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drug addiction is defined as a drug user's compulsive need to use controlled substances in order to function normally. When such substances are unobtainable, the user suffers from substance withdrawal.  impulsion may refer to:
Compulsive behavior, a psychological condition in which a person does a behavior compulsively, having an overwhelming feeling that they must do so Obsessive–compulsive disorder, a mental disorder characterized by intrusive thoughts that produce anxiety and by repetitive behaviors aimed at reducing that anxiety
controlled substance is generally a drug or chemical whose manufacture, possession, or use are regulated by a government. Controlled substances are substances that are the subject of legislative control. This may include illegal drugs and prescription medications (designated Controlled Drug in the United Kingdom). In the U.S., the DEA is responsible for suppressing illegal drug use and distribution by enforcing the Controlled Substances Act. Some precursor chemicals used for the production of illegal drugs are also controlled substances in many countries, even though they may lack the pharmacological effects of the drugs themselves. Substances are classified according to schedules and consist primarily of potentially psychoactive substances. The controlled substances do not include many prescription items such as antibiotics. Some states in the U.S. have statutes against health care providers self-prescribing and/or administering substances listed in the Controlled Substance Act schedules. This does not forbid licensed providers from self-prescribing medications not on the schedules. Withdrawal can refer to any sort of separation, but is most commonly used to describe the group of symptoms that occurs upon the abrupt discontinuation/separation or a decrease in dosage of the intake of medications and recreational drugs (including alcohol). In order to experience the symptoms of withdrawal, one must have first developed a physical/mental dependence (often referred to as chemical dependency). This happens after consuming one or more of these substances for a certain period of time, which is both dose dependent and varies based upon the drug consumed. For example, prolonged use of an anti-depressant is most likely to cause a much different reaction when discontinued than the repeated use of an opioid, such as heroin. In fact, the route of administration, whether intravenous, intramuscular, oral or otherwise, can also play a role in determining the severity of withdrawal symptoms. There are different stages of withdrawal as well. Generally, a person will start to feel worse and worse, hit a plateau, and then the symptoms begin to dissipate. However, withdrawal from certain drugs (benzodiazepines, alcohol) can be fatal and therefore the abrupt discontinuation of any type of drug is not recommended. The term "cold turkey" is used to describe the sudden cessation use of a substance and the ensuing physiologic manifestations. Society and culture Legislation Depending on the jurisdiction, addictive drugs may be legal, legal only as part of a government sponsored study, illegal to use for any purpose, illegal to sell, or even illegal to merely possess. Most countries have legislation which brings various drugs and drug-like substances under the control of licensing systems. Typically this legislation covers any or all of the opiates, amphetamines, cannabinoids, cocaine, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, anesthetics, hallucinogenics, derivatives and a variety of more modern synthetic drugs. Unlicensed production, supply or possession is a criminal offence. Usually, however, drug classification under such legislation is not related simply to addictiveness. The substances covered often have very different addictive properties. Some are highly prone to cause physical dependency, while others rarely cause any form of compulsive need whatsoever. Also, under legislation specifically about drugs, alcohol, caffeine and nicotine are not usually included. Although the legislation may be justifiable on moral or public health grounds, it can make addiction or dependency a much more serious issue for the individual: reliable supplies of a drug become difficult to secure, and the individual becomes vulnerable to both criminal abuse and legal punishment. It is unclear whether laws against illegal drug use do anything to stem usage and dependency. In jurisdictions where addictive drugs are illegal, they are generally supplied by drug dealers, who are often involved with organized crime. Even though the cost of producing most illegal addictive substances is very low, their illegality combined with the addict's need permits the seller to command a premium price, often hundreds of times the production cost. As a result, addicts sometimes turn to crime to support their habit. Anti-addictive drugs Other forms of treatment include replacement drugs such as suboxone/subutex (both containing the active ingredient buprenorphine),and methadone, are all used as substitutes for illicit opiate drugs. Although these drugs perpetuate physical dependence, the goal of opiate maintenance is to provide a clinically supervised, stable dose of a particular opioid in order to provide a measure of control to both pain and cravings. This provides a chance for the addict to function normally and to reduce the negative consequences associated with obtaining sufficient quantities of controlled substances illicitly, by both reducing opioid cravings and withdrawal symptomology. Once a prescribed dosage is stabilized, treatment enters maintenance or tapering phases. In the United States, opiate replacement therapy is tightly regulated in methadone clinics and under the DATA 2000
