Table of Contents
History of Communications
INTRODUCTION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 MAN’S NEED TO COMMUNICATE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

Chapter 1 Cable Installation Safety
OBJECTIVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 INTRODUCTION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 PROTECTIVE GEAR. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Eye Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Head Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Maintenance of Your Hard Hat and Suspensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Hand Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Synthetics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Cottons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Strings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Leather . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Foot Protection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Breathing Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Hearing Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Earplugs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Earmuffs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Ergonomic Safety Devices. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 THE WORKING ENVIRONMENT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Designating the Work Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Emergency Planning and Training. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Ladder Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Scaffolding Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Hand Tool and Power Tool Safety. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Lifting and Handling Safety. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Low-Voltage Wiring Safety. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 EMERGENCY RESPONSE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Introduction to First Aid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Calling “911” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Medical Alert Identification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 DR. ABC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 First Aid Hygiene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Basic Human Anatomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 The Nervous System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 The Cardiovascular System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 The Respiratory System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 The Musculoskeletal System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Basic First Aid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Primary Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

xi

Secondary Examination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Expired Air Resuscitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Trauma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wound Care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bleeding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Puncture Wounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Amputation (Avulsion) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Shock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Burns and Scalds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electrical Shock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Residential Voltage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . High Voltage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fractures (Broken Bone) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Heat Exhaustion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Head Injuries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Eye Injuries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Minor Eye Injuries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Major Eye Injuries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Welder’s Flash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER SUMMARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REVIEW QUESTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

33 34 35 38 39 39 39 40 40 41 41 41 42 42 43 43 44 44 45 45 45 46

Chapter 2 Basic Standards and Practices
OBJECTIVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INTRODUCTION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EVOLUTION OF CABLING STANDARDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THE STRUCTURED WIRING STANDARDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BASIC TELCO OPERATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Voice vs. Data Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Voice Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Data Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Binary Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Square Waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TELEPHONE WIRE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Twisted Pair Cable. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Shielded Twisted Pair vs. Unshielded Twisted Pair. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Color Coding. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Twisted Pair Connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ALTERNATIVE CABLING. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Coaxial Cable. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thicknet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Thinnet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fiber Optic Cable. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Procedure 1– Cable Identification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Procedure 1 Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TOPOLOGIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BASIC INSTALLATION PRACTICES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Procedure 2 – Cable Examinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Procedure 2 Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Termination Methods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Basic Hand Tools. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Punch-down Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 49 49 50 52 53 53 54 55 56 58 59 60 61 62 63 63 64 66 67 68 71 71 73 75 80 80 82 82

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Electricians’ Scissors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 Diagonal Cutting Pliers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 Screwdrivers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 Wire Strippers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 Tone Generators and Signal Probes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 MODAPTâ Modular Adapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Modular Crimpers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Procedure 3 – Tool Identification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 Procedure 3 Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 Modular Plugs and Jacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 RJ-11 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 RJ-14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 Telco 8P8C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 T568A and T568B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 Commercial Telecommunication Outlets. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 Installation Tips for Modular Cables and Jacks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 Quality Installations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 Procedure 4 – Terminating CAT5/5e with RJ-45/T568A Jacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 Procedure 4 Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 Procedure 5 – Terminating CAT5/5e with RJ-45/T568B Jacks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 Procedure 5 Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 Procedure 6 – Terminating CAT5/5e with RJ-45/T568A Plugs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 Procedure 6 Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 Procedure 7 – Terminating CAT5/5e with RJ-45/T568B Plugs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 Procedure 7 Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 CHAPTER SUMMARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 REVIEW QUESTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111

Chapter 3 Facilities Issues
OBJECTIVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INTRODUCTION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ENTRANCE FACILITIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Telecommunications Closets and Equipment Rooms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Telecommunications Closets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Telecommunications Closet Sizing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Equipment Rooms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Equipment Room and Entrance Facility Sizing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GROUNDING AND BONDING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Grounding Classifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bonding Connection Preparation and Cleaning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Telecommunications Grounding System Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TIA/EIA 607 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . National Electric Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Telecommunications Main Grounding Busbar. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Telecommunications Grounding Busbar and the Telecommunications Bonding Backbone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Telecommunications Equipment Bonding Conductor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Metal Bonding Straps. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Primary Protector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Termination of Cable Shields. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ground Loops. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RETROFITTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Current Cable Runs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Planning Retrofit Installations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 115 115 119 120 120 121 121 122 124 125 125 126 127 127 128 128 129 129 130 130 131 131 133

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FIRESTOPPING INSTALLATION AND CODES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Firestopping Tips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Major Codes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Surface Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Factors that Influence Firestop Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Firestopping Installation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MSDS Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Telecommunications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Forms of Firestopping Material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Penetrating Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Firestop Pillows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Performance and Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Installation and Maintenance of Pillows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Firestop Collars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Firestop Wrap Strips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Specifications and Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fire Tests of Through-Penetration Firestops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fire Ratings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER SUMMARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REVIEW QUESTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

138 139 140 141 141 141 142 142 143 144 145 145 146 146 147 147 148 148 149 150

Chapter 4 Cable Ratings and Performance
OBJECTIVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INTRODUCTION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LEVEL RATING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Level 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Level 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CATEGORY RATING SYSTEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CAT3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CAT4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CAT5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CAT5e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CAT6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Proposed Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CAT6e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CAT7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DOMESTIC AND INTERNATIONAL WIRING STANDARDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PERFORMANCE CRITERIA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Attenuation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Near-End Crosstalk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Far-End Crosstalk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reflections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NETWORKING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Network Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ethernet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Token Ring. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Token Ring Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Token Ring Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Token Ring Design and Topology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150-Ohm STP Wiring Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100baseT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100baseT4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100baseTX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 153 153 154 154 155 156 156 156 157 157 158 158 158 159 160 160 161 162 162 163 164 164 165 166 166 167 168 168 169 170

xiv

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Horizontal Topology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vertical Crossconnects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ATM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100-OHM UTP REQUIREMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Horizontal Cabling Key Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Procedure 8 – Placing a BNC Connector on a Coaxial Cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TIA/EIA T568A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Procedure 10 Questions . . . . . . . . HORIZONTAL CABLING. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vertical Jumpers and Patch Cords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . COMMERCIAL BUILDING COMPLIANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TP-PMD. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1000baseT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Procedure 9 – Installing F Connectors on a Coaxial Cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gigabit Ethernet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vertical Cabling Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Horizontal Crossconnect Distances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100-Ohm UTP Cable Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Procedure 9 Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Patch Cord Differentiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100baseFX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Coaxial Cable. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BACKBONE CABLING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Horizontal Jumpers and Patch Cords . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER SUMMARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . Patch Cord Standard. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Work Area Cabling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Icons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Procedure 11 – Installing a Thicknet Tap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Strain-Relief Boots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vertical Crossconnect Distances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Procedure 11 Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Various Colors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Procedure 8 Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Procedure 13 Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Procedure 10 – Installing N Connectors on a Coaxial Cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 171 173 174 175 176 183 184 188 188 192 192 194 195 195 196 Chapter 5 Cable Installation and Management OBJECTIVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Structured Cabling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INTRODUCTION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Procedure 13 – Assembling Edge-Connector Modular Outlets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vertical Topology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REVIEW QUESTIONS . . . Procedure 12 Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100-Ohm UTP Work Area Outlet Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198 199 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 205 207 209 210 213 213 214 214 215 216 217 217 218 219 220 221 221 222 222 223 223 223 224 224 225 225 xv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Patch Cord Problems . . . . . . . Horizontal Crossconnects . . . Procedure 12 – Installing a Punch-down Modular Outlet . . . . . . . . . . . . Vertical Cabling Key Points . . . . . . . . . Horizontal Cabling Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100-Ohm UTP Patch Cords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100-Ohm UTP Work Area Outlets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150-Ohm STP Patch and Equipment Cords. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150-OHM STP REQUIREMENTS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150-Ohm Crossconnect Panels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Basic Link Test Configuration. . . . . . . . . . Procedure 16 – Setting Up Level II Testers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150-Ohm STP Closet and Connecting Hardware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . High-End Testers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Quality Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Testing the Basic Link and Channel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Procedure 14 – Installing and Testing a DB15 Connector. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INTRODUCTION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cable Test with RJ-45/T568A Jack Terminations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . User-Friendliness . Cable Test with Jack/Wall Plate Combination . . . . . . Required Field Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Procedure 14 Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Cost. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . COMMERCIAL BUILDING—CAT5 INSTALLATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Quality Workmanship and Components . . . . . . . . . . . . Cable Test with RG-8 Terminated with N Connectors . . CABLING MANAGEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Procedure 15 – Calibrating and Self-Testing Level II Testers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Low-End Testers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General Rules for Installation of 150-Ohm STP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244 245 245 245 245 246 246 247 247 248 250 250 251 252 252 252 253 254 259 260 265 265 266 275 275 276 277 278 278 281 284 284 285 286 288 xvi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Test Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Procedure 17 – Autotesting Patch Cables on Level II Testers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225 225 226 226 235 235 236 237 237 238 238 240 241 Chapter 6 Testing and Troubleshooting OBJECTIVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Basic Link . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER SUMMARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cable Test with Jack/Edge-Connector Combination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Procedure 15 Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Installer and End-User Benefits . . . . . . . . . . . Cable Test with RJ-45/T568A Plug Terminations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cable Test with RJ-45/T568B Plug Terminations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REVIEW QUESTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Channel vs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REVIEW QUESTIONS . . . . . . . . . Delay Skew . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cable Test with RJ-45/T568B Jack Terminations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maximum Cable Lengths for Horizontal Cable. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER SUMMARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Skew Compensation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Labeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Procedure 17 Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cable Test with RG-58 Terminated with BNCs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Channel Test Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Simple Rules for Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Procedure 16 Questions . . . . . . . . . Skew Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER SUMMARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Practical Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Workplace Strategy . . . . 320 321 322 322 323 324 324 324 325 325 325 326 326 327 327 327 328 xvii . . . . . . . . 570A Structured Wiring Outlets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MUTOA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Straight Conduit Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REVIEW QUESTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ANSI/TIA/EIA T568B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Equations for Pulling Success . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ANSI/TIA/EIA 570B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tension Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NEC Article 250 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Multicable Jamming. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Three-Cable Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Churn and Flexibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CABLE IN CONDUIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FCC Part 68 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INTRODUCTION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NEC Article 800 . . . . . . . . . . . . TSB 75 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ANSI/TIA/EIA 607 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ANSI/TIA/EIA 606 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Blowing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Coefficient of Friction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TSB 75 Provisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ANSI/TIA/EIA 570A . . . . . . . Frictional Force . . and 40A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pulling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MUTOA and CP Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ANSI/TIA/EIA 568 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bent Conduit Equation . . . . . TSB 67 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . STANDARDS AND BULLETINS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ANSI/TIA/EIA T568A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pulling Experimentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290 291 291 292 292 293 294 296 297 298 299 299 300 302 302 303 305 305 306 306 307 310 312 312 313 313 313 314 315 316 317 Chapter 8 Pulling Cable OBJECTIVES . . . . . Other COF Issues . . . . . . . . TSB 36. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TENSION AND JAMMING. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ANSI/TIA/EIA 569 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TSB 53 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ANSI/TIA/EIA 570 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Consolidation Point (CP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NEC Article 770 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INTRODUCTION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Next Steps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Chapter 7 Industry Standards OBJECTIVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Calculating Jam Ratios. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Procedure 22 – Altering and Testing Block Terminations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LUBRICANT TECHNOLOGY . . . . . . . . . . . . . MODULATION METHODS . . Configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Current Directions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lubricant Evaluations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Intersymbol Interference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Atmospheric Noise. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Procedure 19 – Terminating CAT5/5e to a 110-Type Block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Impulse Noise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF CABLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Procedure 18 Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DATA TRANSMISSION . . . . . . . CHAPTER SUMMARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LOCAL EXCHANGE LOOPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384 385 386 387 387 389 391 392 392 394 396 398 398 399 399 400 401 401 402 402 403 403 406 410 410 411 412 412 xviii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Frequency Noise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lubricants with Rollers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Procedure 21 Questions . . . . . Example 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Crosstalk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NOISE AND DISTORTION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Procedure 23 Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tone Dialing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Distributed Reactance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Silicone-Based Lubricant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Procedure 19 Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Phase Modulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Procedure 18 – Pulling UTP Cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Amplitude Modulation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Frequency Modulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INTRODUCTION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . THE TELEPHONE SET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Decibels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cable Weight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Example 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328 329 329 330 339 340 340 340 341 342 342 343 351 352 358 359 364 364 368 369 380 380 382 Chapter 9 The Telephone System OBJECTIVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Procedure 20 Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Procedure 23 – Differentiating Between T568A and T568B . . . . . Dual-Tone Multi-Frequency. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REVIEW QUESTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PULSE AND TONE DIALING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Procedure 22 Questions . . . . . . . . Noise Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tensions with/without Lubrication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Equalization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Procedure 21 – Testing CAT5/5e Terminations Between Blocks . . . . . . . . . .Testing Cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pulse Dialing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Procedure 20 – Terminating CAT5/5e to a 66 M1-50 Block. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Network Hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Frequency-Division Multiplexing (FDM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .BORSCHT FUNCTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Procedure 24 – Measuring Data Throughput of the Local Subscriber Loop . . . . . . . Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Analog Hierarchy. . . . . . . . . . . SONET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T-Carrier Multiplexing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Preliminary Drawings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T-Carrier Frame Format . . . . . . . . . Ring Trip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Battery . . . Space-Division Multiplexing (SDM). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pulse Duration Modulation . . . . . . . . . . VOICE-CHANNEL CHARACTERISTICS . . . . . . Overvoltage Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414 414 414 415 415 416 417 417 418 419 420 421 421 421 422 423 426 427 428 430 433 434 434 436 437 440 443 447 447 449 451 455 456 457 459 459 460 461 464 465 Chapter 10 Understanding Blueprints OBJECTIVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Network Elements and Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Title Block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PUBLIC INTERCONNECT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Delta Modulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Hybrid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Working Drawings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pulse Amplitude Modulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Analog Pulse Modulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Digital Pulse Modulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Digital T-Carrier Hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Registration Stamp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Procedure 24 Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Attenuation and Delay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Conditioned Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REVIEW QUESTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Statistical Time-Division Multiplexing (STDM). . DRAWING STAGES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . T-Carrier Signals and Connectors . Revisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Schematic Drawings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SONET Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Getting a T1 Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Coding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER SUMMARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MULTIPLEXING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pulse-Code Modulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Supervision . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Frame Format. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 468 469 470 470 470 470 471 472 472 473 473 xix . LONG-DISTANCE CARRIER SYSTEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Time-Division Multiplexing (TDM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cover Sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PULSE MODULATION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . INTRODUCTION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Drawing Scale . . . . . . REVIEW QUESTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER SUMMARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 475 475 475 476 477 477 477 478 478 479 479 480 483 486 486 487 Appendix A Customer Satisfaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electrical Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Building Material Symbols. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 527 Appendix D Acronyms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Plumbing Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 501 Appendix C Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Procedure 25 – Identifying Blueprint Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 489 Appendix B Manufacturer Instruction Sheets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Architectural Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Specifications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Climate-Control Symbols . . . . . . 533 xx . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ABBREVIATIONS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Architect’s Scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 531 Index . . . . . . . . Procedure 25 Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Topographic Symbols . . . . . . . . Engineer’s Scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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OBJECTIVES U pon completion of this chapter and its related hands-on procedures. 198 CHAPTER 5 . 3. 5. List different types of backbone cable systems. Describe procedures associated with proper cable management. Describe a crossconnect panel. Describe backbone cabling. you will be able to: 1. Define horizontal cabling. 2. and describe their attributes. 4.

