CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

• The Information Age has led to an explosion of information available to users . While current storage needs are being met, storage technologies must continue to improve in order to keep pace with the rapidly increasing demand. A Fourth Generation Optical Storage is an advanced optical disk that's presently in the development stage. • A Fourth Generation Optical Storage is a volumetric approach which , although conceived decades ago, has made recent progress toward practicality with the appearance of lower-cost enabling technologies . • The technology permits over 10 kilobits of data to be written and read in parallel with a single flash. • Fourth generation storage technology, offers both high storage density and fast readout rate.

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and the distance of the read head from the center of the disc (inner tracks are read at a faster disc speed). due to a reflection when read) on a special material (oftenaluminium[citation needed]) on one of its flat surfaces.05 in) thick. The pits or bumps distort the reflected laser light. hence most optical discs (except the black discs of the original PlayStation video game console) characteristically have an iridescent appearance created by the grooves of the reflective layer.6 µm.2 mm (0. due to lack of reflection when read) and lands (binary value of 1 or on. The encoding material sits atop a thicker substrate (usually polycarbonate) which makes up the bulk of the disc and forms a dust defocusing layer. The encoding pattern follows a continuous. while the track pitch (distance from the center of one track to the center of the next) is typically 1. Optical discs are usually between 7. A typical disc is about 1. Danish Ahmad Khan-0800112058 3 . The data is stored on the disc with a laser or stamping machine. and can be accessed when the data path is illuminated with alaser diode in an optical disc drive which spins the disc at speeds of about 200 to 4000 RPM or more.CHAPTER 2 HISTORY In computing and optical disc recording technologies. fingerprints. This side of the disc contains the actual data and is typically coated with a transparent material. generally made of paper but sometimes printed or stamped onto the disc itself. depending on the drive type. Unlike the 3½-inch floppy disk. spiral path covering the entire disc surface and extending from the innermost track to the outermost track. most optical discs do not have an integrated protective casing and are therefore susceptible to data transfer problems due to scratches. an optical disc is a flat. The reverse side of an optical disc usually has a printed label.75 in) being the most common size. disc format. usually lacquer. with 12 cm (4.6 and 30 cm (3 to 12 in) in diameter. usually circular disc which encodes binary data (bits) in the form of pits (binary value of 0 or off. and other environmental problems.

optical discs were used to store music and computer software.1) First Generation Optical Storage • • The optical disc was invented in 1958.CHAPTER 3 EVOLUTION OF OPTICAL DISCS 3. Danish Ahmad Khan-0800112058 4 . Initially.

Danish Ahmad Khan-0800112058 5 . thus wavelength is a limiting factor against great information density. The minimum size of the laser spot is proportional to its wavelength. is 700 MB of net user data for a 12 cm compact disc. too little data can be stored so.• • • • The Laser disc format stored analog video signals for the distribution of home video. achieved with an infrared laser. • One example of high-density data storage capacity. so. Other first-generation disc formats were designed only to store digital data and were not initially capable of use as a digital video medium. The infrared range is beyond the long-wavelength end of the visible light spectrum. supports less density than any visible light colour. Most first-generation disc devices had an infrared laser reading head.

smaller media. single-layer disc. including broadcast-quality digital video. single-sided.3. In the DVD format. such as the Mini Disc can have capacity comparable to that of the larger.7 GB storage on a standard 12 cm.2) Second Generation Optical Storage • • Second-generation optical discs were for storing great amounts of data. standard compact 12 cm disc. Discs usually are read with a visible-light laser (usually red) the shorter wavelength and greater numerical aperture allow a narrower light beam. permitting smaller pits and lands in the disc. this allows 4. Danish Ahmad Khan-0800112058 6 . alternatively.

