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La battaglia del Garigliano dell'anno 915

e i monumenti che la ricordano di P. Fedele
in Archivio della R. Società Romana di Storia Patria, XXII, 1899, pp. 181-211.

Battaglia del Garigliano (915)
Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera.
Data Luogo Esito Giugno 915 Nei pressi del fiume Garigliano Vittoria Lega Cristiana, fine dell'espansione musulmana sulla Penisola italiana Sconosciuto

Papa Giovanni X Alberico I di Spoleto Niccolò Picingli

La Battaglia del Garigliano, avvenuta nei pressi della località Giunture, frazione di Sant'Apollinare, venne combattuta nel 915 tra le forze della Lega cristiana e i Saraceni. La vittoria cristiana segnò la fine dell'espansione musulmana sulla penisola italiana. Papa Giovanni X diresse personalmente le forze cristiane nella battaglia. I precedenti Dopo una serie di attacchi devastanti ai principali centri del Lazio (saccheggio di Roma e assedio di Gaeta nell'846, distruzione di Montecassino nel 883, continue scorrerie per i villaggi), nella seconda metà del IX secolo i Saraceni distrussero Traetto e alla foce del Garigliano fondarono una colonia ricordata sempre con lo stesso nome di Traetto. Da quel momento cominciarono a stringere alleanze con i nobili cristiani locali (principalmente con gli Ipati di Gaeta), traendo vantaggio dalle loro divisioni. Ci fu un primo tentativo di Guido di Spoleto, lusingato dalla corona imperiale, contro il covo del Garigliano; un tentativo successivo attraverso un'alleanza dei principi di Benevento e Capua, Napoli, Amalfi, resa nulla dall'alleanza tra Gaeta e i Saraceni. Il Papa Giovanni X quindi si adoperò per riunire i nobili cristiani in una lega, con l'intento di scacciare i Saraceni infedeli dalla loro roccaforte di Traetto che minacciava anche Roma. I primi tentativi fallirono, nel 903 e nel 908, forse a causa del mancato apporto di importanti feudi come Gaeta e Napoli; intanto con le razzie ed i saccheggi la colonia saracena cresceva. Quindi si decise di iniziare lunghi e complicati negoziati, per formare quella lega che doveva finalmente snidarli dal covo sul fiume. L'iniziativa partì dai Capuani, che si rivolsero a Bisanzio cercando appoggio; una potente armata bizantina giunse allora nelle acque del Tirreno al comando dello stratega e patrizio imperiale Nicola Picingli. Si unì alla lega anche Guaimario, principe di Salerno, e sul far dell'estate del 915 l'esercito degli alleati con grosse schiere di Pugliesi e di Calabresi si accampò sulla riva sinistra del Garigliano. La battaglia La lega cristiana che si formò nel 915 era formata dal Papa e da principi del Sud Italia, longobardi e bizantini, come Landolfo I di Benevento e suo fratello Atenolfo II, Guaimario II di Salerno, Gregorio IV di Napoli e suo figlio Giovanni, Giovanni I di Gaeta e suo figlio Docibile. Rispose all'appello del Papa anche il marchese del Friuli Berengario, a quel tempo Re d'Italia, che inviò delle forze di supporto da Spoleto e dalle Marche, guidate da Alberico I, duca di Spoleto e Camerino suo protospatario. L'Impero romano d'Oriente contribuì inviando un forte contingente dalla Calabria e dalla Puglia sotto lo strategos di Bari Niccolò Picingli. Giovanni X in persona guidava le sue truppe provenienti dal Lazio e dalla Toscana. Furono stabiliti gli accordi per la strategia da seguire in battaglia e per le successive spartizioni e si procedette al giuramento santo;"Noi vi promettiamo di non aver mai pace con essi", - i Saraceni, - "finché non li abbiamo sterminati da tutta Italia. Di nuovo promettiamo a voi tutti soprascritti per Cristo Signore e pei meriti dei Santi e per tutti i sacramenti della fede che con tutte le forze e in ogni modo noi combatteremo i Saraceni e cercheremo di sterminarli e che d'ora innanzi non abbiamo e non avremo pace con essi in alcun modo". Le prime azioni di guerra avvennero nel Lazio settentrionale, dove una piccola squadra di saccheggiatori fu intercettata e distrutta. I cristiani ottennero una serie di vittorie come a Campo Baccano, sulla Via Cassia, e presso Tivoli e Vicovaro. Dopo queste sconfitte i musulmani che occupavano già da anni anche Narni e Tivoli, minacciando così tutta l'Italia Centrale, si ritirarono a Traetto, la loro roccaforte principale sul Garigliano: questo infatti era un insediamento fortificato (ribāt) di cui non è ancora certa l'esatta posizione. L'assedio iniziò nel giugno 915. L'esercito della Lega Cristiana, al comando di Giovanni X e di Alberico, marchese di Camerino e duca di Spoleto, scese verso il Garigliano accampandosi sulla riva destra del fiume stringendo i Saraceni in una tenaglia, mentre la flotta bizantina di Niccolò Picingli, fiancheggiata, com'è probabile, dalle navi di Napoli, di Gaeta e di Roma, sbarrava inesorabilmente la strada del mare. La battaglia durò oltre tre mesi. I Saraceni, fiaccati da mesi di duro accerchiamento ed assedio, dopo essere stati costretti alla fuga dal campo fortificato, al quale dettero fuoco in un ulteritore tentativo di sottrarsi al massacro, tentarono una disperata sortita ritirandosi e asserragliandosi sulle vicine colline. Qui resistettero a diversi attacchi di Alberico e Landolfo, finché finirono le riserve alimentari; resisi conto della situazione disperata, in agosto tentarono la fuga per raggiungere la costa e fuggire in Sicilia. Secondo le cronache furono tutti catturati e massacrati. Il covo dei Saraceni, rovina di tanta parte d'Italia, era definitivamente distrutto e la penisola italica compresa Roma era salva dal pericolo dell'invasione infedele. Dalla toponomastica si evince che un importante scontro avvenne in località Vattaglia (voce dialettale per battaglia), lungo un'ansa del fiume Garigliano, presso cui ancora vi sono le teste di un ponte di epoca classica. Grazie alla vittoria, Berengario fu ricompensato dal Papa con l'incoronazione imperiale, mentre Alberico poté garantirsi un maggiore peso politico presso il Papa e l'aristocrazia romana, venendo nominato dal Pontefice console di Roma. Giovanni I di Gaeta poté espandere il suo feudo sino al Garigliano e ricevette il titolo di patricius da Bisanzio che permise alla sua famiglia di utilizzare il titolo di Duca.

