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The 2002 Basic Education Curriculum (DepEd, Apr. 5, 2002), cited several reasons why the basic education curriculum should be restructured. Restructuring does not mean complete revision or change of the curriculum. It only means refining and giving more emphasis to some aspects that are deemed more responsive to the present realities. The Four Pillars of Education in Jacques Delors‟ Report to UNESCO(1996,pp. 22-24) was one of the documents that influenced the restructuring of the curriculum. The third and fourth pillars, Learning to Live Together and Learning to Be, which emphasize using the knowledge gained to improve oneself and one‟s relationship with fellow human beings, are especially relevant. The emphasis on learning-to-learn skills has long been a feature of the curriculum. But it seems that it got lost in implementation. Thus, the new BEC gives it greater impetus, along with the development of functional literacy which involves the development of the essential skills such as “linguistic fluency and scientific – numerical competence. Lifelong learning is possible only when our people become functionally literate,” (David Kemp as mentioned in the 2002 Basic Ed. Curriculum). To further decongest the curriculum and to provide more contact time for the tool subjects, the restructured curriculum emphasizes the enhanced teaching of the four (4) core subjects Filipino, English, Mathematics and Science. A fifth subject called Makabayan, which is envisioned to be a “laboratory of life” or practice environment, integrated the other non-tool subject. The Features of the BEC
1. Greater emphases on helping every learner become a successful reader. Several studies mentioned earlier (PCSPE, SOUTELE) showed that our students are weak in the 3R‟s. If our students do not know how to read, it will be very difficult for them to learn the other subjects. Let us take for example the learning of mathematics. It has been shown that most children can do the computational skills, but when the equations are put into word problems, they cannot solve the problems correctly. The culprit is their lack of ability to comprehend what they read.
Thus, under the BEC, the emphasis is for every child to become successful reader by Grade III. You must have heard of the program Every Child a Reader Program or E-CARP. This program of the Bureau of Elementary Education (BEE) provides materials and training for teachers to become effective reading teachers. If you are teaching Grades I-III, it is your main responsibility to see to it that your students learn how to read. Modules 6.1 and 6.2 on the Teaching of Communication Arts – English and Filipino will show you how. If you are to teach in the higher grades/years, it does not mean that you will no longer be a reading teacher. You must continuously help your students to develop their reading ability further. In all subjects, children read in order to learn; thus, all teachers must be reading teachers. The BEC includes the reading competencies/skills that your students should master. Your job is to develop those competencies. 2. Emphasis on interactive/collaborative learning approaches Teachers have a tendency to lecture. They seem to feel that they have all the questions and all the answers. Try to tape one of your lessons and compare the length of time you talk and the amount of time pupils/students do the talking. And if they do talk, what do they say? Do they simply say “Yes, Ma‟am or „No, Ma‟am?” If this is the case, your class is very much teacher– dominated or teacher-directed. Nothing much happens in your classroom except for your children to affirm what you are saying. Do you think they are becoming robots in the process? Interactive learning is like playing basketball. The teacher interacts with the pupils and the pupils interact among themselves. They work together to achieve the lesson objectives for the day. They can work together as a whole class or work in small groups. The teacher does not direct but merely facilitates the learning process. 3. Emphasis on the use of Integrative Learning Approaches The child learns as a whole individual. While for convenience in scheduling, class time is blocked into periods for the different subject areas, the integration of learning takes place within the individual. This is called covert integration. It is not done deliberately but it happens in the life of the individual learner. On the other hand, you as the teacher can employ strategies that will show students how to relate earnings in one subject to leanings in other subjects or how to integrate elements within a learning area. This is overt integration. If you are the English or Filipino teacher, you can use science topics or Araling Panlipunan topics, respectively, as vehicles for teaching the skills of listening, speaking, reading and writing. Thus you are integrating within and across learning areas.
be very conscious of the values that can be infused or integrated in the lesson. Let us teach our students how to stand on their own two feet. Teaching of values in all learning areas. and nationalism. As the teacher. . many mentioned patriotism. In what learning areas can you exemplify the value of patriotism? The very name itself of the learning area MAKABAYAN is a give -away. Values are those that you consider of most worth. Refrain from dominating the classroom interaction. Values permeate everything that you do. 5. Guide the students to create and construct their own knowledge. Development of Critical and Creative Thinking Skills Earlier you learned that the BEC is an interactive curriculum. They bring with them the stock knowledge they gain from life outside the school. The curriculum has provided you a wealth of opportunities to engage students in reflecting on their own leanings.4. they should not always rely on the government to do things for them. every teacher is considered a values education teacher. You can start them early on the trait of self-reliance. but probe the thinking processes that helped them arrive at the correct answers. but our schools are mandated to teach the values of love of country. Whatever lesson you teach. Development of self-reliant and patriotic citizens. Children learn not only from you or from the books that the DepEd provides. you will be greatly responsible for developing creativity and critical thinking among your students. You can always look for activities 6. In the implementation of the BEC. When parents were asked during the time of PRODED what values they would like emphasized in schools. You may not fully agree with them. to find new answers to old questions and to work out problems cooperatively among themselves with you as the facilitator. The formal knowledge from the school and their own personal experiences are ingredients for further learning in the restructured BEC. Recall the legal bases of the Philippine BEC. While the government is there to help. You cannot separate values from what you do. but it is only the schools that can do a good job of teaching the value of patriotism. or from experiences in the classroom. We would like to erase the culture of mendicancy from our people. Do not be satisfied with just the correct answer. They said that many values can be learned at home and can be taught in the church. patriotism.
