.THE LIFE OP HENRY JOHN TEMPLE. VISCOUNT PALMEESTON VOLUME I.

.

] . M.G.THE LIFE OF HENRY JOHN TEMPLE..B. VISCOUNT PALMERSTON: / WITH Selections from bis giarbs anfo C0rrespon!trtnce. LONDON: RICHAED BENTLEY. BY THE RIGHT HON.P. SIR HENRY LYTTON BULWER. "^^^ VOLUME I. G. Us^r in NEW BUBLINGTON rbinarg to tr STBEET. 1871. [The Right of Translation it reserved. Pajestg. THIRD EDITION.

LONDOX I PBINTED BY WILLIAM CLOWES AND SONS. . STAMFORD STREET AND CHARING CROSS.

! Alas she has departed from a world which her noble and kind nature. COWPER-TEMPLE. my and work would have been its who felt so deep an interest in subject. and. BULWER. her grace and her goodness. F. RICHMOND. WM. most indebted .P. . my H. who rendered the name already historical. L. Had Lady Palmerston been respectful dedication of this to her spared to us. October 15. I am testifying my gratitude for the help you have given me in recording inscribing to the career of a Statesman of Temple. next to her. dear Temple. To you I am. in you these volumes.TO THE BIGHT HON. who offered me the means for accomplishing the task which at her wish I undertook. 1870. Yours. one of the proudest illustrations of our country. M. so long adorned. very sincerely. HERON HOUSE. MY DEAR TEMPLE.

.

a place in his biography. and that I thought they ought to find good as letters. contemplated finishing the work in two volumes when I was put in possession of a very extensive private correspondence. them nor . I still. inasmuch as its proportions are being constantly changed according to the materials the writer receives.PREFACE. Canning in Historical Characters. which neither the persons who wrote their friends could feel the slightest dislike to see in print. were so characteristic of the writer. from the letters to Lord Palmerston I have merely selected a very few. work of My first idea was to sketch ' Lord Palmerston as I have sketched Mr. however. and this I should say that the value of this hitherto unpublished correspondence consists in its showing not merely the outside which is contained in official documents.* connected with foreign affairs. but the inside of public affairs for a * very long period of time. Temple's letters from which these letters so I have quoted was placed in my hands.' But when the large collection of Mr. From the letters of Lord Palmerston I have copied freely. IT a is difficult for this any one who has not tried to write kind to anticipate the difficulties through which it is carried out.

would have been to maintain and perpetuate a cordial understanding with a state by . lishing a constitutional sovereign and a neutral state in Belgium. This policy he realized with the aid of France. That period begins with a certain struggle against the resistance of the Northern Cabinets to any change in the affairs of Europe. therefore. early however. and a struggle. These two volumes. I have not reached further in the two volumes I now publish than the fall of the Whig Cabinet in 1841. and his talents as a statesman first acknowledged. at the same time. Palmerston's and comprise Lord subordinate career. to extend my plan . which wished to change everything. and England in an alliance favourable to constitutional monarchy in Europe. against that revolutionary spirit. no doubt. whose restless ambition he had nevertheless to restrain. Spain. and uniting France. at a time interest. when foreign affairs had become of intense I found it again necessary. and carry us also through the period during which his reputation as a Foreign Minister was formed. though I have endea- voured to confine my citations to such papers alone as peculiarly illustrated the policy of the statesman I was describing. and the manner in which he carried that policy out. Portugal. sprung from the revolution of 1830 in France. His wish. Lord Palmerston succeeded in this double struggle by moderating the two conflicting extremes estab.PEEFACE. and finally.

But from causes which I have more or less ex- plained. apbent on carrying out this project. a question in which the interests of Great Britain were deeply involved for England last arose . . and with her interests in the other. and successfully opposed France. broke from an ally who wished (as he imagined) to make him a dupe. and Russia. as he had previously opposed those three powers with the aid of France. Thiers). In both cases. open the eyes of attempting Louis Philippe's Ministers to the futility of their plans (and he had to deal alternately with M. Egypt to be in deGovernment and dependent Government. after The French Then to it was that Lord Palmerston. notwithstanding. the itself French Cabinet had no sooner connected formally with ours than it began to be uneasy under the connection. and M. Mole. and to seek the sympathy of those powers against whose principles we had been combating together. with the aid of Austria. under his auspices policy of England triumphed and in both cases the policy of in conformity with England was a natural policy her principles in the one case. xi whose co-operation with our own he hoped graduall y to diffuse liberal opinions throughout the world. the . Prussia.PREFACE. At could not allow the ruler of pendent of the Sultan's on that of the French. Marshal Soult. and only peared anxious to do so without attracting our attention or provoking our opposition.

as his bio- underhand. vacillating in his course. or he took he Whatever line openly. to the success which attended efforts so Lord Palmerston's much as to the mode in which that success grapher I wish to There was nothing mean. that would not induce every Englishman on reading it to say. It is not. firmly.xii PREFACE. Palmerston !" pursued . straightforwardly. " Well done. shifty. that draw attention. however. There is hardly a paper he ever signed up to the time of which I am speaking. it was obtained.

but is unseated Becomes Junior Lord of the Admiralty Stands again for Cambridge Again defeated. boyhood Italy and Harrow Letter from and to young Hare Future life shadowed out in boyhood Goes to Scotland and Cambridge Stands for Cambridge University Defeated. birth. but is returned for Newtown Journal from 1806 to the Duke of Portland's Administration 1 BOOK Now in Parliament . 78 . PAGE Landmarks in it Parentage. BOOK Character Career I. on the dissolution. and speaks with credit in defence of the Government his Irish in regard to the Copenhagen Expedition Visits estates Is offered the Chancellorship of the Ex- chequer. refuses.CONTENTS OF VOLUME I. and comes into Parliament for Horsham. then driving Massena out of Portugal Describes a shooting party in Essex Correspondence with the Commander-in-Chief as to the position of Secretary at War . and becomes Secretary at War Becomes. Member for Cambridge University Makes a successful speech on bringing forward the estimates Cites passages from the despatches of Lord "Wellington. after the Canning and Castlereagh quarrel . II.

and Palmerston offered the Chancellorship of the Exchequer Enters the Cabinet finally as Minister of Minister War Canning dies Lord Goderich Prime Palmerston again offered the Chancellorship of the Exchequer. Canning Prime Minister. BOOK Perceval's III.... which the King. and to quarrel with extreme Tories as well as Canningites Quotations from Journal as to affairs under his Administration during 1829 Letters in the same year from Paris and London Speeches on Portugal and Greece Goes to Paris at the end of the year Interesting Letters in . detailed. . however. The Canningites not sympathized with in their quarrel with the Duke The Duke's mistake Forced to become more liberal. Lord Palmerston on the formation of the new Extract from Autobiography Private letters administration Temple on foreign and home politics Extracts from Journal beginning March 9..xiv CONTENTS.. secures for Herries Saying of Lord Anglesey Lord Goderich succeeded by the Duke of Wellington . .. Huskisson from the ton's Duke of Welling- Government 215 BOOK VI. 129 BOOK ' Mr. IV. and interesting account of the events which led to the withdrawal of Mr. PAGE Palmerston remains in Lord Liverpool's Government Speaks in favour of Catholic Emancipation Turn in the War Speech on army estimates Policy as to colonies State of England Alarm Escape from assassinadeath tion ment Correspondence at Horse Guards Speeches in ParliaGeneral position Without party friends New party formed Election for Cambridge separates him from the old Tories Correspondence . 1828...180 BOOK What happened to Mr. and including a long. to V.

1827 384 Correspondence between Mr.. and Eussia. B. 367 War Treaty for the Pacification of Greece..CONTENTS. . France. signed at London.. .. July 6. Memorandum by the late Lord Palmerston when Secretary at .. . Huskisson and the Duke of Wellington . H.. 418 422 . as given to me. APPENDIX. between England. xv PAGE December describing the state of affairs Events in England and France Quotation from Biography Offers from the Duke of Wellington Eetirement of the Duke from office Lord Grey's Administration Lord Palmerston's appointment 280 as Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs .. Autobiographical Sketch entire. L..

.

and comes into Parliament for Horsham but is unseated Becomes Junior Lord of the Admiralty Stands again for Cambridge Again defeated. I HAVE undertaken to write the I statesman under I had whom biography of a. the more likely I am to secure for his memory the admiration and esteem of his countrymen. The most distinguishing quality of the eminent Englishman whom I am thus about to describe was a nature that opened itself happily to the tastes. and habits of various classes and kinds of men.LIFE OF HENKY JOHN TEMPLE. boyhood and Harrow Letter from and to young Hare Future life shadowed out in boyhood Goes to Scotland and Cambridge Stands for Cambridge University Defeated. a sincere and respectful affection.B. but is returned for Newtown Journal from 1806 to the Duke of Portland's . Career Landmarks in it Parentage. I shall endeavour to perform this not ungrateful task with and impartiality. great long served. B . G.G. birth.. K. and for whom Character. THIRD VISCOUNT PALMERSTON. feeling certain that the more simply and impartially I can make known the simplicity character of Lord Palmerston. Administration. VOL.C. BOOK Character Italy I. feelings. I.

His career went on from its in one direction gradually but continuously commencement to its close. nothing that had the appearance of going backwards and forwards. and led him away from those subtleties and eccentricities which solitude or living constantly in is apt to generate. but before the slow. he had been led by history to the conclusion that all eras have their peculiar tendencies. under the im- pulse of a motive power formed from the collection of various influences some modifying others and not representing in the aggregate the decided opinion of any particular party or class. but not prematurely adopt or extravagantly He did not believe in the absolute wisdom indulge. which some the future . any limited society In the march of his epoch he was behind the eager. Accustomed to a large range of observation over contemporaneous events. see in the past. Hence a comprehensive sympathy. Thus throughout a long political life there was nothing violent or abrupt. which a calm judgment distinctly and an enlightened statesmanship should recognize. or forwards and backwards. but approximating to the opinion of the English nation in . BOOK I. but by presenting life before his mind in many aspects.TEE LIFE OF Character. which others expect from but he preferred the hopes of the generation that was coming on to the despair of the generation that was passing away. which not only put his actions in spontaneous harmony with the sense and feeling of the public. widened his views and moderated his impressions.

180926 May. 1809 28 Oct. 1858 10 ^ A 18 Oct. M. many accomplishments derived from in- dustry and a sound early education. official situation. 1865 Such were the ascending steps of a prosperous life. . and wherein he showed a masterly capacity. _ I 3 July. 28 Dec. 1828 22 Nov. therefore. . was devoid of vanity effort or pretension. the hero of the summit of public distinction. .17 . Secretary for Foreign ' 1 1784 April. ^^ 1851 Prime Minister .27 Jan. found his foot at last on the topmost round of the ladder he had been long unostentatiously mounting. and a remarkThis last. . 20 Career. LORD PALMEBSTON. he carried an earnest patriotism. Cambridge Lord of the Admiralty Secretary at . towards the end of which. he and with a singular absence of aspired to any situation prematurely. general. .. . a strong manly understanding. Into the peculiar and individual position Character. 1806 3 April.. 1834 lg Aprilj Ig35 31 Oct... [20 Feb.. 184622 Dec. 183015 Nov.. .. 1802 . which in this manner he by degrees acquired. 1859 1855 20 Feb. .. found him unequal to it is whilst still more remarkable that he never Ambitious.1784. .. however.. 1807 Oct. ness.. was his peculiar merit as a man of busi- No it . Born Succeeded his father . indeed. 1855 < or T iocn {30 June. fortune constantly accompanying him. It this memoir reached in must be admitted. War . 185230 Jan. that he engaged B 2 .A.. able talent for concentrating details. Home Secretary .

THE LIFE OF
Career.

BOOK

I.

public affairs with advantages which are great at all times and in every country, but which were especially great in England during what may now be " the old called He was of a good family, re'gime." with a well-known name, and a fair fortune.

Parentage.

The Temples were gentlemen in the reign of Henry VIII. A Sir William Temple was the secretary of Sir Philip Sidney, and afterwards of the unfortunate Earl of Essex. He seems to have been
of letters, with the chivalric temperament that His son Sir John held posts characterised his age.

a

man

and authority in Ireland, and Sir John's son was the celebrated diplomatist who had
of confidence

William
pendent.

