source of all these names of Loki's sons. The matter becomes even more suspicious when we find That the variations Nari and Narvi, both of which belong to one of the foremost and noblest of mythic beings, namely, to Mimir, are here applied in such a manner that they either are given to two sons of Loki or are attributed to one and the same Loki-son, while in the latter case it happens That the names Vali and Ali, which both belong to the same Asa-god and son of Odin who avenged the death of his brother Baldur, are both attributed to the other son of Loki. Compare Gylfaginning 30: Áli eða Váli heitir einn, sonur Óðins og Rindar. How shall we explain this? Such an application of these names must necessarily produce the suspicion of some serious mistake; but we cannot assume that it was made wilfully. The cause must be found somewhere. It has already been demonstrated that, in the mythology, Urd, the dis of fate, was also the dis of death and the ruler of the lower world, and that the functions belonging to her in this capacity were, in Christian times, transferred to Loki's daughter, who, together with her functions, usurped her name Hel. Loki's daughter and Hel became to the Christian mythographers identical. An inevitable result was that such expressions as nipt Nara, jódís Narfa, nipt Njörva, had to change meaning. The nipt Njörva, whom the aged Egil saw standing near the grave-mound on Digraness, and whose arrival he awaited "with gladness and goodwill," was no longer the death-dis Urd, but became to the Christian interpreters the abominable daughter of Loki who came to fetch the old heathen. The nipt Nara, whose horse trampled on the battlefield where Erik Blood-axe defeated the Scots, was no longer Urd's sister, the valkyrie Skuld, but became Loki's daughter, although, even according to the Christian mythographers, the latter had nothing to do on a battle-field. The jódís Narfa, who chose King Dyggvi, was confounded with Loka mær, who had him leikinn (see No. 67), but who, according to the heathen conception, was a maidservant of fate, without the right of choosing. To the heathens nipt Nara, nipt Njörva, jódís Narfa, meant "Nari-Mimir's kinswoman Urd". To the mythographers of the thirteenth century it must, for the reason stated, have meant the Loki-daughter as sister of a certain Nari or Narvi. It follows that this Nari or Narvi ought to be a son of Loki, since his sister was Loki's daughter. It was known that Loki, besides Fenrir and the Midgard-serpent, had two other sons, of which the one in the guise of a wolf tore the other into pieces. In Nari, Narvi, the name of one or the names of both these Loki-sons were thought to have been found.

The latter assumption was made by the author of the prose in Lokasenna. He conceived Nari to be the one brother and Narvi the other. The author of Gylfaginning, on the other hand, rightly regarded Nari and Narvi as simply variations of the same name, and accordingly let them designate the same son of Loki. When he wrote chapter 33, he did not know what name to give to the other, and consequently omitted him entirely. But when he got to the 50th chapter, a light had risen for him in regard to the name of the other. And the light doubtless came from the following half strophe in Völuspá: þá kná Vála vígbönd snúa, heldur voru harðgjör höft úr þörmum. This half strophe says that those were strong chains (for Loki) that were made of entrails, and these fetters were "twisted" from "Váli's vígbönd". Víg as a legal term means a murder, slaughter. Vála víg was interpreted as a murder comitted by Vali; and Vála vígbönd as the bonds or fetters obtained by the slaughter committed by Vali. It was known that Loki was chained with the entrails of his son, and here it was thought to appear that this son was slain by a certain Vali. And as he was slain by a brother according to the myth, then Vali must be the brother of the slain son of Loki. Accordingly chapter 50 of Gylfaginning could tell us what chapter 33 did not yet know, namely, that the two sons of Loki were named Vali and Nari or Narvi, and that Vali changed to a wolf, tore the brother "Nari or Narvi" into pieces. The next step was taken by Skáldskaparmál, or more probably by one of the transcribers of Skáldskaparmál. As Vali and Ali in the mythology designated the same person (viz., Baldur's avenger, the son of Odin), the son of Loki, changed into a wolf, "Vali" received as a gift the name "Ali". It is by no means impossible that the transcriber regarded Baldur's avenger, Vali, and the son of Loki as identical. The oldest manuscript we have of Skáldskaparmál is the Upsala Codex, which is no older than the beginning of the fourteenth century. The mythic traditions were then in the continuation of that rapid decay which had begun in the eleventh century, and not long thereafter the Icelandic saga writings saw Valhall peopled by giants and all sorts of monsters, which were called einherjes, and Thor himself transferred to the places of torture where he drank venom from "the auroch's horn," presented to him by the daughter of Loki. In the interpretation of the above-cited half strophe of Völuspá, we must therefore leave out the supposed son of Loki, Vali. The Teutonic mythology, like the other Aryan mythologies, applied many names and epithets to the same person, but it seldom gave two or more persons one and the same name, unless the latter was a patronymic or, in other respects, of a general character. There was not more than one Odin, one Thor, one Njord, one Heimdall, one Loki, and there is no reason for assuming that there was more than one Vali, namely, the divine son of this name. Of Baldur's brother Vali we know that he was born to avenge the slaying of Baldur. His impatience to do that which he was called to perform is expressed in the mythology by the statement, that he liberated himself from the womb of his mother before the usual time (Baldurs bróðir var um borinn snemma - Völuspá 32), and only one night old he went to slay Hodur. The bonds which confine the impatient one in his mother's womb were his vígbönd, the bonds which hindered him from combat, and these bonds were in the most literal sense of the word úr þörmum. As Loki's bonds are made of the same material and destined to hinder

him from combat with the gods until Ragnarok, and as his prison is in the womb of the earth, as Vali's was in that of the earth-goddess Rind's, then Vála vígbönd as a designation of Loki's chains is both logically and poetically a satisfactory paraphrase, and the more in order as it occurs in connection with the description of the impending Ragnarok, when Loki by an earthquake is to sever his fetters and hasten to the conflict.