legislation. In some countries, other opioid derivatives such as levomethadyl acetate, dihydrocodeine, dihydroetorphine and even heroin are used as substitute drugs for illegal street opiates, with different drugs being used depending on the needs of the individual patient. Baclofen has been shown successful in attenuating cravings for most drugs of abuse - stimulants, ethanol, and opioids - and also attenuates the actual withdrawal syndrome of ethanol. Many patients have stated they "became indifferent to alcohol" or "indifferent to cocaine" overnight after starting baclofen therapy. It is possible that one of the best, albeit relatively unexplored, treatment modalities for opioid addiction - notoriously the most difficult addiction to treat (and to recover from), having relapse rates of around 60% at four weeks and 97% at twelve months if not on maintenance therapy with a mu-opioid agonist - would be to combine an opioid maintenance agent, such as methadone or buprenorphine, to block withdrawal symptomology, with baclofen, to attenuate cravings and the desire to use, in people who find that they are still using or still craving drugs while on methadone or buprenorphine maintenance. Substitute drugs for other forms of drug dependence have historically been less successful than opioid substitute treatment, but some limited success has been seen with drugs such as dextroamphetamine to treat stimulant addiction, and clomethiazole to treat alcohol addiction. Bromocriptine and desipramine have been reported to be effective for treatment of cocaine but not amphetamine addiction. Other pharmacological treatments for alcohol addiction include drugs like naltrexone, disulfiram, acamprosate and topiramate, but rather than substituting for alcohol, these drugs are intended to reduce the desire to drink, either by directly reducing cravings as with acamprosate and topiramate, or by producing unpleasant effects when alcohol is consumed, as with disulfiram. These drugs can be effective if treatment is maintained, but compliance can be an issue as alcoholic patients often forget to take their medication, or discontinue use because of excessive side effects. Additional drugs acting on glutamate neurotransmission such as modafinil, lamotrigine, gabapentin and memantine have also been proposed for use in treating addiction to alcohol and other drugs. Opioid antagonists such as naltrexone and nalmefene have also been used successfully in the treatment of alcohol addiction, which is often particularly challenging to treat. Some have also attempted to use these drugs for maintenance treatment of former opiate addicts with little success. They cannot be started until the patient has been abstinent for an extended period - unlikely with opioid addicts who are not on maintenance with a full or partial mu-opioid agonist - or they will trigger acute opioid withdrawal symptoms. No study has found them to be efficacious treatments in preventing relapse. They do nothing to block craving, and block endorphin and enkephalin, two natural neurotransmitters that regulate one's sense of well-being. An addict must discontinue the drug for just eighteen hours in order to use again. Treatment of stimulant addiction can often be difficult, with substitute drugs often being ineffective, although newer drugs such as nocaine, vanoxerine and modafinil may have more promise in this area, as well as the GABAB agonist baclofen. Another strategy that has recently been successfully trialled used a combination of the benzodiazepine antagonist flumazenil with hydroxyzine and gabapentin for the treatment of methamphetamine addiction. Another area in which drug treatment has been widely used is in the treatment of nicotine addiction. Various drugs have been used for this purpose such as bupropion, mecamylamine and the more recently developed varenicline. The cannaboinoid antagonist rimonabant has also been trialled for treatment of nicotine addiction but has not been widely adopted for this purpose. Ibogaine is a hallucinogen (psychotomimetic) that some claim interrupts addiction and reduces or eliminates withdrawal syndromes, specifically in regards to opioids. Its mechanism of action is unknown, but likely linked to nAchR α3ß4 antagonism. In one animal trial, it was shown to slightly reduce self-administration of cocaine. Another uncontrolled trial showed it reduced tremor by a mild to moderate degree during morphine withdrawal in rats. These finding can not be extrapolated to human beings with any certainty. Research is complicated by the fact that ibogaine is illegal in many developed countries, and a Schedule I substance in the US, and as a result no controlled human trials have ever been performed. A semi-synthetic analogue of ibogaine, 18-methoxycoronaridine was developed, in an attempt to reduce the toxic (ibogaine is significantly cardiotoxic, and