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3G 5 important parameter

1. TXPOWER TXPOWER is the phones transmitter power. We know that power control is guaranteed call quality and address the CDMA community interference tolerance and one of the key means of mobile phone from the base station near, uplink quality good, the mobile phone transmitting power is smaller, because at the base station is able to guarantee the reception of the signal to launch mobile phone and fer also small and mobile phones transmitting power is smaller to other mobile phones in the community is also a small interference. So mobile phones transmit power level, reflecting the handsets current uplink loss and interference. Uplink loss of large, or there is serious interference with the phones transmitter power will be greatly missed mobile phone transmitting power is smaller. Roadtest, in normal circumstances, the more closer to the base station or Repeater, the mobile phone transmitting power is reduced, away from the base station and Repeater, the mobile phone transmitting power increases. If the base station and Repeater nearby mobile phone transmitting power, obviously it is not normal. Perhaps there is interference, the uplink can be a base station and Repeater itself. Such as community antenna wrong receive carrier frequency amplifier circuit problems, etc. If the Repeater nearby, cell phone transmitter power, it may be a Repeater malfunctions, uplink gain set too small, and so on. Above you can see, the road of TXPOWER level reflects the base station coverage area of reverse link quality and uplink interference levels. 2. RXPOWER RXPOWER is a mobile phone to receive power. In CDMA, according to my personal understanding, there are three parameters is very close by, you can almost equivalent to the use of parameters. Namely RXPOWER, RSSI, Io. RXPOWER is amobile phone to receive power, Io is mobile phones currently receives all signal strength, RSSI is receives downlink band of total power, as currently I have access to information, the title explains, but understanding is very similar, is the phonereceives a total of signal strength. RXPOWER and reflects the current signal receiving phone, RXPOWER small area, the weak positive fall within the coverage area,RXPOWER places belong to the covered area. But the high places, RXPOWER and does not necessarily signal quality is good, because there may be no signal, leading to frequency, or too many strong pilot, pilot frequency pollution. Therefore, the analysis of RXPOWER to EcIo to analysis. Above you can see, RXPOWER and simply reflects the drive test signal coverage area, rather than the quality of the signal coverage. 3. EcIo EcIo reflects the handset in the current received pilot signal level. This is an integrated pilot signal. Why, because mobile phones are a multi-channel soft switching, which translates into mobile phones often lies in more than one pilot overlapping coverage area, the level of the phone, EcIo reflects the phone at this point that a multi-channel pilot signal level of the overall coverage. We know that the Ec is a mobile phone available pilot signal strength, and Io is the mobile phone receives all the strength of the signal. Therefore, EcIo reflects the available signal strength in occupies all signals. The higher the value, the greater the proportion of a useful signal, on the other hand also reversed. At some point EcIo big, there are two possibilities. First, the Ec is very large, dominant level here, Ec, Io is very small, that is to say