2. 3. 232 provides the general objectives of elementary. The Structure of the 2002 Basic Education Curriculum The objectives of elementary and secondary education serve as the “official learning goals” of basic education as stated for a particular population of learners. 2. and values essential for personal development. Be dutifully alert to opportunities that will help them synthesize their own earnings and apply them to real life situations. The Education Act of 1982 or Batas Pambansa Blg. The objectives of elementary education are as follows: 1. The objectives of secondary education are threefold: 1. a productive life. Provide the challenge to make them think critically. that is. the elementary and secondary education learners. Provide learning experiences that increase the child‟s awareness of and responsiveness to the just demands of society 3. and love for our nation and the community to which the learner belongs 4. Continue the general education started in elementary 2. and constructive engagement with a changing social milieu. and nonformal education. The objectives of non-formal education are as follows: 1. secondary. Provide the knowledge and develop the skills. Prepare the learners for the world of work. attitudes. Promote and intensify awareness of. Promote experiences that develop the learner‟s orientation to the world of work and prepare the learner to engage in honest and gainful work. The Bureau of Alternative Learning System (formerly Non-formal Education) likewise has a set of official learning goals for its particular set of target learners – the out-of-school youth and adults. Eradicate illiteracy and raise the level of functional literacy of the population.Never dictate to your students how they should organize their own earnings. identification with. Prepare the learners for college. Provide an alternative means of learning and certification for out-of-school youth and adults .
Separate VI) Edukasyong Pantahanan at Pangkabuhayan (EPP) (IV-VI) Edukasyong Pagpapakatao (EP). To operationalize the official learning goals. Sibika (HKS) (IV-VI) Musika. Mathematics c. and national development. Sining at Edukasyong Pangkatawan at Pangkalusugan Edukasyon sa Pagpapahalaga . Science The fifth subject. called Makabayan. community. attitudes. considered as the core or tool subjects and one (1) non–core subject. Kasaysayan. (BEC. Develop among the learners the proper values.3. was organized into four (4) learning areas. The core subjects for both the elementary and secondary levels are the following: a. Filipino b. Separate subject from Grade I-VI subjects in Grades IV- Secondary Level Araling Panlipunan Technology and Livelihood Education (TLE) Musika. and knowledge to enable them to think critically and act creatively for personal. English d. 2002)Makabayan has several components as follows: Elementary Level Sibika at Kultura (S&K) (I-III) Heograpiya. the BEC. Sining at Edukasyong Pangkatawan (MSEP) (Integrated in Grades I-III. was designated as the “practice environment for holistic learning to develop a healthy personal and national self-identity”.
At the end of Grade I. the PSLC is your “bible‟. understand basic facts of multiplication and division and apply the concepts learned to solve problems. It is now your turn to become more familiar with the PELC or the PSLC. They are the documents that you have to study religiously because they are the sources of your objectives and they prescribe the contents of your lessons as well as the strategies and assessment procedures to use. measurements and graphs. and scales. that is. Science and Health and for all the Makabayan Components. fractions. Get the Handbook for the learning area that you are teaching and go through it. there is handbook for each learning area. You will base your daily lessons on the PELC or PSLC. the child is expected to demonstrate understanding of basic concepts and skills on whole numbers up to one hundred. what the students are expected to accomplish at the end of the year. geometry. graphs. the child is expected to demonstrate understanding of concepts and perform skills of whole numbers up to millions and billions including money.Philippine Elementary Learning Competencies (PELC) and the Philippine Secondary Learning Competencies (PSLC) If you are an elementary school teacher. Mathematics. including basics of geometry. . as a teacher. the child is expected to demonstrate understanding of concepts and skills on whole numbers up to one hundred. This goal is further broken down into goals for each grade level. The PELC and PSLC are organized according to learning areas so you have a list of objectives and competencies from Grades I-VI and from first year to fourth year for English. the child is expected to demonstrate understanding of concepts and skills on whole numbers up to one hundred thousand. perform addition and subtraction of 3 to 4 digit numbers. the PELC is your “bible”. are expected to achieve. They are issued under separate covers.VI are given. fractions. including money and measurement. decimal. The goals for Grades I. At the end of Grade II. Filipino. perform the four fundamental operations of whole numbers and measurement and apply the concepts learned in solving problems. exact and estimated computation on the four fundamental operations and apply the concepts learned to solve problems. that is. perform addition and subtraction of 1 to 3 digit numbers and apply the concepts learned to solve problems. The PELC and the PSLC define the intermediate and the specific learning goals that your pupils are expected to learn and that you. At the end of Grade III. If you are in the secondary schools. At the end of Grade IV.
4. measurement. They possessed them as expressed in their way of life and as shown in the rule of the barangays. the solidarity of the family. the child is expected to have mastered the concepts and operations of whole numbers. fractions. They had contacts with other foreign people from Arabia. measurement and graphs. 3. the Filipino possessed a culture of their own. demonstrate understanding of concepts and perform skills on fractions. The Pre-Spanish Curriculum Before the coming of the Spaniards. the children obedience and respect for their elders. Informal education as a result o his interaction with others in the group of which he has a member. The youngster learned their trade through experience. 5. exact and estimated computation of the four fundamental operations on rational numbers including money and measurement and apply the concepts learned in solving problems. India. possessing their system of writing. geometry. China. Indo-China and Borneo. There was no direct teaching. percent geometry. exact and estimated computation of the four fundamental operations on rational numbers including money and measurement and apply the concepts learned in solving problems. the modesty of the women. ratio and proportion. patterns of culture. The Filipinos were a civilized people. ideas and new knowledge was unplanned and unsystematic. . the child is expected to have mastered the concepts and operations of whole numbers. no formal method of teaching. and graphs. ratio.At the end of Grade V. observations. demonstrate understanding of concepts and perform skills on decimals. The learning of the basic skills. decimals including money. Ideas and facts were acquired through suggestions. simple probability. examples and imitation. and in the valor of men. their code of laws – Code of Kalantiao and Maragtas – They believe in the Bathala. At the end of Grade VI. integers. 2. Education which the early Filipinos received: 1. percent. laws and moral standards in a well organized system of education as we have now.