• The Blu-ray disc uses blue-violet lasers and focusing optics of greater aperture.2 mm plastic optical disc. The effective multimedia presentation capacity is improved with enhanced video data compression codecs . It was officially released in June 2006. with dual layer discs (50 GB) being the norm for feature-length video discs. the same size as DVDs and CDs.3)Third Generation Optical Storage • Third-generation optical discs are meant for distributing high-definition video and support greater data storage capacities. • high-definition video and greater data storage accomplished with short-wavelength visible-light lasers and greater numerical apertures. Blu-ray Disc (official abbreviation BD) is an optical disc storage medium designed to supersede the DVD format. thereby greater data storage capacity per layer.3. • 3. The disc diameter is 120 mm and disc thickness 1.3. Blu-ray Discs contain 25 GB per layer. for use with discs with smaller pits and lands. Danish Ahmad Khan-0800112058 7 . Triple layer discs (100 GB) and quadruple layers (128 GB) are available for BD-XL Blu-ray re-writer drives. and the first prototype player was released in April 2003 in Japan.1) Blu-ray Discs • • • • • The first Blu-ray Disc prototypes were unveiled in October 2000.

BD-Rs can be written to once. Higher speeds of rotation (10. "Blu-ray Disc recordable" refers to two optical disc formats that can be recorded with an optical disc recorder.000+ rpm) cause too much wobble for the discs to be read properly. whereas BD-REs can be erased and re-recorded multiple times. BD-RE is also available in the smaller 8 cm Mini Blu-ray Disc size • • • • Danish Ahmad Khan-0800112058 8 .• The name Blu-ray Disc refers to the blue laser used to read the disc. which allows information to be stored at a greater density than is possible with the longer-wavelength red laser used for DVDs. September 2007. The current practical maximum speed for Blu-ray Discs is about 12×.

In holographic data storage an entire page of information is stored at once as an optical interference pattern within a thick.1) Holographic Versatile Disc • Although holography was conceived in the late 1940s. it was not considered a potential storage technology until the development of the laser in the 1960s. Danish Ahmad Khan-0800112058 9 . photosensitive optical material. rather than bit-by-bit. of which one is blue-green and the other red. The red laser on the other hand acts as a reference beam. Since each data page is retrieved by an array of photo detectors in parallel.CHAPTER 4 FOURTH GENERATION OPTICAL DISC The following formats go beyond the current third-generation discs and have the potential to hold more than one terabyte (1 TB) of data: 4. is the wave-length of the light beam used. The blue-green laser reads the data that is encoded in the form of laser interference fringes emitted from the holographic layer that is on the top. the holographic scheme promises fast readout rates as well as high density. • • • • The particular technology used in the production of HVD is known as collinear holography. to form a single beam. This technology involves the collimating of two lasers. The resulting rapid development of holography for displaying 3-D images led researchers to realize that holograms could also store data at a volumetric density of as much as 1/ A3 where “A”. Holographic data storage works on the principle of holography.

Hologram (data)(shown here as brown) 4. or developing and commoditizing a laser capable of higher power output while being suitable for a consumer unit 4. Current optical storage saves one bit per pulse. High densities are possible by moving these closer on the tracks: 100 GB at 18 μm separation. Red positioning/addressing laser (650 nm) 3. Green writing/reading laser (532 nm) 2. Distance layers 7. truncated cone shape that has a 200 μm diameter at the bottom and a 500 μm diameter at the top. Photo polymeric layer (data-containing layer) 6.1. Polycarbonate layer 5. Transparent base P.000 bits per pulse in an inverted.1) ARCHITECTURE OF HOLOGRAPHHIC VERSATILE DISC • • • • • • • • • 1. Pit pattern Danish Ahmad Khan-0800112058 10 . Dichroic layer (reflecting green light) 8. with an output power of 1 watt which is high power for a consumer device laser. 200 GB at 13 μm. Aluminium reflective layer (reflecting red light) 9. The system uses a green laser.• • • Holographic Versatile Disc can store data upto several TB. Possible solutions include improving the sensitivity of the polymer used. and most demonstrated of 5 TB for 3 μm on a 10 cm disc. 500 GB at 8 μm. and the HVD alliance hopes to improve this efficiency with capabilities of around 60.