III.

for his friend,

and Swift

for his de-

Lord Palmerston descended

directly

from a

younger brother of the great diplomatist, this brother rising to be Attorney-General and Speaker of the
Irish

House of Commons,

His son Henry, created a

Peer of Ireland (March 12, 1722), was for several
years a

member
for

of the English Parliament, sitting

successively

East

G-rinstead,

Weobley. The heir to his title issue, and thus the second Viscount was grandson to He was known as an accomplished and the first. fashionable gentleman, a lover and appreciator of art,

Bossiney, and died young, but left

which made him, no doubt, an admirer of beauty. Of this he gave a proof in his second marriage* to
His first wife, whom he married Oct. 6, 1767, was Frances, only daughter of Sir Francis Poole. She died June 1, 1769, without leaving
issue.

*

1784.

LOUD PALMEESTON.

5

Miss Mee, a young lady of a highly respectable family in Gloucestershire, into the house of whose
father, then residing in

Parentage,

Dublin, the peer, in con-

sequence of a

Our

late

from his horse, had been carried.* Prime Minister was the son of this nobleman
fall

and of Miss Mee, who appears from

all

accounts to

have been not only handsome, but accomplished and agreeable, and to have held a high position in Dublin

and London

society.

Her husband's
;

artistic tastes led
it

him

at various times into Italy

and

was thus that

a portion of the future minister's boyhood was passed ill that country, in the fate of which he always took

an

interest.

He

formed at

this time

an intimate ac-

quaintance with a lad of the name of Hare, who became in after years one of the best known and

most accomplished gentlemen of his time and I happen to have a curious letter from young Francis
;

Hare
letter

to

young Harry Temple, then at Harrow, and a from Harry Temple in reply.
Francis Hare\
to

Harry Temple,

vale.

"Bologna, Jan. 5, 1798. " I dear Harry, that you continue always well, and Letters, hope, that you profit much at school, both in Greek and Latin. I
*

editions of this work, wherein I

I have to acknowledge a mistake "which appeared in the former had erroneously stated Mr. Mee to

have been a tradesman. t Hare was the eldest of four brothers (Francis, Augustus, Julius, and Marcus), of whom Augustus and the Archdeacon Julius authors " of the Guesses at Truth," became the best known publicly, though all were remarkably accomplished, and held in high esteem by the scholars

and poets of their time. In Mr. Forster's "Life of Walter Savage Landor " several notices occur of Harry Temple's correspondent Francis,

THE LIFE OF
Letters.

BOOK

I.

make you

the very best that a true friend can make, and I think I ought to believe that you
this wish, as I think
.it

place me in this number. " I hope you take no part in those vices which are common to a public school, such as I suppose Harrow, as swearing and

getting drunk ; but I imagine the son of a gentleman so well taught cannot partake in things like these. " Pray give a kiss to each of your two amiable sisters, but particularly to Fanny, and tell her to write me a letter

whenever you answer mine. I still persist in my opinion of never marrying, and I suppose you think the same, as you must have read as well as myself of the many faults and
vices of "

women.

Perhaps I at Bologna

you, and that you at

may have learnt more Greek than Harrow may know best how to fight

who met Landor
Italy

at Tours in 1815, and during their joint residence in became his most intimate friend. When Hare first went to Christ Church, Cyril Jackson referred to him as the only rolling stone lie had ever known which was always gathering moss and Landor, of whom the same might with equal truth have been said, told Mr. Forster that from Hare's society he had derived the animation and excitement that had helped him most in the composition of his " Imaginary Conversations." Excepting a few remarks (signed F.) in the "Guesses at Truth," Francis Hare published nothing but so accurate and extensive were his classical attainments that his brother Julius, a most distinguished scholar, told Mr. Maurice he owed as much to him as to any of his instructors. " I remember our Consul-General at Borne," writes Mr. Seymour Kirkup, "calling him a monster of learning." And Landor, in introducing him in 1827 to Southey and Wordsworth, " his wit and dwells even less on his prodigious scholarship than on the inexhaustible spirit and variety of his conversation." In April, 1828, he married Anne, eldest daughter of Sir John Dean Paul, and had with her 20,000?. He died in Sicily in 1840, and there is an allusion to him in a poem by Landor as one
;

;

" Who held mute the joyous and the wise With wit and eloquence whose tomb, afar From all his friends and all his countrymen,
. .
.

.

;

Saddens the light Palermo."

1798.

LORD PALMEBSTON.
fist
;

7

with your

however,

if

you challenge

me

I shall not

Letters.

hesitate to accept, for I remember I am an English boy, and will behave like a brave one. Pray salute for me Willie

Ponsonby, whom you and I knew in Italy. Billy desires not to be forgotten by you. I have no more time for writing, so shall only add that I shall wait for your answer with impaI protest myself, with all tience. heart, your most affectionate friend, " FRANCIS GEORGE

my

HARE."

"

"

Harrow, March 29, 1798.

DEAR HARE,
" I

am just

recovered from the meazles, which,

however, I have had very slightly, and
well.
I

am now
for

am

sincerely oblidged to

you

very your kind

wish, and

trust

that I

make

as

much

progress as

boys in

my

begun Homer's

I have situation at school generally do. which I did in that beautifull Iliad,

episode, in the 5th*

book

I think, in

which Andro-

mache takes leave of Hector, when returning from the war to Troy, to order a general supplication to
Minerva, at this
<?

line,

pa

I suppose,

however, that you have made considerable progress in your learning, more than is perhaps in

my
I

power,

each, day,

we having tasks as long as we stay

regularly allotted for in each form or class.

doing Caasar, Terence, Ovid, Homer, Greek Testament, and a collection of Greek epigrams, and
the Easter holidays, which are

am now

after

near, I shall begin Virgil,
*

now drawing and some more. Horace,

Really the 6th book, line 116.

THE LIFE OF Letters. pleasant time I spent in Italy. and swearing. I think with regret upon those which I used to get in such plenty in Italy and when I . Gaetano. " Believe send you no news. BOOK I. desires to be rememI can assure you I have by no means left off my Italian. which. envy you at Bologna. purchased by perhaps eight biochi. who has published a new Italian grammar. I can find glad to see that though educated in Italy you have not forgot Your letter brings to my mind the old England. I am perfectly of your opinion concerning drinking at present. I cannot agree with you about marriage. though fashionable I think drunk. which I can assure you gave me no small pleasure. Mr.nasty things nicknamed sausages." letter Kemarks. which has been very much approved of here in G-aetano. nice ones. . but keep it up every holidays with Mr. I you remember him. I shall here * add a which I received recently This intention was literally carried out. " HENRY TEMPLE. and makes me wish to revisit the country I am now reading so much about . England. as know none. who perhaps now are feasting off some have begun to learn Spanish. if bered to you. Adieu ! me ever your affectionate friend. extremely ungentlemanlike no pleasure in it. though I I should be by is choice* Willy no means precipitate about my come to Harrow. and sends his love to I you. am eating. I . as for getting am and when sucking a sour orange. and have also begun to read Don Quixote in the origiriall.

who messed together and the latter was by far the most merciful and indulgent." In the letter of Sir Augustus Clifford we see the plucky Secretary of State. were fags to Althorp. Hyde. sea shortly after.' Lord De Mauley then William Ponsonby Lord Poulett. Letter from Sir Augustus Clifford. twice his size. which was Dr. by whom we were often called when idle young men of wit and ' We " pleasure. and Temple. and he would not give in. who forced his political opponents to say they were proud of him. 1870. long career was " Westfield. Letters.1798. yours very truly. a son of . the late Lord Palmerston was reckoned the best-tempered and most plucky boy in the school. " I can remember well Temple fighting behind school a great boy called Salisbury. and Mother Bromley taking care of him. Duncannon. but was brought home with black eyes and a bloody I went to nose. temporaries. LOED PALMEESTON. confirm what I also the same say. "When I went to Harrow in 1797. and would. " AUGUSTUS CLIFFORD. . which shows that the brave and gentle from nature manifested throughout a traceable from early youth. Henry Temple's Harrow con-Kemarks. and the happy hours I have spent in his society. September 21. " Lord Lonsdale and in house. " Believe me. I can to the invariable kindness he has always shown me. ' ' future career. Bromley's. one of 9 Mr. and myself. were in the same house. with a black eye and a bloody nose refusing to give in to whilst in the Hare correthe big boy Salisbury . as well as a young man of great promise. I am Lord Headfort were sure. and though I cannot bear testimony to his The late Poulett.

manly and refined. feeling a greater interest in Latin literature from his recollection of the spots to which it frequently refers. stoutly vices which he against drinking and swearing acknowledges to be fashionable. move on directly It was the fashion of the to an English university. fancy that to be fashionable is to be gentlemanlike. prove industrious in office. so rally at once is what so celebrated for producing statesmen. stating that he had not made up his mind about wedlock. go back to the early years of those who in maturer age become eminent. admiring a beautiful Homer. and be geneclassic oratory of charming and so rare gay and thoughtful. . He declares.10 THE LIFE OF it is BOOK I. two boys. have a good appetite. and mark how are glad to We much of the is man was far in the boy. speak a good deal without compromising himself. admire the Canning. Remarks. ripened naturally into a man who would turn his attention to foreign affairs. A youth. ungentlemanlike. The Harrovian did not on quitting the school. whose English passage in from perfect. however. then about thirteen years old. discussing the question of marriage. keeping up his Italian in an English school. but that he regretted Italian oranges and Bologna sausages. voluntarily learning Spanish. for boys who do not think for themselves. on which Lord Palmerston does not like to spondence amusing to find compromise himself. but condemns as The distinction is not unimportant . keep racehorses.

1801. and subsequently copied out. burgh as an intermediate preparation for that of Cambridge or Oxford for Scotland at that period had acquired a reputatipn both in philosophy and and history which she never previously possessed. than which . Temple especially applied himself. The lectures that principally attracted attention were Dugald Stewart's on political economy and moral philosophy and to these studies. 11 time for young men to take the University of Edin. the principal part of the text which is now given as "Dugald Stewart's Lectures on Economical Science . and Robertson. The notes which he made form. . indeed. . by Henry Temple. Jeffrey. and he found none so complete as those taken originally in shorthand. Henry Petty (afterwards Lord Lansdowne). who. had preceded Henry Lord John Russell and William Lamb Temple (Lord Melbourne) were his successors. none are better calculated to be the foundation of a statesman's education. ." for it appears that the lectures in question were in a great measure extempore. This pre-eminence may be accounted for by the writings of Hume.Remarks. it would seem that Mr. Brougham. works. Horner. or by their . Dugald Stewart. LORD PALMERSTON. and when Sir William Hamilton undertook to publish them he was obliged to consult the memoranda of the pupils by whom they had been attended. and Adam Smith also by the variety of distinguished scholars who had been formed by such men as these. has not since fully maintained.