here is from another base stations messy little pilot signal, EcIo also larger. In the latter case is weak, because the Ec small, Io is also small, so small, so RSSI also there may be dropped. At some point EcIo also small, there are two possible, first, the Ec is also small small RSSI, this is the weak coverage area. The Ec is not small, RSSI, this illustrates the Io is the overall intensity of the signal is not bad. This situation is often a BSC switch data configuration, no nearby strong pilot signal into the adjacent community table, so the phone doesnt recognize the strong pilot signal in the vicinity as a jamming signal processing. On the road, in the case of a typical phenomenon is the phone in a move to maintain certain RSSI, EcIo level, rapid rise to FER and eventually dropped. 4. TXADJ TXADJ reflects the up and down-link a balance. Note that this value is calculated from the measurement, instead. 800M CDMA system is Tx_adjust = 73dB + Tx_power + Rx_power, 1900M CDMA is Tx_adjust = 76dB + Tx_power + Rx_power. TXADJ reflects the current location of the mobile uplink and downlink of a more mass. We know that under normal circumstances, the cell phone away from the base station close to the phones transmitter power will decrease, and received power will become larger and far away from the cell phone, mobile phone base station transmitter power will increase while receiving power gets smaller. Normally, the transmitter power and receiver power plus a constant fixed values, the result should be a small interval (for example,-10 to + 10). If TXADJ great, it means that the phones transmitter power, receive the power, then it is obvious that mobile current downlink of good quality (receiving power), and the poor quality of the uplink (transmitter power), this time forward link is better than a reverse link. On the contrary, TXADJ is very small, explains this reverse link well to the forward link. We know that the base station coverage depends on the reverse link loss level. Therefore, in General, we require the following TXADJ in 0. But greater than 10, the reverse link forward link than are poor, the situation is not ideal. For TXADJ, nor can they be said to be as small as possible. But in the actual drive test, we generally encounter, often TXADJ too high, forward link, reverse link. 5. FER FER is a forward-fer. Forward fer with EcIo also is a comprehensive quality of forward link. Because when the phone is in the multi-channel soft switching, fer actually multi-channel forward an integrated signal quality. FER, description of themobile phone of the forward link better, received signal is good, this time EcIo also should be better. The larger the Description cell phone FER the received signal strength is poor, EcIo should also at this time. FER is large, it may also be due to a neighboring community switch parameter configuration error. If you switch between adjacent community with leakage, single and mobile to mobile, adjacent to the pilot was not recognized, and the pilot does not recognize, it will become interference signal, resulting in increased FER. In reality, often manifested in mobile, mobile phones, FER a rapid rise in sharp decline, EcIo, and finally dropped. Above that is closely followed by EcIo FER. FER reflects the call quality is good or bad, reflects the RoadTest regional coverage quality level, rather than the signal coverage strength level. In some areas although belonging to the weak signal coverage area, but relatively clean (messy signals, noise), as well as be good FER. Note the above parameters, EcIo, RXPOWER is the phone in standby or call have parameters,TXPOWER, TXADJ, FER is only a phone call and from the only parameter. The above five parameters, together, to analysis of drive test region to cover the intensity level, the former to override the quality level, as well as the reverse link loss level, and so on, is the analysis of drive test is the most

important parameters. In-depth understanding of the five parameters, combined with the overall situation for drive testing specific analysis, is engaged in network optimization staff in one of the basic conditions.

HLR vs VLR Home Location Register (HLR) and Visitors Location Register (VLR) are databases that contain the mobile subscriber information as per the GSM architecture. In general there is one central HLR per mobile network operator and one VLR per each Mobile Services Switching Centre (MSC) but this can vary according to the different vendor implementations. Capacity of HLR and VLR can directly affect the subscriber capacity of the mobile network operator. HLR HLR contains entries for each and every subscriber (MSISDN Number) within a mobile network. Mostly HLR contains static and permanent information about a subscriber. For an example subscriber status, service subscriptions (Voice, Data, SMS etc.), supplementary services, permissions etc. Other than this static information, it has temporary information such as current VLR number and MSC number. HLR works as the central location to route calls within the respective mobile operators network. Most of the administrative activities regarding the subscribers are controlled and centralised around the HLR. In most vendor implementations Authentication Centre (another element in GSM architecture) is integrated to HLR to provide more efficient and effective mobile network design. In this case HLR contains authentication information as well. VLR VLR is a database that contains part of the data available in the HLR and other dynamic information about the mobile stations currently roaming in the administrative areas of the associated VLR. Data in the VLR are more dynamic than the other because of the mobility nature of the mobile stations. When a mobile station moves from one Location Area to another their information is updated in the VLR, so as to locate the mobile stations. When a subscriber moves out to new VLR area then HLR inform the old VLR to remove the information related to the given subscriber. Interface between HLR and VLR is called as D-Interface as per the GSM standard which help to share information between nodes. Information about location such as LAI (Location Area Information), attached status and Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity (TMSI) are stored in the VLR. Also some of the authentication information is passed from HLR to VLR for the authentication requirements. What is the difference between HLR and VLR? HLR and VLR have their own functionality within the GSM architecture. There is also a communication interface between HLR and VLR as per the GSM architecture. Number of communications take place within HLR and VLR nodes to share their information. For an example when one subscriber move from one VLR area to another area their locations are updated in the VLR and new VLR information is updated in the HLR. But if a subscriber moves within the same VLR area no such interaction with the HLR is needed.