86. THE TWO GIANT CLANS DESCENDED FROM YMIR. In Hávamál (140, ff.), Odin says that he in his youth obtained nine fimbul-songs and a drink of the precious mead dipped out of Odrerir from Bestla's father, Bölþorn's famous son: Fimbulljóð níu nam eg af inum frægja syni Bölþorns, Bestlu föður, og eg drykk um gat ins dýra mjaðar, ausinn Óðreri. The mythologists have assumed, for reasons that cannot be doubted, that Bolthorn's famous son, Bestla's brother, is identical with Mimir. No one else than he presided at that time over the drink dipped out of Odrerir, the fountain which conceals "wisdom and man's sense," and Sigurdrífumál (13, 14) corroborates that it was from Mimir, and through a drink from "Hoddrofnir's horn," that Odin obtained wonderful runes and "true sayings". Accordingly Mimir had a sister by name Bestla (variations: Beistla, Besla, Bezla). A strophe by Einar Skalaglamm (Skáldskaparmál 9; cp. Gylfaginning 6) informs us that Bestla is Odin's mother. Mimir's disciple, the clan-chieftain of the gods, is accordingly his sister's son. Herein we have one more reason for the faithful friendship which Mimir always showed to Odin. The Mimir epithet Narfi, Narvi, means, as shown above, "the one who binds". His daughter Nott is called draumnjörun, the dream-binder (Alvíssmál 30). His kinswomen, the norns, spin and bind the threads and bonds, which, extended throughout the world, weave together the web of events. Such threads and bonds are called örlögþættir (Helgakviða Hundingsbana i. 3), and Urðar lokur (Gróugaldur 7). As the nearest kinswomen of Bestla all have epithets or tasks which refer to the idea of binding, and when we add to this that Bestla's sons and descendants as gods have the epithet höpt and bönd, her own name might most properly be referred to the old word beizl, beisl (cp. betsel, bridle), which has a similar meaning. As Mimir and Bestla are of giant descent, and in the theogony belong to the same stage of development as Bur (Burr), Odin's father, then, as the mythologists also have assumed, Bölthorn can be none else than Ymir.

the norns. Of Ymir's flesh the earth was created. the heavens from the head of the ice-cold giant. The remedy nearest at hand would have been to have given them mothers of different characters. (2) This primeval being gave rise to other beings of different ranks. the sea from his blood. en úr beinum björg. In regard to the second fundamental idea. Neither Mimir nor Thrudgelmir had a mother. But the mythology did not resort to this expedient. the Rigveda mythology. Bestla. In regard to the former idea we need only to quote what Vafþrúðnismál says in strophe 21: Úr Ymis holdi var jörð um sköpuð. from his head the canopy of heaven. and their rank corresponded with the position of the giant's limbs from which they were created. from that race of deformed beings which bear children in the strangest manner.Vafþrúðnismál 32 . and even larger (lines 1-5). line 12). The gods slew him and created the material world out of his limbs. cp. as a higher race of giants from a lower. to slay him for sacred purposes (1. and this myth is so similar to the Teutonic in regard to Ymir that it must here be considered. and from his feet arose the sudra (the thrall. Both these fundamental ideas reappear in the Teutonic myth concerning Ymir. The hymn informs us in regard to a primeval giant Parusha. 6). has resorted. It is expressly stated that Ymir bore children without the pleasure of woman (gýgjar gaman . The gods resolved to sacrifice him. His mouth became the brahma (the priest). it is evident from the Rigveda account that it is not there found in its oldest form. and Nott thus form a group of kindred beings. the rocks from his bones. which belong to the oldest giant race. after the rise of four castes among the . a noble giant race friendly to the gods and fostering the gods. his arms became the rajanya (the warrior). en úr sveita sjór. and which are represented by the rimthurses Thrudgelmir and Bergelmir and their offspring. that is to say. of Rigveda. from his breath the wind. from his two feet the earth. and from his limbs was created the present world. No. but that. From his navel was made the atmosphere. The two fundamental ideas of the myth concerning Parusha are: (1) There was a primeval being who was not divine. which are hostile to the gods and to the world. The primeval being Parusha was a giant monster as large as the whole world. but still they are most definitely separated from the other descendants of Ymir. from his eye the sun. Under such circumstances there is another expedient to which the sister of the Teutonic mythology.Mimir. It now lies near at hand to inquire whether the mythology which attributed the same father to Mimir and Thrudgelmir was unable to conceive in this connection the idea of a nobler origin for the former than the latter. from his heart the moon. himinn úr hausi ins hrímkalda jötuns. his thighs became the vaisya (the third free caste). &c. 60). and which is explained in the 90th hymn of book x.