discover what is good and proper for one‟s self. and 3. Modesto de Castro. they were surprised to find a population with a literacy rate higher than the literacy rate of Madrid. the curriculum for boys and girls was aimed to: 1. education was still decentralized. According to Fr. . They were using a unique system of writing known as the baybayin. The main reading materials were the cartilla. Children were provided more vocational training but less academics in their houses by their parents and in the houses of their tribal tutors. author of Urban at Felisa (1877). The schools were unguarded and the curriculum organization was separately subject-organization. When the Spanish arrived in Manila. The school then were parochial or convent schools.The Spanish-devised Curriculum The Spanish curriculum consisted of the three R‟s – reading. The method of instruction was predominantly individual memorization. teach young boys and girls to serve and love God. 2. and the catecismo. The curriculum goals were the acceptance of Catholicism and the acceptance of Spanish rule. the caton.enable the individual to get along well with this neighbors Philippine Education: Historical In pre-Spanish times. and religion. writing.
Spanish period During the early Spanish period most education was carried out by the religious orders. In 1640. Many missionaries learnt the local languages and the baybayin to communicate better with the locals and teach them the Christian faith. On April 28. recognizing the value of a literate indigenous population. A Spanish and Tagalog version. The prologue read: “Let us therefore study. The Spanish missionaries established schools immediately after reaching the islands. which was meant to help Filipinos learn the Spanish language. In 1610. It was the first public university in the Philippines. built printing presses to produce material in baybayin. This good result has given me satisfaction and encouraged me to print my work. which they started a school in their first mission at Bataan. Other Tagalogs like us did not take a year to learn the Spanish language when using my book. a Filipino printer. immediately took to the task of teaching improving literacy. so that all may derive some profit from it. and after the suppression of the Jesuits was incorporated into the University of Santo Tomás. who is sometimes referred as the "Patriarch of Filipino Printing". The church and the school both worked together. my countrymen. in both Latin script and the locally used baybayin script. . in 1577. The friars. the Universidad de San Felipe de Austria was established in Manila. yet if we are persevering. also by the Dominicans in 1587. was printed in 1593. aside from the teaching of new industrial and agricultural techniques. writer and publisher. In 1590. wrote his famous Librong Pagaaralan nang manga Tagalog nang Uicang Castilla. the Universidad de San Ignacio was founded in Manila by the Jesuits. It is a Chinese language version of the Doctrina Christiana or Christian Doctrine. The Franciscans. The Augustinians opened a school in Cebu in 1565. the University of Santo Tomás was founded in Manila as the Colegio de Nuestra Señora del Santísimo Rosario. Tomas Pinpin. The first book printed in the Philippines dates back to 1590. for although the art of learning is somewhat difficult. we shall soon improve our knowledge”. All Christian villages had schools and students to attend. The Jesuits followed in 1581. 1611. College of Medicine and Pharmacy.
Contrary to what the propaganda of the Spanish–American War tried to depict. of Manila in 1610. 1887. In 1892. The total public schools for boys was 841. and the establishment of a normal school for male teachers under the supervision of the Jesuits. a new social class of educated Filipinos arose. These hospitals also became the setting for rudimentary scientific research work on pharmacy and medicine. O. using the Spanish language as their main communication method. but schools established. it is the oldest existing university library in Asia. The decree mandated the establishment of at least one primary school for boys and one for girls in each town under the responsibility of the municipal government. .098 for boys. During the Spanish Colonial Period of the Philippines (1565-1898) most of the archipelago underwent a deep cultural. religious and linguistic transformation from various native Asian cultures and traditions with Islamic or animist religious practices.050 for girls. Primary education was free and available to every Filipino. The Dominicans on their part founded the Colegio de San Juan de Letran in 1620 in Manila.137. and 1.260 for girls. Education in the Philippines during Spanish rule Library of the University of Santo Tomás in Manila. Created at the request of Archbishop Miguel de Benavides. the ilustrados. run by the government. Marcelo H. Among the ilustrados who had also studied in Spain were José Rizal.P. who were to lead later the cause of Filipino self-government and independence. in which 1. and 95. This new enlightened class of Filipinos would later lead the Philippine independence movement. In 1866. Graciano López Jaena.261. the total population of the Philippines was only 4. the number of schools had increased to 2.411. to a unique hybrid of Southeast Asian and Western culture including the Catholic faith.By the end of the 16th century. and 833 was for girls. The Educational Decree of 1863 created a free public education system in the Philippines. By 1898. Mariano Ponce or Antonio Luna. supported and maintained by the Spanish Government. It even had its own printing press which had been imported from Europe.000 students. It was the first such education system in Asia. several religious orders had established charity hospitals all over the archipelago and provided the bulk of this public service.087 were for boys. The Jesuits also founded the Colegio de San José in 1601 and took over the management in what became Escuela Municipal in 1859 (which was later renamed as Ateneo Municipal de Manila in 1865. today as Ateneo de Manila University). enrollment in schools at all levels exceeded 200. regardless of race or social class. del Pilar. Because of the implementation of public education. they were not religious schools. while the total number of children attending these schools was 135.