Battle of Garigliano
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Battle of Garigliano Date Location Result June 915 near the Garigliano River, Italy Christian victory

Christian League Papal States (Rome/Latium and Tuscany) Principalities of Capua and Fatimid Benevento Principality of Salerno Duchy of Gaeta Duchy of Spoleto Duchy of Naples Caliphate Byzantine Empire Alberic I of Spoleto Nicholas Picingli(Niccolò Picingli) Pope John X The Battle of Garigliano was fought in 915 between Christian forces and the Fatimid Caliphate. Pope John X personally led the Christian forces into battle. Background After a series of ravaging attacks against the main sites of the Lazio in the second half of the 9th century, the Fatimids established a colony next to the ancient city of Minturnae, near the Garigliano River. Here they even formed alliances with the nearby Christian princes (notably the hypati of Gaeta), taking advantage of the division between them. John X, however, managed to reunite these princes in an alliance, in order to oust the Saracens from their dangerous strongpoint. The Christian armies united the pope with several South Italian princes of Lombard or Greek extraction, including Guaimar II of Salerno, John I of Gaeta and his son Docibilis, Gregory IV of Naples and his son John, and Landulf I of Benevento and Capua. The King of Italy, Berengar I, sent a support force from Spoleto and the Marche, led by Alberic I, duke of Spoleto and Camerino. The Byzantine Empire participated by sending a strong contingent from Calabria and Apulia under the strategos of Bari, Nicholas Picingli. John X himself led the milities from the Lazio, Tuscany, and Rome. Battle The first action took place in northern Lazio, where small bands of ravagers were surprised and destroyed. The Christians scored two more significant victories at Campo Baccano, on the Via Cassia, and in the area of Tivoli and Vicovaro. After these defeats, the Muslims occupying Narni and other strongholds moved back to the main Fatimid stronghold on the Garigliano: this was a fortifited settlement (kairuan) whose site, however, has not yet been identified with certainty. The siege began in June 915. After being pushed out the fortified camp, the Saracens retired to the nearby hills. Here they resisted many attacks led by Alberic and Landulf. However, deprived of food and noticing their situation was becoming desperate, in August they attempted a sally to reach the coast and escape to Sicily. According to the chronicles, all were captured and executed. Aftermath Berengar was rewarded with the papal support and eventually the imperial crown, while Alberic's prestige after the victorious battle granted him a preeminent role in the future history of Rome. John I of Gaeta could expand his duchy to the Garigliano, and received the title of patricius from Byzantium leading his family to proclaim themselves "dukes".