* says. Temple. the following letter will show that the professor entertained a high opinion of his scholar. which I in parts . Indeed. narrative. In 1803 the student from Edinburgh went to John's.12 THE LIFE OF BOOK I Remark*. speaking of this time. or one pos- more amiable dispositions. as it was placed in my hands. St. 1801. had better mention here that autobio- graphical sketch. and attended his lectures at the University. I cannot say that I have ever seen a more faultless character at his time of sessed of life. to make a continuous . April 27. Cambridge. 1801." It should be added. Extract from a Letter of Professor Dugald Stewart dated Edinburgh." 1803. In these three years I laid the foundation of whatever useful knowledge and habits of mind I possess. it is sufficient for me to say that he has constantly confirmed all the favourable impresHis talents sions of him which I received from your letter. are " uncommonly good. that if the scholar so highly esteemed the advantages he owed to his professor. and he does them all possible justice assiduous application. This entirely different from the Journal. But the this Autobiography. will be found entire in the Appendix to this volume (pages 367-83) but. " I had gone says further at He : j" Edinburgh in all the branches of study pursued at Cambridge than the course then followed at that university extended during the two * first I years of attendance. by " In point of temper and conduct he is everything his friends could wish. Blane. "I lived with Dugald Stewart. t Ibid. I have inserted it autobiographical sketch also quote. With regard to Mr. is where the passages apply. Autobiography. to Mr.

because it evaporated soon after the examinations were over. my not having before this answered your very affectionate The kindness and sympathy of friends afford indeed one of afflictions as the few alleviations of which such ours are susceptible. it would be criminal in us not to may imitate the resignation as well as every other perfection of her character. and I time am : confident none feel possible there are losses fix more than you do. as I had always more been in the first class at college examinations. 1805. I " You am sure. my private tutor at Cambridge. consisted in lectures without Auto- at Cambridge there was a half-yearly It became necessary to learn more accurately at Cambridge rally at Edinburgh.1806. LOED PALMERSTON. 1805. and my * mother in January. " She was conscious. MY DEAB SULIVAN. than once observed to me that. and had been commended for the general regularity of my " conduct. After the example. 1802. and beheld with calm- . Jan. 13 Edinburgh examination examination. what one had learned gene- The knowledge thus acquired of details at Cambridge was worth nothing. The habit mind acquired by preparing examinations was highly useful. and mellow. thus expresses : himself as to this great loss " "Broadlands. now become Lord Palmerston. however. it would not be amiss to turn my thoughts to standing for the University whenever a I lost vacancy might happen. Consolation is imwhich nothing can repair and griefs which . it is true.* The last misfortune Henry Temple. Outram. but never can obliterate. not attribute to any other than the real motive letter. that she was but passing to that happiness which her virtues had secured her . system . of for these " Dr. of fortitude and resignation set us by a being who was the model of every human excellence. 31. My father had died in April. will.

Adieu. I was supported by my own college.14 THE LIFE OF BOOK I. be expected. J. 1806.B. to December whom 6. Captain. who died August 24. and the former. and believe me ever yours affectionately. the new Government would for many years have the disposal of the patronage as well as the command of the power of the country. John's to stand : Althorp and Lord Henry Petty. 9. Pitt died.C. 1811. and I stood at the poll ness and composure an event which. and Mrs. conferred without examination. and the Univer- noblemen to take as sity had I to choose a new member.M. Auto- delayed a few months the taking of my degree as master of arts.. Sir "William Temple. I am sure. the latter of whom married. " In January. but the Pitt party in the Most men thought that University was broken up. afterwards . in addition to the subject of this biography. and two daughters. H. and had not yet taken my degree. at the end of two years after admission. Sulivan. Fanny and Elizabeth. 1856. ston's college friend Mr. 1820. as well as the King a new " minister. Mr. August Admiral." Lord and Lady Palmerston left. Pray remember me to Mr. nevertheless I was advised by my friends at the other candidates were Lord St. one son. to " PALMERSTON.'s Minister at Naples. give you satisfaction to hear that my sisters are as well as after such a loss could William comes to-morrow. to the generality of mankind. It will. was just of age. Sulivan. and by the exertions of the friends of my family . Lord Palmerthe letter I have just quoted was addressed. Sir William Bowles. My uncle is gone to London meet and bring him down here. which it was usual at that time for an honour. comes clad with all the terrors of doubt.

This morning's accounts Shee. He had . took a of young man at once out of the crowd men and brought him individually into young notice.- " It have been supsatisfied with my Lord Palmerston (whom I henceforth designate by the title he had inherited) was no doubt right . Then a Junior Lord of the Treasury well known as leader of the House 1834. to one of our great universities. which seems pretty well charged with the electricity of youth and hope " St. 28. last fAlthorp Palmerston 331 145 128 to was an honour. . however. : Jan. " MY DEAR SULIVAN.1806. was could Auto- that is to say. ported at all. before he had even taken his degree at it. 1806. Earl Spencer. Neither did his success as a candidate seem at one time improbable. " Things go on very well. Commons and when he became. John's. as I : 15 where a young man circumstanced alone expect to stand *Petty . and I was well fight. on of Chancellor of the Exchequer from 1830 to the death of his father. if we may judge of his prospects by a letter written during the election. thanks to you. * Afterwards Lord Lansdowne. LORD PALMERSTON. with any chance for have stood of success. I . and the Malmesburys. from town were excellent here we advance too. just been appointed Chan- cellor of the t Exchequer.

hear Lord Spencer declares * ' Divide et impera Althorp shall not yield to Petty. will bring things to a crisis. June 23. Sumner. very civil). Pearce. and First Lord of The Hon. . The Duke of Rutland stands for the High Stewardship against Lord Hardwicke . mention that I have written to Charles Yorke. uncle Yorke. James Yorke. James's Square. f Not unjustly described in Cobbett's " Political Eegister. 1810. on the whole. Sumner.f and unless Charles Yorke comes forward in our support. Mansel was Master of Trinity. but hitherto he has not taken the hint. and understanding the fattening of sheep as well as any man in Cambridgeshire. is true and applicable." when Lord-Xiieutenant of Ireland. If you know any of the Yorke faction. Dr. Turner are for me. I hope. Master of Jesus. and of Charles . Dr. 1812.16 THE LIFE OF BOOK I. Provost of King's Dr. President of Queen's and Dean of Carlisle. Milner. I wrote in the same strain the other day to the Bishop of Ely (of course. Master of the Temple. and. % and retained it till his death in 1834. think. and also Vice-Chancellor that year. . Master of Pembroke and Dean of . Milner. a good thing for me. in which case the Duke will certainly carry his point. Wood has spoken decisively to some of his friends here. Pearce. of Lord Hardwicke. he beat the Duke of Eutland in the contest for the High Stewardship of the " University. half-brother of was afterwards one the Admiralty from of the Tellers of the Exchequer. Lord Hardwicke." Nevertheless. The Duke's declaration this morning. John's will not support Lord Hardwicke. Norwich. Charles Yorke. Mansel* has promised not to oppose me. the masters of I am very glad to Emanuel and Catherine Hall. however. as a gentleman chiefly distinguished for his good library in St. Turner. and Dean of Ely Dr. to March. afterwards Bishop of Bristol Dr. Letters. The Eight Hon. * It is.t and given him a broad hint about it. St.

Cousin to Lord Hardwicke. Little Gill and I are as thick as three in a bed. my got a very short buttering. whatever be the event. E. and did not expect to be called upon till today or to-morrow. since run foul of each other perpetually.* " we glad I know Petty and Althorp. Ambassador Extraordinary in 1825 at the coronation of Charles X. LORD PALMERSTON. the old Boy Pray thank Knox for his friendly communications.. The election will probably come on this day week. the gift Letters. as. I shall consider having stood as one of the most fortunate cir- cumstances of my life. 17 The small colleges cannot but look with jealousy upon Trinity.G. High the repreStewardship. will let him. and the Duke of : of the university Gloucester for the Chancellorship. as the Y ice-Chancellor thought no other business degree yesterday. I hope he may Percyf was expected come. it having procured me such afterwards Earl de Grey. At any my * rate.1806. when they see it start candidates for every honour in the sentation. He was f Afterwards third Duke of Northumberland. of which I have no doubt. unawares. C . this week . VOL.. I own I entertain strong hopes of success. and Chancellor of the University of Cambridge from 1840 till his death in 1847. King of France. it would otherI I took am wise be awkward. and Outram was taken quite could be done the day the King's I heard that answer was read. if he intends to be if of use to me. " and even then do not despair. if my two rivals do not coalesce. I. and he talks of the great civilities experienced from his particular friend Lord Grantham.

gratifying proofs of the friends' attach- ment Shee* to me. Lord Fitz-HarrisJ and I stood The borough was burgage-tenure. a general election took place." Autobiography.500. unluckily. thought ourselves We very unlucky . 1807. 1870. The son was Under-Secretary of State from 1830 to 1834.18 THE LIFE OF warmth of my BOOK I. second baronet. for Horsham. but that with several other letters were. He was in 1807. father of the present Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs for a few months . 180G. 1784 (a few Lord Palmerston). Earl of Malmesbury.f Lord Palmerston says. and Eeceiver-General in Ireland. who filled successively the offices of Surveyor-General of the Ordnance. J Afterwards second peer. He died in London January 25. Adieu ! my dear Sulivan. and Undersecretary of State in England. He was the son of Sir George Shee. " Fitz-Harris and I paid each about 1. and months before George Shee. for the the right of voting disputed. "In November. " PALMERSTON. too late for the confoundedly precise Cerberus of a fellow who guards the post office. Letters. Parliament having been dissolved. " There was a double return . pleasure of sitting under the gallery for a week in our capacity of petitioners. and each party petitioned. I wrote to last night. and was appointed in 1834 Minister at Berlin. and the committee seated our opponents." continuing from the manuscript " sketch just quoted. for Foreign Affairs f Autobiography. but in a short time came the change of dissolution in government and the * Sir May. Secretary of the Treasury. and in 1835 was transferred to Stuttgardt. " Ever yours affectionately. where he remained till 1844. was born June 14.

19 then rejoiced in our good fortune at not having paid 5. had occupied a similar post in the Duke of Grafton's administration in 1766. I received a letter from Lord Malmesat to Appointed a Admiralty. He was the father of the present Earl. C 2 . 1803. Hastings. had for many years been M. at Admiralty. "J Shortly after this we see young Palmerston stand- ing again for Cambridge. in 1783. LORD PALMEESTON.P. t He died in 1809. for Sussex. not in Parliament. 1826. of the administration which combined Fox and Lord North. 1801. " When Parliament was dissolved I stood lists again for Cambridge. when they filled the office of Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland. 1807. Boroughbridge. t Lord Palmerston's father. when. and in 1807 Postmaster-General. Pelham. His birth took place in 1756. He was an old and intimate friend of Lord Malmesbury. who had represented East Looe. " the Junior Lords of the Admiralty. who had been one of my guardians. we Auto- "I was the 1 st Broadlands at Easter. and Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland in 1782. and in 1795 to Lord Camden.1807. on April. He was Secretary of State for the Home Department from July 30. if least at the town immediately. Lord Chichesterf being the other and he had obtained from the Duke that I should be one of . bury. and having entered the when * He had already been Prime Minister. to July 17. Lord Chichester. In 1788 he was secretary to Lord Northington. The Duke of Portland* had been appointed First Lord of the Treasury. and Winchester in the House of Commons.000/. desiring me to come up as he had found me a seat. as Mr. and he died July 4. (which would have been its price) for a three months' seat.