vocational schools and the first modern public education system in Asia were created during the colonial period. It was the first Jesuit boarding school to be established in the Philippines. The Augustinians opened a school immediately upon arriving in Cebú in 1565. Spanish friars and missionaries educated the natives through religion with the aim of converting indigenous populations to the Catholic faith. When the Dominicans arrived in 1587. . Spanish. Although by royal decree the friars were required to teach the Spanish language to the natives. The Spaniards of Arévalo heard of the school and wanted Chirino to teach their boys too. The oldest universities. The Spanish missionaries established schools immediately on reaching the islands and wherever they penetrated. immediately taught the people how to read and write. The Franciscans arrived in 1577. writing. colleges. they reasoned that it would be easier for them to learn the local languages first than trying to teach Spanish to all the population. The early friars learned the local languages and the Baybayin script to better communicate with the locals.Spanish education played a major role in that transformation. However. and liturgical music. Filipinos were among the most educated subjects in all of Asia. the latter objective was well-nigh impossible given the realities of the time. Within months of their arrival in Tigbauan which is located in the island of Panay. The Jesuits who arrived in 1581 also concentrated on teaching the young. church and school went together. too. they did the same thing in their first mission in Bataan. King Philip II's Leyes de Indias (Laws of the Indies) mandated Spanish authorities in the Philippines to educate the natives. besides imparting to them important industrial and agricultural techniques. to teach them how to read and write and to learn Spanish. Pedro Chirino and Francisco Martín had established a school for Visayan boys in 1593 in which they taught not only the catechism but reading. and they. education was mostly religion-oriented and controlled by the Roman Catholic Church. The early period During the early years of Spanish colonization. By the time Spain was replaced by the United States as the colonial power. There was no Christian village without its school and all young people attended. Chirino at once put up a dormitory and school house (1593–1594) for the Spanish boys near his rectory.
the degree of Bachiller en Farmacia was granted. The Manual de Medicinas Caseras. and in Tagalog.. in both Latin script and the commonly used Baybayin script of the Manila Tagalogs of the time was printed in 1593. first published in 1763. Other Tagalogs like us did not take a year to learn the Spanish language when using my book. In 1610 Tomas Pinpin a Filipino printer. By the end of the 16th century. knew Latin perfectly well because the educational system was wholly religious. Several religious congregations also established schools for orphaned girls who could not educate themselves. Colegio de Santa Isabel. who is sometimes referred as the "Patriarch of Filipino Printing". yet if we are persevering. Eventually. the Baybayin script was replaced by the Latin script. since it was a mandatory requirement for the study of philosophy. for although the art of learning is somewhat difficult. became so sought after that it was reprinted on several editions by 1885. The goal of the book was to propagate the Christian teachings around Manila. in 1589. La Concordia. The study of pharmacy consisted of a preparatory course with subjects in natural history and general chemistry and five years of studies in subjects such as pharmaceutical operations at the school of pharmacy. This good result has given me satisfaction and encouraged me to print my work. Principalías and Ladinos. ” . A version in Spanish. my country men. etc.The Chinese language version of the Doctrina Christiana (Christian Doctrine) was the first book printed in the Philippines in about 1590 to 1592. Santa Rosa. focusing mostly on the problems of infections diseases. we shall soon improve our knowledge. It was followed by another school for women.. theology and jurisprudence in schools like the University of Santo Tomás. writer and publisher. Colegio de Santa Potenciana was the first school and college for girls that opened in the Philippines. several religious orders had established charity hospitals all over the archipelago and provided the bulk of this public service. wrote his famous Librong Pagaaralan nang manga Tagalog nang Uicang Castilla. that was meant to help Filipinos learn the Spanish language. These hospitals also became the setting for rudimentary scientific research work on pharmacy and medicine. run by the Dominicans. with the exception of the sons and daughters of Spaniards." There were also Latin schools where that language was taught together with some Spanish. The Philippine priests and lawyers of that time. providing in this way the indigenous people with more leverage when dealing with the local Spanish colonial administrators. that opened in 1632. so that all may derive some profit from it. Other Schools and Colleges for girls were Santa Catalina. At the end of this period. written by Father Fernando de Santa María.. Several Spanish missionaries cataloged hundreds of Philippine plants with medicinal properties. The friars also opened many medical and pharmaceutical schools.. The prologue read: “ "Let us therefore study.