whose source no one knows (Hávamál 138). for Nott and niðjar. undir . since the mythology gives them different origins from different limbs of the progenitor. and were in the morning of creation named by the oldest "high holy gods. man's wit and wisdom. and perfectly free from the influence of social ideas. it is clear that the lowest race was conceived as proceeding from the feet of the primeval giant. and most enduring parts of the creation. It has already been shown above (see No. As we learn from Vafþrúðnismál that two giant races proceeded from Ymir. From them proceeded the oldest. and from them come the seasons and the divisions of time. the one from a part of his body which in a symbolic sense is more noble than that from which the other race sprang. spiritual power. fótur við fæti gat ins fróða jötuns sérhöfðaðan son. Among them the world-tree grew up from its roots. Mimir and his clan constitute a group of ancient powers. foot begat with foot the strange-headed son of the wise giant. Mani and Sol. A son and a daughter are said to have grown under the arm of the rime-thurs. it was changed. while "man and maid" were born under the arm of the giant. Yami. For the lower world was put in order and had its sacred fountains and guardians before Bur's sons created Midgard and Asgard. And here. 54) that Jima (Yama) in the Asiatic-Aryan mythology corresponds to Mimir in the Teutonic. 60) was born by them. as in Rigveda. and which confront us in the mythology of our fathers. In perfect harmony with this Gylfaginning narrates: "Under Ymir's left arm grew forth a man and a woman. and his one foot begat with the other a son. that they are giant races. The words in the quoted Vafþrúðnismál strophe. Among them those forces are active which make the starry firmament revolve on its axis. fairest. and that the race born of his feet was the ignoble one hostile to the gods. Thence come (different) races. since they spring from Ymir. for in his fountain inspiration.see No. Far more original. Such a giant clan demands another origin than that of the frost-giants and their offspring. who watch over the fountains of the life of the world and care for the perpetuation of the world-tree. From Mimir comes the first culture. where the 33rd strophe of Vafþrúðnismál testifies concerning its character: Undir hendi vaxa kváðu hrímþursi mey og mög saman. it appears in the Teutonic mythology. This is stated with sufficient distinctness in Vafþrúðnismál. belong to Mimir's clan.Rigveda Aryans." and endowed with the vocation árum að telja (Völuspá)." The different races have this in common. and they can only be Mimir and his sister. The one with whom Jima was born together was a maid. but these giant races must at the same time have been widely different intellectually and physically. Jima is an epithet which means twin. Odin's mother. then the conclusion follows of necessity that "the man and maid" who were born as twins under Ymir's arm became the founders of that noble group of giants who are friendly to the gods. in order to furnish an explanation of the origin of these castes and make them at least as old as the present material world. where we read that a "strangely-headed" monster (Thrudgelmir . and around him as chief stand gathered the artists of antiquity by whose hands all things can be smithied into living and wonderful things. have their source. "The man" and "the maid" must therefore represent a noble race sprung from Ymir.