K.. to use his own somewhat unseemly expression towards as considerable a man as himself. 1820 aged 68. Afterwards fourth Duke of Grafton." Statesmen of the Time of George III. time. " Endowed by Nature with acuteness and . other ministerial candidate. his taste was always correct.20 THE LIFE OF BOOK I. He resigned Nov. and grandfather of the His father was Chancellor of the University at the f Attorney-General. considered that one candidate against two would have no chance and Sir Vicary Gibbs was sent down to assist me against Lord . and looked and spoke as if when citing a section he was making a discovery. Euston* and Lord Henry Petty. 1817). and died Feb. Brougham. 1812). Lord Chief Baron (Nov. and successively a Puisne Judge of the Court of Pleas (June. obtain a hearing upon legal questions. Common an unlimited power of application. 9.f * present Duke. he gave out each sentence as if he had been gifted and consulted like an oracle. 1813). I had established a kind of right to support from the Government and its friends in preference to any " It was. and those he handled not with such felicity or force as repaid the attention of the listener. 1818. Auto- nothing perhaps could be reasonably expected but an honourable defeat. and though he was doing only a mechanical work.G. that But I soon found my colleague was as dangerous as my opponents. . he became. and Lord Chief Justice of the Common Pleas (April. By Lord ' . the fruits of which stuck by him to the last. however. as good a lawyer as that kind of man can be. and a far more amiable one (Mr. He seldom attempted more than to go through the references from one Act of Parliament to another. Justice Bayley). there was no place to which he was with more visible reluctance dragged by the power He could only that office gives the Government over its lawyers. and that every supporter of the Government who had but one vote to give was requested to give it to Gibbs. and somewhat acquainted with the favourite pursuits of Cambridge men.' Disciplined by an excellent classical education. and his reasoning powers were as considerable as they ever can In the House of Commons he be in a mind of his narrow range really had no place at all and feeling his nullity.

before the and myself and the chairmen of our committees met to go over our returns. . Outram. He urged me to let my friends do as they chose. that I might beg each man as he went by to vote for G-ibbs as well as for me. That the votes had been counted by people in the galleries That Euston was far ahead. That they wanted to bring me in.1807. friends diately see that this to my agreement. afterwards Canon of Lichfield and Archdeacon of Derby. " Dr. posted for that purpose.* my tutor. and not G-ibbs. " Towards the end of the polling Sir Yicary G-ibbs came up to me in the Senate House. the books who was the and there was no to give for sufficient evidence to show who ought the other . We therefore agreed to combine. LORD PALMERSTON. G-ibbs " Auto- appeared doubtful from strongest. and there was 110 coalition. and the only question was whether one of us could beat Lord Henry Petty. up Lord Euston was in order to known bring in to be stronger than either. and Gibbs was running me hard. and that each should give to the other the second votes of all his disposable plumpers. and went and the bar through which the voters went up to poll. and I said I would imme- placed myself at was not done. It polling began. and said that my were not acting up were going to plump for me. The night. That my committee arid a few more stanch friends had reserved * Public Orator. 21 Our committees canvassed separately. was standing there. however.

as Gibbs. I must insist. had only The following stances that ing. should be thrown they plumped for me I should but that if they split their votes out. " every man of them a They of want of good faith.22 THE LIFE OF and if BOOK I. and display a character which was of more advantage to him on Both his commencing life than a mere seat in Parliament. and be the result what if they had the slightest regard for consented. it. letter relates to the same circum- Lord Palmerston has illustrate just been recount- way simple straightforward of looking at right and wrong. Gibbs's friends had. though with much ill humour and grumbling . but be that as might. I believed. after seven plumpers whilst I had twelve. on their giving second vote to Gibbs." all. Auto- their votes. certainly I come in. given me their second votes it . might. and Gibbs beat me by four votes. was bound in honour. " It turned out that I had no reason to complain me. . That they were no parties and were not to I be bound by " I said this would not it do. to the agreement of the night before.

LORD PALMERSTON. set foot in the place.1807. I did not certainly expect so large a number of supporters. So jealous . and the votes have only just been declared. Adieu ! many many thanks for your kindness and labours. poll continued open till ten o'clock." after this" (I quote again the autobio. " Cambridge. a borough of Sir Leonard Holmes'. 1807. I did It is " not conceive myself at liberty to recede from the agreement I had made. Palmerston Petty 324 313 310 265 provoking to think that four men wished me in the Senate House to let them give me plumpers instead of giving their second votes to Gibbs. " 12 o'clock 23 May 8. and these four votes turned the scale. Letters. even for the election. "Soon fo j One condition required was. " MY "" DEAR SULIVAN". We are beat Euston Gibbs by four votes.Auto"I came into Parliament for Newtown in the Ek ted graphy) Isle of Wight. However. and shall then return to town. I mean to remain here two days longer. contest. and possibly at some The future time I may meet with better success. that I would never. particularly as Gibbs had honourably adhered to it. " Believe me ever yours affectionately. just to thank my voters. Friday night. " PALMERSTON.

his accounts great rival. as describing the parliamentary manners of the times . His remarks on the death of Fox . which ended by their disquarrel missal though evidently that of a Tory partizan his is and an able and considerate statement for so young and decided an opponent. liberal and impartial of the different election contests are interesting. for one who was so ardent an admirer of Fox's . are. the world being accustomed to expect them. when he seems on the policy of His observations in this journal Napoleon. review of the conduct of the Whigs in the with George III. published them purposely beforehand. was the patron ^ any attempt should be made to & new fa ierQsi fa fa Q borough. who.. and played eventually Nor was he altogether un- trained for the career he entered upon. instead of concealing his projects in order to take his enemies by surprise.24 THE LIFE OF lest BOOK I. as may be proved by some extracts from a journal that he commenced in June. . might not be shocked when he executed them. memorable for the defeat at Jena. and carried on till the formation of the Portland Ministry for a time to have abandoned it. are shrewd and profound his description of the Prussian campaign." at last in Remarks. Lord Palmerston was thus council wherein he sat so long. is good and graphic. in order that. 1806. Autobiography. he says. that great so conspicuous a part.

June 29.* 1806. provided that such money was drawn bond fide for naval purposes. Upon many reflection. very much altered my sentiments. Lord Melville's trial in Westminster Hall was brought to a conclusion. In the course of these two questions were submitted to the judges. April 15..1806. LORD PALMEESTON. 25 EXTRACTS FROM JOURNAL. as natural. The the On Lord Melville's acquittal. 12th of June. is points. have. The opinions and remarks contained in this volume are the exact expressions of my feelings at * Note the moment when they were written. The first question was. P. cooler and a few more and experience. . it was legal for the Treasurer to take money from the Bank and vest it in the hands of a private banker. which were very material in influencing the discussions ultimate decision of the Lords. Journal. however. subsequent to the Act by which the office of Treasurer of the Navy was regulated. to this Journal by Lord Palmerston. relative both to persons years' observation and things. whether. after which the Lords had discussed the evidence for eight or ten with their doors shut. proceedings in the Hall had lasted fifteen days. 1812.

The question of Guilty " was put by the Chancellor to each or Not Guilty acquittal. The Scotch evinced joy upon this occasion by general illuminations. scarified and much water taken from them. The judges were unanimously of opinion that there was no provision in the Act forbidding such a transfer of the public money. These two decisions led the public to expect the which was pronounced by a large majority " of the Lords on the 12th. But had it been put upon the whole case collectively. previous passing of the above-mentioned Act. has within these few days assumed a more alarming appearance. . to the The second question was. 57 acquitted their him on every article. Lord in succession upon each article separately. which has for some time confined him. a day or two since. Upon this him to a criminal the judges also unanimously declared that such an his act having made would render the Treasurer liable to a civil pro- secution only. July illness of FOX. as out of 135 who attended the trial. and is supposed to be a decided dropsy his legs were. .26 THE LIFE OF BOOK I. whether. use of that money would subject or to a civil prosecution. Fox's illness. but subsequent to the issuing of the warrant by which the salary of the Treasurer of the dition of his not Navy was making increased upon conuse of the public money. 9. journal. Lord Melville would still have been acquitted.

when on the terrace. activity. and scarcely avails himself. indeed. however. His eyes. Fox how Lord Grenville can join in that wish is not easy to conceive. and if a large military and naval establishment has to be kept up. Negotiations for peace appear to be going on with Negotiations.* and a declaration im- plying that he will insist Dutch colonies. as no reliance could be placed on Buonaparte's pacific professions. Neither do the acts and language of Buonaparte bear a very pacific appearance. LOED PALMERSTON. He walks Journal. as any peace at present would be ruinous. as firmly as anybody at his age (68) could be expected to do. having but disapproved the war from its commencement is .1806. are scarcely of the smallest use to him. The establishment of Louis as King of Holland. 1806. upon the restitution of the present some difficulties to any if peace seems very immaterial what the terms may To be. we should suffer * On July 5. impossible. of the assistance of a stick which he holds in his hand. July 15. 27 The King's health is extremely good. extremely anxious to conclude peace. . . in the existing state of things. much Messengers are continually passing backwards and forwards between Paris and London. we are to have now it be. disband our forces and dismantle our navy would negotiation but.

28 THE LIFE OF BOOK I. and contained little. The high places he had occupied in the Eussian Government had never alienated him from his own country. recently published. till the 28th of change has taken place in the Russian Cabinet. where he was patronized by the Emperor Paul. and became the friend and favourite of the Emperor f Prince in 1770. July Prorogation of 23. London. Adam Czartoryski. which at the time was not unreasonably disputed. risking Alexander. \ a ll the expenses of a war without enjoying any of its "\advantages* Fox has lately been better. he suffered himself to be placed at the head of the National Government. and is said to be in no immediate danger. It this engaged in discussions the accomplishment of this most The Parliament was prorogued August. " His Majesty. which post he filled till the peace of Tilsit. He fought against Eussia in the war on the second partition of Poland in 1793. descended from the Jagellons. and is succeeded by Count * A The correspondence justice of this of Napoleon. with a view desirable end. Journal. Czartoryskif has resigned. being always anxious for the restoration of peace on just and honourable terms. and in the Ee volution of 1830. but such a complication of disorders as he now labours under cannot fail. after the . who intrusted him for a time with the department of Foreign Affairs. thereby his immense fortune and estates in Poland. at his time of life. shows the argument. which. and on the defeat of the Poles was taken to St. to prove fatal. was short. Petersburg. was born and educated in England. Parliament was The speech concludes by saying that." to is day prorogued by commission.

Minto. . suppression of the insurrection. 1-1111 in order to carry on the negotiations which had been . commenced Stewart between the two Courts. August 2. and a lady whom the Emperor is said to young Empress. Lord Lauclerdalo goes to Paris. This day Lord Lauderdale left London for Paris. The former was a 29 Budberg. afterwards disavowed by Russia. escaped to Paris. which have restored the spirits of the besieged. have preferred sent to travel. . where he died a few years ago at a very advanced age. Professor accompanied him but it is not known whether he went in any official capacity. Joseph Buonaparte has taken possession of Naples and declared himself King of the Two Sicilies.1806. or merely He. and Sir Sidney Smith has thrown some succours into the town. . favourite with the Journal. however. He will not find the island so easy a Our force there amounts conquest as the continent. d'Oubril. the minister is dismissed. . * On the 20th of July by M. devoted to the last to the cause of his country and the relief of the poor and exiled of his countrymen. to near ten thousand men. July 29. But a reconciliation having taken place between her and the Emperor. LORD PALMERSTON.* still Gaeta continues to hold out under the Prince of Hesse. and a reinforcement is now fitting out from Eamsgate. were confiscated. A arid separate peace has been signed between France Eussia at Paris.

August 21.30 THE LIFE OF a private individual. in his eighty-first radical. so far from concealing designs. when Lord L. during which nothing has transpired respecting the object of his mission. cannot be supposed to be very hearty in the cause he has undertaken. he Thought at that time to be what we should now call a great and even to have sympathised with the Irish rebels. probably.) ? ce Lor Jacobin . violent principles.f Edinburgh. But so far from his being agreeable to Buonaparte. and though. was named to him. He was an intimate friend of Mr. or likely very strenuously to uphold the honour and interests of his A country left . Pourquoi m'envoie-t-o Croit-on que j'aime les Jacobins ?" (April. August 26. 1812. Eh ni h ^ * a S ^n9 u ^ar circumstance in Buonapartes political Ids Confederacy. Lord Lauderdale's judicious f Subsequent Note by Lord Palmerstm. Journal. conduct that. the aspect of affairs grows more warlike. the latter is said to " have asked. On the whole. He died in 1839. as The of Lord Lauderdale as a negotiator does not lead one to form any favourable conjectures as to the termination of man who has professed such the negotiations. however. BOOK selection I. yet the anxiety displayed by ministers send a man who should be the most agreeable to Buonaparte and Talleyrand indicates a spirit of concession not very consonant with the dignity of the country they govern. year. but to little would be to his discretion. Nearly three weeks have elapsed since Lord Lauderdale set out for Paris.* and has shown himself such an advocate for France. Fox. and spirited conduct during his embassy fully justified the appointment.

and instituting inviting alliance offensive and defensive among all the .180G. is which France is the The Constitution is thirty articles. digested into about the States which are included. others to join. &c. 180G. the Confederacy shall do among the same as a matter of precaution. called St. and providing." protector. Wirtemberg. The election of Cardinal Fesch as Arch-Chancellor of the Empire gave rise to a remonstrance on the * July 12. Journal. the whole German Constitution established. Baden. Cloud. settling the quotas of troops to be furnished by each of the parties. It is thus that for some years he has thrown out hints of some grand confederated European system of which he is to be the head.* of Confederacy. and. . and a union. by a sort of manifesto lately issued from the Cabinet of is declared " the Rhenish to be dissolved. enumerating France. other arrangements. that instead of to resist. LORD PALMERSTON. an Bavaria. uniformly been. by anticipating conquests and changes. and submitted almost without a murmur to being alarmed and prepared and the consequence has mandates of the tyrant. At length his plans have been more boldly exhibited. the world has. 31 purposely publishes even the most violent of his projected innovations some time before they are put in execution . that if any neighbouring State or States shall arm. become by degrees reconciled to them. and the of which the hitherto independent States around him are to be the subordinate members. namely members of the league.