Pope John X
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Birth name Born Died Papacy began Papacy ended Giovanni da Tossignano ??? Tossignano, Papal States c. June 928 Rome, Papal States March 914 May 928

Pope John X (died c. June 928) was Pope from March 914 to May 928. A candidate of the Counts of Tusculum, he attempted to unify Italy under the leadership of Berengar of Friuli, and was instrumental in the defeat of the Saracens at the Battle of Garigliano. He eventually fell out with Marozia, who had him deposed, imprisoned, and finally murdered. John’s pontificate occurred during the period known as the Saeculum obscurum. Early Career John X, whose father’s name was also John,[1] was born at Tossignano, along the Santerno River.[2] He was made a deacon by Peter IV, the Bishop of Bologna, where he attracted the attention of Theodora, the wife of Theophylact, Count of Tusculum, the most powerful noble in Rome. It was alleged by Liutprand of Cremona that John became her lover during a visit to Rome;[3] it has also been speculated that John was related to either Theodora or Theophylact.[4] Regardless, it was through Theodora’s influence that John was on the verge of succeeding Peter as bishop of Bologna, when the post of Archbishop of Ravenna became available.[2][5] He was consecrated as Archbishop in 905 by Pope Sergius III, another clerical candidate of the Counts of Tusculum. During his eight years as archbishop, John worked hard with Pope Sergius in an unsuccessful attempt to have Berengar of Friuli crowned Holy Roman Emperor and to depose Louis the Blind.[2] He also had to defend himself from a usurper who tried to take his see away, as well as confirming his authority over Nonantola Abbey when the abbot attempted to free it from the jurisdiction of the Archbishop of Ravenna.[6] After the death of Pope Lando in 914, a faction of the Roman nobility, headed by Theophylact of