several deaths have been reported from its use; because of its illegal, underground nature, it is impossible to know how toxic the drug i Drug addiction is a state of periodic or chronic intoxication produced by the repeated consumption of a drug (natural or synthetic). Its characteristics include: (i) an overpowering desire or need (compulsion) to continue taking the drug and to obtain it by any means; (ii) a tendency to increase the dose; (iii) a psychic (psychological) and generally a physical dependence on the effects of the drug; and (iv) detrimental effects on the individual and on society. Drug habituation (habit) is a condition resulting from the repeated consumption of a drug. Its characteristics include (i) a desire (but not a compulsion) to continue taking the drug for the sense of improved well-being which it engenders; (ii) little or no tendency to increase the dose; (iii) some degree of psychic dependence on the effect of the drug, but absence of physical dependence and hence of an abstinence syndrome [withdrawal], and (iv) detrimental effects, if any, primarily on the individual. Self-medication hypotheses Espoused by both psychoanalysts and biological researchers, self-medication hypotheses predict that certain individuals abuse drugs in an attempt to self-medicate their unique and seemingly intolerable states of mind. The self-medication theory has a long history. Freud in 1884, first raised this concept in noting the anti-depressing properties of cocaine. Stress has long been recognized as a major contributor for drug cravings and relapse and is therefore supportive of the self-medication theory. In line with this theory, a person's use of a particular drug of choice is not an accident, but rather it is chosen for its pharmacological effect in relieving stressful symptoms or unwanted feelings. Research has shown that people who survive disasters are prone to stress-related disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. People who experience major trauma in their life may self-medicate with alcohol or other drugs to relieve the symptoms of PTSD and depression. Social development Social development and adjustment factors also play a role in drug abuse and addiction. An assumption of the developmental perspective, as mentioned by Thornberry 1987, is that the course of one's life is a process in which life circumstances change, milestones are met or missed and new social roles
are created while old ones are abandoned. There are well known and widely accepted norms about when certain developmental events should happen in a person's life. Studies of the social factors involved in drug use have mostly focused either on adolescence or young adulthood, but surprisingly a significant amount of cocaine users may not initiate use until middle adulthood. The majority of people enter into adult social roles on schedule. However, some people enter these roles earlier or later than their same-age peers. The developmental perspective predicts that this will lead to less than satisfactory adjustment and possibly negative consequences including drug and alcohol dependence Acute effects Acute (or recreational) use of most psychoactive drugs causes the release and prolonged action of dopamine and serotonin within the reward circuit. Different types of drugs produce these effects by different methods. Dopamine (DA) appears to harbor the largest effect and its action is characterized. DA binds to the D1 receptor, triggering a signaling cascade within the cell. cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) phosphorylates cAMP response element binding protein (CREB), a transcription factor, which induces the transcription of certain genes including C-Fos. Role of dopamine Nearly all addictive drugs, directly or indirectly, act upon the brain’s reward system by flooding the circuit with dopamine. As a person continues to overstimulate the “reward circuit”, the brain adapts to the overwhelming surges in dopamine by producing less of the hormones or by reducing the number of receptors in the reward circuit. As a result, the chemical’s impact on the reward circuit is lessened, reducing the drug-abuser’s ability to enjoy the things that previously brought pleasure. This decrease compels those addicted to the dopaminergenic-effect of the drug, to increase the drug consumption in order to re-create the earlier or initial experiences and to bring their "feel-good" hormone level back to normal —an effect known as tolerance. Development of dopamine tolerance can eventually lead to profound changes in neurons and brain circuits, with the potential to severely compromise the long-term health and functioning of a person's brain. Modern antipsychotics are designed to block dopamine function. Unfortunately, this blocking can also cause relapses into depression, and increases in addictive behaviors. Individual mechanisms of effect The basic mechanisms by which different substances activate the reward system are as described above, but vary slightly among drug classes. Depressants Depressants such as alcohol, barbiturates, and benzodiazepines work by increasing the affinity of the GABA receptor for its ligand; GABA. Narcotics such as morphine and heroin work by mimicking endorphins—chemicals produced naturally by the body which have effects similar to