and the bottom line is vitally dependent on the quick and reliable transfer of all forms of information. whether they are single units or many interconnected structures. This is probably because the data communications industry itself is a commercial entity. This situation allows the customer to be confident that the job is going to be done correctly. When you are involved with the cabling installation for commercial buildings. For work in the United States. and for European work sites. the cabling requirements for private homes may someday rival those already being standardized in the business community. the ISO/IEC 11801 directives will apply. In order to gain the reputation for performing quality installations. as the need. the ANSI/TIA/EIA T568A standard will dictate what you can or cannot do. Perhaps. may refer to the applicable standard needed for the particular installation that you are currently working on. will extend the life of the system without the need for extensive amounts of maintenance. This customer confidence is an important consideration in the telecommunications industry today. for more robust data services grows within the residential sector. to perform an installation. the governing bodies within the telecommunications industry have concentrated on organizing the more advanced cabling standards for the commercial environment. or to successfully troubleshoot an existing cabling system. Standards are carefully studied recommendations that. Be sure that you know which standard deals with what situation. or desire. especially with the greater degree of competition in the market than ever before. Standards allow for any modern. The life of a properly installed system will extend far beyond that of one conceived in the absence of any standards. A system that was simply “slapped up on the wall” has relatively little chance in gaining that all-important customer satisfaction. your knowledge of the applicable standards now generally applied by the cabling industry is a crucial aspect of your job performance. CABLE INSTALLATION AND MANAGEMENT 199 . if followed.CHAPTER 5 Cable Installation and Management INTRODUCTION T elecommunications installations today would be exactly as they were before the 1970’s if there weren’t any standards. so that you. as an installer. and to follow them as closely as possible. But for now. it is very important for you to understand exactly what the standards are. and because the standards are practiced throughout the industry. specification-aware company to arrive at a job site. just about any company selected will be able to come in and maintain an installation that was performed by another. COMMERCIAL BUILDING COMPLIANCE Large differences exist between the telecommunications cabling requirements intended for residential installations and those intended for use within commercial buildings.

they can exist as single snap-in modules fitted into floor boxes using single-gang face plates (up to two modules) or dual-gang face plates (up to four modules). For example. single-gang face plate. The cable itself is connected to the back of the user outlet by means of an Insulation Displacement Connector (IDC). These user outlets are outfitted with either one or two RJ-45 connectors mounted in a standard. an external adapter can be attached to the outlet to provide any required format conversion for the equipment being attached to it. Insulation Displacement Connector (IDC) 200 CHAPTER 5 . coaxial for Ethernet. Structured cabling is a means of replacing all of the different cabling scenarios with a single cabling system. and in most cases meets the CAT5 specifications. If necessary. for all voice and data (including cable TV and video) requirements. Figure 5-1 depicts a generalized structured cabling system. buildings could contain different cabling systems for various forms of communications. which covers an entire building. Structured cabling Figure 5-1: Structured Cabling System Notice that each user outlet is wired back to a hub using an individual cable. A structured cabling system consists of modular wall outlets. This cable. or a related group of buildings. there might have been block wiring for voice.” contains four twisted pairs.Structured Cabling In the past. If only one RJ-45 interface is supplied. providing the user with RJ-45 interfaces. or shielded twisted pair (STP). known as the “horizontal cabling. Alternately. a second interface type is usually prescribed (such as an F video connector) in order to provide a minimum of two types of service to each outlet. and multipair for RS232 interfaces. Horizontal cabling can be either unshielded twisted pair (UTP).

And because the standard provides direction for the design of telecommunications equipment and cabling products intended to specifically serve commercial enterprises. because it addresses cabling topologies. multivendor environments. connecting hardware. and additional STP specifications) were released. equipment room (ER) telecommunications closet (TC) TIA/EIA T568A First released in 1991. Its global acceptance includes our own federal government.In a true structured cabling system. It establishes the performance and technical criteria for various generic voice and data telecommunications cabling system configurations for interfacing their respective elements. Since that time. was added to TIA/EIA 568. these configurations must support multiproduct. the floors are usually “flood wired” so that the outlets are positioned using a grid layout. or fiber optic cable (multimode or single-mode). RS232. and multipair copper cables are used for the voice backbone cables. and TSB 53 (addendums. and approved for release as TIA/EIA T568A. the horizontal cabling and user outlets are identical regardless of the services being utilized. and the performance of each communication channel. STP. The layout will specify the number of outlets and the distances between them. the service provided at the outlets can be changed as well by simply repatching the configuration in the equipment room (ER) or the telecommunications closet (TC). Ethernet. The individual hubs are connected using “vertical or riser” cable (also called backbone). optical cables are used for the data backbone cables. This provides the flexibility to quickly rewire a workstation when future changes are made to the layout of the building. The purpose of the TIA/EIA T568A standard is to enable the planning and installation of a structured cabling system for commercial buildings. video. and connectors. rather than map them to individual user positions. TSB 36. distances. including cable and connecting hardware performance. where the hubs are located. TIA/EIA T568A specifies a generic telecommunications cabling system for commercial buildings that will support a multiproduct. the performance of the system. The products must be capable of supporting the diverse telecommunications needs of a building’s occupants. CABLE INSTALLATION AND MANAGEMENT 201 . Vertical cabling consists of either UTP. the accepted installation practices. multivendor environment. without having to recable the original installation. In most modern systems. This information. the maximum cabling distances allowed. The latest edition of TIA/EIA T568A was released in 1995. and the design/installation of a cabling system are specified. channel media. the network topology. The overall scope of the TIA/EIA T568A specifications are intended for “office oriented” telecommunications installations. Other criteria covered include the quality of the media used (cable and connecting hardware). When a structured cabling system is installed. TSB 40A. circulated for industry review (as SP 2840 then SP 2840A drafts). Although the performance and technical criteria for various types of cable. so that any outlet can be configured for voice. keep in mind that the TIA/EIA T568A specification concerns itself solely with the cabling system located in a building. One of the main requirements for a structured cabling system calls for a usable life in excess of 10 years. or other service. as well as Canadian and other international standards organizations. as well as additional information on optical fiber and link performance. When a user’s requirements change. Other issues must be directed towards those standards that pertain directly to them. the user interface. The establishment of this standard is recognized as a substantial accomplishment.