Tusculum, summoned John to Rome to assume the vacant papal chair. Although this was again interpreted by Liutprand as Theodora personally intervening to have her lover made Pope, it is far more likely that John’s close working relationship with Theophylact, and his opposition to the ordinations of Pope Formosus, were the real reasons for his being transferred from Ravenna to Rome.[7] Since switching sees was considered an infraction of canon law, as well as contravening the decrees of the Lateran Council of 769, which prohibited the installation of a pope without election, John’s appointment was criticised by his contemporaries.[8] Nevertheless, whilst Theophylact was alive, John adhered to his patron’s cause. The Saracen war and coronation of Berengar The first task that confronted John X was the existence of a Saracen outpost on the Garigliano River, which was used as a base to pillage the Italian countryside. John consulted Landulf I of Benevento, who advised him to seek help from the Byzantine Empire, and from Alberic, marquis of Camerino, and governor of the duchy of Spoleto.[9] John took his advice and sent Papal legates to King Berengar of Italy, various Italian princes, as well as to Constantinople, seeking help to throw out the Saracens. The result was a Christian alliance, a precursor to the Crusades of the following century. The forces of the new Byzantine strategos of Bari, Nicolaus Picingli, joined those of various other south Italian princes: Landulf I of Benevento, John I and Docibilis II of Gaeta, Gregory IV and John II of Naples, and Guaimar II of Salerno. Meanwhile, Berengar brought with him troops from the northern parts of Italy, and the campaign was coordinated by John X, who took to the field in person, alongside Duke Alberic I of Spoleto.[10] After some preliminary engagements at Campo Baccano and at Trevi, the Saracens were driven to their stronghold on the Garigliano. There, at the Battle of Garigliano, the allies proceeded to lay siege to them for three months, at the end of which the Saracens burnt their houses and attempted to burst out of the encirclement. With John leading the way, all were eventually caught and killed, achieving a great victory and removing the ongoing Saracen threat from the Italian mainland.[11] John then confirmed the granting of Traetto to the Duke of Gaeta, as a reward for abandoning his Saracen allies.[12] Since King Berengar had defeated and driven the Roman Emperor Louis the Blind out of Italy in 905, he had eagerly pressed for the imperial crown. John X used this as a lever to push Berengar into supporting and providing troops to John’s great Saracen campaign.[10][13] Having completed his end of the bargain, Berengar now insisted that John do likewise.[14] So in December 915, Berengar approached Rome, and after being greeted by the family of Theophylact (whose support he secured), he met Pope John at St. Peter’s Basilica. On Sunday 3 December, John crowned Berengar as Roman Emperor, while Berengar in turn confirmed previous donations made to the See of Peter by earlier emperors.[15] Political realignments Although Berengar had the support of the major Roman nobility and the Pope, he had enemies elsewhere. In 923, a combination of the Italian princes brought about the defeat of Berengar, again frustrating the hopes of a united Italy, followed by his assassination in 924.[16] Then in 925 Theophylact of Tusculum and Alberic I of Spoleto also died; this meant that within the course of a year, three of Pope John’s key supporters had died, leaving John dangerously exposed to the ambitions of Theophylact’s daughter, Marozia, who, it was said, resented John’s alleged affair with her mother Theodora.[17] To counter this rising threat, in that year John X invited Hugh of Provence to be the next king of Italy, sending his envoy to Pisa to be among the first to greet Hugh as he arrived. Soon after Hugh had been acknowledged king of Italy at Pavia, he met with John at Mantua, and concluded some type of treaty with him, perhaps to defend John’s interests at Rome.[18] However, a rival Italian king in the form of Rudolph II of Burgundy meant that Hugh was not in a position to help John, and the next few years were a time of anarchy and confusion in Italy. Marozia in the meantime had married Guy, Margrave of Tuscany . Soon a power struggle began between them and Pope John, with John’s brother, Peter, the first to feel their enmity.[19] John had Peter made Duke of Spoleto after Alberic’s death, and his increased power threatened Guy and Marozia.[2] Peter was forced to flee to Lake Orta, where he sought the aid of a rampaging band of Maygars. In 926 he returned to Rome in their company, and with their support he intimidated Guy and Marozia, and Peter was allowed to return to his old role as principal advisor to and supporter of Pope John.[20] Affairs in the east Although these troubles were continuing to trouble John in Rome, he was still able to participate and influence broader ecclesiastical and political questions across Europe. In 920, he was asked by the Byzantine Emperors Romanos I and Constantine VII and the Patriarch of Constantinople Nicholas Mystikos to send some legates to Constantinople to confirm the acts of a synod which condemned fourth marriages (a legacy of the conflict which embroiled Constantine’s father Leo VI the Wise) thereby ending a schism between the two churches.[21] In 925 John attempted to stem the use of the Slav liturgy in Dalmatia, and enforce the local use of Latin in the Mass. He wrote to Tomislav, "king (rex) of the Croats", and to Duke Michael of Zahumlje, asking them to follow the instructions as articulated by John’s legates.[22][23] The result was a synod held in Spilt in 926, which confirmed John’s request; it forbade the ordination of anyone ignorant of Latin, and forbade Mass to be said in the Slav tongue, except when there was a shortage of priests.[24] The decrees of the synod were sent to Rome for John’s confirmation, who confirmed them all except for the ruling which placed the Croatian Bishop of Nona under the jurisdiction of the Archbishop of Spalatro. He summoned the parties to see him at Rome, but they were unable to attend, forcing John to send some papal legates to settle the matter, which were only resolved by Pope Leo VI after John’s deposition and death.[25] Around the same time, Tsar Simeon I of Bulgaria made overtures to John, offering the renounce his nation’s obedience to the Patriarch of Constantinople, and place his kingdom under the ecclesiastical authority of the popes at Rome. John sent two legates, who only made it as far as Constantinople, but whose letters urging Simeon to come to terms with the Byzantine Empire were delivered to him.[26] However, John did confirm Simeon’s title of Tsar (emperor, but not Roman emperor), and it was John’s representatives who crowned Simeon’s son Peter I of Bulgaria as Tsar in 927.[27] Finally, John sent a legate to act as intermediary to attempt to stop a war between the Bulgarians and Croatians.[28] Affairs in western Europe John was just as vigorous in his activities in Western Europe. Early on in his pontificate he gave his support to Conrad I of Germany in his struggles against the German dukes. He sent a papal legate to a synod of bishops convoked by Conrad at Altheim in 916, with the result that the synod ordered Conrad’s opponents to present themselves before Pope John at Rome if they did not appear before another synod for judgement, under pain of excommunication.[29] In 920, John was called upon by Charles the Simple to intervene in the succession in the Bishopric of Liège, when Charles’ candidate Hilduin turned against him and joined Gilbert, Duke of Lorraine in rebellion. Charles then tried to replace him with another candidate, Richer of Prüm Abbey, but Hilduin captured Richer, and forced Richer to consecrate him as bishop. John X ordered both men to appear before him at Rome, with the result that John confirmed Richer’s appointment and excommunicated Hilduin.[30] When in 923 Charles was later captured by Herbert II, Count of Vermandois, John was the only leader who protested over Charles’ capture; he threatened Herbert with excommunication unless he restored Charles to freedom, but Herbert effectively ignored him.[31] Contemptuous of the pope’s authority, in 925 Herbert had his five year old son Hugh made Archbishop of Reims, an appointment which John was constrained to accept and confirm, as Herbert declared that if his son were not elected, he would carve up the bishopric and distribute the land to