dopamine—or by disabling the neurons that normally inhibit the release of dopamine in the reward system. These substances (sometimes called "downers") typically facilitate relaxation and pain relief. Stimulants Stimulants such as amphetamines, nicotine, and cocaine increase dopamine signaling in the reward system either by directly stimulating its release, or by blocking its absorption (see "Reuptake"). These substances (sometimes called "uppers") typically cause heightened alertness and energy. They cause a pleasant feeling in the body and euphoria, known as a high. Once this high wears off, the user may feel depressed. This makes them want another dose of the drug, and can worsen the addiction. Alternative therapies Alternative therapies, such as acupuncture, are used by some practitioners to alleviate the symptoms of drug addiction. In 1997, the American Medical Association (AMA) adopted as policy the following statement after a report on a number of alternative therapies including acupuncture: There is little evidence to confirm the safety or efficacy of most alternative therapies. Much of the information currently known about these therapies makes it clear that many have not been shown to be efficacious. Well-designed, stringently controlled research should be done to evaluate the efficacy of alternative therapies. Acupuncture has been shown to be no more effective than control treatments in the treatment of opiate dependence. Acupuncture, acupressure, laser therapy and electrostimulation have no demonstrated efficacy for smoking cessation.
Online Websites: Online websites have been a great resource to aid in helping people to overcome their addictions. These websites act as ways for struggling addicts, family members of addicts, and people who are in the recovery stage to confide in each other (anonymously if they so choose). They provide an alternative way for these people to seek help, support and information. Sites typically include chat rooms,forums and blogs for members to interact. History (from Greek ἱ στορία - historia, meaning "inquiry, knowledge acquired by investigation") is the discovery, collection, organization, and presentation of information about past events. History can also mean the period of time after writing was invented. Scholars who write about history are called historians. It is a field of research which uses a narrative to examine and analyse the sequence of events, and it sometimes attempts to investigate objectively the patterns of cause and effect that determine events. Historians debate the nature of history and its usefulness. This includes discussing the study of the discipline as an end in itself and as a way of providing "perspective" on the problems of the present. The stories common to a particular culture, but not supported by external sources (such as the legends surrounding King Arthur) are usually classified as cultural heritage rather than the "disinterested investigation" needed by the discipline of history. Events of the past prior to written record are considered prehistory.
Amongst scholars, the 5th-century BC Greek historian Herodotus is considered to be the "father of history", and, along with his contemporary Thucydides, forms the foundations for the modern study of history. Their influence, along with other historical traditions in other parts of their world, have spawned many different interpretations of the nature of history which has evolved over the centuries and are continuing to change. The modern study of history has many different fields including those that focus on certain regions and those which focus on certain topical or thematical elements of historical investigation. Often history is taught as part of primary and secondary education, and the academic study of history is a major discipline in University studies. Preventive measures of drug addiction Scour Your Family History To begin on a path toward preventing drug addiction, you may first need to look at your family’s history of addiction. Although addiction can happen to anyone, some families are more apt to become addicted to substances and activities than others. Genetics and brain chemistry could be to blame, so if your grandfather was addicted to cigarettes and gambling, you are probably much more likely to exhibit an addictive personality as well. Unfortunately, the very genetic makeup that grandpa passed down to you could make it easier to become addicted to any substance or activity. For example, even though your grandfather’s addiction was tobacco, you could become addicted to an illegal drug easier than someone whose family does not possess an addictive genetic makeup. Fortunately, though, if you are aware of your familial addictive tendencies, you can take steps to better avoid drugs. These can include hanging out with friends who don’t use, avoiding parties where drugs may be involved, and being prepared to turn down an offered drug. Abstaining from drugs entirely can be one of the best ways to avoid becoming addicted. For more information about abstaining, you may wish to contact an addiction treatment recovery center in your area. Deal with Pressure Another area to watch in your quest to prevent an addiction to drugs is life pressures. When life gets rough, it can become easier to desire pills or drugs to ease the pain, especially