but as a member of the mythic race of elves which in Völuspá is mentioned in connection with the Asas (hvað er með ásum. a myth disrobes itself of its purely mythical character and becomes a heroic saga. but from dire necessity he had exchanged his home for the distant wilderness of the Wolfdales. In Völundarkviða it is called Wolfdales (Úlfdalir)." confirms this statement. king of Njarar. When Volund for the first time appears by this name in the Elder Edda. 78). Wieland (Volund). Under such circumstances it follows that the other persons appearing in Völundarkviða also were originally mythical characters. but finally alone. hvað er með álfum? . he is sojourning in a distant country. 14). 17). The Old English poem. Seven hundred arm-rings hung in a string in Volund's hall. he and his brothers and their mistresses have played parts of the very greatest importance in the epic of Teutonic mythology. Volund is an elf-prince (álfa vísi. Volund gets his subsistence by hunting on skees. who took his . which the Old Norse literature has preserved for us in Völundarkviða. 14). Thus that fragment of a Volund saga. One of these is called Niðaður (Niðuður). as shall be shown below.hendi hrímþursi vaxa mey og mög saman.Völundarkviða 11. 87. "Deor the Scald's Complaint" says he was an exile (Veland him be vurman vreces cannade). 48). the home of bears and wolves.a sword and an arm-ring. it is there said. shows us that the artist who is the hero of the song was originally conceived not as a son of man. THE IDENTITY OF MIMIR AND NIDHAD OF THE VOLUND SAGA. "the Njara-king" (Völundarkviða 7). and it alone was desired by Niðaður (str. and. to which it is impossible to come without traversing the Myrkwood forest famous in the mythology (see No. The nature of the mythic traditions and songs is not at once obliterated in the time of transition. are evidence that the Germans also considered Mimir and his sister as twins. "was a duke who was banished by two giants. there remain marks of their original nature in some or other of the details as proof of what they have been. when we come to consider the Volund myth exhaustively. "Deor the Scald's Complaint. under the influences of a change of faith. Volund passes the time in smithying. turned into an epic. until he is suddenly attacked by Niðaður (Niðuður). It is a snow-clad country. but this one alone seemed to be worth more than all the rest. Not voluntarily. 9." confirms that this region was regarded as very cold (cp. "Anhang des Heldenbuchs. vintercealde vræce). The condition in which the traditions of the great Volund (Wayland) have come down to our time is one of the many examples illustrating how. Volund stays here many years in company with his two brothers and with three swanmaids. and I am now to investigate who this Niðaður was in the mythology. their mistresses or wives. he had lived with his people a happy life in a land abounding in gold (str. A German saga of the middle ages.str. who puts him in chains and robs him of two extraordinary treasures . 8. álfa ljóði . Before Volund went to the Wolfdales.

Hotherus had to make a journey which reminds us of the adventurous expeditions already described to Gudmund-Mimir's domain. The former is smithied in a winter-cold country beyond Myrkwood. 18) that he had applied his greatest skill in making it hard and keen. In order to get possession of this sword. the songs and sagas were fond of attributing the best and most famous swords wielded by their heroes to the skill of Volund. The Völundarkviða does not have much to say about the reason for his sojourn in the Wolfdales. therefore. The regions which Hotherus has to traverse are pathless. and that he made use of his art to secure instruments for the carrying out of these plans. and the purpose for which it was made. and attended by success in battle (belli fortuna comitaretur). but strophe 28 informs us that. Of the glittering sword of which Niðaður robbed him. according to Saxo. but with this difference. of untold value (ingens præmium). In the myths turned by Saxo into history. and therefore they must be crossed as rapidly as possible with the aid of "yoke-stags". Far down in the middle ages. And as Völundarkviða pictures him as boundlessly and recklessly revengeful. of which he speaks as the worst and the most revenge-demanding which he. the unhappy and revengeful man.a skill famous among all Teutonic tribes . his foes are naturally to be looked for among the more powerful races of gods. which circumstance is sufficiently explained by the fact that. If these powers were Asas or Vans. The sword must. and the only means with which he can hope to cope with them is the possession of this sword. that he does not need to go by sea along the coast of Norway in order to get there. had compelled him to take refuge to the Wolfdales. where the mythic Niðaður suddenly appears. Who those mythic persons are that have so cruelly insulted him and filled his heart with unquenchable thirst for revenge is not mentioned. he brooded on plans of revenge against those who had most deeply insulted him. and with its aid he succeeds in putting Thor himself and other gods to flight. But he has had no opportunity of demanding satisfaction. takes possession of it. when he finally succeeds in getting free from Niðaður's chains. ever experienced. was that Volund with its aid was to conquer the hated powers which. beginning of Book III) got into enmity with the Asa-gods. He also knows where to secure it. there is no room for doubt that. then . a subterranean cave. judging from all circumstances." and "became a smith"." whereupon "he was stricken with poverty. the chief of elves.in the satisfaction which he demands of Niðaður. during the many years he spent in Wolfdales. and "mortals" can scarcely cross its threshold (haud facile mortalibus patere posse). but in the very nature of the case those persons from whose persecutions he has fled must have been mightier than he. previous to his arrival there. Volund says (str. stronger than he. and as he himself is a chief in the godlike clan of elves.land from him. have been one of the most excellent ones mentioned in the songs of Teutonic heathendom.. there has been mentioned a sword of a most remarkable kind. he had suffered an injustice. The sword is kept concealed in a specus. A hero whose name Saxo Latinised into Hotherus (Hist. full of obstacles. and for the greater part continually in the cold embrace of the severest frost. They are traversed by mountain-ridges on which the cold is terrible. The being which is the ward of the sword in this cave is by Saxo called Mimingus. Dan. Hotherus has his home in Sweden. and makes him resort to his extraordinary skill as a smith . The question now is. whether the sword smithied by Volund and the one fetched by Hotherus are identical or not.