the patch cords or jumpers (located in the telecommunications closet) that comprise the horizontal crossconnect. the telecommunications outlet/connector in the work area. For the European ISO/IEC 11801 specifications (roughly equivalent to TIA/EIA T568A). the horizontal cabling includes the horizontal cables themselves. the horizontal crossconnect (HC) located in the TC. floor distributor (FD) Figure 5-2: Horizontal Cabling System Components distribution frame Beginning at where the user plugs in his/her terminal and ending at a centrally located point called a distribution frame in the TC. Basically. It’s a good idea for cabling technicians to learn the abbreviations (acronyms) of these various terms. the mechanical termination. because many cabling diagrams label the elements or components using them. the premises equipment cords. the equivalent cabling element to the horizontal crossconnect is called the floor distributor (FD). Horizontal cabling is designed as a generic cabling system that will accommodate most applications. the telecommunications closet (TC) or equipment room (ER). and the work area equipment cords. the transition point equipment. 202 CHAPTER 5 . and any telecommunications outlet or connector (TO) located in any work area (WA). and including.HORIZONTAL CABLING Horizontal cabling Horizontal cabling is defined by the TIA/EIA as being the cabling between. it extends from the telecommunications outlet/connector to the horizontal crossconnect. Figure 5-2 depicts the structural components of a horizontal cabling system and the configuration of a multifloor network.

such as a 25-pair hub. and are organized by cable type: backbone. There are three types of crossconnects: the main crossconnect (MC). Alarms. the individual 4-pair cables from the user outlets are terminated on patch panels with rear IDCs for terminating the 4-pair cables and providing an RJ-45 presentation on the front for patching. Typical crossconnect facilities consist not only of the crossconnect jumpers or patch cords. Security Key Telephone Systems Blue Brown Yellow Red CABLE INSTALLATION AND MANAGEMENT 203 . Crossconnect panels utilize various patch cords/jumpers to attach the connecting hardware on each end of a termination. TIA/EIA 606 recommends that Table 5-1: Wire Colors the TC crossconnect should use the color scheme shown in Table 5-1. and the horizontal crossconnect (HC). Although RJ-45 patch panels usually come in multiples of 16 connectors. wall-mounted or freestanding. for TC Crossconnect Crossconnect Field The horizontal crossconnect is a linkage point of horizontal cabling to other cabling types (such as h o r izo n ta l o r b a c k b o n e ) o r equipment.Horizontal Crossconnects In general. LANs) Main Crossconnect Backbone Cable Intermediate Crossconnect Backbone Cable Horizontal Cable Inter-Building Backbone Auxiliary Circuits. The general idea behind a crossconnection describes the wiring scheme that exists between cabling runs. and are terminated on dedicated connecting hardware (system specific). and normally serves one floor of a building. At the hub. the intermediate crossconnect (IC). Color Orange Green Purple (USA) White/Silver (CANADA) White (USA) Purple (CANADA) Gray Central Office Cable (demarcation) Customer Side of Demarcation Common Equipment (PSBs. a crossconnect is a facility that enables the termination of cable elements and their interconnection and/or crossconnection primarily by means of a patch cord or jumper. crossconnect main crossconnect (MC) intermediate crossconnect (IC) horizontal crossconnect (HC) Crossconnect panels are usually mounted on a plywood backboard in the TC. or in separate ones. as shown in Figure 5-3. and equipment cabinets. horizontal. The IC and HC can both be physically located either in the same telecommunications closet. but also the terminal blocks and patch panels that are wired directly to the horizontal or backbone cabling. subsystems. which is usually physically located in the ER. The patch panels are usually mounted in standard 19-inch racks. and equipment. These crossconnect types use equipment cables that consolidate several ports on a single connector. panels containing 32 and 48 RJ-45 connectors are also common.

These are the cables that run from the termination points. to the outlets and/or connectors mounted in the walls at the various work areas on a single floor of a building. as shown in Figure 5-4.Figure 5-3: Horizontal Crossconnect Horizontal Crossconnect Distances basic link The basic link begins at the work area wall plate and ends at the horizontal crossconnect in the TC. at the horizontal crossconnect in the telecommunications closet. The maximum distance permitted for this basic link horizontal cabling is 90 meters (295 feet). Figure 5-4: Horizontal Cable Run Distances 204 CHAPTER 5 .

However. and equipment cables and cords in the horizontal crossconnect. while that for the combined length of patch cords. The allowance made for work area equipment cords is 3 meters (9. If possible. CABLE INSTALLATION AND MANAGEMENT 205 . Most outlets will accommodate both voice and data telecommunications within the lifetime of the system. 100-ohm unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) cables · 2-pair.8 feet). they are punched down in order to make a connection. that are used to join telecommunication circuits/links at the crossconnect panels. Patch cords are lengths of cable. is 10 meters (33 feet). including the work area (WA) equipment cords. or on “J” hooks. also used to join telecommunication circuits/links at the crossconnect panels. any wiring that is extended above plaster or drywall ceilings must be in placed in conduit. the wiring should be run behind surface-mounted raceway. Wiring extended above accessible ceilings may be run in conduit. or an assembly of twisted pairs without connectors. If this objective is not attainable. in order to maximize the reliability of the installation. They have also been found to cause crosstalk and attenuation problems. enhanced CAT5e cable should be used for each individual jack. Jumpers Patch cords Horizontal Cabling Types TIA/EIA T568A requires that there be at least two cable runs from the telecommunications closet to each individual wall outlet and/or connector. its wiring should be with RG-59 coaxial cable. The types of cables that are recognized by TIA for horizontal cabling are as follows: · 4-pair. A maximum of two patch cords is allowed per horizontal cable run. Horizontal crossconnect jumpers/patch cords in the telecommunications closet should be less than 7 meters (23 feet) long. However. inferior devices have been known to wreak havoc on data transmission. with accessible junction boxes as specified by the applicable electric codes. jumpers.Horizontal Jumpers and Patch Cords Jumpers can be single twisted pairs.5/125-micron optical fiber cable Recall that the horizontal wiring from the telecommunications closet to each user outlet must be capable of providing voice and data capabilities. Since they have no connectors of their own. Whenever possible. If video services are included. cable trays. 150-ohm shielded twisted-pair (STP) cables · 2-fiber. the wiring from the outlet to the ceiling space should be concealed within the wall. 62. Keep in mind that although patch cords are a vital link in any cabling installation. for making connections at the termination blocks. with connectors at one or both ends. as shown in Figure 5-5. it is recommended that no one cord should exceed 6 meters (20 feet) in length. They can also be in the form of conductive clips.

Figure 5-5: Telecommnications Cabling 206 CHAPTER 5 .

100-ohm. CAT5/5e UTP. it is recommended that you use only one of the stuffer caps for punch-down purposes in order to get the experience using the two types of punch-down tools. RJ-45 · Stuffer caps (2) · Punch-down tool. non-plenum (with RJ-45 plugs installed) · Wall plate. 100-ohm.Procedure 12 . Because the stuffer caps allow you to install the wires without a punch-down tool. CAT5/5e UTP.Installing a Punch-down Modular Outlet Procedure Objective To understand how to install an RJ-45 punch-down modular outlet on a section of 100-ohm UTP cable Materials Needed · Cable. As you perform the steps in this procedure. non-plenum (spool) · Punch-down outlet kit. you should vary the way in which you make the connections so that you learn how to use both the plastic and steel-blade punchdown tools. The internal wiring of the outlet does not necessarily match the order of wires that are punched down. RJ-45 · Cable tester. the internal configuration is marked on the underside of the modular jack itself and on the tiny printed circuit board inside its body. steel · Crimping tool. RJ-45. Instead. The RJ-45 modular outlet that you are wiring in this procedure will be configured for the T568A specification. continuity-type · Pliers. dual. Afterwards. CABLE INSTALLATION AND MANAGEMENT 207 . you can put the remaining stuffer cap in place. RJ-45/T568A (1) · Termination plug. CAT5/5e Instructions Before beginning this procedure. plastic · Punch-down tool. unshielded (1) · Cable. thoroughly. diagonal cutters · Wire stripper. read through all of the following steps at least once.

TIP: The end of the cable needs to be prepared first. as described. 2. which you made in Procedure 6. and check Figure 5-6 for the setup wiring. 8. Plug one end of the RJ-45 cable from Procedure 6 into the modular jack that you just installed. 6. CAT5/5e UTP cable to the RJ-45 modular punchdown outlet jack. and read the pages thoroughly. 7. go ahead and install the second stuffer cap so that both halves of the jack look identical. Once the wires have been punched down.1. simply disregard the instructions that pertain to connector or cable types that are not included in your parts inventory. Prepare the free end of the 5-foot. Once you have read the instruction sheet thoroughly. set the cable section aside. Plug its remaining end into the cable tester’s main body. go ahead and install one end of the 5-foot section of 100-ohm. Once you have done that. 5. 3. Keep in mind that the unshielded twisted pair cable does not require the grounding clip to be installed. and the punch-down tools for the other side. Plug the remaining end of the modular jack cable (with the RJ-45 plug installed) into the cable tester’s detachable terminator. 100-ohm CAT5/5e UTP cable. Locate the 5-foot cable with RJ-45 plugs installed on both ends. 4. Use the diagonal cable cutters to cut a 5-foot piece of CAT5/5e UTP cable from the spool. Use the stuffer cap for one side of wires. Figure 5-6: Testing Modular Jack and Cable Continuity 208 CHAPTER 5 . Then. Consult Appendix B (Instruction Sheet 408-3354 ¾ page 515). and install an RJ-45 unshielded modular plug according to the T568A specification.

What does the instruction sheet 408-3354 indicate about keeping the wires twisted to within specific distances from the termination? When using the steel-tip punch-down tool. Set the RJ-45 modular jack cable and wall plate combination in a safe place. because the design of the wall plate will prevent this. 13. TIP: Recall that the RJ-45 cable from Procedure 6 was already checked. 3. and parts have been returned to their storage area. Check to be sure that all of the tools. Any problems noted on this test should point to the newly created cable. check to be sure that you are leaving it in a clean and orderly condition. 12. and gently push it into the top opening of the wall plate until it locks or snaps into place.9. Locate the wall plate. Before leaving your work area. Position the modular jack block as shown in Figure 5-7. TIP: Don’t worry about installing the modular jack upside-down. 14. Figure 5-7: Fitting the Outlet into the Wall Plate Procedure 12 Questions 1. and orient it so that the “UP” arrow points in the direction shown in Figure 5-7. 15. Turn the cable tester on and check the modular cable that you just created. cables. 11. for later use. CABLE INSTALLATION AND MANAGEMENT 209 . 10. 4. or previous locations. Make any repairs that are necessary until all readings are good on the cable tester before going on. what impact setting is recommended? Are the wires cut on the inside or the outside of the wiring block? How are dimensions indicated on the instruction sheet? 2.