The Universidad de San Carlos was founded in Cebú by the Jesuits on August 1. professor at the Seminario Mayor de San Carlos of Cebu. and Pope Leo XIII “Pontifical” on 1902. Fidel Villarroel. 1611. initially named as the Colegio de San Ildefonso. natural history and . Pope Pius XII designated it as La Real y Pontificia Universidad de Santo Tomás de Aquino Universidad Católica de Filipinas (The Catholic University of the Philippines). professor of history at the De La Salle. Pope Innocent X elevated it to University. on 1947. which argues that USC only took over the facility of the former Colegio de San Ildefonso and that there is no 'visible' and 'clear' link between San Carlos and San Ildefonso Notable scholars including Dr. Pope Gregory XV made it a papal university in 1621 and King Philip IV named it a royal university in 1623. San Carlos and Santo Tomás maintain a friendly rivalry over the claim to be the oldest university in Asia. that by the 19th century included science subjects such as physics. later renamed Ateneo Municipal de Manila in 1865. On November 20. 1645. Fr. The University of San Carlos makes the claim of tracing its roots to the Colegio de San Ildefonso founded by the Spanish Jesuits fathers Antonio Sedeno. King Charles III of Spain bestowed the title “Royal Patronage” on 1785.Tertiary schools In 1590. chemistry. On April 28. By the second half of the 19th century. the Universidad de San Ignacio was founded in Manila by the Jesuits. It closed down in 1643. like the Bachiller en Artes. the university was incorporated as a mere College of Medicine and Pharmacy into the University of Santo Tomás. and Fr. this claim is opposed by the Pontifical and Royal University of Santo Tomas. It closed down in 1769 as a result of the expulsion of the Jesuits from the Philippines and didn't open again until 1783. have also questioned San Carlos' claim of tracing its roots to the 16th Century Colegio de San Ildefonso. Pedro Chirino and Antonio Pereira in 1595. now the Ateneo de Manila University). It was the first public university created by the Spanish government in the Philippines. However. initially as the Colegio-Seminario de San Ignacio. initially named as the Colegio de Nuestra Señora del Santísimo Rosario and later renamed as Colegio de Santo Tomas. Jose Victor Torres. The Dominicans on their part had the Colegio de San Juan de Letrán (1620) in Manila. All of them provided courses leading to different prestigious degrees. In 1640. respected historian and former archivist of Santo Tomas. OP. the Universidad de Santo Tomás was founded in Manila. Aloysius Cartagenas STD. The Jesuits also founded the Colegio de San José (1601) and took over the management of a school that became the Escuela Municipal (1859. 1595. the Universidad de San Felipe de Austria was established in Manila.
linear and topography drawing. The University of Santo Tomás. The Don Honorio Ventura College of Arts and Trades (DHVCAT) in Bacolor. natural history. and from 1883 until 1898. In 1871. 7965 medical students. From 1871 to 1883 Santo Tomás alone had 829 registrations of medical students. 1861. and at least an additional year of study was required at the Universidad Central de Madrid in Spain. philosophy and humanities. The Real Sociedad Economica de los Amigos del Pais de Filipinas (Royal Economic Society of Friends of the Philippines) was first introduced in the islands in 1780. were also established in Isabela. started by teaching theology. navigation and pilotage. several schools of medicine and pharmacy were opened. hydrography. professorships and financed trips of scientists from Spain to the Philippines. and offered local and foreign scholarships to Filipinos. trigonometry. although it was unable to open its doors until July 1889. For the doctorate degree in medicine its provision was inspired in the same set of oppositions than those of universities in the metropolis. run by professors who were agricultural engineers. Other important vocational schools established were the Escuela de Contaduría. Throughout the nineteenth century the Society established an academy of design. During the 18th century. Ilocos. Nueva Segovia. Cebú. and to promote agricultural development by means of observation. 1820 which offered a four-year course of study (for the profession of pilot of merchant marine) that included subjects such as arithmetic. Augustinian Friar Juan Zita and civic leader Don Felino Gil established the vocational school on November 4. It included subjects such as mathematics. Agricultural schools and monitoring stations. agriculture.mathematics. algebra. Leyte and parts of Mindanao. Secondary schools A Nautical School was created on January 1. physics. topography. geometry. financed the . the university had granted the degree of Licenciado en Medicina to 359 graduates and 108 medical doctors. Iloílo. Albay. Academia de Pintura y Dibujo and the seminaries of Manila. The Manila School of Agriculture was created in 1887. chemistry. for example. By the end of the Spanish colonial rule in 1898. Jaro and Nueva Cáceres. A School of Commercial Accounting and a School of French and English Languages were established in 1839. Pampanga is said to be the oldest official vocational school in Asia. experiment and investigation. the Faculty of Jurisprudence and Canonical Law was established. physics. meteorology. Cebú. Its mission was to provide theoretical and practical education by agricultural engineers to skilled farmers and overseers.
The Spanish government established a school for midwives in 1879. a service that was highly appreciated by the business community. free public secondary schools were opening outside of Manila. and Escuela Normal Superior de Maestras (Superior Normal School) for female teachers in 1892. secondary and tertiary levels. while astronomical studies began in 1899. It also commended the creation of a free public normal school to train men as teachers. The Education Decree of 1863 provided for the establishment of at least two free primary schools. and granted awards to successful experiments and inventions that improved agriculture and industry. attracted the attention of many readers who publicly requested for the observations to be continued. supervised by the Jesuits. describing typhoon observations made on September 1865. Free access to modern public education by all Filipinos was made possible through the enactment of the Education Decree of December 20. finally making officially available to Filipinos valuable training for leadership after three centuries of colonization. This did not exist in any other colony of any European power in Asia. in each town under the responsibility of the municipal government. specially those involved in merchant shipping. The Observatory published typhoon and climatological observations and studies. including the first typhoon warnings. The royal decree provided for a complete educational system which would consist of primary. The Observatorio Meteorológico del Ateneo Municipal de Manila (Manila Observatory) was founded in 1865 by the Jesuits after an article they published in the newspaper Diario de Manila. one for boys and another for girls. including 10 normal schools for women . 1863 by Queen Isabella II. Its seismology section was set up in 1887. which. The Spanish government made the observatory the official institution for weather forecasting in the Philippines in 1884. an offshoot of the 18th century Age of Enlightenment. By the 1890s. Primary instruction was made free and the teaching of Spanish was compulsory. This was ten years before Japan had a compulsory form of free modern public education and forty years before the American government started an English-based public school system in the Philippines.publication of scientific and technical literature. Modern public system of education Modern public school education was introduced in Spain only in 1857. One of these schools was the Escuela Normal Elemental. and in 1885 it started its time service. in 1896 became the Escuela Normal Superior de Maestros de Manila (Manila Ordinary School for Schoolmistresses). The concept of mass education was relatively new.