This explains why Volund's smithy contains so many rings. Nidad at the same time captured an armring of an extraordinary kind. Mímungur. As we now find such articles as those captured by Nidad reappearing in the hands of a certain Mimingus. The name Nidhad is composed of nid (neuter gender). Niðaður. Niðuður (both variations are found in Völundarkviða). that Nidad expresses his suspicious wonderment (str. in Völundarkviða Bodvild. and had. As already stated. then we might reasonably expect that the precious arm-ring. Herewith we also have his mythical character determined. wanted to indicate what it really amounted to in a contest with Thor and his hammer by letting the sword come into the hands of Hotherus. There are therefore strong reasons for assuming that the sword and the ring. too. on the other hand. the princess of the realm of Urd's fountain and of the whole realm of death. another foe of the Asas. or are in some way connected with each other. we find." In other words. and his daughter is called Beadohild. see Nos. Niðaður. on the one hand. are the same sword and ring as Nidad before took from Volund. and the regions he has to traverse in order to get possession of it refer. although the latter had Thor's hammer and other subterranean weapons at their disposal. If the saga about Volund and his sword was connected with the saga-fragment turned into history by Saxo concerning Hotherus and the sword. has. Hades. to a land similar to that where Niðaður surprises Volund. and takes from him the dangerous sword. that when Hotherus is about to secure the irresistible sword and the wealthproducing ring. it is a smith's work. And we do find it there. "In the arm-ring there dwells a wonderful and mysterious power. Mimingus is a Latinising of Mímingur. where all the . king of the Glittering Fields. 46). son or descendant of Mimir. by their cold and remoteness. forma. 14). having deprived Volund of the opportunity of testing the quality of the weapon himself in conflict with the gods. The mythic records extant speak of the subterranean king Mimir (the middle-age saga's Gudmund. the question arises whether Mimingus is Nidad himself or some one of Nidad's subjects. Nidhad literally means the lower world being. a being. A mythical king. seems to follow from the fact that the one is said to possess what the other is said to have captured. and through Saxo we learn what quality makes this particular arm-ring so precious. The king who in "Deor the Scald's Complaint" fetters Volund bears this name. for that they either are identical. the Hades being. also guards a wonderful arm-ring. which Hotherus takes from Mimingus. and that the saga. Mimingus. species. who is characterised as the being of the lower world. the rival of the ring Draupnir. person. Saxo says: Eidem (Mimingo) quoque armillam esse mira quadam arcanaque virtute possessoris opes augere solitam. must be a subterranean king.it follows that Volund must have thought himself able to give to his sword qualities that could render it dangerous to the world of gods. whose owner he becomes. 45. the lower world. The sword captured by Hotherus is said to possess those very qualities which we might look for in the Volund weapon. that it is a subterranean king who captures Volund's sword and arm-ring. should appear in the latter saga. his counterpart in the Anglo-Saxon Nidhâd. on the other hand. he has to betake himself to the same winter-cold country. Previous investigators have already remarked that Beadohild is a more original form than Bodvild. who rules over the realm of the well of wisdom and has the dis of fate as his kinswoman. which increases the wealth of its possessor. who guards the sword of victory. that Nidad does not seem to care about the other seven hundred which he finds in Volund's workshop. and Nidhad than Niðuður. from which eight similar rings drop every ninth night. While we thus find.