Both HLR and VLR store the subscriber information as per the GSM architecture to provide mobile communication services to subscribers registered within the network. In general HLR contains information about all subscribers within a network while VLR contains more dynamic information relevant to subscribers roaming within the VLR area. This can vary depending on the network architecture design because in most cases HLRs act as centralized nodes while VLRs are mostly geographically diversified nodes. HLR acts as a fixed reference point to a given mobile station (subscriber) while his VLR can vary depending on the mobility and network design. Even though both HLR and VLR act as databases within the same mobile network, in most designs VLRs are assigned limited geographical area to handle all dynamic data about the subscribers within that area while HLR act as more centralized node that provide more static information about the subscribers within whole network. HLR handles the subscriber administration activities within the network while VLR supports the mobility function and other dynamic information about the subscribers

Why Ec/Io is negative?

June 3, 2011 Pilot channel power is always less than the total cell power, the ratio of the Pilot power (Ec) to the total cell power (Io) is always less than one. Thus, when measured in decibels, the value of Ec/Io is always negative. Here is the calculation. Ec = Effect energy Io = Total energy and noise. Ec/Io = 10.log[Effect energy / (total energy+noise)] < 10.log(1) = 0 Ec/Io always negative


How does UE camp (synchronize) to a NodeB?

June 3, 2011 1. UE uses the primary synchronization channel (P-SCH) for slot alignment (TS synchronization). 2. After aligning to NodeB time slot, UE then uses secondary synchronization channel (SSCH) to obtain frame synchronization and scrambling code group identification. 3. UE then uses scrambling code ID to obtain CPICH, thus camping to a NodeB.


What is Compressed Mode?

June 3, 2011

Compressed mode is a physical layer function that allows the UE to temporarily tune to another frequency, and measure the RF environment of another UMTS frequency (e.g. IFHO) or another technology (e.g. IRAT), while maintaining an existing dedicated channel.


How many time Inner Loop Power Control happens and what type of fading it compensates?
June 3, 2011 How many time Inner Loop Power Control happens and what type of fading it compensates? Answer:1500Hz and compensates Fast Fading.


What do you understand by DRX cycle?

June 3, 2011 The UE listens to the PICH only at certain predefined times, reducing power consumption. The periodicity of these searches is set by the system and the time interval is called Discontinuous Reception (DRX) cycle. Different DRX cycles are used for circuit switched and packet switched services in Idle mode. A separate DRX cycle is also used to page Connected mode UEs in state URA_PCH.


Explain Timer T3212?

June 3, 2011 Periodic LA and RA updating is used to notify the network of the UEs availability, and to avoid unnecessary paging attempts for a UE that has lost coverage and is not able to inform the CN that it is inactive. The periodic LA update procedure is controlled by a timer, called t3212, which gives the time interval between two consecutive periodic location updates. The value is sent by the WCDMA RAN to UEs on the BCCH.


Explain Soft and Softer handover? Give some advantage and disadvantage for soft handover
June 3, 2011

In Soft Handover, the UE connection consists of at least two radio links established with cells belonging to different RBSs. In Softer handover, the UE connection consists of at least two radio links established with cells belonging to the same RBS. It acts as macro diversity since UE is connected to more than one radio link at any given point, adds redundancy and reduces interference. However there is a tradeoff between soft/softer handover & system capacity. A UE involved in Soft/Softer Handover uses several radio links, more DL channelization codes, and more DL power than a single-link connection. Consequently, if all the UEs connected to a particular RNC are considered, more resources are needed in the RBSs, more resources over the Iub and Iur interfaces, and more resources in the RNC. For this reason, the number of radio links involved in the Soft/Softer handover must be limited.


Define Active Set? Pros and Cons of having a small or longer Active Set
June 3, 2011 Active Set consists of group of cells that takes part in soft/softer handover & measure by UE. Typical size of Active set is 3 or 4 & generally a standard practice in all WCDMA networks. A small active set size may provide more resources available due to less soft/softer handover but at the expense of handover gain thereby reducing the capacity & link redundancy. READ MORE

How many slots are there in a WCDMA Frame? How big is a frame in ms. how many chips are there in a slot?
June 3, 2011 WCDMA Frame is 15 slots wide. It is 10ms in length. There are 2560 chips in one slot. Chip rate is 3840 Kc/s Length of frame = 10 ms Number of chips in a frame = 3840 *10=38400 chips. Number of chips in a slot = 38400/15= 2560 chips