Consult Appendix B (Instruction Sheet 408-3232 ¾ page 507). may or may not contain configuration coding. RJ-45/T568A (1) · Edge-connector insert. 2. diagonal cutters · Wire stripper. unshielded (1) · Cable. non-plenum (spool) · Edge-connector outlet kit. the internal configuration is indicated on the separate label included with the bag containing the jack. Then set the cable section aside. 210 CHAPTER 5 . As was the case with the punch-down modular outlet. the RJ-45 modular outlet that you are wiring in this procedure will be configured for the T568A specification. Again. thoroughly. continuity-type · Pliers. the internal wiring of the edge-connector outlet does not necessarily match the order of wires that are punched down.Procedure 13 . read through all of the following steps at least once. RJ-45. The underside of the modular jack itself. 1. RJ-45/T568A (1) · Edge-connector modular housing. CAT5/5e UTP (with RJ-45 plugs installed) · Stuffer caps (2) · Punch-down tool. and read it thoroughly. CAT5/5e UTP. groove-joint Instructions Before beginning this procedure. Use the diagonal cable cutters to cut a 5-foot piece of CAT5/5e UTP cable from the spool. 100-ohm. CAT5/5e · Pliers. Instead. steel · Crimping tool.Assembling Edge-Connector Modular Outlets Procedure Objective To understand how to assemble an RJ-45 edge-connector modular outlet on a section of 100-ohm UTP cable Materials Needed · Cable. or the tiny printed circuit board inside its body. RJ-45/T568A (1) · Termination plug. RJ-45 · Cable tester.

locate the RJ-45 modular edge-connector outlet and its matching housing from the kit. 8-wire and 150-ohm (Token Ring). TIP: Don’t forget to install the two stuffer caps on the edge connector. Determine which type of connector you are using. by removing 2 inches of jacket. CABLE INSTALLATION AND MANAGEMENT 211 . 7. When installing the connector within the matching housing. 100ohm CAT5/5e UTP cable you set aside earlier. regardless of how the wires were punched down. Regardless of which type of edge connector you are using. 4-wire systems. Figure 5-8: Aligning the Connector and Housing Figure 5-9: Removing 2 Inches of UTP Cable Jacket 5. Prepare one end of the 5-foot. Both types of installations are covered in the instruction sheet. 6. be sure to follow the color coding marked on the edge connector or stuffer cap. this type of RJ-45 modular outlet can accommodate STP cable of both the 150-ohm. Once you have read the instruction sheet thoroughly. 4. They help to protect the connections against exposure. follow the alignment of parts shown in Figure 5-8 when removing or installing the connector. your parts may either snap or screw together. Locate the edge connector and its housing to identify which type of edge connector you have been supplied. as shown in Figure 5-9. TIP: Instructions for the 110 Connect arrangement are shown first on the instruction sheet. For screw-type connections.3. The AMP-BARREL arrangement requires that the edge connector be terminated prior to its being mounted into the housing. and follow the instructions from Appendix B (Instruction sheet 408-3232 ¾ page 507) for that type. TIP: A 110 Connect arrangement comes with the edge connector already installed in the port housing and remains this way during the wiring. TIP: Although you will be using 100-ohm UTP cable.

Turn the cable tester on. and check Figure 5-11 for the setup wiring. or previous locations.8. TIP: As a rule. Locate the 5-foot cable with RJ-45 plugs installed on both ends. any housing that will not currently carry an active service would be outfitted with a blank insert. 18. aligning its latches with tabs on the housing. and install a RJ-45 unshielded modular plug according to the T568A specification. Prepare the free end of the 5-foot. until a future need for expansion occurs. check to be sure that you are leaving it in a clean and orderly condition. Check to be sure that all of the tools and parts have been returned to their storage area. Plug one end of the RJ-45 cable from Procedure 6 into the modular jack outlet that you just installed. Set the RJ-45 modular jack cable/edge connector in a safe place. 9. 12. and check the modular cable that you just created. for later use. 212 CHAPTER 5 . TIP: Recall that the RJ-45 cable from Procedure 6 was already checked. which you made in Procedure 6. as shown in Figure 5-10. Make any repairs that are necessary until all readings are good on the cable tester before going on. 100-ohm UTP cable. 15. Any problems noted on this test should point to the newly created cable. You will not be installing a face plate as part of this procedure. Plug the remaining end of the modular jack cable (with the RJ-45 plug installed) into the cable tester’s detachable terminator. 11. Figure 5-11: Testing Modular Jack and Cable Continuity 14. install the jack insert by pushing it into the port. 10. Plug its remaining end into the cable tester’s main body. 17. Figure 5-10: Pushing the Jack Insert 13. Before leaving your work area. 16. When you have completed the wiring and have secured the edge connector to the housing (already done for you with 110 Connect types).

The work area equipment and the cables used to connect to the telecommunications user outlet are currently outside the scope of TIA/EIA T568A and ISO/IEC 11801. A maximum distance of 3 meters (9. The wiring interconnections are designed to be relatively simple. adapters and application-specific devices.8 feet) for work area equipment cords. and changes within the work area are easily managed. shown in Figure 5-13. but are expected to be specified in the next edition of these standards. meters (9. The important specifications related to work area cabling include: work area (WA) component · Equipment cords should have the same performance capabilities as patch cords of the same type and category. through which the telephone and the fax machine are shown connected in Figure 5 . · Maximum horizontal cable lengths are specified using a maximum cable length of 3 For establishing the maximum horizontal link distances. and in the telecommunications closet.1 2 . After reading the instruction sheet 408-3232.Procedure 13 Questions 1. This allows the telecommunications user outlet to serve as the main work area interface to the cabling system. such as the balun. 4. CABLE INSTALLATION AND MANAGEMENT 213 . 3. they should be compatible with the transmission capabilities of the equipment to which they connect. adds. In the work area. Work Area Cabling The work area (WA) components. a combined maximum length of 10 meters (33 feet) is allowed for patch cables/jumpers and equipment/equipment cables in the work area. so that moves. extend from the telecommunications (information) outlet to the station equipment. s h o u ld r e ma in ex te r n a l to th e telecommunications outlet. which edge connector (110 Connect or AMP-BARREL) appears to be the easiest to install? Which type of edge connector (110 Connect or AMP-BARREL) requires termination prior to being installed in the housing? Why is it a good idea to lace the middle wires into the edge connector first? Which type of edge connector comes already installed in the port housing? 2.8 feet) is recommended from the user outlet to the station device. Figure 5-12: Work Area Components ISO/IEC 11801 · When adapters are used.

and 50/125 µm multimode optical fiber. or to 150-ohm STP-A.Horizontal Topology The physical topology used by a horizontal cabling system is exclusively a star. 150-ohm STP-A 2-fiber (duplex). which can also be arranged in a star configuration. located in the ER. If used. Each station or device in the telecommunications system communicates via point-to-point wiring to its own central link.5/125µm. which then directs the information to the cabling path of the device associated with that address. In other words. In combination with logical “ring” and “bus” topologies. 214 CHAPTER 5 . twisted-pair. Normally. 4-pair. they are located external to the telecommunications outlet or horizontal crossconnect. twisted-pair. as well as · A minimum of two telecommunications outlets are required for each individual work area. the address recognition chore is the responsibility of the central control point. 62. such that: ¨ ¨ The first outlet is wired to 100-ohm. which is permitted under TIA/EIA T568B · ISO/IEC 11801 permits 120-ohm UTP. usually a hub in the TC. a star topology is considered the easiest to design and install. the star topology provides a basis for additional configurations that will best meet user requirements. the telecommunication closet will be located on the same floor as its associated outlets and/or connectors. 100-ohm UTP 2-pair. The second outlet is wired to 100-ohm. the star topology utilizes this central point of control. · Multipair and multiunit cables are permitted. TIA/EIA 607. Horizontal Cabling Key Points The important points to remember about horizontal cabling subsystems include: · Any application-specific components (such as splitters or baluns) cannot be installed · The proximity of horizontal cabling to sources of EMI must be taken into account. Because each station’s cabling is run directly out from the TC to the appropriate work area. depending on which floor it resides. Floor-to-floor addressing is accomplished at the main crossconnect facilities.5/125 µm multimode fiber. with each telecommunications outlet/connector having its own mechanical termination position at the horizontal crossconnect in the telecommunications closet. or a multimode optical fiber such as 50/125 µm. · Grounding must conform to all applicable local/federal building codes. or to 62. as long as they meet the hybrid/bundled cable requirements of TIA/EIA T568A-3. For each floor. · Horizontal cable types that have been recognized by TIA/EIA T568A include: ¨ ¨ ¨ as part of the horizontal cabling system. Its adaptability with other topologies is another reason for this topology’s wide acceptance.

optical cables are used for the data backbone cables. the minimum requirements of the standard. the backbone cabling system normally carries the heaviest traffic. as well as the cables between an equipment room and the building’s cable entrance facilities. however. BACKBONE CABLING Hubs are connected together to the crossconnect facilities or to the ER using “riser” or backbone cabling. it also includes consolidation point (CP) connections. Splices are allowed for fiber. intermediate and main crossconnects. equipment rooms. while multipair copper cables are used for the voice backbone cables. which can be either copper or optical. and patch cords or jumpers used for backbone-to-backbone crossconnection. The dedicated hardware is then interconnected to horizontal or backbone terminations. A backbone cabling system is dependent on the type of building and communication being used. and other issues that are detailed in the TIA/EIA 569 specification. backbone cabling Figure 5-13: Backbone Cabling System Components CABLE INSTALLATION AND MANAGEMENT 215 . In a campus environment. This definition includes the vertical connection between floors (risers). the backbone can also extend between various buildings. Figure 5-13 highlights the structural components of a backbone cabling system. This term is broader by definition in ISO/IEC 11801 than in TIA/EIA T568A. they are considered to be in addition to. new cabling installations. It is the main data cabling trunk that commonly distributes communications vertically. This backbone cabling. also called “vertical cabling. mechanical terminations. it is not recommended for · Although additional outlets may be provided. from floor to floor. In any information transport system.” carries the network throughout the building. In most systems. It consists of the backbone “vertical” cables. such as in situations where under-carpet cable connects to round cable. which covers the backbone recommendations. transition point (TP) consolidation point (CP) · Although 50-ohm coax is recognized by TIA/EIA T568A. · For copper-based horizontal cabling. In addition to the transitions for under-carpet cabling. and entrance facilities.· One transition point (TP) is allowed between different forms of the same cable type. rather than replacements for. in addition to depicting other components of the overall system. The backbone cabling provides interconnection between telecommunication closets. bridged taps and splices are not permitted.

and no connectors at the other. fitted with jumper rings) can be used in the hub cabinet between pairs of patch panels. These RJ-45 panels provide an easy facility for crossconnecting selected channels over branches of the backbone. 19-inch rack panel. If the telecommunications equipment is fitted with Telco connectors. Figure 5-14: Telco Connector Copper cables are also terminated on the RJ-45-type patch panels. as shown in Figure 5-16. then these must be connected to “equipment side” patch panels using mass termination cables (25-pair cables fitted with a Telco connector at one end. one of which is shown in Figure 5-15. Figure 5-15: Patch Panel with RJ-45 Connectors Figure 5-16: Cable Tidy Between RJ-45 Panels 216 CHAPTER 5 .Vertical Crossconnects Backbone cables are terminated on patch panels at the hub. a cable tidy (a 1U high. This is the identical type of panel that is used for the horizontal cabling crossconnects in the TC. so that they can be punched down onto IDCs) to provide an RJ-45 connector for each data channel. To enable the patch leads to be routed neatly. as shown in Figure 5-14.