and. Music. Fr. In 1892. the Spanish public system of education was open to all the natives.050 for girls. Mariano Ponce or Antonio Luna. Education and Filipino nationalism As a result of increasing the number of educated Filipinos a new social class raised. Philosophy.098 for boys and 95.as long ago as 1866 when the total population of the Philippine Islands was only 4. English. Contrary to what the Propaganda of the Spanish–American War tried to depict. gender or financial resources. I have been educated in one of these schools.261 souls. who inspired the desire for independence with his novels written in Spanish.137. Geometry. easier and more affordable.. with the opening of Suez Canal in 1869 travel to Spain become quicker. Latin. History. Reading. even though my hometown is such a small town. Rhetoric and Poetry. and many Filipinos took advantage of it to continue higher education in Spain and Europe. Agriculture. Schumacher pointed out that. as reflected in the curriculum of the Colegio de Santa Isabel. Geometry. Among the subjects being taught to girls. Commerce. History of Spain. such as Graciano López Jaena... that came to be known as the Ilustrados. Other Filipino intellectuals. Geology. Furthermore. isolated in the mountains of the Northeastern part of the island of Luzon. Arithmetic. The most prominent of the Ilustrados was José Rizal. French. This new enlightened class of Filipinos would later lead the Philippine independence movement. black propaganda and yellow journalism were rampant in the last two decades of Spanish Colonial Period and throughout the American Colonial Period. alert. Mechanics. that included Algebra. Physics. Painting. Greek.260 for girls. who had also studied in Spain. I have seen with my own eyes many of these schools and thousands of those students. Marcelo H. Natural History. del Pilar. Chemistry. a renowned Swedish economist. Topography.411. Describing this new generation of highly educated Filipinos. the number of schools had increased to 2. Physics. supported and maintained by the Government (Spanish) ” Gunnar Myrdal. Geography. John N. Quezon. and when the total number of municipalities in the archipelago was 900.there were public schools in the Philippines long before the American occupation. as can be seen from the Syllabus of Education in the Municipal Atheneum of Manila. in fact. but schools established. They were not religious schools. . Spanish Composition. Manuel L. French. Geography. on his speech for the Philippine Assembly at the US Congress on October 1914 stated that “ . Japan and Spanish Philippines stood out because of their stress on modern public education. 1. observed that in 19th-century Asia. began contributing to the cause for Filipino self-government and independence.. Dress-cutting. intelligent. regardless of race. were Arithmetic. Philippine History.087 of which were for boys and 1. using the Spanish language as their main communication method. mostly in Madrid and Barcelona. The Black Legend propagation. Spanish Classics. the total public schools was 841 for boys and 833 for girls and the total number of children attending these schools was 135. Sacred History and Spanish Grammar.The range of subjects being taught were very advanced. and Trigonometry. Needlework. Drawing. And these schools were really edifices and the students were lively. .
who were disposed to emphasize secondary and higher education for a few pupils rathe than to further and promote the primary education of the masses. and they excel in writing and drawing. ” . and. we find that there is but one teacher to each 4. or in buildings hired by the municipalities and used by the principals as dwellings. sacred history.“ Philippine higher education was not far behind. acquiring merely the mechanical processes of reading and writing. reading. was even superior to the general level of higher education in Spain. and the catechism were taught. they possess mechanical skill. the four elementary arithmetical processes were attempted. writing. One observes in the schools a tendency on the part of the pupils to give back. As a rule.179 inhabitants. especially in the literature. It is clearly shown in the report of the first Philippine Commission that even this inadequate provision was never carried out. The little school instruction the average Filipino has had has not tended to broaden his intelligence or to give him power of independent thought. From the beginning the schools were entirely under the supervision of the religious orders. without seeming to have thought for themselves. at least outside Madrid. no modern furniture. Perhaps the best testimony for this is the fact that such larger numbers of Filipino students were able to move without apparent difficulty from educational institutions at home to those in the Peninsula and establish honorable records for themselves there. under certain aspects. The schools were and are now held in the residences of the teachers. The Spaniards made very little use of this peculiar capacity. Except in a very few towns.” There were no schoolhouses. like phonographs.000 inhabitants. and in a few towns a book on geography was used as a reading book. what they have heard or read or memorized. In these primary schools. or. until the Americans came. The Philippines was also ahead of some European countries in offering education for women. ” Criticisms On 30 November 1900. there were no good text-books. the Philippine Commission reported to the US War Department about the state of education throughout the archipelago as follows: “ . The Spanish regulations provided that there should be one male and one female primary school-teacher for each 5.Under Spanish rule there were established in these islands a system of primary schools. Ironically.. but it was not at all unusual to find a school without any seats for the pupils..000. Girls were taught embroidery and needlework. it was during the time of American occupation of the Philippines that the results of Spanish education were more visible. printed press and cinema. while the great mass of people have either not been educated at all or furnished only the rudiments of knowledge.000. The result of this policy is that a few persons have stood out prominently as educated Filipinos. They say: “Taking the entire population at 8. In some of the schools there were wooden benches and tables.