and the paraphrase ring-Regin is well suited to Mimir. and has planned a terrible revenge against them. They are called Njares. the Hvergelmir mountain. Sindri is. Nidad accordingly here appears in Mimir-Njorvi's character as "binder".traditions here discussed (see Nos. And as Volund . 75)." knows nothing. The tradition concerning Nidhad's original identity with Mimir flourished for a long time in the German middle-age sagas. with the following prose addition) makes Nidad's queen command Volund's knee-sinews to be cut. "Deor the Scald's Complaint. Nari. The author of Vilkinasaga. drinking the clear mead from the well of ring-Regin". This also explains why Niðaður in Völundarkviða is called the king of the Njares. who possessed among other treasures the wonderful ring of Hotherus. This poem relates. With this fetter of sinew we must compare the one with which Loki was bound. saw Volund in the German records as a smith in Mimir's employ. but not in reality. Mimir being the one who took possession of the treasure." and that Mimir also among the Norsemen was known by this epithet is plain both from the Sólarljóð and from Völuspá. The only explanation of the word is to be found in the Mimir epithet. Völuspá speaks of Nidi's mountain. seven together. and the above-cited paraphrase for the death-dis. from which the subterranean dragon Nidhogg flies (see No. because they belong to the clan of Njorvi-Nari. it is perfectly natural that his son should be its keeper. Neri.actually regards himself as insulted by the gods. and resemble those örlögþættir which are tied by Mimir's kinswoman Urd. The well of the lower world with the "clear mead" is Mimir's fountain. A people called Njares existed in the mythology. Urd. then it is an enemy of Odin that Nidhad here binds. They are of magic kind. Though Volund is in the highest degree skilful. compiling both from German and from Norse sources. and he smithied Thor's . and from the two synonyms he made two persons. "the kinswoman of the binder (Njorvi) of Odin's foes" (see No. and that tough and elastic one which was made in the lower world and which holds Fenrir bound until Ragnarok. The Norse form of the name most nearly corresponding to the Old English Nidhad is Niði. Völundarkviða (str. and passed thence into the Vilkinasaga. and one that shall be fully proved below . where the banished Volund became Mimir's smith. 45-49) locate the descent to Mimir's realm.a circumstance already made probable. The skald of the Sun-song sees in the lower world "Nidi's sons. 17. and of Nidi's plains where Sindri's race have their golden hall. employed by Egil Skallagrimson. Of such a cruelty the older poem. Njorvi. also becomes applicable here. that Nidad bound Volund with a fetter made from a strong sinew: siþþan hinne Nidhad on nede legde sveoncre seono-bende. "the subterranean. which means "he who binds". on the other hand." must proceed into the bosom of the earth after he has subdued a Mimingus. one of the most celebrated primeval smiths of mythology. and in the Norse sagas he found him as Nidhad's smith. and that he. 85). as we know. he is not able to free himself from these bonds. through an entrance "scarcely approachable for mortals. a son of Mimir. which we discovered in the variations Narvi.

the ancient smiths of Rigveda. and as the helper of Odin. Frey's golden boar. Out of the lower world grows the world-tree. And as Nott's brothers they are enumerated along with her as a stereotyped alliteration. The expressions to create and to beget are very closely related in the mythology. Again. frer-m. the foe of the gods. Finally. which I shall discuss further on." this being said in connection with what it states about Narvi. In the abyss of the lower world and in the sea is ground that mould which makes the fertility of Midgard possible (see No. his sister's son. To the saga in regard to these I shall return in No.. Sólarljóð's skald says that the sons of Nidi. The same is therefore true of the original Teutonic primeval smiths as of the Ribhuians. Dwelling with his kinsmen in Mimir's realm. sel-m. 53). sólm. 46). and Völuspá 6 relates that in the dawn of time the high holy gods (regin) seated themselves on their judgment-seats and gave names to Nott and Nidjar (Nótt og Niðjum). From the standpoint of a nature-symbol the difference in these statements is explained by the fact that the months of the year were counted as twelve. No. whose identity with Mimir has been shown (see No. In the Völuspá dwarf-list we find that the chief of these regin was Modsognir. King Gorm saw in the lower world twelve sons of Gudmund-Mimir. therefore. in the lower world "are smithied" those flowers and those harvests which grow out of this mould. hrút-m. in word and deed. Several of the wonderful things made by these artists. this is in harmony with Mimir's activity throughout the epic of the myths as the friend of the Asa-gods. in a later time Niðar. that they make not only implements and weapons. and is kept continually fresh by the liquids of the sacred fountains. and from their foaming bridles. and Sif's golden locks. Seven is the epic-mythological number of these Niðjar. and Dag. falls on the fields and meadows that honey-dew "which gives harvests to men". Further evidences of Mimir's identity with Nidhad are to be found in the Svipdag myth. ein-m. and collectively they have been called by the plural Niðjar. Modsognir-Mimir created among other "dwarfs" also Nyi and Nidi (Völuspá 11). his sons at least in the sense that they are indebted to him for their origin. all "of noble appearance". which implied an adoption in the name-giver's family or circle of friends. but also grass and herbs. and golden boar.. 94. and from the manes of the subterranean horses. and Odin's spear Gungnir (Gylfaginning). kornskurðar-mánuðr. Nott. it must be pointed out that when Nidhad binds Volund. were "seven together". but in regard to seasons and occupations there were seven divisions: gor-mánuðr.lightning hammer. In Vafþrúðnismál Odin asks the wise giant whether he knows whence Nott and Nidjar (Nótt með Niðum) came.. As sons of Nidi-Mimir the changes of the moon have been called after his name Niði. Niðjar also appears to have had his signification of moon-changes in regard to the changes of months. . These are. The giving of a name was in heathen times a sacred act. 80). whom he saw in the lower world. Vafþrúðnismál states in strophe 25 that "beneficent regin (makers) created Ny and Nid to count times for men. 53). 39) that "wise regin created him" in Vanaheim... Of Njord Vafthrudnir also says (str. he is one of the artists whom the ruler of the lower world kept around him (cp. According to Saxo (see No. as for instance the harvest-god's Skidbladnir. are manifestly symbols of growth or vegetation.