Fox has been tapped. . out against King Joseph.* The Prince of Hesse was wounded by a cannon-ball while inspecting the breach. immediately upon the formation of the Rhenish Confederacy. and renounces which. he declares . Thus has that confederacy of which has for ages occupied the attention of states. might have considered it as the summit of his ambition to statesmen. the present state of Europe renders useless. Gaeta. he says. a title by the decree of a man who. and his absence was soon followed by a The Calabrians still continue to hold capitulation. there can be no cause or pretext for complaint. of course. with which demand hesitation complied and in a public instrument published at Yienna the 7th of this month. resign his crown. part of the Emperor of Austria. probably. indeed. required to he has without the German Constitution dissolved. not survive another year. Jtily 12. The Emperor was. is an incurable complaint. received immediate relief from the operation but the dropsy . little more than ten years ago. and he will. in power the smallest of after its independent has princes. to which Buonaparte has since replied that as there now exists no Empire . Journal. 180G. been annihilated equal Capture of Gaeta.32 THE LIFE OF BOOK I. been obliged to capitulate. and has. an obstinate resistance.

the last accounts which state came away from that on the 25th Regnier was at and that by the Colrone. Those who leaving a thousand dead on the field. and D'Oubril. and was posted with seven thousand men at Maida. f It * has been alluded to before as a fact accomplished. The French fled in all directions. of Russia has refused to ratify the treaty signed at Paris by d'Oubril. in Calabria. were taken in the battle. who comin manded district. VOL.1806. and doubts have been entertained as to whether he had really exceeded his instructions. totally routed him. and. The Emperor rejected. surrounded by the Calabrian levy in mass. The Calabrians appear to have harassed the French excessively. 33 Sept. after an obstinate engagement. or as to whether it was deemed advisable to say he had done so. I. was not disgraced. and. 10. to be so disgraceful to Russia that a ratification would have victory of been submission Sir John Stuart has gained a splendid victory. back order to concentrate his forces. Journal. Euphemia.* It was submitted to his council for discussion. assistance of the English he would probably be obliged to surrender. near Maida. after much deliberation. Stuart advanced to attack him. though deprived of his post and left out of employment. on the plain of St. fell Regnier. D . amounted to three thousand Messina .! The terms were reported to France. LORD PALMEESTON. He landed at the town of that name with four in thousand that men. and picked up among the woods and mountains afterwards. Sir J.

January. our loss was trifling. This decided the fate of the day .* Walcot Park. and he retained very short time before his death. and advanced to the charge. Mr. 13.THE LIFE OF journal. BOOK I. But the pending negotiations seemed to have completely paralysed all the energies of ministers. not followed by any of the important consequences which we were led Sir John Stuart re-embarked and retired to Sicily. FOX'S death. He till had been tapped three times. however. moments were a his faculties He had transacted business three days previous to this event with as much coolness as if he had been in perfect health. 1807. as it were. . Sept. but too late to prevent their entire annihilation. their bayonets were just crossing. as they sent out no forces anywhere until Lord Lauderdale's return. by mutual agreement ceased firing. to be actuated by the most violent detestation of their new masters. The above-mentioned victory was gained the British opposed to by the undaunted bravery of Two corps of equal force were troops. each other at the distance of a hundred entirely yards. When. there is no doubt but that after the affair at Maida we might have expelled the new King of Naples. that the one * Note This victory was by Lord Palmerston. It is singular that the two great rival statesmen should have died in the same year . where he was soon after superseded by General Fox. Sept. His free from pain. to anticipate. On Saturday last. 16. after a few rounds had been fired they. the French were panicstruck. and fled with precipitation. Had our force in Sicily been as numerous as it ought. Fox last expired.

35 should have obtained that high station to which he aspired only by the death of the other. his have led him to disavow. in the general delirium produced by the French Revolution. and have connected It himself with the most frantic of the reformers. Had Fox lived in times less troublesome than those in which he was thrown to such a rival as Pitt had he not been opposed he would. But being thrown into opposition by Pitt. and took part with the Crown against Wilkes. With this impetuosity of temper it is less to be won- dered at than regretted that. and became a strenuous advocate for the rights of the popular part of our constitution. he quitted a line in which he saw his rival would eclipse him. He set out in by being the supporter of the royal prerogative. found in the attainment of this object of his wishes the cause which accelerated his own demise. have or been ranked not only among those statesmen the brilliancy of whose genius has reflected honour upon the country that produced them. illustrious patriots among those whose names. which. debate cooler supported reflection doctrines would perhaps. LOED PALMEBSTON. consecrated by the but applause of a grateful people.1806. D 2 . as it generally happens in controversies. undoubtedly. he should have been infected with the disorder. In this course the ardour of his temper carried him further than prudence could justify and. are held up to the admiration of posterity as fathers of their country and benefactors of the human life race. he frequently in the violence of . and have Journal.

as they allowed themselves to be overtaken. As soon as our headmost ship came up a severe engagement took place. Fox in the t September 25th. it is supposed. Afterwards Earl Grey. was well remarked as in one of the papers of the day. That of the enemy must have been great. Oct.36 THE LIFE OF BOOK I Journal. it is supposed. which termi- nated in the capture of four of the frigates. Samuel Hood. * Lord Howickf succeeds Mr. whom Park Capture of five Place. that there scarcely ever lived a statesman for whom an individual the people felt more affection. mistook our mensloop. arm was shattered by a bullet. The loss on our side was nine killed and thirty-two wounded. consisting of five frigates and a The French. Sir French frigates. or in as a politician they placed less confidence. . His Sir Samuel Hood was the only officer wounded. in company with the sloop. as they had on board two thousand land troops. The new ministerial arrangements are at length New minisPp01 " ment& completed. for the West Indies. fell in. 5. desAnother tined. with two seventy-fours and a with a sixty-four. of-war for Indiamen. one of our men-of-war was detached in pursuit.* off Rochefort. They are all fine ships of the first class. French squadron. French frigate was taken at the same time by another squadron. and was immeright diately amputated. the Mars. The other having escaped. of the Eeform Bill.

J General FitzPatrick history. he was Secretary at War in 1783 he spoke well. served with distinction in America. His nickname of " the Doctor. miralty instead of Lord Howick. 1805. Pitt's successor in 1801. character and ability are best described by Sir Henry Holland in his " When he told me. undoubtedly an able and T. . and Lord Holland becomes Privy Seal in General FitzPatrickJ goes to " place of the Doctor. went up in a balloon when those aerial vehicles were coming into fashion." some bread." derived from his sedate manner. which introduced him into so many administrations. but retains a seat in the is Cabinet .Journal. . Grenville they had already in the is who T. as he often interesting volume of Eecollections did. 12. who employed him. that no events of the day had ever ruffled his night's sleep. Grenville* goes to the Ad. were amongst the causes of Fox's rupture with that statesman. Brother of Lord Ossory. of the intrigues of Lord Shelburne. and. after having been." " (he died in 18M). new acqui- useful * man. inferior situation. Fox. in 1782 on a mission to France. but left little else of lasting history was one of those men who occupy no place in but are so interesting in memoirs. Addington. : " nearly ninety to the world. and also from his being the son of a physician. t Created Viscount Sidmouth Jan. his complaints during which. . he described one effect of that temperament which protracted his life to . Lord Sidmouthf made President of the Council instead of Lord Fitzwilliam. well known as a man of the world and a great friend and follower of Mr. that every one was obliged to have once in their lives. and is The administration : succeeded by Whitwill not gain much the only strength by this arrangement sition is Tierney. brother to Lord Grenville. Canning's witticism that he was like the smallHis pox. justified Mr. stuck to him during life and the necessity of pleasing George III. Mr.1806. as Mr.. LOED PALMEBSTON. to crown his reputation in the drawing-rooms and clubs. This last arrangement never took place. 37 Foreign Department T. who resigns. and is succeeded at the Board of Control by Tierney. wrote society verses. Grenville. when Minister of Foreign Affairs.

and complained that the first intelligence he received of the formation of the Government was from his porter.38 THE LIFE OF . . better and indeed his the violence of oratory much suited to Opposition than to the grave and dignified office of defending ministerial measures. was much offended last year at not being consulted upon the subject of the ministerial arrangements that took place upon the death of Mr. BOOK I. The only accession of numerical strength which Lord Grenville has made since last session has been the Northumberland interest. Journal. Lord Percy came into Parliament for the borough of Buckingham. thus proclaiming in the most public way the Duke's union with the Grenvilles. It is only upon the supposition that it was meant to be an open declaration of his political opinions that it is for a step so disgraceful to the possible to account family of Percy supposed that and indeed one could hardly have any consideration would have induced . Pitt. his Windham's military members were actually ordered to divide with the Opposition. however. one of the Marquis of Buckingham's seats. Towards the latter end of July. which he has The Duke of Northumberland. although office is had been given him. debates that took place upon plan. Whitbread would have been as much no at the disposal of ministers in debate. During the whole of the last session he appeared undecided in his politics and in the . succeeded in conciliating. Board of Control sufficed for and that situation would have him. who had long been a partizan of Fox.

Sheridan did not mean to stand. at a meeting of the electors he pronounced a beautiful panegyric upon Fox. and the Grenville papers gave him some hints not to " quarrel with his bread and butter ." Finding. days doubtful whether Sheridan would contest the point or not. It was for some him. resolved that Percy should stand for Westminster on the death of Fox. the have foreseen that the event would. it seems. as soon as Mr. however. however. and it the Grenvilles should set excited some surprise that up a candidate to oppose The excuse given by Lord Grenville was that he had been told by some third person that Mr. and he must of Parliament. Foxites to succeed to Fox's seat. Journal.1806. if by any event it became vacant . seven seats at his tion to command affair is to owe it as an obliga- Lord Buckingham that This his son is a member more extraordinary as he had. Lord Percy offered himself as at his successor Westminster. Accordingly. supported by Lord Grenville's Sheridan had always been destined by the party. detailed some well-invented reasons which prevented him from standing. that the rest of his party preferred remaining in office to supporting him. were not so easily satisfied . and that the whole ministerial influence would be exerted against him. The electors. LORD PALMERSTON. Duke of Northumberland 39 the having. . and concluded by recommending his friends to concur in supporting Lord Percy. it is said. in all probability. take place before the meeting of Parliament. Fox was latter human dead.

and Mr. but which attracted to him for a time much popularity. for which he failed to obtain the hearing he desired.* were successively applied to in vain none chose to enter into a contest dett. Oct. and was to leave that Paris on the 8th. Paull. who immediately went the Exchange. . was a proper perbe elected. Curran. ending He ran Sheridan very closely in the at last in a bitter disappointment. Journal. so firmly is everybody impressed with the three cheers. . quarrelled and fought a duel with Burdett shortly before his victory over Sheridan in the contested election of 1807 and in 1808 died by his own hand. that they regretted he had deand that in their opinion Lord Percy was not a proper person. it news with conviction that none but a dishonourable peace could * ley's Paull had returned from India with charges against Lord Wellesadministration. and at length. They and in every part of most lively demonstrations London occasioned the of joy. 11. Foxites. received where he read the it to the merchants.40 THE LIFE OF after resolving that Sheridan BOOK I. A bulletin was sent to to the Lord Mayor. Lord Lauderdale was immediately to return that he had got his passports. Westminster election of 1806. for want of any other can- with a man the didate. Kupture of the A was telegraphic despatch was received yesterday at the Admiralty from Deal. Sir Francis Bur- Mr. and son to clined. . supported by Grenvillites. and Pittites. stating that a messenger just come over from Paris with the intelligence . Westminster electors were obliged to choose Lord Percy. they adjourned the meeting in order to find some eligible man.