Figure 5-17: Patch Panel with ST Fiber Optic Connectors Alternately. main and intermediate crossconnect jumper/patch cord lengths should not exceed 20 meters (66 feet). Optical cables are terminated in patch panels that usually provide the user with an ST presentation. As a rule. For crossconnections between MC equipment in the ER. Vertical Crossconnect Distances The main crossconnect (MC) is a crossconnect for first-level backbone cables.840 feet) for single-mode fiber are possible. distances of 2. to HC equipment in the TC. CABLE INSTALLATION AND MANAGEMENT 217 . the hubs must also contain equipment to enable the optical cable to interface with the copper cables.75 inches high.000 meters (9.560 feet) for multimode fiber and 3.625 feet) for any voice application. However.Alternately. Modern state-of-the-art distribution facilities often include a combination of copper and fiber optic cables in the backbone. However. entrance cables. main crossconnect (MC) intermediate crossconnect (IC) Vertical Jumpers and Patch Cords Patch cords that are used to crossconnect between the MC and any ICs can be somewhat longer than those used in the HCs housed in the TCs. as shown in Figure 5-17. Fiber optic cables can be terminated either by fusion-splicing pigtails with factory-fitted connectors onto each fiber in the cable.and second-level backbone cabling. each backbone cabling run should be limited in length to 90 meters (295 feet) for any category-rated application and 800 meters (2. individual cable ties may be used to bundle various wire and cable groups. it is understood that a 1U piece of equipment is 1. The intermediate crossconnect (IC) is a crossconnect between first. if an optical fiber backbone is used. When reference is made to rack measurements. and equipment cables. backbone distances are application dependent.000 meters (6. or by directly fitting “field-mountable” connectors to each fiber.

application standards. Figure 5-18: Backbone Cable Types shared-sheath 218 CHAPTER 5 . However. Also be sure that the grounding for the associated equipment being crossconnected meets the electrical requirements as defined in TIA/EIA 607. or other facility wired with only CAT5/5e UTP is ready for connection to any type of telecommunications service now available. It is therefore recommended that the user consult with equipment manufacturers. or other special-service data lines furnished by the phone company. be part of a T568A-compliant network and yet. and to correctly install them to that standard. will not certify a cabling installation as being T568A-compliant if such multiple uses are wired. fax. 1000baseT. hospital. 150-ohm shielded twisted-pair (STP-A) cables · 2-fiber. school. 62. while not specifically disallowing multiple uses for any cable. Vertical Cabling Types As shown in Figure 5-18. be used for a video feed.TIA/EIA 607 Avoid installing copper-based patch cords in areas where sources of high-level EMI/RFI may exist. However. the noncompliance of one cable in a bundle does not necessarily mean that the entire bundle is noncompliant. T1 line. Any shared-sheath. data cables such as CAT5/5e UTP can carry 10baseT. Applications can include not only networked data for computers. as well as video. modem. or even ISDN. but also telephone. telephone. or Ethernet networks. 100baseT. A sensible approach to this problem would be to accurately designate which cables will be T568A-compliant. The obvious advantage to this is that. all wiring could. with some restrictions placed by the video uses. Token Ring. nonstandard cables can then be wired as required. a building. at any time. or whatever. 9/125-micron single-mode optical fiber cable As you already know. and to keep any connections to nonstandard applications external to the applicable wall jacks. at the change of a connector. 100-ohm unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) cables · 2-pair. there are currently no existing TIA/TIA standards that deal with such shared-sheath applications. and system providers for additional information when planning shared-sheath applications on UTP backbone cables.5/125-micron multi-mode optical fiber cable · 1-fiber. Installers should be aware that TIA/EIA T568A. Another approach would be to install all cabling as T568A-compliant. In such an installation. the types of cables that are recognized by TIA for vertical backbone cabling are as follows: · 4-pair. T1.

data backbone cables are usually taken to patch panels in the MC located in the ER. an individual cabling run can serve a maximum of two floor levels. In a star configuration. Voice backbone cables are nearly always configured in a star arrangement and are taken to the MC or an IC. Figure 5-19: Backbone Configurations In the event of the failure of any one cable in the backbone. As shown in Figure 5-19. the signal can be rerouted via another available route. depending on the equipment being used. Bridge taps are simply not allowed. the data backbone can be in either a star or ring configuration. or manually by repatching the backbone. which means that no more than two hierarchical levels of crossconnects can be used per run. IDC connection strips.Vertical Topology In general. each backbone should be configured as a star topology. The MC or IC is usually a “Krone”-type frame utilizing 10-pair. a star and a ring backbone can be combined to provide resilience (recovery from a system failure). In addition. However. This can be carried out automatically by the equipment. CABLE INSTALLATION AND MANAGEMENT 219 .

two alternate backbone cabling types are allowed by · Again. No more than one crossconnect may exist between a main and a horizontal crossconnect and no more than three crossconnects may exist between any two horizontal crossconnects.5 6 8 . respectively. ¨ 62. 50-ohm coax. · The backbone cabling shall be configured in a star topology. · Crossconnects for different cable types must be located in the same facilities. · The proximity of copper-based backbone cabling to sources of electromagnetic interference (EMI) shall be taken into account. ISO/IEC (120-ohm. · Just as with horizontal cabling. This distance is for uninterrupted backbone runs. Currently recognized backbone cables consist of: ¨ 100-ohm UTP cable ¨ 150-ohm STP-A cable · Recognized media may be used individually or in combination. · In ISO/IEC 11801. recommended for new installations. Each horizontal · The backbone is limited to no more than two hierarchical levels of crossconnects crossconnect is wired directly to a main crossconnect or to an intermediate crossconnect. CA T 5 . multimode optical fiber). The new standards will also incorporate the TIA-568-B. installation. then to a main crossconnect. and should be made available to the service provider. (main and intermediate). the equivalent cabling elements to the main crossconnect (MC) and intermediate crossconnect (IC) are called the campus distributor (CD) and building distributor (BD). bandwidth capability over copper. provided that it satisfies the power sum crosstalk requirements.Vertical Cabling Key Points The important points to remember about vertical backbone cabling systems include: · Equipment connections to backbone cabling should be made with cable lengths of 30 m (98 feet) or less. · A total maximum backbone distance of 90 m (295 feet) is specified for high · The distance between the terminations located in the entrance facility and the main crossconnect shall be documented.o h m S T P .1 addendums and will add CAT6 and 6A. as required by the NOTE T h e TI A . Quantity of pairs and fibers needed in individual backbone runs depends on the area served. twisted pair and 50/125 µm.C s e r ies standards that are due out later in 2009 will remove 1 5 0 .5/125 micron optical fiber cable (recall that the TIA T568B specification recognizes 50/125 µm multimode fiber) ¨ Single-mode optical fiber · Multipair cable is allowed. but is not 220 CHAPTER 5 . and 75-ohm c o a x f r o m co mmer c i a l buildings. · Bridged taps are not allowed. 50-ohm coaxial cabling is recognized by TIA/EIA T568A. (No intermediate crossconnect).

100-OHM UTP REQUIREMENTS The 100-ohm UTP cabling systems are currently the most flexible. The maximum diameter of the insulated conductor is 1. thermoplastic insulated solid conductors. At the risk of repeating some of the information you have already been given. they will be limited to CAT3 performance. This means that the majority of installations now being undertaken are using 100-ohm UTP cable. CAT4 and CAT5 terminations are always accomplished with the use of the Insulation Displacement Connection (IDC). CABLE INSTALLATION AND MANAGEMENT 221 . the following are the currently recognized categories of UTP cabling by the TIA/EIA: UTP cabling · Category 3 · Category 4 · Category 5 The 100-ohm UTP cables used in horizontal cabling systems consist of 24 AWG. here in a nutshell are the most important points to keep in mind about 100-ohm UTP installations. However. only one transition point from round cable to undercarpet cable is allowed. Under-carpet cables can be used for certain applications. Although manufacturers are already producing categories of telecommunications cable that outperform them. and most economical in the telecommunications industry. if screw-type terminations are utilized for the work area outlets. The color code for the 100-ohm UTP cable is shown in Table 5-2. Table 5-2: Color Code for 100-Ohm UTP Wire Pair # Lead Function Banded Colors Semi-Solid Twisted CAT5 8-Pos Jack Colors Solid Colors Pin # (T568A) 8-Pos Jack 6-Pos Jack Pin # Solid (T568B) Colors 6-Pos Jack Pin # (USOC) 4 3 2 5 1 6 - 1 TIP 1 RING 2 TIP 2 RING 3 TIP 3 RING 4 TIP 4 RING W/BL BL/W W/O O/W W/G G/W W/BR BR/W W/BL BL W/O O W/G G W/BR BR W BL W O W G W BR 5 4 3 6 1 2 7 8 5 4 1 2 3 6 7 8 GREEN RED BLACK YELLOW WHITE BLUE - 100-Ohm UTP Work Area Outlets Usually. formed into four individually-twisted pairs.22 mm.

either as TIA/EIA T568A or TIA/EIA T568B. the system’s category rating system will not be maintained. and end for easy identification. · Follow the proper color code. including the locations of all components. changes. · The bend radius for cables with more than four cable pairs is ten times the cable’s outside diameter. moves. or damage. 222 CHAPTER 5 . · Installation must be neat and well organized. and additions. the maximum allowable untwisting is ½ inch. · Label cable runs at their beginning. · Do not exceed 25 pounds of pulling tension on a 4-pair cable. Unless these specifications are followed. 100-Ohm UTP Cable Installation The following is a list of specifications for installing 100-ohm UTP cable. · The bend radius should be no tighter than four times the cable’s outside diameter (usually 1 inch). · All four pairs of a 4-pair cable should be terminated on an 8-position jack. · All work area outlets should be terminated as either T568A or T568B. · All of the hardware used should be of the IDC type.100-Ohm UTP Work Area Outlet Installation The following is a list of recommendations for the installation of 100-ohm UTP work area outlets. CAT5/5e be less than ½ inch. · It is suggested that the maximum allowable untwisting for any category above · Always leave 1 to 3 feet of service loop for repairs. · TIA/EIA T568A specifies that the maximum allowable untwisting of CAT4 cable is 1 inch. the cable’s outer sheath when pulling it. and for CAT5/5e cable. · Document every phase of the installation. · Do not cut. · Both ends of a line should be terminated by the same designation. middle. · The suggested maximum allowable untwisting for CAT3 cable is 3 inches.