various supporters.[32] John also supported the spiritual side of the Church, such as his advice to Archbishop Herive of Reims in 914, who asked for advice on converting the Normans to Christianity.[33] He wrote: ”Your letter has filled me at once with sorrow and with joy. With sorrow at the sufferings you have to endure not only from the pagans, but also from Christians; with gladness at the conversion of the Northmen, who once revelled in human blood, but who now, by your words, rejoice that they are redeemed by the life-giving blood of Christ. For this we thank God, and implore Him to strengthen them in the faith. As to how far, inasmuch as they are uncultured, and but novices in the faith, they are to be subjected to severe canonical penances for their relapsing, killing of priests, and sacrificing to idols, we leave to your judgment to decide, as no one will know better than you the manners and customs of this people. You will, of course, understand well enough that it will not be advisable to treat them with the severity required by the canons, lest, thinking they will never be able to bear the unaccustomed burdens, they return to their old errors.”[34] On addition, John supported the monastic reform movement at Cluny Abbey. He confirmed the strict rule of Cluny for the monks there.[33] He then wrote to King Rudolph of France, as well as local bishops and counts, with instructions to restore to Cluny the property of which Guido, abbot of Gigny Abbey, had taken without permission, and to put the monastery under their protection.[35] In 926, he increased the land attached to the Subiaco Abbey in exchange for the monks reciting 100 Kyrie eleisons for the salvation of his soul.[36] In 924 John X sent a Papal Legate named Zanello to Spain to investigate the Mozarabic Rite. Zanello spoke favourably of the Rite, and the Pope gave a new approval to it, requiring only to change the words of consecration to that of the Roman one.[37] John’s pontificate saw large numbers of pilgrimages from England to Rome, including Wulfhelm, Archbishop of Canterbury in 927. Three years before, in 924, King Æthelstan sent one of his nobles, Alfred, to Rome, on charges of plotting to put out the king’s eyes, where he was supposed to swear an oath before Pope John declaring his innocence of the charges, but he died soon afterwards in Rome.[38] In 917 John also gave the Archbishop of Bremen jurisdiction over the bishops in Sweden, Denmark, Norway, Iceland and Greenland.[39] Finally, during his pontificate, John also restored the Lateran Basilica, which had crumbled in 897.[40] Deposition and death The power struggle between John X and Guy of Tuscany and Marozia came to a conclusion in 928. Guy had secretly collected a body of troops, and with them made an attack on the Lateran Palace when Peter, Duke of Spoleto, was caught off his guard, and had only a few soldiers with him. Peter was cut to pieces before his brother's eyes, while John himself was thrown into a dungeon, where he remained until he died.[41] There are two variant traditions surrounding his death; the first has it that he was smothered to death in the dungeon within a couple of months of his deposition. Another has it he died sometime in 929 without violence, but through a combination of the conditions of his incarceration and depression.[42] According to John the Deacon, John X was buried in the atrium of the Lateran Basilica, near the main entrance.[43] He was succeeded by Pope Leo VI in 928. Reputation and legacy For centuries, John X’s pontificate has been seen as one of the most disgraceful during the shameful period of the Saeculum obscurum. Much of this can be laid at the feet of the Liutprand of Cremona, whose account of the period is both inaccurate and uniformly hostile.[44] His characterisation of John as an unscrupulous cleric who slept his way to the papal chair, becoming the lover of Theodora, and who held the throne of Saint Peter as a puppet of Theophylact I, Count of Tusculum until he was murdered to make way for Marozia’s son Pope John XI, has coloured much of the analysis of his reign, and was used by opponents of the Catholic Church as a propagandist tool.[45] Thus according to John Foxe, John X was the son of Pope Lando and the lover of the Roman “harlot” Theodora, who had John overthrow his supposed father, and set John up in his place.[46] While according to Louis Marie DeCormenin, John was: ”The son of a nun and a priest... more occupied with his lusts and debauchery than with the affairs of Christendom... he was ambitious, avaricious, an apostate, destitute of shame, faith and honour, and sacrificed everything to his passions; he held the Holy See about sixteen years, to the disgrace of humanity.”[47] However, in recent times, his pontificate has been re-evaluated, and he is now seen as a man who attempted to stand against the aristocratic domination of the papacy, who promoted a unified Italy under an imperial ruler, only to be murdered for his efforts.[48] So according to Ferdinand Gregorovius (not known for his sympathies towards the Papacy), John X was the foremost statesman of his age. He wrote: ”John X, however, the man whose sins are known only by report, whose great qualities are conspicuous in history, stands forth amid the darkness of the time as one of the most memorable figures among the Popes. The acts of the history of the Church praise his activity, and his relations with every country of Christendom. And since he confirmed the strict rule of Cluny, they extol him further as one of the reformers of monasticism.”[49] References Norwich, John Julius, The Popes: A History (2011) Levillain, Philippe, The Papacy: Gaius-Proxies, Routledge (2002) • Mann, Horace K., The Lives of the Popes in the Early Middle Ages, Vol. IV: The Popes in the Days of Feudal Anarchy, 891999 (1910) Notes 1. ^ Mann, pg. 152 2. ^ a b c d Levillain, pg. 838 ^ Norwich, John Julius, The Popes: A History (2011), pg. 75; Mann, pg. 151 3. 4. ^ Gregorovius, Ferdinand, The History of Rome in the Middle Ages, Vol. III, pg. 252 5. ^ Richard P. McBrien, Lives of the Popes, (HarperCollins, 2000), 152. 6. ^ Mann, pg. 153 7. ^ Levillain, pg. 838; Mann, pg. 153 8. ^ Mann, pg. 153; Levillain, pg. 838 9. ^ Mann, pg. 154 10. ^ a b Mann, pg. 155 11. ^ Mann, pg. 155-156 12. ^ Mann, pg. 156 13. ^ Canduci, Alexander, Triumph & Tragedy: The Rise and Fall of Rome’s Immortal Emperors (2010), pg. 223 14. ^ Mann, pg. 157 15. ^ Mann, pgs. 158-159 16. ^ Mann, pgs. 159-160 17. ^ Mann, pg. 161; Norwich, pg. 75 18. ^ Levillain, pg. 839; Mann, pg 161 19. ^ Norwich, pg. 75; Mann, pgs. 161-162 20. ^ Mann, pg. 162 21. ^ Norwich, John Julius, Byzantium: The Apogee (1993), pg. 137; Mann, pgs. 133-134