and the unconditional subjection of his neighbours to every form of his increased and insupportable domination. 30. liberty of doing meant by peace the suggested to him by the is feelings of unbounded power or momentary desire. the consequent surrenders of the Austrian army. It is said that our Government did not expect Lord Lauderdale's return so soon. is the following excellent definition of the meaning affixed to peace by Buonaparte whatever is : " What. reduced the Emperor to the course of three battle have marked the termination of months. pre-Joumai. This year one single battle has annihilated the former rival of Austria.1806. entitled " Fragments upon the Political Balance of Europe. Dec. is 41 have been obtained. The abject conditions of the treaty of Presburg. and the battle of Austerlitz. this. events as rapid and extraordinary as those which occurred in the close of the last year. and that continued war ferable to an ignominious treaty." Vide page 323. with astonishment the ancient and Europe saw powerful empire of Austria laid in the dust in the of Ulm. A succession of In 1805. but that it arose from some categorical de- mand on his part. LOBD PALMEBSTON." published in 1806. . In a work by F. Gentz. in his vocabulary.

in order to In the counterbalance the Rhenish Confederacy. mean time both parties prepared for the contest. to The King of Prussia sent. it seems had oven then been formed. opened the eyes of the latter. * A . in one of which Prince project which. and that Europe. Duke of Brunswick. since it now became ^ . as it usually happens with plans long meditated. in order to standing when the complete his confederate system. 511 iSmceand Prussia and France had for some time been upon terms I GSS friendly than their usual good underpublication of the Rhenish Confederacy and the demand of Buonaparte for some of the smaller possessions of Prussia. thereto which he Buonaparte three demands . fore. would at length be applied against it had no choice left but resistance. inevitable. was ultimately consummated. and. that the French troops should retire from Ger- many. These were. which they had assisted France in enforcing against every other state of itself. journal. Battle of Jena j n -j^ Prussians commanded by the e id e J or Auerstadi. After some partial skirmishes. that no opposition should be made by France to the establishment of a Northern Coalition* of which Prussia should be the chief and protectress. or an unconditional acknowledgment of vassalage and submission. and convinced the Prussian court that the unprincipled system of aggression. required an answer by the 8th of October. the French by Buonaparte.42 THE LIFE OF BOOK I. which was very obvious that Buonaparte could not with honour accede to the By the 8th both sides were requisitions of Prussia.

thousand men.180(5. the French at Mulhausen. and burnt their magazines. amounting to about 120. Eisenach. when victory The loss of the declared in Prussians. finding that a body of the enemy had got into their rear. got to Naumburg in their rear. LORD PALMERSTON. In the mean time the French fell upon them. wounded. which rendered it useless to send out patrols. which ended in the total defeat and annihilation of the Prussian army. and the rest of the army was entirely . and prisoners. Jena. and the Prussians at Erfurt. the Prussians threw that wing back. The reason of this is stated to have been the spirit of desertion prevalent in the army. a general and decisive battle took place on the 14th between Jena and Auerstadt. and that the main body of the enemy Upon were making a demonstration to turn their left wing. Two days before the battle 10. armies had for some days been near each other force The on each side . favour of the French. but the Prussians were so destitute of intelligence that they did not know where the French were till a day or two before the action. who generally joined the enemy instead of returning with intelligence. and an action com- menced which three in lasted from eight in the morning until the afternoon. Louis of Prussia was killed in defending the passage of a bridge. The two armies were positions : at that time in the following Gotha . and Zeist.000 French penetrated between the centre and left wing of the Prussians. 43 Journal. amounted to fifty killed.000 men. was nearly The two equal.

where he languished some weeks in the field. in the his apathy with regard to his affairs. with his musket at a few yards' distance. Ross. a favourite fused to corps. the last of the Prussian monarchy. cannon and waggons. he seized a standard and rode headlong into the French chasseur shot at him midst of the enemy. who went as BOOK I. neighbourhood of Dantzic. Woronzow.* Death of the Duke of Brunswick. The King to Berlin. reached Osterade. and he was carried off the A by some of his officers. who was sent from Petersburg on a mission to him. and officers without their corps. from thence to Osterade. To rally or reassemble them was impossible. were all mixed in one general confusion. The ball pierced the bridge of his nose. They had good sport. fled * He Such was wolf and an elk. and charge. secretary to Lord Morpeth. The flying troops were scattered directions. His regiment of grenadiers. re- Enraged at this disgrace. this ill-timed . and the only limit to the captures and slaughter of the Prussians was the inability of the fled French to pursue them. The Queen. Corps without their officers. was also fatal to its veteran hero. the Duke of Brunswick. Journal. was forced to join the party. He was conveyed to Altona. though ill and disgusted with amusement. This day. cavalry and infantry. dispersed. who had followed their commander. determined not to survive the calamities of the day. ceeded in all said the rout of the Prussians ex- belief. whence he retired immediately to Custrin. and killed a Note by Lord Palmerston. he was immediately invited to attend the King on a hunting-party. that when Count M.44 THE LIFE OF Mr. senseless.

Lord reached the head-quarters at Erfurt a few Morpeth and finding the King of Prussia was preparing to withdraw. who desired he would follow him. Journal. Instead. Frere.1806. . Buonaparte having read the letter threw it haughtily replied " Cette to the down upon the table. 45 greatest agony. however.soon as commenced between Prussia and France. since they had taken no part in the war. Lord Morpeth Prussia. entreating that the neutrality of his states might be respected. worn out by the sufferings of his mind as well as the torture of his body. permission was requested to bury the Duke in the tomb of his ses enfans ne mettront which the usurper arrogantly refused. saying he was unworthy to lie with them. ni lui ni aucun de excuse ferait tres-bien jamais le pied dans le DuchS de Brunswick." After his death. LORD PALMERSTON. and not as Duke of Brunswick. and that a general engagement was expected. Before his death he wrote a letter to Buonaparte. had been hostilities sent by Government. he allowed days before the battle.G. and having described the way * Afterwards sixth Earl of Carlisle. and urging that he acted as a general in the Prussian service.* with his two secretaries. and officer who brought it. to open a communication with the former. pour un consent. Eoss and ancestors. and at length expired. E. of following the King. having been blinded by the wound. as . himself to be taken in by Haugwitz. Lord Morpeth. he resolved to retire also. mais pas pour un prince souverain .

went off again early and Lord Morpeth. Lord Morpeth returned. He raised to the peerage. in 1825. been detained some time by a want of horses. Journal. G. ne meant to go.46 THE LIFE OF BOOK I. Colonel of the 18th Foot. and for his services A was a year. ministers determined to send a military man. took another road.C. Haugin the morning . and Governor of Stirling Castle. to be the only place to disembark. in part. the defeat of the Prussians * men whose may be ascribed. Lord Morpeth pursued Haugwitz. He succeeded to the command of the British army in Egypt in 1801.B. and by that time the it in Prussia that French had made such progress was uncertain where Lord HutchDantzic was believed inson* would be able to land. and died without issue in 1832. All possible allowances general officer. on the death of Sir Ealph Abercromby. however. or incapacity concerned. instance there can be no doubt that to the present the above-mentioned causes.. and Lord Hutchinson was but a whole month at the most critical selected after . . . and it often happens that to much injustice is in this manner done In only fault has been a want of success.000 inherited the earldom of Donoughmore on the death of his brother. discovered the trick. after having the night before the action. and granted a pension of 2. set out to return to Soon England by Nordhausen and Osterhausen. period was suffered to elapse before he sailed. it natural to endeavour to fund out reasons in the of the officers treachery. and overtook him at Weimar witz. where it was practicable for him is After such a signal overthrow as that of Jena.

If any circumstantial proof were wanting of Haugwitz's the first place. etc. and at length sent. the catastrophe could not have been so complete. perfidy. however. on his arrival. This envoy. known In two Haugwitz ministers of the King. but that if too many by far. and Lombard. For three weeks Haugwitz sent no answer to this offer. and introduced by Haugwitz to the King. and subsequent events proved. not Zastrow whom it was alleged the of Prussia could not spare but some colonel. the It is.000 men at the disposal of Prussia . were traitors.1806. still. King said that 150. of the troops. Lombard is a Frenchman by birth.000 for so large a force they plies. however. that had no magazines or supthe Emperor would send 50. might be sent to Petersburg to arrange the march. were by this time on their march. following account. that had the Emperor . he sent an offer to renew his alliance of last year. a creature of Haugwitz. duty. the sufficient would be first for his condemnation : When the Emperor of Russia found in the cabinet of Berlin a disposition to break with France. had the Prussians done their that they did not. a man of very low origin. men were they should be glad to receive them the Russians.000 men . LORD PALMERSTON. on whom he could rely.. ci-devant ambassador here from Russia. he was a known spy of the old French Government. given by Count Woronzow. and to put 150. the only request he made was. and generalship on the Journal. skill 47 being made for superior part of the French. that General Zastrow.

said that amongst strongly whom some of the Prussian generals. hearing that the Duke. Journal. the day fixed by the King as the last on which he should wait for an answer to his demands. The Duke thanked him for his attention as one would thank a person who desired one not to catch cold. and his opinion preMilitary character of the Duke of Brunswick. and lost in hesitation and doubt those moments which should have been employed in vigorous exHad the Prussians attacked the French ertion. when he served young man in the Low Countries. that he was the only person he had met with who really loved danger. or complied with his requests. waited for Haugwitz's answer. however.48 THE LIFE OF BOOK I. the only chance of recovering Prussia would have been It is lost. exposed himself unnecessarily. he shrunk from the responsibility of his situation. urged the expediency of attacking the French as soon as possible after the 8th. Lord Malmesbury.* but wanted that firmness and decision of character so necessary for a great com- The Duke was a man who mander. that with regard to his life he was very indifferent about it. could execute with more ability and courage the orders of others. carried personal courage even to rashness. and added." a curious prophecy. His uncle said of him. wrote to him to request he would recollect the importance of his own life. and wished to wait the attack of the enemy. The Duke of Brunswick. was vailed. as he knew he should lose it "par un coup de fen . who was then commanding in the Low Countries. and take more care of it. when as a ambassador from England at the Hague. were Mollendorf and Hohenlohe. . but. * Note ly Lord Palmerston. placed at the head of an army on which depended the fate of a king- No one dom. for delay.

they suffered the French to take possession of a small knoll which commanded the field of battle. before . and in a great measure decided the fate of the day. it could not make again any general stand. arid on which the French established a battery of one hundred and twenty pieces of cannon. Some few the VOL.1806. it. LOED PALMEESTON. who caught him in his arms when he fell. B . 49 they had collected and assembled their whole force. Journal. By this delay. and having Retreat of the enemy interposed between them and the Oder. their army would not have been so entirely cut to pieces. said. whose fire mowed down whole ranks of the Prussians. nothing but actual service will accomplish that end. that as soon as the Feu de Mitraille commenced the Prussians fled comme des perdreaux. Of this they might have made themselves masters in the first instance it . But such was the treachery of some of the officers and failed in several attacks the cowardice of most of the men. became impreg- and we find in the bulletins that the Prussians which they made upon it. if they had been defeated. After the action. its fate would pro- The Duke of Brunswick's aide-de-camp. earlier. entirely dispersed. that at whatever time the battle had been fought. the event might have been very different and at any rate. but when once the enemy had fortified nable. too. I. and afterwards brought over his blue riband. A strong proof how inefficient mere parade discipline is towards making good soldiers. as has been already observed. and that bably have been the same. the Prussian army being.

Blucher had now no alternative but . he reached Lubeck. under Prince it Hohenlohe and General Finding impossible to get to the Oder in a straight line. and having defended himself with the greatest skill and courage against three French divisions. The his first. when the Stettin French overtook him . or sustain an attack 7 by a force infinitely superior to his own. By uncommon exerby tions he succeeded in getting as far as Prentzlow. determined to render his country all the service he could. under Blucher. The behind him rest. only seven German miles from Stettin. Blucher. the gates. and. were at Liechen. each much superior in numbers to his own corps. despairing altogether of escape. and totally destitute of provisions. Hohenlohe attempted to reach a circuitous march. . he declined doing and men being reduced in numbers by the various actions they . for obvious reasons. hearing of his surrender. and saw that the only thing in his power was to draw a portion of the French army from the pursuit of the flyingPrussians. . but the largest number that escaped in a body were about twenty or thirty thousand Blucher. journal. in consequence of the treachery of the officers who commanded one of . he was obliged to surrender with the main body of his corps. corps got into Magdeburg. Here he meant to make a stand but the town was forced. Surrender of Blucher. amounting to above sixteen thousand men. to violate the Danish territory.50 THE LIFE OF BOOK I. and his troops being worn out by excessive fatigue. . Accordingly he began to retreat to the off north-west.