Common sense tells us that all of these patch cords should comply with the specified category of the system. Of course. Figure 5-20: CAT5/5e Patch Cables Patch Cord Problems For being such a vital link in the telecommunications process. why has it been so difficult to create a standard for the most inexpensive link in the network? One of the reasons appears to be the lack of agreement as to which testing method should be used. the TIA/EIA cannot release its forthcoming standard. such as those shown in Figure 5-20. patch cords represent the installation’s final. in spite of many years of work by the TIA/EIA. no general specification exists to ensure such compliance! Often referred to as the installation’s missing link. the signal quality degradation taking place at the patch panel can no longer be tolerated. Until this question is resolved. there are countless stories about the havoc that has been wreaked on data transmission channels through the use of substandard patch cables. the lowly patch cord may finally get the respect it deserves. Not surprisingly. With the realization that the category compliance of an entire installation may fail due to the use of poor-quality patch cords in the ER or in one of the TCs. As has been the case with previous technologies. This development will certainly alter the perspective of many installers who formerly considered patch cables as nothing more than commodity items. other than to mention the fact that they are used in TCs and ERs to make the various crossconnections that are required at these locations. even though the standardsmakers have been slow to make much progress. And because it is more difficult to test patch cords than it is data cables. Because they do not yet have a standard. they have become the last part of the cabling system to be defined. can we be so bold as to accuse a suspected patch cable of being substandard? Cable design experts have zeroed in on several chronic problems that have. These include: · Poor data quality through various crossconnections · Communications networks bombarded with increased error rates and junk traffic · Severe crosstalk and attenuation problems · Generally degraded network performance CABLE INSTALLATION AND MANAGEMENT 223 . if there is no “standard” with which to compare an inferior device. as their primary cause. but as yet. bad patch cables being used somewhere along the data path. manufacturers are creating their own proprietary testing methods. and are fashioning new ways to differentiate between various grades of patch cables. patch cords Patch Cord Standard With the proliferation of standards covering almost every aspect of telecommunications. This is a sad fact. patch cords are the equipment or work area cables that constitute the most overlooked aspect of telecommunications cable systems. manufacturers are moving forward with new patch cord products. unconquered frontier.100-Ohm UTP Patch Cords We haven’t yet gone into much detail about patch cords. With the increasing trend towards higher data rates.

Under normal circumstances. This makes the rather large installation investment captive to a lowly. Patch Cord Differentiation Regardless of the patch cord’s past reputation. However. even going so far as to use only patch cords that match a school’s colors. most manufacturers claim to have a superior product. Some have compared the situation to a Formula 1 racing car hitting the track while outfitted with a set of standard passenger tires. from ever showing up on a crossconnect panel. and even without a clear standard. In larger jobs. Naturally. with the jackets and strain-relief boots matching. different colors are requested where installers and users assign them to indicate specific functions.and device-independent. 224 CHAPTER 5 . Various Colors Most manufacturers now offer CAT5/5e patch cords in a variety of colors. defective patch cord. most patch cords have good electrical performance. both domestic and imported. there is simply little need for colored patch cords. This school of thought considers patch cords to be a generic commodity. A patch cord standard that would address these highly publicized problems is what’s needed. a solid standard would relegate the judgment of patch cords to their performance. colors for patch cables offer no additional value to justify the inventory problems they cause. the system suddenly becomes noncompliant with the CAT5/5e specifications. but the aspects of durability and functionality have become important considerations as well. from a purely installation point of view. Installers are not necessarily enamored with colored patch cords. because it’s generally felt throughout the industry that a good specification would eliminate inferior patch cables. Most manufacturers would welcome this. For smaller jobs. today’s manufacturers are striving to differentiate their patch cable products through: · · · · · Quality testing Strain-relief boots Snagless features Quick turnaround on orders Various colors · · · · Icons Cost Manufacturers’ labels User-friendliness Because many users consider patch cords to be network. the customer must rely on the manufacturer's reputation or some other subjective criteria. Functionality relates to the distinctive features—such as color coding—that are now available. the attempt by manufacturers to differentiate between various patch cords is not altogether appreciated.When a defective patch cable causes a poor connection. with all of them having the same or similar properties. In fact. In lieu of a viable standard. Other customers color-code their networks to make them aesthetically pleasing.

Quality Testing While manufacturers anxiously wait for the TIA to develop a standard. CABLE INSTALLATION AND MANAGEMENT 225 . The patch cords themselves can always carry the corporate color. You may find a small local manufacturer with a good product. as an alternative to color coding the patch cord itself. it is now a commonplace feature in the industry. Cost Cost also differentiates between patch cords. Instead. and is even considered to be required among installers. Under such circumstances. the installer must decide which brand of patch cords to use. Telecommunications systems in the past were composed mostly of mixed and matched products. and use either a computer symbol or a text symbol. they continue to find new ways to test and design their products. at a cheaper price. while there are other times when they are figured into the total bid. Being able to control all of the parts that make up a modern telecommunications system may be the only way to meet the required performance levels. But in the future. Testing criteria will dictate the classification of patch cords by performance level. The icons come in a variety of colors. The best bet is for the installer to shop around for patch cords. allowing installers to match the patch cord to the system in the same manner that CAT5/5e jacks are now matched to CAT5/5e cables. they are very easy to use. the customer will want to focus on the performance of a channel (including the patch cords through which data is moving).Icons However. In fact. some manufacturers have created a colored icon that attaches to the patch cords so that installers can distinguish between network functions. the patch cords would be considered as an integral part of the system rather than as a generic component. The boot covers the plug in such a way that when you pull the cable down. When job bids don’t request a particular brand (which is normally the case). Strain-Relief Boots In contrast. and not the wire’s color. both installers and manufacturers alike have reacted enthusiastically to the invention of the strain-relief boot. There are occasions when a line in a bid specifies the allowed cost for patch cords. installers will have a component list that bundles specific products together in order to guarantee optimal system performance. A strain-relief boot can prevent an 8pin modular connector from being pulled off the jack. Many of them are coming to believe that patch cords should be sold as part of a complete system. It makes the administration of a network fairly simple by requiring only the replacement of the icon on the boot. Because you can snap on any icon that you need. the locking tab doesn't hook onto another cable and break off. because one patch cord will not necessarily work for all systems. because it will become the more important testing standard. The idea that all patch cords have the same or similar properties is no longer valid.

Pin 1 on the plug at one end of a patch cord will have to connect to pin 1 on the plug at the other end for straight-through wiring. If ever a manufacturer sinks to producing a patch cable that requires a significant amount of time in order to master the intricacies of using it. CAT5/5e STP. if your employer or institution stocks unterminated. DB15. However. 150-ohm. check into the possibility of using it for this procedure. factory standard AUI transceiver cable. one fact remains constant. crimp. female (9) · Screwdriver. male plug (with hardware) (1) · Connector shell. crimp. female (1) · Connector shell. female socket (with hardware) (1) · Connector pin. small · Insertion/extraction tool · Crimping tool. it will have created the telecommunications equivalent of the “Edsel. non-plenum (spool or cable fragment)* · Connector hood/housing. digital · Wire stripper. patch cords will not reverse their wire positions within the plugs. Could anything be more unfriendly than a patch cord wired in any other way? Procedure 14 – Installing and Testing a DB15 Connector Procedure Objective To understand how to install a DB15 connector on transceiver cable for use with 10base5 Thicknet systems Materials Needed · Cable. DB15. DB15. male (1) · Connector hood/housing. DB15. shielded twisted pair cable for this part. DB15. DB15. 226 CHAPTER 5 . pin · Multimeter. flat-blade.User-Friendliness It’s difficult to imagine anything easier to use than a simple patch cord. even one that has not been improved upon for category compliance.” Regardless of any improvements made to a patch cord. male (9) · Connector pin. so if your instructor provides a previously used cable fragment for this procedure. CAT5/5e · Electricians’ scissors · Tension scale/Tape measure *Because factory standard transceiver cable is expensive and is not used in any other sections of this course. that’s OK. Keep in mind that you won’t be using this cable under any actual operating conditions. you may substitute 100-ohm.

In this procedure you will create the AUI transceiver cable referred to in Chapter 2 during the discussion on Thicknet computer connections. The standard AUI cable comes in lengths of up to 50 meters and must have a characteristic impedance of 78 ohms. Instead of carrying the fully encoded Ethernet signal. An “office” version has been developed that is thinner and easier to manage in a typical office environment.Instructions Recall the information you read from Chapter 2 about Thicknet systems and the difference between intrusive and nonintrusive taps made to the RG-8 cable. interfaces with the RG-8 cable via the tap. As you can see. as shown in Figure 5-21. and difficult to manage. Therefore. because the AUI cable alone cannot be used to connect two transceivers together. Figure 5-21: Tap/Transceiver Hybrid Because of the various layers of shielding in factory standard AUI cable. AUI cables transfer partially decoded signals such as transmit data. and the 20AWG diameter of the individual twisted-pair wires. CABLE INSTALLATION AND MANAGEMENT 227 . it is as thick as RG-8. Their operating power must come from the active device to which they are connected (a computer in Figure 5-22). Factory standard AUI cables contain four or five individually shielded twisted pair wires that are bundled together under both an overall foil shield and a braided shield. In Procedure 10 you installed N connectors on a section of RG-8 “Thicknet” cable. The pinout shown in Table 5-3 shows that AUI cables and interfaces cannot be tested using a “null modem” arrangement. and power. AUI cables are terminated in 15-pin D-type connectors. receive data. their maximum usable working distances are much less (10 meters) than those of standard AUI cables. The transceiver. while the female end interfaces with the transceiver. AUI cables run directly between a computer’s NIC and the Thicknet transceiver. and in Procedure 11. In order to get the data signals from a tapped RG-8 cable to and from the computer node. the “office” varieties of these cables suffer from greater signal loss due to higher susceptibility to external noise. an AUI transceiver cable is normally connected between the computer and the transceiver. However. which itself is either installed in-line on the RG-8 backbone or attached to a tap/transceiver hybrid. collision detect. The male end of the cable plugs into the computer. in turn. you placed a nonintrusive “vampire” tap on that RG-8 cable section.

The weight of a standard AUI cable will bend or break slides composed of thin metal. the labels in parentheses are functional descriptions for a transceiver connector. 228 CHAPTER 5 .Table 5-3: AUI Pin Assignments Pin 1 2 9 3 10 4 11 5 12 6 13 7 14 8 15 Shell Function Control In circuit Shield (Logic Ground) Control In circuit A (Collision +) Control In circuit B (Collision –) Data Out circuit A (Transmit +) Data Out circuit B (Transmit – ) Data In circuit Shield (Logic Ground) Data Out circuit Shield (Logic Ground) Data In circuit A (Receive +) Data In circuit B (Receive –) Voltage Common (Logic Ground) Voltage Plus (Power +12VDC) Control Out circuit A (No Connection) Voltage Shield (Logic Ground) Connector Shell/Drain Wire: (Logic/Protective Ground) Control Out circuit B (No Connection) Connected to chassis ground In Table 5-3. Pin 8 could be wired to the grounded shell and/or to the bare drain wire in an active circuit operation. A more reliable connection can be maintained by using D-shell connectors outfitted with threaded nuts on the equipment and twist screws on the cable. attaching the AUI cable to the computer involves the use of either screws or a sliding-lock mechanism to maintain the connection. As is the case with most D-shell connectors. Good quality metal must be used to maintain a secure fit with the sliding-lock mechanism. Twisted pairs are shaded without a horizontal border between pins.

if applicable) until it resembles an uninsulated wire conductor. This leaves ¼ inch of foil shielding intact. CABLE INSTALLATION AND MANAGEMENT 229 . use the tension scale/tape measure for accuracy. 1. leaving ¼ inch of it uncut. Each end of the cable should look like that shown in Figure 5-23. thoroughly. and 1 inch of the twisted pairs (with bare drain wire. Then. check with your instructor about whether or not you will be wiring pin 8 to the ground shield and/or the bare drain wire. Locate the male DB15 connector pins. 5. twist the foil tightly (around the bare drain wire. Use the diagonal cable cutters to cut a 5-foot piece of 150-ohm STP cable from the spool (or use a cable fragment from a previous installation). without damaging any of the twisted-pair wires inside the shield. Figure 5-23: Stripped STP Cable TIP: You will begin by installing the male DB15 connector on one end of the cable. read through all of the following steps at least once. 1-inch cut down the foil shield on each end of the cable. 3. 4. See Figure 5-22. use the electricians’ scissors to carefully make a straight. 2. after sliding the twisted pairs out of the shield. Strip 3/32 of an inch of insulation from each of the twisted-pair wires at both ends of the cable. Figure 5-22: Twisting the Foil Shield TIP: If you are not wiring the shield to pin 8. TIP: Before going any further. strip one inch of foil shield from each end of the cable. Begin preparing the cable by first stripping 1 1/4 inches of jacket from each end. Again. Use the tension scale/tape measure for accuracy. If you are wiring the shield to pin 8 (along with the bare drain wire).Before beginning this procedure. where applicable) exposed at each end of the cable.