4. thus it can be addressed. This optical disc technology allows much larger data storage densities than DVD. • • • • Danish Ahmad Khan-0800112058 11 . by allowing the use of a large number of data layers in a single disc. is the term coined by Hitachi in 2003. meaning that a very large number of layers can theoretically be stacked in the same disc This reflection phenomenon from a particular layer is accomplished by an electronic "selection" mechanism. In LS-R.2) LS-R LAYER SELECTION TYPE RECORDABLE DISC:• • LS-R. HD DVD or Blu-ray Disc. only the layer of interest generates a reflection. or the Layer-Selection-Type Recordable Optical Disk. Activation changes the "selected" data layer from being transparent to being reflective or opaque. Each data layer is coated with electrodes and only the electrodes associated with the layer of interest are activated.

Example:-  Tungsten oxide or an organic material to accomplish the optical change. • A two-layer feasibility prototype has been demonstrated.2.4. LS-R technology utilizes an electro chromic film.2. • Danish Ahmad Khan-0800112058 12 .1)Layer Structure(LS-R) 4. Electrical activation of layers has been achieved with transparent ITO(Indium tin oxide) electrodes. and it was estimated that a 20-layer CD-sized disc could provide 1 terabyte of data capacity.2) TECHNOLOGY • • In the Hitachi implementation.

4. formerly of Harvard Medical School and Florida International University. PCD would greatly increase storage over Holographic Versatile Disc optical disc systems. A method to address individual protein molecules to read and write information to and from them would have to be developed in order to achieve the theoretical 50 TB capacity. so a DVD-sized disc might be able to hold ~50 GB.1)TECHNOLOGY USED • • • • The information in such discs would be highly dense. to closely replicate head movements without being attached to the head. 4. capacity would probably be limited by the size that addressing light can be focused to. rotating about an axis point. The technology uses the photosynthetic pigment bacteriorhodopsin created from bacteria. Due to being stored in proteins that are only a few nanometres across.3) PROTIEN COATED – DISC • • • Protein-Coated Disc (PCD) is a theoretical optical disc technology currently being developed by Professor V. It involves coating a normal DVD with a special light-sensitive protein made from a genetically altered microbe.3. • • It would in principle allow storage of up to 50 Terabytes on one disc.R Gopalkrishnan. Danish Ahmad Khan-0800112058 13 .

DVD+R.CHAPTER 5 ADVANTAGE OF OPTICAL DISCS A direct access storage device that is written and read by light. CD-ROM. They weigh less. flash drives and external hard disks that plug into the USB port have given optical discs a run for their money as a transportable storage medium. WORM CD-RW DVD-RAM. holographic storage. Write-Once (Burnable) Write-once discs are recorded in the user's environment but cannot be erased. Rewritable (Phase Change and Magneto Optic) Rewritable discs can be written and re-written numerous times. DVD-RW. DVD+RW BD-RE. have higher capacities and are not subject to head crashes or corruption from stray magnetic fields. as well as magneto-optic (MO) discs in WORM mode. Following are the major types. optical discs have advantages over the older removable magnetic disk cartridges. DVD+RW and BD-RE (Blu-ray) (see phase change disc). They include the CD-R. multilevel optical disc and legality of optical storage. DVD+R BD-R. CD-ROM DVD-ROM. See DVD. DVD-RAM. Employing phase change technology. WORM discs. As removable media. magneto-optic (MO) Write once Rewritable Danish Ahmad Khan-0800112058 14 . DVD-Video BD-ROM CR-R DVD-R. They also have a 30-year life and are less vulnerable to extremes of hot and cold. DVD-R. Writability Read only Optical Disc Types CD. DVD-RW. magneto-optic (MO) disks are extremely robust (see magneto-optic disk). BD-R (Blu-ray). Used in corporate optical disc libraries that hold multiple cartridges. consumer-oriented products include CD-RW. Read-Only (Factory Pressed) Read-only discs are pressed from a master at the time of manufacture and cannot be erased. DVD-Video and BD-ROM (Blu-ray). However. The most common optical discs in use are CDs and DVDs. They include the music CD. ISO 13346. DVD-ROM.

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