^ Vlasto, A. P. (1970). The Entry of the Slavs into Christendom: An Introduction to the Medieval History of the Slavs. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 209. ISBN 0-521-07459-2, 9780521074599. 23. ^ Mann, pgs. 165-166 ^ Mann, pg. 166 24. 25. ^ Levillain, pg. 839; Mann, pgs. 167-168 26. ^ Mann, pg. 169 27. ^ Levillain, pg. 839; Mann, pg. 170 28. ^ Mann, pg. 171 29. ^ Levillain, pg. 839; Mann, pgs. 171-173 ^ Mann, pgs. 174-175 30. 31. ^ Levillain, pg. 839; Mann, pgs. 175-176 32. ^ Mann, pg. 176 33. ^ a b Levillain, pg. 839 34. ^ Mann, pgs. 177-178 35. ^ Mann, pgs. 178-179 ^ Mann, pg. 179 36. 37. ^ Mann, pg. 181 38. ^ Mann, pgs., 182-183 39. ^ Mann, pg. 184 40. ^ Levillain, pg. 839; Mann, pg. 185 41. ^ Mann, pgs. 162-163 ^ Norwich, pg. 75; Mann, pgs. 163-164 42. 43. ^ Mann, pg. 185 44. ^ Mann, pg. 151 45. ^ Mann, pgs. 151-152 46. ^ John Foxe, George Townsend, Josiah Pratt, The acts and monuments of John Foxe, with a life and defence of the martyrologist, Vol. II (1870), pg. 35 ^ DeCormenin, Louis Marie; Gihon, James L., A Complete History of the Popes of Rome, from Saint Peter, the 47. First Bishop to Pius the Ninth (1857), pgs. 285-286 ^ Duffy, Eamon, Saints & Sinners: A History of the Popes (1997), pg. 83 48. 49. ^ Gregorovius, Ferdinand, The History of Rome in the Middle Ages, Vol. III, pg. 280 External links • Pope John X at Find a Grave • Opera Omnia by Migne Patrologia Latina with analytical indexes Preceded by Lando Pope 914–928 Succeeded by Leo VI 22.

Theodora and Marozia, one John X’s reputed lover, the other his reputed murderer

Berengar (seated on the left) whom John X crowned Holy Roman Emperor in December 915