Figure 5-26: Orienting the Tabs for Crimping 230 CHAPTER 5 . For each of the twisted-pair wires (and the twisted foil shield. Figure 5-25: Lining Up the Crimper and Pin 10. Carefully close the crimper tool completely to make the connection. try rotating the pin a quarter turn. as shown in Figure 5-25. 7. TIP: If the wire is not tight. if applicable). Figure 5-24: Inserting a Wire into a Connector Pin 8. as shown in Figure 5-24.6. Examine Figure 5-26 carefully. 9. Insert the stripped end of one of the twistedpair wires into a male DB15 connector pin barrel. pull slightly on the wire to ensure that the crimp is tight. Locate the various wire sizes on the crimper tool. 11. Then insert the connector pin/wire combination into the slot on the crimper tool marked “26-28” (the first slot). TIP: The edge of the crimper tool should line up evenly with the edge of the barrel portion of the pin. With the crimper tool fully closed. and orient the tabs on the connector pin within the crimping area above the “22-26” markers. lift the crimped pin out of the “26-28” slot. 12. repeat steps 6 through 11. When you are convinced that the connection is secure. so that their open side is facing up. and recrimp the barrel. Wrap the tabs around the insulated portion of the wire by carefully closing the crimper tool completely.

as in Figure 5-28. give it a gentle pull to verify this. TIP: The pin number markings are small. Figure 5-29: Inserting a Pin with the Insertion/ Extraction Tool 17. and orient it so that the pin numbers appear as shown in Figure 5-27. As indicated by Table 5-4. 16. This procedure is designed solely to provide practice. Remove the insertion/extraction tool. 18. Carefully compare Table 5-3 with Table 5-4. Locate the insertion/extraction tool and fit the back of the pin attached to the white/blue wire (Pair 1 tip) into the tool. Hold it in place with your thumb. Locate the DB15 male connector end shell. Consult Table 5-4. so if you have trouble reading them. When you feel that it is properly seated in the connector. and note which pin numbers are assigned for each wire of the four twisted pairs. See Figure 5-29. 14. 19. Pin 2 9 3 10 5 12 6 13 8 Figure 5-27: DB15 Male Connector Pin Numbers Table 5-4: DB15 Pin/Wire Assignments Pair (Color) Pair 1 (White/Blue) Pair 1 (Blue/White) Pair 2 (White/Orange) Pair 2 (Orange/White) Pair 3 (White/Green) Pair 3 (Green/White) Pair 4 (White/Brown) Pair 4 (Brown/White) Ground (Shield) Figure 5-28: Positioning the Insertion/Extraction Tool 15. TIP: Don’t worry about which standard this wiring scheme may or may not resemble.13. CABLE INSTALLATION AND MANAGEMENT 231 . Figure 5-28 should be useful as a guide. push the pin/wire combination into the hole of the male DB15 connector designated for pin 2. if applicable). and repeat steps 15 through 18 to insert the remaining pins into the DB15 male connector (including the twisted foil shield.

Use the multimeter to perform a continuity check on the individual wires of the DB15 male connector you just installed. and use the two long screws and the two nuts to loosely fasten the two halves together. be sure to check for unexpected short circuits between adjacent pins (or wires). If it does not. if applicable) at the free end of the STP cable.20. and you may have to repeat this procedure. as shown in Figure 5-31. Install the two halves of the strain relief on the ¼ inch of the cable sleeve containing the exposed foil shield. Figure 5-30: Completed DB15 Male Connector Wiring TIP: The multimeter should show an infinite resistance between any adjacent pins (or wires) with the exception of pin 8 and the foil shield. compare your results with Figure 5-30. as in Figure 5-32. and a short circuit on matching continuity checks. 24. if applicable. If the cable checks out good so far. Position the remaining half of the hood housing as shown in Figure 5-33. Lay one of the hood halves flat. This includes the foil shield. 22. the cable is not correctly prepared. 26. including the two small screws. In addition to the continuity checks between the male connector pins and the corresponding wires (and foil shield. Figure 5-31: Installing the Strain Relief Figure 5-32: Positioning the Connector/Strain Relief TIP: Make a preliminary check to be sure that none of the wires are blocking the screw holes. 21. Locate a DB15 male connector hood housing and its strain relief parts. TIP: Figure 5-30 includes a wired foil shield to pin 8. 232 CHAPTER 5 . 23. continue with the remaining steps. When you have completed inserting the wires into the DB15 male connector shell. 25. and position the connector/strain relief combination into the housing.

and tighten it until it stops. compare your results with Figure 5-35. TIP: Figure 5-35 includes a wired foil shield to pin 8. 39. and thread a metal clip onto one of the retaining screws in the direction shown. Use the small. as shown in Figure 5-34. Figure 5-33: Fastening the Housing Halves Together Figure 5-34: Reading the Pin Numbers on a Female DB15 Shell Figure 5-35: Completed DB15 Female Connector Wiring CABLE INSTALLATION AND MANAGEMENT 233 . 40. 29. 36. and orient it so that you can read the pin numbers. 27. 31. if applicable) repeat step 34. TIP: The pin number markings are small. Finally. 38. Observe Figure 5-33 again. Insert the stripped end of one of the twisted-pair wires into a female DB15 connector pin barrel. Locate the DB15 female connector end shell. if applicable). tighten the two screws from step 26. and then steps 7 through 11. Locate the two retaining screws (slotted-head) and their mated metal clips. 33. With the exception of the fact that you are now working with a female DB15 connector. repeat steps 15 through 19 to insert the remaining pins into the DB15 female connector (including the twisted foil shield. If necessary. 32. For each of the twisted-pair wires (and the twisted foil shield. Figure 5-35 should be useful as a guide. check Table 5-3 with Table 5-4 again to see which pin numbers are assigned for each wire of the four twisted pairs. 30. TIP: Now it’s time to install the female DB15 connector on the free end of the cable. When you have completed inserting the wires into the DB15 female connector shell. Use the multimeter to perform a continuity check on the individual wires of the DB15 female connector you just installed. Repeat steps 28 through 30 for the remaining screw/clip combo. 34. push on the screw until you see (and feel) it pop through the front of the connector. 37. 35. 28.TIP: You don’t want to tighten these housing halves completely until after the next few steps. Locate the female DB15 connector pins. so if you have trouble reading them. Then. flat-blade screwdriver to insert the screw/clip combo into one of the mounting holes in the rear of the connector housing.

TIP: You don’t want to tighten these housing halves completely until after the next few steps. or previous locations. and end connector shells. Before leaving your work area. metal clips. Install the two halves of the strain relief on the ¼ inch of the cable sleeve containing the exposed foil shield. just as you did for the male connector. 45. Finally. 52. This includes the foil shield.41. Position the remaining half of the hood housing as shown in Figure 5-36. if applicable) at the male end of the STP cable. tighten the two screws from step 45. Ask your instructor how to store the parts recovered from this procedure. and position the connector/strain relief combination into the housing. 46. Locate the two wire slide clips and orient one of them in the direction shown in Figure 5-36. ask your instructor whether to store the cable or recover the usable parts. Check to be sure that all of the tools. Any problems should be confined to the newly installed female connector shell. if applicable. 48. and parts have been returned to their storage area. TIP: Make a preliminary check to be sure that none of the wires are blocking the screw holes. Once the completed AUI (from STP) cable passes a final continuity check. retaining screws. 49. TIP: The multimeter should show an infinite resistance between any adjacent pins (or wires) with the exception of pin 8 and the foil shield. If it does not. connector shells. and you may have to repeat this procedure. 44. strain reliefs. 47. including the two small screws. Then. be sure to check for unexpected short circuits between adjacent pins (or wires). and disassemble the hoods. Use the insertion/extraction tool to remove any male/female pins from the end connectors. housing hoods. and long screws. Locate a DB15 female connector hood housing and its strain relief parts. Figure 5-36: Fastening the Housing Halves Together 50. repeat the procedure for the remaining slide clip. the cable is not correctly prepared. slide clips. Push the slide clip horizontally until it seats into its permanent slot. 42. check to be sure that you are leaving it in a clean and orderly condition. Lay one of the hood halves flat. cables. Discard the used pins and twisted-pair fragments and recover all of the short screws. clip the connectors and store the remaining length of cable. and a short circuit on matching continuity checks. 51. Remember that the cable checked good before you mounted the male hood. 43. TIP: To recover usable parts. and use the two long screws and the two nuts to loosely fasten the two halves together. In addition to the continuity checks between the female connector pins and the corresponding wires (and foil shield. 234 CHAPTER 5 .

Figure 5-37: IBM Token-Ring 150-Ohm STP Cable A copper braided shield circles the entire length of the cable just below the outer jacket to help reduce the effects of EMI and RFI. this extensive shielding means that 150-ohm STP cabling can carry large data rates. In order to create as dependable a network as possible. 150-ohm STP cable has an outer diameter of 0. As you would expect. Because the pairs are twisted. In addition. as shown in Figure 5-37. IBM developed 150-ohm STP cable to benefit from three different forms of shielding. heavy. It is known simply as 150-ohm STP. which parts must be discarded? 2. The braided shielding is grounded at both ends. CABLE INSTALLATION AND MANAGEMENT 235 .98 mm). The downside to all this is that the additional spacing required for all the shielding means that the cable itself must be large. the most common form of STP was originally developed and introduced by IBM for its Token Ring network architecture (IEEE 802. Describe the differences in how pins are numbered between male and female D connectors.4 inches (0.5). and is not used for any part of the signal path. meaning that wiring closets and conduits must be much larger than those required for a comparable UTP installation. As you would expect. its characteristic impedance is engineered for 150 ohms. which normally varies at ± 10 percent over a frequency range of 3 MHz to 20 MHz. Why should the continuity check be done before installing the hood housings? When disassembling the D connectors. This is in spite of the fact that the copper wire used for the two pairs is only 22 AWG solid strand. similar to UTP. and expensive. additional protection from electrically generated noise is afforded. each of the two twisted pairs is outfitted with its own shield for reduced exposure to crosstalk. 3.Procedure 14 Questions 1. In fact. while the distortion levels are kept to a minimum. 150-OHM STP REQUIREMENTS Although shielded twisted pair (STP) cable is also manufactured in the 100-ohm variety.