Stettin. being surrounded by the Oder and the Waarta on two sides. was alleged by the officers commanding them.1806. he was obliged to surrender. as the latter advanced they E 2 . and they were able make a defence. His force was reduced to nine thousand men. the officers for their cowardice. but almost impregnable. and Gros disaster at The capitulation of these places afforded another decisive proof of treachery someGrlogau. his oppose thence to Warsaw. who surrendered ought to be shot Magdeburg is very strong. fatigues of three weeks' incessant forced marching. to be if hanged for not taking his measures beforehand to . and he had the glory of having drawn from the Marches of Brandenburg behaved to the shores of the Baltic three large divisions of the French army. and although they had advanced as far as Posna when the French got to Berlin. and The Russians. Custom. LOBD PALMERSTON. marched to Berlin. Jena was soon followed by the surrender of Magdeburg. who had come with the expectation of joining a large Prussian army. Buonaparte having nothing progress. 51 had been compelled and weakened by the Journal. the road to Buonaparte would have found Berlin not quite so easy as he expected. and on the Custrin is other to by deep morasses. Had all the Prussians like Blucher. that be untrue. The easy as where. they were destitute of provisions and other supplies for sustaining a siege. Haugwitz deserved If. to fight. found themselves too weak to resist long. and being almost starved. without having during that period tasted bread.

and fall back upon their rein- Dissolution of Parliament. These seats they afterwards sold out at the average market price to men who promised them support and with the difference they carried . if dissolved at all. not made known the whole Cabinet. in the second. certainly. a week before the event took That it was a sudden resolution. he said which immediately followed the dissoit was a measure unknown to him till a few days previous to its publication. which had been summoned to meet for the despatch of business at the was unexpectedly dissolved. for although rumours of a dissolution had prevailed during the whole of the summer. published to the Norfolk electors. Journal. were obliged forcements. and the King was not made acquainted with place. if to settled beforehand. he assured them that Government had not any intention of dissolving Parliament and . from a Cabinet minister. making up the deficiency probably by appointments and promotions. lution. They purchased seats from their friends at a low price. ham proved by two advertisements from WindIn the first. It was.52 THE LIFE OF to retire BOOK I. method adopted by ministers with regard to their borough seats was very politic and ingenious. the proclamation summoning Parliament for the end of October convinced people that. a sudden determination. is during the summer. The Parliament. completely by surprise. . it end of October. The country was taken would not be it till till the spring. . indeed. or at least. contrary to his wishes and prejudicial to his interests a singular The declaration.

* . being the greatest blackguard of the two. at first relying upon soon. the first. a comparatively small number of such transactions would furnish a considerable fund and Go. The quietly elections . by a person who was in the secret and accounts for to be inconceivably great. 53 on their contested elections. Paull. or even two thousand pounds. however." * may be imagined that if seats were bought for two thousand five hundred. Norfolk. people who only professed themselves in general well disposed towards them. Sheridan and Hood stood upon the Government interest against Paull. his popularity. refused ministerial assistance. Sheridan. at last. were in general carried on very the principal contests were in Westminster.1806. without exacting a pledge of them unconditional support. General Westminster. In Middlesex. he would have Lord Palmerston's observation seems to imply that the spending public money for party elections would not have been deemed. found how received timely assistance from Hood. LOED PALMERSTON. that guinea of the public money had been spent It in elections. Southwark. on the part of any Government. vernment had so many that. and sold again for five thousand pounds. a very extraordinary occurrence. and Hampshire. manner was afterwards " not one stated The sum raised in this Journal. an assertion made by Lord Grenville in the Lords. quite supplanted him in the affections of the Covent Garden electors and if Sheridan had not . in seats passing through it its hands to sold one or two instances. He uncertain the popularis aura is. asserting that he should walk over the course.

Sir had to contend with all that violence of popular clamour which had so often on former occasions been exerted in his favour .* Paull's failure was. in a great degree. and Paull for ever he heard ! several voices in the Soutliwark election. before whom Paull has pledged himself to bring it. unseated. general opinion is that it will not stand the test of an examination by a committee. Mr. his been shamefully distanced. Even as it was. Few people would have believed. and he was scarcely allowed to speak during the whole election. but in the following year Burdett and Cochrane were returned over him and Elliott. from his never having paid his Numbers of poor people crowded round the chiefly hustings.54 THE LIFE OF BOOK I. however. drove him out of the field. Hood. the old anThe Tierney. ten or twelve years ago. tagonist of latter Thomas Turton. owing to his uncalled-for adoption of Sir F. it quite any well-disposed person to give him Sheridan's unpopularity was said to have arisen debts. Garden to see Having gone one day to Covent what was going forward. demanding payment for bills which he owed fact relative them. mob exclaiming. which rendered impossible for their support. and would complain of the clamour and violence of the * mob ! Sheridan was not. Sloane mentioned a curious to the election. and the majority ahove Paull was very trifling . that the time would ever have arrived when Sheridan and Tierney would be objected to by their electors as candidates. among the ! cries of Sheridan. Pitt for ever At Southwark. . Burdett's principles. Journal.

deserted his cause. to talk of such a man as Mr. though so celebrated for his .* Hellish.-. The candidates were Byng. a type of the country gentleman in the time of Mr. not being paid at this one for making a riot. George Byng. . Pitt but this statesman. who were not of a description to sacrifice much to disinterested first affection. rendered himself so generally odious in the country. and his wit and delivery as a speaker (the grandfather of the present Lord Lansdowne told me he was the most agreeable speaker he ever listened to). by his ungrateful conduct towards * Mr.. J It would be absurd in any one not a young politician enthusiastically attached to Fox's rival.. Coke. who was seen in the House of epoch. who were so outrageous in their demonstrations of regard for Sir Francis at the two former elections. Commons with the top-boots that formed part of the costume of that He represented Middlesex in Parliament for fifty-six years from 1790 till his death in 1846. He died June 3.f assisted -rr. by all the exertions of Government. Fox and Mr. very striking . and the last M. Windham as ungrateful to Mr. 1810. indeed. attainments as a scholar. give neither cockades nor postchaises. LOED PALMEBSTON. eiectioT greatest quiet. returned by very large majorities. Norfolk election. and Burdett . had. The Norfolk election did not afford a i . brought in solely by the great influence of Mr. were peaceably disposed and it was no longer dangerous to appear at Brentford in any colours but purple. was so uncertain as a politician that each party alternately abused him. Pitt. .P. and the two candidates were The mob also. his former voters. Wind- hanfj. 55 The Middlesex election was conducted with the Journal. and the latter having previously de- clared that he would. . in his sixtieth year.1806. Windham was proot oi the popularity 01 ministers. f Afterwards created Earl of Leicester. and in his own county he was never spoken of by the farmers without the nickname of " weather- cock " being applied to him.

Journal. as both Coke and himself will be turned out upon the Treating All the candidates had agreed not to take advantage of that Act. and Chute. and as the fact of their having treated is notorious. But two ladies. They consequently prevailed upon some of the electors to petition against the sitting members . the friends of Windham determined to drive them away. however. and accordingly put two women of the town in another barouche. is no doubt of their being turned out.56 THE LIFE OF and the incessant abuse and ridicule BOOK I. will be but short. cote. which he had lavished upon the volunteers. had at any time taken a many years violent part in public affairs. having appeared every day in a barouche and four at the hustings with his colours. Chute. and accordingly opened houses Act. for their electors. Coke's friends could be induced to vote for him. attached to the politics of Neither. that it was with the utmost difficulty that even Mr. and drew them alongside the carriage of the ladies. This unmanly insult so incensed those who were the objects of it. however. that they determined to be revenged. there Hampshire election. friends of Wode- house (Coke's and Windham's opponent). decorated with the same ribands. Sir William Heath- a quiet country gentleman naturally of a retired disposition. His triumph. preferred entertain- . lived like a recluse at Hursley. both for Pitt. With regard to the county of Hants. the old members were Sir William Heathcote and Mr. Pitt. a hospitable squire.

Had Sir William acted with becoming spirit. and laid it . it could not be expected that they should give him their assistance. if he would now favourably disposed towards Government they would vote for him but that if he and his friends intended . Chute having gone into a systematic opposition to ministers. he answered. LORD PALMERSTON. him show him any administration. he would immediately have taken must down what Lord Temple had it. and said to Sir William Heathcote. 57 " The Yine " to ing his neighbours at mixing with Journal. wrote down the substance of what had passed. This communication Lord Temple gave to understand came from Lord Grenville. he never would pledge himself to support . when Lord Temple was gone. Government up two candidates instead of one.1806. He then. he must consult them before he could give any answer with regard to them. However. that with regard to himself. were he alive and that as to his friends. on the repeal of the Defence Bill. not even that of Pitt. determined to turn him out. had in the course of the voted three times in opposition the to session : ministers on American Intercourse Bill. much zeal in parliamentary disputes. that Mr. The last latter. however. to make set a common cause with Chute. and on Windham's plans. Accordingly. desired to read and then ordered the servant to the door. in the month of September Lord Temple rode to Hursley. This was an offence not easily to be forgiven and it was . but that as Sir William had not declare himself attended last session. said.

the delay produced by these arrangements gave the ministerial candidates a fortnight's start in their canvass. possessing considerable property near Portsmouth. and . Hereupon Sir William Heathcote. a very stupid but respectable young man. Lord Grenville opened This story curiously illustrative of the manners of the times. after and though Sir H. by this attempt to dictate . didates. 20. The indignation excited to the county members was universal and it support the two sitting members. hesitating ten days. was . which had been in * laid before Parliament. Herbert and Thistlewaite the former. John Mildmay. when the papers relative to the late negotiation with France. prevailed on to stand in conjunction with Chute. and the great mass of voters in Portsmouth at the command of Government. and this. up by ministers. but no business of any importance was transacted till the 2nd of January. upon pretence that his age and infirmities would not allow him to attend Parliament any longer St. but third son of Lord Carnarvon. no way connected with the county the latter.58 THE LIFE OF BOOK I. declined standing. was immediately determined to them the Two can- were now set . however. . Journal. a clever in young man. alarmed at the trouble and ex- pense of a contest. and in freedom and independence of the county.* 1807 Jan. The new Parliament met a little before Christ- mas. Mr. decided the fate of the contest. before the County Club. were discussed the House is of Lords.