Theophylact I, Count of Tusculum
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Theophylact I (before 864 – 924/925) was a medieval Count of Tusculum who was the effective ruler of Rome from around 905 through to his death in 924. His descendants would control the Papacy for the next 100 years. Biography Theophylact was the hereditary Count of Tusculum, a small hill town near the vicinity of Rome. He is mentioned for the first time in a document of 901 as palatine iudex of the Emperor Louis III. He remained in Rome, commanding a group of soldiers after the emperor’s return to Provence in 902, and was prominent in the overthrow of Antipope Christopher in January 904, whom he very likely ordered to be killed whilst in prison later that year. Theophylact formed an alliance with Alberic I of Spoleto, and with their combined backing, Pope Sergius III was elected in Christopher’s place.[1] During his pontificate, Theophylact became Sergius’ sacri palatii vestararius and magister militum, effectively seizing control of the city. He was also granted other honorific titles, such as senator, glorissimus dux, and dominus urbis.[2] Sometime between the end of Sergius’ pontificate and the start of John X’s,[3] Theophylact was elected as the head of Rome, under the centuries old title of Roman consul by the city's nobility. As per the ancient office, this must have been for a year only, as in 915, he is referred to as a senator only, although first among the listed nobility.[4] In this capacity, Theophylact was able to dominate the papal electoral process, with all popes until his death in 925 chosen after he had hand-picked them. Theophylact’s rule of Rome was shared to a large degree with his wife Theodora, who was styled senatrix and serenissima vestaratrix of Rome. It was by her suggestion that the popes who followed Sergius III, Anastasius III and Lando, were chosen by her husband for the papal see. Then in 914, she prevailed upon him to support her alleged lover as pope, having him installed as Pope John X (although it has been suggested that John was in fact related to either Theodora or Theophylact).[5] Theophylact worked closely with the able John X, who supported Theophylact’s overall objectives with regards to strengthening the imperial presence in Italy by supporting Emperor Berengar I of Italy. He fought alongside John X against the Saracens at the Battle of Garigliano in 915, and was the pope’s principal political support until his death in either 924 or 925.[6] Theophylact had two daughters with Theodora: Marozia and Theodora. In the longer term, the heirs of Theophylact, the Tusculani, were the rivals of the Crescentii in controlling Rome, and placed several popes on the Chair of St Peter. Their eventual heirs were the Colonna. Reputation It is now believed that Theodora’s influence over Theophylact was overstated by misogynistic contemporary chroniclers such as Liutprand of Cremona, who wished to exaggerate the corruption of the Roman and Papal court, as a counterpoint to rulers such as Alberic I of Spoleto, and the future emperor Otto I, whom Liutprand later served. The charges of adultery against Theodora, the use of the term “harlot”, and the presumption that she was using her “feminine wiles” to prostitute herself in order to influence her husband and appoint numerous lovers to important posts were used to tarnish the rule of Theophylact and his successors. Later historians, influenced by the moral tone of this critique, described the influence of Theodora and her descendants over the papacy as the “Pornocracy” or the “Rule of the Harlots”. Modern historians now instead use the term Saeculum obscurum to describe the period when the Papacy was under the direct control of the Roman nobility, in particular when it was under the domination of the family of Theophylact. Family tree Theophylact I, Count of Tusculum Theodora 864–924 Hugh of Italy Alberic 887-948 Spoleto (also married d. 925 Marozia) Alda of Vienne I of Marozia 890–937 Pope Sergius III 904–911 Gratian (Consul)

Theodora

Alberic II Spoleto 905–954

of

David Deodatus

or

Pope John XI 931–935

Theodora Pope John XIII 965– 972

Giovanni Crescentius

Theophylact

Pope John XII 955–964

Pope Benedict VII 974-983

Marozia

Crescentius the Elder

Gregory I, Count of Tusculum Alberic Pope Benedict Count VIII Tusculum 1012–1024 d. 1044 Peter, Duke of Gaius the Romans III, of Pope John XIX 1024–1032 Pope Benedict IX 1032–1048

Octavianus

References • Williams, George L., Papal Genealogy: The Families and Descendants Of The Popes (2004) • Gregorovius, Ferdinand, History of the City of Rome in the Middle Ages Vol. III (2010) • Lindsay Brook. Popes and pornocrats in the early middle ages.

Notes 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

^ Williams, pg. 11 ^ Williams, pg. 11; Gregorovius, pg. 251 ^ Gregorovius, pgs. 252-253 ^ Gregorovius, pg. 254 ^ Gregorovius, pg. 252 ^ Williams, pg. 13

Alberic I of Spoleto
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Alberic I (died c. 925) was the Lombard duke of Spoleto from between 896 and 900 until 920, 922, or thereabouts. He first appears as a page to Guy III of Spoleto at the Battle on the Trebbia in 889 He may have later been the count of Fermo or margrave of Camerino, but whatever the case, he succeeded to Spoleto after murdering Duke Guy IV. He was recognised soon by King Berengar I, with whom he fought the Magyars in 899 or 900. Alberic allied with his neighbour, the margrave of Tuscany Adalbert II, against Pope Sergius III. The two then blocked the road to Rome to prevent Berengar's imperial coronation in 906 or 907. His alliance with the Tusculani was very advantageous. By his marriage to Marozia, the daughter of Theodora and Theophylact I, Count of Tusculum, he received the title of "patrician of the Romans," patricius Romanorum. Most famously perhaps, Alberic was one of the three great leaders of the Christian League which defeated the Saracens at the Battle of the Garigliano in June 915. He led his troops from Spoleto and Camerino with those of Theophylact of Tusculum to join with Pope John X—and his contingent from Latium and Adalbert of Tuscany—and Nicholas Picingli, the strategos of Bari, leading the Byzantine forces and Lombard and Greek princes of the South: Guaimar II of Salerno, Landulf I of Benevento, Atenulf II of Capua, John I and the later Docibilis II of Gaeta, and Gregory IV and the later John II of Naples. Even Berengar sent a contingent from La Marche. The battle went famously and many a petty prince received titles of great honour. Alberic was appointed the "consul of the Romans" in 917 [1]. He became, however, a tyrant in the Eternal City and people and pope expelled him. He was subsequently murdered in Orte between 924 or 926, probably because of his reliance on marauding Hungarians who supported his power. The dates of his downfall and death are as uncertain as those of his rise. He last appears in a datable document of 917, the Liber largitorius of Farfa Abbey. He had three or four sons by Marozia: • Alberic II, who was later prince of Rome • Constantino (d. after January 14, 945) • Sergio, bishop of Nepi (d. before 963) • and possibly also Pope John XI (many sources consider him illegitimate son of Pope Sergius III). Sources Lexikon des Mittelalters Medieval Lands Project on Alberico, Marchese di Spoleto 1. ^ Lindsay Brook. Popes and pornocrats in the early middle ages.