also called “1A”.0 54.6 4. Everything that was presented in the telecommunications closet section earlier is also valid for the TCs used to service 150-ohm systems.1 41. and are usually outfitted with proprietary connectors that interface directly to the hub. Table 5-5 lists the criteria used for rating the maximum acceptable Balanced Mode Attenuation/NEXT signal loss for the worst pair in both horizontal and backbone STP-A cable.26 mm (0. The conditions stipulated for these values are through 100 meters (328 feet) of cable at a temperature of 25 degrees Celsius.8 12. an installer should follow the recommendations for 150-ohm STP patch panels. the extended cabling system replaces the initial version. and is not only applicable for Token Ring applications to 100 Mbps.9 9.5 46. or to a 150-ohm. · The color code for 150-ohm STP cable is as follows: ¨ ¨ Pair 1: green is tip.9 53.2 3.50 100 300 Attenuation (dB) 2. Extended 150-ohm STP is defined in TSB-53.A second and newer variety is the “Extended” 150-ohm STP cable. and patch cords. In TIA/EIA T568A. Passive or active hubs usually are connected via the 150-ohm STP media interface connectors.5 38.3 21. and are not recommended. but is also being suggested for broadband video. to the horizontal cabling. and red is ring. Horizontal and backbone cables are most commonly terminated to an IDC on the patch panel. and orange is ring.102 inches) maximum.25 62. Pair 2: black is tip. exceed the diameter of . but crossconnect blocks are rarely used.3 · The insulated conductor shall not · The cable shall be restricted to 2pair only. with extended components being designated by an “A” following the type designation on the cables.5 50. because of its reference to the extended version designator for the newer Type 1 cable. the size of the closets should be larger in order to accommodate the larger-sized cables and conduit being used. minimizing the number of necessary connections.4 4. and the increased amount of equipment that would be needed to service them. ± 10 percent. This extended cable maintains its 150-ohm characteristic impedance up to frequencies of 300 MHz. STP media interface connector.9 6. Backbone cables may be optical fiber or 150-ohm STP cables.4 NEXT (dB) 58. 236 CHAPTER 5 .5 31. In either case.1 3. 150-Ohm STP Closet and Connecting Hardware Patch panels electronic hubs Patch panels and passive or electronic hubs are the most common crossconnect hardware.0 47. The physical design of 150-ohm STP-A c a b le s h o u ld me e t th e f o llo w in g specifications: Table 5-5: STP-A Balanced Mode Attenuation/NEXT Signal Loss Frequency (MHz) 4 8 10 16 20 25 31. However.4 49.2 6.

Other recommendations should include: · Allow 1 to 3 feet ( 1/3 to 1 meter) of service loop for future adds. due to its large size. space: ¨ ¨ ¨ · Racks should have at least the following clearances for access and cable dressing 30 inches (762 mm) in the rear 36 inches (915 mm) in the front 14 inches (356 mm) on the side The telecommunications connector to be used for terminating the 150-ohm STP cable shall be that specified by IEEE 802. hermaphroditic 150-Ohm STP Patch and Equipment Cords Patch cords for 150-ohm STP systems are usually purchased items and are not normally constructed in the field. you should keep in mind that this may be difficult with the cable. This connector is installed directly on the horizontal cable at the work area. Just as for patch cords. follow the patch panel or hub vendor's recommendations. so that the two identical units will mate when oriented 180 degrees with respect to each other. moves. Keep in mind that the maximum lengths for equipment cords should be limited to 10 feet (3 meters). and are not normally constructed in the field. if field construction becomes necessary. This connector is hermaphroditic in design (having both male and female connector elements). · For 19-inch (483-mm) rack-mounted crossconnect panel installations. Follow the equipment vendor's recommendations if and when field construction of any equipment cords becomes necessary. allow room on the rack for possible telecommunications equipment associated with the 150-ohm STP cable. The new extended version (specified in TSB-53) will mate with the old version. STP snap-type media interface connectors In either case. CABLE INSTALLATION AND MANAGEMENT 237 . moves. the equipment cords for 150-ohm STP systems are usually provided by the equipment vendor.150-Ohm Crossconnect Panels Two types of crossconnect panels are generally used for STP patching: crossconnect panels · A panel with IDCs for termination of the building cables · An open panel with lock openings for 150-ohm. It is recommended that the extended version be used in all new installations.5 for the media interface connector. and changes. Patch cord lengths are limited to 23 feet (7 meters). and changes. However. Although it is suggested that a 1 to 3 foot (1/3 to 1 meter) service loop be added at both locations for adds. the installer needs to follow the manufacturer’s recommendations for making the terminations. or in the telecommunications closet.

· Patch cord lengths should be limited to 7 meters (approximately 23 feet). 238 CHAPTER 5 . To facilitate ongoing cabling system management and changes. and nonstandard installation changes accumulate in TCs. Always keep an updated version of all the wiring runs on file for ease of troubleshooting. always clean up the work area once an installation is completed. but to troubleshoot existing cable. For example. the resulting reality is that even simple changes are more difficult and time-consuming to make. The following points constitute a basic checklist of administration practices. In order to maintain confidence between the employer and the contracting company. Realize that the orderly management of the telecommunications closet is a vital link to a smooth operation. CABLING MANAGEMENT The TC will have conduits or raceways entering into it for backbone and horizontal cables. for planning additions and moves. because there will be no wire scraps or unused equipment to work around. Get used to the fact that a neat and accurate record of the installation is a must. Cabling management involves both the planning and documentation of each installation. wiring installations should be documented per the requirements of TIA-606.” leftover disconnected equipment. and it will make it easier not only to run new cable. · Telecommunications closet design must follow TIA/EIA 569. As “quick fixes. This will certainly make it easier to do future installations. these should be discussed with the building owner or manager and adhered to carefully. changes to even the most well-planned installation can (and often does) degrade a closet into an impossible situation. · Equipment cord lengths should be limited to 3 meters (approximately 10 feet). they should be removed. By doing this simple step. as well as troubleshooting.General Rules for Installation of 150-Ohm STP By way of repetition. Good management is every bit as important as making good connections to wires. proper wiring administration is a requirement of TIA-T568A. and to facilitate the making of repairs. If additional or alternate local practices have been established. if and when any wires are found disconnected at the telecommunications closet. a technician could save hours of frustration. · Maintain at least 1 meter (approximately 3 feet) of cable for a service loop. the following list summarizes the most important recommendations for the installation of 150-ohm STP cables: · Always follow the manufacturer’s recommended termination methods. In fact. As time passes. It will improve the appearance of the closet.

you should: · Plan for those inevitable future changes by allowing sufficient space in closets. leftover materials. document all of your wiring and test results. Be readily accessible. Assure that all connections include the necessary cabling service loops to effect these changes. and include the station phone numbers for each access line. Be decipherable by other installers. whether the installation calls for a simple or complex wiring plan. Maintain the relationship of pairs and lines at the distribution device. and at both ends. and the relationships between the wire colors. This is very important in situations where colors have been converted at a distribution device. Be scrupulously maintained. Therefore: ¨ ¨ ¨ All wiring should be laid out methodically and consistently. This is also an important point for category compliance. For future reference. the wire color combinations for each line. In order to save hours of future troubleshooting. use standard wiring practices to ensure that all connections can be easily found and identified. and clearly indicate the marking scheme in your SLVW Journal. Differentiate between all primary and secondary outlet locations in your documentation. installation: ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ · Include the following items in your SLVW Journal documentation for each Indicate the length of cable runs to each room. Instead. now and later. which would degrade system performance. CABLE INSTALLATION AND MANAGEMENT 239 . Closets should be kept clean. Unused equipment. and miscellaneous items should be removed from all ERs and TCs to provide full access to the cabling and the equipment currently in use at these locations. Note any special circumstances. Be sure to document the cabling color code. and to maintain category compliance. along with any solutions that were found. to make them. and elsewhere. with adequate room to work. Regardless of Be complete and orderly. Crossconnections made in ceilings. · Neatness is an essential ingredient of any installation. · Logically plan the system crossconnect points so that each individual channel can be tested without making additional or unnecessary connections. for example. and clearly label the lines if the distribution device does not have a valid marking scheme. are not standard. ¨ ¨ ¨ · Be certain that all your cable runs are labeled in the middle. Also document any problems that may have occurred. remember to provide a copy of the documentation at the wiring location (near a distribution device) and to keep a copy for your records. · Avoid making quick fixes to any installation. it must: ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ · Make your wiring plan consistent throughout your documentation. and will probably be forgotten about and difficult to manage.To maintain proper cable management techniques.

You also gained an opportunity to fit the outlet into a wall plate. and the differences between them. TCs. their cabling color schemes. The history leading up to the creation of the TIA/EIA T568A series of telecommunications cabling standards was also included. and about some specific attributes of each. and described the concept of structured cabling. Following an explanation of the benefits in using structured cabling. jumpers. You learned what backbone cabling is. In addition to discovering the differences between 100-ohm UTP and 150-ohm STP systems. and the equipment/components. The ER/EF sizing requirements were discussed. and why the horizontal topology is normally configured as a star. and how grounding and bonding issues are covered by the TIA/EIA 607 specification and the NEC. although normally used for vertical cabling systems. You gained experience in Procedure 12 with installing a punch-down modular telecommunications outlet. as well as testing a modular jack and its associated 100-ohm UTP cabling. and how it relates to the TIA/EIA 569 specification. how they interface with work area cabling and components. You became familiar with the various types of crossconnects. and patch cords. where you installed and tested both male and female DB15 connectors according to the AUI cabling specification (probably using 150-ohm STP rather than standard AUI twisted pair). You read about the differences between a telecommunications closet and an equipment room. you learned what horizontal cabling is. For Procedure 13. Various cable lengths were also discussed. and the definitions for patch cords and jumpers. You read about how the entrance facilities relate to the equipment room. along with various examples. You examined the subject of telecommunications outlets and connectors. You performed Procedure 14. 240 CHAPTER 5 . you learned why so much attention is now being paid to the patch cords that make the various crossconnections between ERs. as well as how these standards were specifically formulated for commercial buildings. you installed and tested an edge-connector modular outlet using 100-ohm UTP cable. as well as the general rules for its installation. you learned why proper cabling management practices are so important to maintaining a robust telecommunications installation. You learned how the star topology. The way in which backbone cabling interfaces with different types of crossconnects was examined. Finally.CHAPTER SUMMARY This chapter introduced you to the philosophy behind the existence of cabling standards in general. You then examined the particular requirements and specifications for 150-ohm STP cabling. with particular attention being given to maximum distances. as were the maximum distances allowed for various types of vertical cables. can be combined with a ring topology to provide resilience in a cabling system.

What is the maximum cable length from a user outlet to a station device? 6. State the color code for an 150-ohm STP cable. Where should cabling be labeled? 4. How much of a CAT3 cable can be untwisted? CAT4? CAT5? 9. What is the maximum recommended pulling tension on a 4-pair cable? 5. 8.REVIEW QUESTIONS T he following questions test your knowledge of the material presented in this chapter: 1. CABLE INSTALLATION AND MANAGEMENT 241 . What types of cables are recommended by TIA to be used for vertical backbone cabling? 3. What type of topology is horizontal cabling? 10. Define horizontal cabling. 7. Hubs are connected together to the crossconnect facilities using “riser” or _____________. How much extra cabling should be allowed for a service loop? 2.

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