(8) Goðmundr. and also from the many kinds of cypher-runes. (6) Gauta spjalli. according to the statements hitherto made. The oldest powers (ginnregin) and Odin afterwards developed and spread them. Bjórr is a synonym for mead and ale (Alvíssmál 34). 13) says that they dropped out of Hoddrofnir's horn. prepared them for use. was designated. make it evident that a perfect myth had been developed in regard to the origin of the runes and the spreading of runic knowledge. 80) says that Fimbulþulr drew (fáði) the runes. By this we do not mean to deny that there were runes . "the one with whom Gauti (Odin) counsels". Niðungr). which mean the Thinker. and paraphrases with which the king of the lower world. Mime der alte). and were taught by various clan-chiefs to different clans (see No. When Sigurdrífumál (str. the name by which Mimir appears in Christian middle-age sagas of Norse origin. These three names. (3) Niði (Nidhad. (4) Móðsognir. when it states that Fimbulthul carved them. and probably one or two centuries earlier. Mimir. this is. Nari. Völuspá 37 mentions the giant Brimir's "bjór" hall. The names. Mími. the keys of which are to be sought in the common phonetic rune-row. 142. (5) Hoddrofnir. str. presumably "the one bounteous in treasures". the Binder. it is said that Odin. "the mead-drinker". are the following: (1) Mímir (Hodd-mímir. which is in Ókólnir. the Subterranean. The runic inscriptions that have come down to our time bear evidence of a Greek-Roman origin. by selfsacrifice. Nörr. joined with those which mention how the runes given by Mimir were spread over the world. (7) Baugreginn. begot runes out of the deep and fimbul-songs from Bestla's brother. Mímr.88. was the inventor or source of the runes. To these names may still be added: (9) Fimbulþulr. cp. The reference is to . the ward of the fountain of wisdom. Niðuðr.at least. non-phonetic ones before them. in the older sense of the word. that ginn-regin "made" (görðu) them. In the stropbes immediately preceding. A GENERAL REVIEW OF MIMIR'S NAMES AND EPITHETS. Njörvi. are presumably all ancient. figuratively speaking. the same as Hávamál tells. Niðaðr. Ókólnir means "the place where cold is not found". as the possessor of the well of wisdom. The many kinds of magic runes of which our mythic records speak are perhaps reminiscences of them. epithets. (2) Narfi (Narvi. 53). By the side of the golden hall of Sindri. the art of writing was known among the Teutons. Ring-reginn. Neri). "the great teacher" (the lecturer). (10) Brimir. These statements. that is to say. Hávamál (str. At all events we must distinguish the latter from the common runes for writing. At the time of Tacitus. and that Odin (hroptr rögna) carved (reist) them.

mjöðviður. according to Vilkinasaga. 72. 73). We have seen (Nos. Velint in Vilkinasaga). doubtless because it at one time was in Mimir-Nidhad's possession. Thus the latter too contains some of the strength of Mimir's and Urd's fountains (veigar . . passed into the word similar in sound. a sword and a head can. Sigurdrífumál certainly also employs the phrase in its literal sense of a famous mythological sword. for the German saga (Biterolf. possibly also by the former. used with prudence. 157. cp. with helmet on his head. From the stem the mead rises into the foliage of the crown. mjötviður. As a head was once used as a weapon against Heimdall. ch.a giant dwelling in the lower world who presides over mead. with which the world-tree is mentioned in Völuspá 2 and whose origin and meaning have been so much discussed. Tacitus. and hence the same work of art as that which.nay. where the bees extract it. a mead-tree. whence "Brimir's sword" may be the same as "Mimir's head" (see Skáldskaparmál 86. where it is said that "Odin stood on the mountain with Brimir's sword" (Brimis eggjar). the mead-tree. Germania).see Nos. it represents Odin as fully armed. for. The expression "Brimir's sword" is ambiguous. And so it was called by the latter. the tree of fate (from mjöt. These circumstances refer to Mimir. and whose hall is situated in a domain to which cold cannot penetrate.). be employed as paraphrases for each other. is from a mythological standpoint satisfactorily explained if we assume that an older word. clay-Brimir (Fjölsvinnsmál). cp. according to Skáldskaparmál. A. The flowers receive it in their chalices. and thus is produced the earthly honey which man uses. from the streams of whose teats the mead-horns in Asgard are filled for the einherjes. in Vilkinasaga changed to Mimmung). 23) remembers that a sword called by Mimir's name was the same celebrated weapon as that made by Volund (Wieland in Biterolf. Thus the world-tree is among the Teutons. The name mjötviður." in Grímnismál symbolised as Heidrun. when Mimir's head for the first time talked with him. just as the same sword in the German saga has the name Miminc (Biterolf. 