if you have an addictive personality. In this case, you may wish to seek other activities that can help relieve pressure, like yoga, meditation, exercise or therapy. In fact, even if you are battling the choice to become addicted, addiction treatment at a recovery center, like Vista Taos in New Mexico, could help you arm yourself with alternate ways to battle life’s pressures. At an addiction treatment recovery center, the staff could guide you to the best methods for addiction resistance for your particular scenario, thereby arming you personally with the tools necessary for continuing a drug-free life. Balance Your Life In a similar line of thought to dealing with pressure, finding life balance can help you resist an addictive lifestyle. Sometimes life pressures present themselves all at once, like above, but other times, life’s pressures build over time. If you are not balancing these pressures on a daily basis, they can snowball to become one huge issue. And when this happens, it is much more difficult to resist the call to drugs. To balance your life, you may need to take up yoga, meditation, exercise or therapy, like above. However, other methods to combat imbalance can be taken. You might need some time to yourself, so finding a friend or family member to take the kids for a few hours could help. Maybe you need help at work; talking over pressures at work with your boss can help you feel more in control. No matter what pressures in life you are facing, there may be a perfect solution; if you have trouble finding this solution on your own, seeking help through an addiction treatment recovery center may set you on the right path. Seek Help for a Mental Illness Those who face mental illness may have more trouble resisting addiction to drugs, so if you suspect mental illness may play a part in your life, seeking help could set you on a path to both a happier life and a better ability to resist drugs. Counselors can help pinpoint your specific mental illness in a caring environment, without judgment; mental illness is nothing to be ashamed of, and tackling the issues may lead to a higher quality of life, without dependence on illegal substances. Addiction to drugs can happen to anyone; however, there are many contributing factors that may make addiction more likely. Family genes, life pressures, an unbalanced life, and mental illness can all contribute to drug addiction. Thankfully, watching for these four triggers can help you be more aware of the influence they may play in your life. If you are having trouble resisting the call to drugs for any of these reasons, you may benefit from preventative addiction treatment at a recovery center. Case study
Elizabeth was just 13 years old when she had her first drink - this is a story of her descent into drug addiction. After that first drink, she found she liked the way it made her feel, so she had a couple of more. Before long, she experienced her first time being drunk, and the door had opened. This story of drug addiction usually paints a very similar picture from addict to addict. They share many aspects of their stories and they often share tragic endings. Elizabeth soon progressed to smoking pot after school, and before long she was using it every day often smoking before school as
well. She found it difficult to find enough money to buy her marijuana, so she began taking money from her mother's purse when she wasn't looking. It made her feel horrible, so she smoked the pot to help her cope with her guilt. Drug addiction is no laughing matter. This isn't a comedy; it's more of a dramatic story about losing control once and not being able to regain it back. When Elizabeth was 17, a friend offered her some methamphetamine. By this time, she was known as a party girl and wasn't about to tarnish that image. She snorted the white powder and was transformed. She became more than the life of the party; she became THE party. People wanted to be around her because she was so much fun. She couldn't believe it took her so long to find this amazing high. Have you ever had someone tell you a story you just couldn't believe? Well when you hear a story about drug addiction, it's all too true and all too believable. It happens every day. At 19, Elizabeth had a baby. She wasn't sure who the father was, and the baby was born addicted to crack. The doctors knew this and her son was taken from her before she was even released from the hospital. Despondent over this loss, when she did leave, she immediately sought out her dealer and got high. The story of drug addiction is painful to read and painful to tell. For those people who are affected by drug addiction, it's almost excruciating. Twenty-one year old Elizabeth was arrested for possession of drugs for the third time in one month. She is put in jail to await trial. The judge orders her into a rehabilitation facility. She attends for the required treatment time and, once home, uses drugs after just two days. At 22, her parents are planning her funeral. She was found in her basement dead from a drug overdose. The story of drug addiction is often bleak and depressing. The tale is told over and over again all over the world. It's sad because it's preventable. Don't let you or a loved one be another tragic story of drug addiction.
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