housed in unsuitable and unsanitary buildings. with no prescribed course of study and no definite standards for each year.087 of which were for boys and 1.000. by the process of absorption. points out that. the bulk of the people cannot do his. which every day become more and more evident. However that assumption was completely misleading. when in reality public school systems are meant primarily for children and teenagers. matters of education had become concentrated in the hands of the religious orders..4 million. To calculate the percentage of children on scholar age. However. The Spanish minister for the colonies. 1870.. as Manuel L.137. to at least 500. 1. their narrow.727. and that they were in charge of duly certificated but hardly professionally trained or progressive teachers.It has been stated that in 1897 here were in these islands 2.984. Quezon declared years later before the Philippine Assembly..050 for girls. 20% would be approximately 1. exclusively religious system of education. rendered secularization of instruction necessary. including babies and old people. Those numbers led some people to conclude that less than 6% of the population were attending schools. That's about 35% of the population in School age. by 1892 the number of schools had more than doubled to 2. He says: “While every acknowledgement should be made of their services in earlier times. Since the 1887 census yielded a count of 6. The ineffectiveness of these schools will be seen when it is remembered that a school under the Spanish regime was a strictly sectarian. because it takes into account all of the population.. Another claim commonly heard was that based on the official figures there couldn't be a school in every village in the Islands..167 public schools." . That would yield a total percentage of around 20% of the total population. in a report made December 5. and their imperviousness to modern or external ideas and influences. it must be taken into account the number of children in Elementary School age (ages 5 through 13) and teenagers in High School age (ages 14 through 17). since those official figures branded by the .It is stated on good authority that when the Spaniards came here several of the tribes of the Philippine Islands could read and write their own language. ungraded school. by conservative estimates. At the present time. which means that the number of children attending school also did increase. after three hundred years of Spanish domination. Also.
where by 1900 only 34 states had any kind of compulsory schooling laws requiring attendance until age 14. Finally. those numbers reveal that there was not only one school in every municipality in the Islands. . Such system was even ahead of most of United States at the time.Philippine Commission itself put the total number of municipalities in the archipelago at 900. As a result. since most of the soldiers generally were of humble social origins. Neither was taken into account that the schools maintained by Spain were closed and in many cases looted and badly damaged during the Spanish–American War and the Philippine Revolution. and the first to be established in any European colony in the world. something that was especially true among the troops that fought in the Philippine–American War. it was finally dismantled after the Philippine–American War. the Philippine Commission made no reference to the fact that the pioneering public school education introduced by Spain in the Philippines was the first of its kind in all of Asia. Although the free and compulsory elementary education system was temporarily reestablished by the Malolos Constitution. but in most cases two or more.167. that also took a heavy toll upon the remaining educational infrastructures. the average American at the time was less educated than the average Filipino. and the number of public schools at 2.
It was a comprehensive five-year program to improve secondary education in the Philippines in two phases: first. Program for Decentralized Educational Development (PRODED) 2. due to financial difficulties. Finally. Secondary Education Development Program (SEDP) As early as 1956. higher critical. general manual skills for higher education or the world of work It was also projected that. There was a need for the students to develop: 1. and enhancing its utility in terms of access and equity.CURRICULAR REFORMS IN THE PHILIPPINES Reform Rationale The results of a comprehensive appraisal of the Philippines education system revealed that a great deal was desired as far as the quality of education was concerned. curricular reforms were also undertaken to meet the new demands being made on the system. it was recognized that. communication skills 3. Thus. Two major initiatives were launched: 1. an experimental-demonstrational project for rural community high schools under the International Cooperation Administration and the National Economic Council (ICA-NEC) was implemented by the Bureau of Public Schools. setting up experimental and demonstrational community high schools. The comprehensive appraisal reports become the basic reference documents for improving the quality and efficiency of the education system. unless greatly improved. logical thinking skills 2. the system‟s existing capacity would be unable to cope with the educational demands generated by the escalating competitiveness of a growing technological society. strengthening the practical arts courses and second. Reform Implementation The reforms were implemented after project preparation was undertaken. values development 4. the public school sector had to be prepared to accept anyone wishing to finish basic education. The project components included training of . Therefore. students would remain in the government schools and families would move away from the private schools to less expensive public schools.
new curricula 2. 3. and conducting research to undergird policy formulation. 3. PRODED1983-1989 (Program for Decentralized Educational Development) 1. Components: 1. the Program for Decentralized Educational Development (PRODED) assisted by World Bank. mathematics. In 1975. improving the staff development program. and improve the management capabilities of the system. The New Elementary School Curriculum (NESC) was the core of PRODED . It was a response to: the need to continue pupil development started by PRODED. and communication arts.” Baseline data from SOUTELE were used for a nationwide project in elementary education. PRODED strategies included a reform in the curriculum.school administrators and selected teachers. was implemented. The New Elementary School Curriculum (NESC) was the core of PRODED. It was developed and implemented in a series of consultative conferences and was research-based. the Program for Decentralized Educational Development (PRODED) assisted by World Bank. especially at the regional and subregional levels . and provision of infrastructure and physical facilities in selected schools. A significant finding showed that the average sixth grader across the nation had mastered only 50% of what he was expected to learn and that the least learned subjects were the “3Rs. the Department conducted the Survey of Outcomes of Elementary Education (SOUTELE). providing improved and adequate textbooks and supplementary instructional materials. 2.In 1983. providing adequate school facilities. The Secondary Education Development Project (SEDP) was a massive reform program in secondary education. 4. mass training of teachers focused on the elementary level Aims: 1. to reduce disparities in elementary education among and within the regions. the need to improve student performance in science. In 1983. installing an effective monitoring and evaluation system. was implemented.The PRODED was funded with a loan from the International Bank for Reconstruction (IBRD). It was developed and implemented in a series of consultative conferences and was research-based. 2. raise the overall quality and efficiency of elementary education.