176. and the most excellent mythological sword. Skáldskaparmál 15. Gylfaginning 16). in the case in question. So also Sigurdrífumál 14. and that the same liquid is absorbed by the roots of the world-tree. 72. measure. and Gylfaginning 27). and in its trunk is distilled into that sap which gives the tree eternal life. 73) that the mead which was brewed from the three subterranean liquids destroys the effects of death and gives new vitality to the departed. The myth has put this giant in connection with Ymir. who in relative opposition to him is called Leirbrimir. Vilkinasaga. v. and thus it happens that it is able to stimulate the mind and inspire poetry and song . 89. THE MEAD MYTH. From the bridle of Hrimfaxi and from the horses of the valkyries some of the same dew also falls in the valleys of Midgard (see No. as it is among their kinsmen the Iranians (see below). Nidhad captured from him during his stay in Wolfdales. bore Brimir's name. according to an added line in strophe 54 of Grímnismál (Cod. The morning dew which falls from Yggdrasil down into the dales of the lower world contains the same elements. it may suggest excellent expedients in important emergencies (cp. whose leaves nourish the fair giver of "the sparkling drink. and from which he brews his mead (cp. 74).

and is conducted to the golden high-seat. while the mythologists have confined their attention to the later presentation in Bragaræðuur. before it finally. came to Asgard. The statements of the chief source have. Besides these we must imagine that Suttung-Fjalar's own nearest kith and kin are present. the power which gives measure. 78). . Old Saxon metod. which cannot be reconciled with the earlier accounts. precisely the same mead as the pure and undefiled liquid from Mimir's fountain. In 1877 justice was for the first time done to Hávamál in the excellent analysis of the strophes in question made by Prof. lest the investigation should go astray and become entirely abortive. Here we must first examine what the heathen records have preserved in regard to the closing episode in which the conflict was ended in favour of Asgard. The episodes of this conflict concerning the mead will be given as my investigation progresses. whose chief must be Suttung-Fjalar. What the Younger Edda (Bragaræður) tells about it I must for the present leave entirely unnoticed. a question which I shall consider later. Subordinate sources are Grímnismál 50 and Ynglingatal 2 (Ynglingasaga 12). From Hávamál alone we get directly or indirectly the following: The giant Suttung. Who the latter was Hávamál does not state. Odin arrives. fate. From the continuation of the story we learn that the expected guest is the wooer or betrothed of Suttung-Fjalar's daughter. that which Odin in his youth. Gunnlod. It follows of necessity that the guise assumed by Odin. The chief sources are the Hávamál strophes 104-110.cp. and a golden high-seat prepared for him awaits his arrival. The Suttung kin and the rimthurses are accordingly gathered at the banquet on the day in question. nor is it precisely the same as that concerning the possession of which the powers of mythology long contended. and which from a mythological standpoint is worse than worthless. in his "Attempts at explaining the obscure passages not hitherto understood in the poetic Edda". through Odin's adventures at Suttung's. Richerts. He is received as the guest of honour. is purposely ambiguous and contains his name. M. To this must be added half a strophe by Eyvind Skaldaspillir (Skáldskaparmál 9). Guests belonging to the clan of rimthurses are gathered in his halls (Hávamál 110). providence). The Asa-father resolves to capture it by cunning. through self-sacrifice. known as Suttungs synir (Alvíssmál. On that night the wedding of the giant's daughter is to be celebrated. also called Fjalar. has acquired possession of the precious mead for which Odin longs. and the Anglo-Saxon metod. mjötuður in the sense of fate. Skírnismál. as his very name indicates. The sap of the world-tree and the veigar of the horn of the lower world are not. and strophes 13 and 14. when he descends to the mortal foes of the gods and of himself. see No. An honoured guest is expected. been almost wholly unobserved. The mythology speaks of a separate clan entirely distinct from the rimthurses. is that of the expected lover. was permitted to taste. strange to say. unless strophe 110:5. B. There is a feast at Fjalar's. so far as they can be discovered. however. but in disguise. like so many other passages. the giver of measure.

Vel keypts litar hefi eg vel notið: "From the well changed exterior I reaped great advantage". kaupa klæðum við einn means "to change clothes with some one". and in the sagas he has many epithets referring to this quality. through which he must be able to fly.After the adventure has ended happily. which literally means "purchased appearance. It would have been best for the Asa-father if the banquet