Nicholas Picingli
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Nicholas (or Nicolaus) Picingli was the Byzantine strategos of Bari in the thema of Langobardia, who led the Byzantine contingent of the Christian League in the Battle of Garigliano in 915 during the Byzantine–Arab Wars. He was appointed strategos of Bari by Byzantine Emperor Constantine VII in 915 to replace Melisianus, and immediately set to work organizing the various south Italian princes in a concerted effort to expel the Saracen presence. At sea, Picingli had the support of the Byzantine navy, while on land he allied with Alberic I of Spoleto and Pope John X to form the Christian League. Picingli assembled the Byzantine forces from Byzantium's Italian vassals: the Lombard prince of Salerno, Guaimar II, and the prince of a united Capua and Benevento, Landulf I. This force then marched north towards the River Garigliano, where the Saracens' chief fortress was, where the rulers of Gaeta and Naples, Dukes John I and Gregory IV respectively, both technically Byzantine vassals, came to his camp to receive Byzantine titles and the duke of Gaeta and his son, Docibilis, and the duke of Naples and his, John, were made patricians. This large force united with armies led by Alberic I of Spoleto and Pope John X, who was personally leading an army of Latins and Romans. They met the Saracens in June and the battle was a Muslim rout. He was relieved of his post in 921 during the usurpation of Romanos I. Sources Gwatkin, H.M., Whitney, J.P. (ed) et al. The Cambridge Medieval History: Volume III. Cambridge University Press, 1926.

Longobardia
Λογγοβαρδία, θέµα Λογγοβαρδίας Theme of Longobardia 873–ca. 965
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Capital - Byzantine conquest of Bari - Establishment of the Catepanate of Italy Bari 873 965

Longobardia (Greek: Λογγοβαρδία, also variously Λογγιβαρδία, Longibardia and Λαγουβαρδία, Lagoubardia), was a Byzantine term for the territories controlled by the Lombards in Italy. In the 9th-10th centuries, it was also the name of a Byzantine military-

civilian province (or thema) known as the Theme of Longobardia located in southeastern Italy. The term was traditionally used for the Lombard possessions, with the chronicler Theophanes the Confessor distinguishing between "Great Longobardia" (Greek: Μεγάλη Λογγοβαρδία; Latin: Longobardia major), namely the Lombard kingdom in northern Italy, and "Lesser Longobardia" (Latin: Longobardia minor), which comprised southern Italy, with the Lombard duchies of Spoleto, Salerno and Capua, the Byzantine possessions, and the city-states (Naples, Gaeta and Amalfi) under Byzantine suzerainty.[1][2] In its strictest and most technical sense, the name referred to the Byzantine thema which encompassed the modern Italian region of Apulia and parts of Basilicata, with Bari as its capital. Its exact origin and evolution are not entirely clear. Its establishment, perhaps first as a subordinate division (tourma) of the thema of Cephallenia, dates to circa 876, when Bari was recovered by the Byzantines, who used it as a base to re-establish their control over southern Italy, lost in previous centuries to the Lombards and Arabs.[3] In the late 9th century, it appears that it was administered jointly with other European themata of the Byzantine Empire:[4] in 891 the first known strategos of Longobardia, Symbatikios, was also governor of Macedonia, Thrace and Cephallenia, while his successor George administered Longobardia jointly with its parent thema, Cephallenia.[5] A dedicated strategos is only attested from 911 on.[4] In 938 and 956, it also appears united with the thema of Calabria, although the duration of this arrangement is unclear. At any rate, after circa 965, the two themata were permanently united into the new Catepanate of Italy, with the catepan's seat again at Bari.[2][4] Citations ^ Kazhdan 1991, pp. 1249–1250. ^ a b Pertusi 1952, p. 181 ^ Kazhdan 1991, pp. 256, 1250. ^ a b c Kazhdan 1991, p. 1250. ^ Pertusi 1952, p. 180 Sources • Kazhdan, Alexander Petrovich, ed. (1991). Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium. New York, New York and Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-504652-6. • Pertusi, A. (1952) (in Italian). Constantino Porfirogenito: De Thematibus. Rome, Italy: Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana. Further reading • Oikonomidès, N. A. (1965). "Constantin VII Porphyrogénète et les Thèmes de Céphalonie et de Longobardie" (in French). Revue des études byzantines 23 (23): 118–123. http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/article/rebyz_07665598_1965_num_23_1_1343.