Outcomes: The reform at the elementary level had been implemented over the last fifteen years. After 6 years of implementation of the new elementary education curriculum. self understanding and showing their sense of individuality and family ties. Current indicators are that PRODED has indeed succeeded in: 1. develop skills in higher intellectual operations in terms of comprehension and expressions activities and creatively for life situations. the 1989 elementary school graduates became the first students for the new secondary education curriculum. making the sector more effective and efficient in the delivery of basic educational services As for the outcomes related to the implementation and management of reform.4. programme implementers 3. which curriculum was to: develop among students an enlightened commitment to national ideas in terms of moral. and broaden and heighten their abilities to appreciate the arts. PRODED. introduce improvements in policy. acquire work skills. target beneficiaries . policy makers 2. gain knowledge and form desirable attitude for understanding nature and of man. the PRODED had added responsibilities and accountability for all those involved: 1. management and other sectoral concerns in order to achieve greater efficiency and effectiveness in the operation and administration of the elementary education system. spiritual and socio-cultural values and desirable Filipino heritage. science and technology for self-fulfillment and for promoting the welfare of other. improving the quality of basic education 2. intelligent choice of career. knowledge and information and work ethics.
. The ongoing basic education curriculum review has provided for more in depth indigenization/localization of the curriculum and integration of information technology or multimedia resources in the teaching/learning process. The curriculum is continuously undergoing refinement to ensure its relevance to changing needs and demands.Mechanisms and structures needed for the efficient implementation of the reforms have been given priority. Competencies of those involved in curriculum development and implementation are upgraded regularly. significant improvements in the learner‟s and schools‟ performances have been recorded. Lessons learned from the reform implementation are providing useful baseline information for future reform and development programmes. At this point in time. Benchmarking has provided valuable and reliable data about school and student performance. so that they may discharge their functions and responsibilities more effectively.
2.2) Crafting the Curriculum *Module 2(Lesson3) Approaches to Curriculum Design *Module 3(Lesson 1) Implementing the Curriculum Report *Group 1.3 Assignment *Traditional and Progressive Point of View of Curriculum *Code of Ethics for Professional Teachers Quizzes . Nature and Purposes of Curriculum *Module 2(Lesson 1.3) Concepts .2.TABLE OF CONTENTS Syllabus Lessons Outline *Module 1(Lesson 1.
Beed 3C General .KARLENE GIFT V.CODE OF ETHICS FOR PROFESSIONAL TEACHER TADIPA.
Beed 3C General .KARLENE GIFT V.TRADITIONAL AND PROGRESSIVE POINT OF VIEW OF CURRICULUM TADIPA.
Karlene Gift V.” Synonymous to the “course of study” and “syllabus. science.ED. MA. b. Social Studies and others. “it is a body of subjects or subject matter prepared by the teachers for the students to learn. a listing of school i. Ed.2012 Progressive Points of View of Curriculum Progressivist. Traditional Point of View of Curriculum – 20th Century Is that. English. i. syllabus iii. reading. a. rhetoric and logic and mathematics for basic education are emphasized. Arthur Bestor ─ an essentialist: believes the mission of the school be intellectual training. Curriculum is: o As the total learning experiences of the individual. Broadly speaking. Caswell and Campbell viewed curriculum: All the experiences children have under the guidance of teachers. and foreign language c.D June 19. Robert M. subjects ii.TADIPA. focus on the fundamental intellectual disciplines of grammar. Basic education: ─ the 3 R’s ii. Beed 3C General Curriculum Development (EDU7) Different Point of View of Curriculum I. Joseph Schwab discipline is the sole source of curriculum divided into chunks of knowledge we call subject areas in basic education. history. specific discipline do not make a curriculum These can only be called curriculum if the written materials are actualized by the learner. Stanley and Shores: “Curriculum as a sequence of potential experiences set up in the school purpose . Ex. list of courses v. College education: ─ grounded on liberal education b. Mathematics. Professor Levy A. II.” a. literature and writing includes mathematics.. Taleser. Science. o is anchored on John Dewey’s definition of experience and education o That reflective teaching is a means that unifies curricular elements o Thought is not derived from action but tested by application. course of study iv. i. Hutchins view curriculum As “permanent studies” where the rules of grammar. Smith.
Joseph Schwab ─ leading curriculum theorist coined the term discipline as a ruling doctrine for curriculum development. Psychological d. It is concerned with broad historical.’ .” c. in college: i. Marsh and Willis Curriculum. It is made up of foundations: a. Philosophical b. science. Discipline may include humanities. social issues and academic Traditional ideas view curriculum as: o written documents o a plan of action in accomplishing goals of disciplining children and youth in group ways of thinking and acting. Historical c. Curriculum should consist only of knowledge which comes from discipline which is the sole source. philosophical. Curriculum viewed as a fold of study. as all “experiences in the classroom which are planned and enacted by teacher. Social foundations domains of knowledge research theories and principles Curriculum is taken as scholarly and theoretical. and learned by the students. Phenix: should consist entirely of knowledge which comes from various discipline Academic discipline became the view of what curriculum is after the cold war and the race to space. languages and many more d.
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