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LITERATURE SURVEY:

2.1 The Purpose of VFDs:i. ii. Energy savings on most pump and fan applications. Better process control and regulation.

iii. Speeding up or slowing down a machine or process. iv. Inherent power-factor correction v. Emergency bypass capability

vi. Protection from overload currents vii. Safe Acceleration

2.2 Electric & Power Basics:All VFDs must: i. ii. iii. Run a machine or process at a desired speed. Produce adequate torque to handle the load. Use power efficiently to produce the necessary torque at a given speed.

iv. Effectively monitor the application or process. The typical waveform consists of the frequency portion (time based) of the wave and the amplitude portion (the magnitude). This wave is actually in sine-wave form, commonly referred to as the fundamental.

Sinusoidal Waveform With Frequency & Amplitude Components

2.3 AC Induction Motor Theory:-

How a motor shaft rotates i. ii. Torque is produced as the induction motor generates flux in its rotating field. This flux must remain constant to produce full-load torque.

iii. As shaft torque load increases, the slip increases and more flux lines cut the rotor windings, which in turn increases rotor current, which increases the rotor magnetic field and consequently the rotor torque. Starting Induction Motors i. The starting current is very high, between 3 to 8 times the full load current. Depending on the size of the motor, this can result in voltage sags in the power system. The full torque is applied instantly at starting and the mechanical shock can eventually damage the drive system, particularly with materials handling equipment, such as conveyors.

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iii. In spite of the high starting current, for some applications the starting torque may be relatively low, only 1.0 to 2.5 times full load torque. The speed of the rotating electric field within the induction motor. Synchronous Speed = 120 x frequency No. of motor poles

AC motor speed change can be accomplished in three ways: i. Change the number of poles in the motor; this means separate windings;

ii.

Change the slip characteristics of the motor; this is done with varying resistors, such as is done with a wound-rotor motor or by varying the stator voltage; or

iii. Change the frequency of the power supplied to the motor. This is the method of choice .

Typical speed versus torque curve for a NEMA design B motor.

% Synchronous Speed

2.4 AC Induction Motor Issues: Starting Induction Motors i. The starting current is very high, between 3 to 8 times the full load current. Depending on the size of the motor, this can result in voltage sags in the power system. The full torque is applied instantly at starting and the mechanical shock can eventually damage the drive system, particularly withmaterials handling equipment, such as conveyors. In spite of the high starting current, for some applications the starting torque may be relatively low, only 1.0 to 2.5 times full load torque.

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2.5 Components of VFDs i. Power electronics is that field of electronics which covers the conversion of electrical energy from one form to another for high power applications. Vacuum tubes Thyristors (SCRs) provided the standard method for rectifying AC. Also referred to as a diode. Transistors provide fast switching capability for a relatively low cost.

ii. iii. iv. v.

vi. The general types of transistors are: a. The bipolar transistor; b. The gate turn off transistor (GTO) c. The field-effect transistor (FET); d. The insulated gate-field-effect transistor (IGFET); e. The insulated gate-bipolar transistor (IGBT). vii All VFDs need a power section that converts AC power into DC power.

viii This is called the converter bridge. ix Sometimes the front end of the VFD, the converter is commonly a three- phase, fullwave-diode bridge.

Rectifier is that special type of converter that converts AC to DC.

2.6 VFD Basics: DC Bus The DC bus is the true link between the converter and inverter sections of the drive. Any ripple must be smoothed out before any transistor switches on. If not, this distortion will show up in the output to the motor. The DC bus voltage and current can be viewed through the bus terminals.

A VFD in a block diagram.

Simplified Circuit showing DC bus components:

The DC link is an important section of the drive as it provides much of the monitoring and protection for the drive & motor circuit. It contains the base-drive fusing and pre-charge capacitor network, which assures steady voltage DC voltage levels prior to the inverter bridge and allows a path for over-voltage dissipation. Input Waveforms i. The voltage that is not stepped down is rectified through the diodes, and a DC bus voltage should be present. The DC + and DC terminals will typically read approximately 325 volts DC on a 230 volts AC supplied drive and 650 volts DC on a 460 volts AC supplied drive.

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iii. This waveform, when viewed, is straight DC, possibly with some rippling effect from the AC input. Power-Module i. The inverter section is made up primarily of modules that are each made up of a transistor and diode in combination with each other which inverts the DC energy back to AC. By switching the inverter-transistor devices on and off many times per half cycle, a pseudosinusoidal current waveform is approximated. 1. The DC waveform looks more like an AC waveform but the voltage waveform is much different. 2. The power semi-conductors in the inverter section act as switches, switches of the DC bus, and therefore, are pulsing the motor with some voltage. 3. A typical square wave takes its shape on the square-wave look due to this switching function ( which explains the sharp rise to peak) rather than a rotational, changing state of amplitude.

4. This frequency and amplitude pattern is sometimes called the carrier frequency of a PWM drive. 5. The VFD changes the DC energy into three channels of AC energy that an AC induction motor can use to function properly. 6. Inverters are classified as voltage-source, current-source of variable voltage types. This has to do with the form of DC that the inverter receives from the DC bus.

Pulse-width-modulated voltage and current waveforms.

Types of VFDs i. Solid-state AC VFDs can be named for their use, by their DC bus/inverter voltage or current source, by their waveform (PWM or PAM), by the type of power device used in their inverter section, or by their performance characteristics. The main objective of the VFD is to vary the speed of the motor while providing the closest approximation to a sine wave for current (while pulsing DC voltage to the motor). How VFDs Operate ii. The PWMs drive ability to maintain the AC levels through all types of load conditions at given speeds is the factor which separates one drive manufacturer from the other.

Sample PWM-equivalent circuit with waveforms.

Advantages i. Sometimes getting a little more speed out of the motor can increase the flow just enough to satisfy the demand. When there is capacity in the motor and the VFD can be programmed to do this, a new, larger motor does not have to be purchased and installed. The VFD can run 10 to 20% higher in speed and a flow-and-demand type of system. However, many motors as built are not make up for lost capacity in

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balanced for these speeds.

Functions & Features i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. Set-up Parameters The Control Method Acceleration or Accel-Ramp Rate Automatic Restart Stopping Method Automatic SignalsJump, Skip or Critical Frequencies Fault Logs and On-Board

Diagnostics i. Power Loss Ride Through ii. Slip Compensation iii. Catch a Rotating Motor, Speed Conclusion i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. Significant energy savings Easy setup & programming Retrofits Space Better design Competitive edge

METHOD