Lords Hawkesbury* and Eldon concurred in the address contended that paraof the declaration. probably. 1812. contended present day.1807. as it consisted chiefly in a laboured defence of the rupture of the negotiation and a proof of the insincerity of the French Govern- ment. but in the first communication from him that can be considered as an overture. to prove that by the papers in question that they had proved by Lord Yarmouth's declaration in the House of Commons that Talleyrand had admitted verbally the basis of the " uti possidetis . Prime Minister June." that after Lord Yarmouth's return he was particularly instructed to * Succeeded as Earl of Liverpool Dec. . Two subjects upon which. " which certainly is not the " uti possidetis of the Lord Grenville. which led to its rupture. 59 the debate by an excellent speech. but the first proved by the papers before the House. that ministers were not called assertion upon . more intended for Europe than the audience to which it was addressed. he distinctly made an offer to treat upon the basis of the stipulations of the treaty of Amiens. in which he detailed the progress of the negotiation and the causes Journal. of his auditors Lords Sidmouth and Lauderdale spoke on the same side with Lord Grenville. The speech appeared. LOBD PALMERSTON. 17. that France had proposed graph " to treat on the basis of the uti possidetis. not one was likely to disagree with him. inasmuch as Talleyrand not only never admitted that basis during the whole negotiation. 1808. in reply. however." was not moved by Lord the assertion made in G-renville.

up by the French Government subsequent to the died the Death of the Eichmoad. which were given to the Duke of Norfolk. To the last appointment great objections were made. a degradation in his opinion to which he would not submit. contrary powers before he had obtained document. it being necessary in point of form that he should ask it of the King. . insist same effect. to produce his That. Nor did the Duke get the Blue Riband. Chichester of the Sussex Militia. ordered to keep back his powers till " admission of the " uti possidetis was given him but the condition on which that production was to set depend was the abandonment of a demand of Sicily. Journal. this mouth thought proper. which was given that . Duke of His death put four good appointments The command of the Blues. into the disposal of ministers. Lord Yarto his instructions. to the Duke of Northumber- land. and that this was the reason it did not appear among the papers on the table. however. commencement of the negotiations. on the ground that the man who was struck out of the Privy Council for disloyalty to his Sovereign should not be made Lord Lieutenant of the county the most likely to be invaded. and it does not appear that he full was ever a written . given to Lord and a Blue Riband and the Lord Lieu- tenancy of Sussex. About the end of last December Richmond. This statement Lord Yarmouth afterwards denied in the House of Commons . and ordered not to produce his full powers till that writing was obtained.60 THE LIFE OF upon a written admission to the BOOK I.

beyond the Vistula. were completely and repulsed with the loss of 4. Feb. This day Lord Grenville moved the second reading of the Slave Trade Abolition Bill.000. 64. in which the French under Buonaparte. with a view to cut from their magazines. The French army has fully from the dysentery occasioned by damp and fatigue it is also believed that they have got the plica . an action took place. the French to Warsaw and the Russians to Ostrolenka suffered dread- and Rozau.000 killed defeated and 6. numbers were 100 contents. country lying between them.000 prisoners. unable from want of provisions to pursue their advantage. Feb. having attacked the Russians under Benningsen.1807. and both armies fell back. The Russians had continued retreating till they arrived in the neighbourhood of Pultusk. 36 non-contents majority after a . however. Journal. The Russians were. LORD PALMERSTON. 1808. . The two armies amounted off them each to about 50. on the 26th. which has been rendered a perfect desert by the retreating Russians. Yesterday arrived the Russian official account of Kussian vl the battle of the 26th of December. The time fixed for the importation to cease was the 1st of January. Buonaparte is gone into winter quarters at Warsaw. 61 5. 8. and Benningsen will probably attack him if he can advance through the polonica among them. Here. which was carried The long debate by a large majority.

from a foolish boast they made when first they came into power. winter renders operations less difficult. Oct. as they were called. Journal. 1. They and their adherents had so long and assiduously made the country re-echo with the boast that they alone were fit to conduct the affairs of the nation. Home Politics. They had for called a new Parliament.62 THE LIFE OF The uncommon mildness of the BOOK I. " nothing but their them down. Catholic Belief. and are apt to believe what they perpetually hear began at length to give them credit for the abilities of which they claimed such exclusive possession and keeping . that the multitude who seldom take the trouble of judging for themselves. own conduct could have brought as to the propriety of taking off from the Catholics in these kingdoms those restrictions The question . The broad-bottomed administration (or. " All the Talents ") appeared in the beginning of the month so strong that it seemed beyond the power of events to shake them. they began almost to consider themselves a fourth branch of the Government of the country. in the elections which the influence direct to and indirect of Govern- ment had been exerted success an extent and with a beyond example. by allowing none but themselves to approach him. From this height of power the King as a sort of state prisoner. Ministry? There has seldom happened in this country so sudden and unexpected a change of ministers as that which took place last March.

and be adverse to them upon the second. endeavour to obtain the opinion of Parliament and of the country upon the pretensions which they favoured is natural. But it is obvious that whenever any proposition tending to what is called (but very improperly) Catholic Emancipation is submitted to Parliament. Fox in 1805. LORD PALMERSTON. even at the risk of exciting and reviving the animosities of opposing sects. and difficult . trust and power is one of a very important. taking . These are two questions so different and distinct that it is quite possible that any one may think with the Catholics upon the first.1807. nature. That a set of men in opposition to Ministers. extensive. and more especially after it . 63 which prevent them from holding various offices of Journal. after the after the general disapprobation expressed at this proposition throughout the country. and perhaps not much to be blamed . But it must divide itself into the one relating to the general and abstract expediency of doing this at some time or two parts other the second confining itself to the policy of an immediate relaxation of the existing laws. it is the latter of the above-stated questions upon which we are called to decide. should. and upon those grounds one cannot certainly be surprised at the agitation of the question by Lord Grenville and Mr. and convinced of the justice of the claims of the Catholics. into consideration the present state of our affairs and the actual bias of the public mind. But very decided rejection of their proposition by both Houses of Parliament.

Journal. that they flattered themselves they should be able to overcome all the difficulties that hindered the accomplishment of their wishes. began related to the admission of Catholics to the higher situations in the army. having become ministers. ever. Aware. however. This is certainly an absurdity in theory. although the inconsistency has been remedied in practice. which was conceded in 1793. the penal laws having been suffered to sleep in England as far as they have been abrogated in Ireland. upon entering the army legally in Irethe removal of his corps to England. occa- sioned by disputes about tithes.64 THE LIFE OF that the it BOOK I. never to them by the Irish Parliament was granted to the Catholics of Eng- land . By the existing laws Catholics may. This inconsistency. of the impossibility of forcing the whole extent of the measure which they had in 1805 submitted to Parliament. would re-enter upon a course in which they were certain to be confronted by insurmountable obstacles. become subject to severe penalties. howfirst was what ministers resolved to correct. was universally known King had invincible conscientious objections to people did not expect that the Opposition leaders. and some insignificant disturbances that took place about this time in some counties of Ireland. hold any commission below that of major-general on the staff. its Yet so confident was the late administration of firmness and omnipotence. they resolved to carry it by subdivisions and the first proposition with which they . and carried on by . but this privilege. in Ireland. so that a man land might.

these disturbsure of conciliation. VOL. " impossible for him ever to put it off upon the ground of circumstances." Finding it. It is a question that cannot be too often discussed and brought under the consideration of Parliament and the country. the proper time next year is the proper time the year after. I. "It is urged. the Ministers thought that by F . that it now they were in office they found impossible wholly to withstand the solicitations they received in consequence of their former professions. afforded a pretext for what was to be called a meaIn point of fact. is almost acknowledged) that the coalition had so deeply pledged themselves to the Catholics when out of power." Journal. a set of ances were totally unconnected with religious differ" Threshers " were many of them ences." he said.1807. " that this is not a proper time to bring this rendered it I answer. people calling 65 themselves " Threshers. since the Protestants . and at the same time feeling that a full concession of their demands would be impracticable. difficult altogether to refuse the Catholics their support. probably was (as indeed law. ville In when the language held by Lord Grenhe brought forward the question in 1805 fact. since it was a boast of the Duke of Bedford's friends that he had suppressed these commotions by the ordinary course of The truth. this year is question before Parliament. is the proper time. and e*very year. and at any rate no legislative concession could be required to quiet them. however. LORD PALMEESTON. therefore.

with the following written declaration " That while his Majesty agreed to the measure proposed. army . 10. however. Journal. by a cabinet minute. Mr. the Cabinet. or whether all commissions in the army and navy were it To this question to be opened to them. When made to the King* he expressed a considerable repugnance But after a correspondence with to accede to it. granting some smaller boon they should. satisfy one set of people without going so far as to alarm another. he felt it the provisions of the Act of necessary to declare that he would not go one step further. cabinet representation was dated Feb.f at length he was finally induced to consent to it. Ireland. Elliot." Lord Howick then gave notice that he should propose certain clauses in the Mutiny Bill to enable the Catholics to hold certain commissions in the and a despatch J was sent to those clauses. containing the Secretary. It was thus that they determined the proposal was to extend to both countries the provisions of the Irish Act of 1793.66 THE LIFE OF BOOK I. was dated Feb. from the want of appears precision in the despatch in which the views of the Government had been explained. Elliot whether it was meant merely to extend to England the Irish Act of 1793. * to give a decisive The draft of a despatch. 12. f The second Dated Feb. % . He accompanied this consent. was to communicate to the Catholics. parti: cularly adverting to 1793. for the present. Elliot was unable. which Mr. accompanied 9. In the conference which took place upon this subject the Catholic deputies asked Mr.

LORD PALMERSTON. despatch was sent to Windsor to the King. and J P 2 .^ On the following Wednesday. stated the degree in which they differed.1807. and consequently he wrote back to ascertain Journal. it added that this concession was clause in the no longer to be made by a Mutiny This second Act. Lord Howick. March 4. to which the Mutiny Act it became obviously necessary to make it the subject of Lord Howick sent it to the King on the night it was returned the next morning. and being returned without comment. 67 answer. and this despatch clearly expressed that his Majesty was to be empowered to confer any commission or appointment in the army or navy upon all descriptions of his subjects without any exception whatever . observing that this difference * does not apply. and explained to the King place. and after it Bill stood as the order for the day. was transmitted to Ireland. a separate bill.! the day on which the Mutiny Bill was to be committed and the separate Bill brought in. the nature of the change that had taken and the reasons which had induced it.* but by a separate enactment. Another declearly the intentions of the Cabinet. in reply. March 2. Lord Howick said that the committee on the Mutiny office. The the separate Bill intended not the same as the Irish King then asked whether to be brought forward was Act. f The measure extending now to the navy. spatch was then sent to him. of Monday. Lord Howick had an audience with the King upon the business of his was over the King asked him what was coming on that day in the House of Commons.

. but the * King signified to the Lord G-renville his decided From which March 11. that I had still sufficient authority.! Lord Howick did not attend the Bill. I conceived. who opposed it. as a member of that Grovernment. Journal. on account of the death of a near relation . About the same time Lord Sidmouth sent in his resignation. in the extent to to be of the why he conceived . introduced the said and some discussion took place between him and Perceval.* "I must acknowledge that his Majesty. for the introduction of the Bill that had been prepared." In consequence of this conception. On the following Wednesday. here. t . in his explanatory speech on the 26th March.. the next day or the day after. utmost importance to the welfare and " security of the government of the country. Sir/' said And Lord Howick.. account of this audience is taken almost verbatim. Lord Howick.68 THE LIFE OF BOOK I. Lord Ho wick the reasons . did express a general dislike and disapprobation of this measure I mean to state everything frankly but I did under- his consent it stand our conversation to conclude by the King giving a reluctant consent. Lord Howick's also stated explanation.intended the measure. I admit or perhaps would be more correctly stated by not withdrawing the consent which he had' originally given to carrying out the views of his Government.. had been explained to his Majesty in the last despatch which had been submitted to him. upon that occasion. levee. -i-ii which was i it to be carried. therefore.

such measures respecting Ireland as the course of circumstances should appear to require. stating that he never would consent . stating this determination. but making three demands 1st. 69 disapprobation of the measure that had been brought forward. that they should be allowed when gether. which his consent to the next day postponed the further reading of the Bill. but in the possible event of the discussion of the Catholic petition in Parliament. that they should be allowed openly to avow these senti- ments. LORD PALMERSTON. but required absolutely to withdraw the latter part of their declaration. not only on withdrawing the Bill. before expressed his objections to it . and. 2nd. In answer to this minute. they should be free to submit from time to time. the dissatisfaction that the ministers King expressed some should feel it necessary as individuals to express their opinions them on withdrawing the Bill. and in having consequence of this explanation Lord Howick on Journal. as their duty was.1807. 3rd. which ministers finally resolved to drop alto- minute was accordingly transmitted to the King. that notwithstand- ing the deference which they had thought it their duty to show on the present occasion to the opinions and feelings expressed by his Majesty. under it had been originally given. A they dropped the Bill to state the strong persuasion they entertained individually of the advantage which would result to the Empire from a different system of policy towards the Catholics of Ireland . and the misconception of its extent. for his Majesty's decision.

which. not only between the King and his ministers. but that of those colleagues in office.70 THE LIFE OF any concessions to the Catholics BOOK I. and . it must immediately strike one as a singular circumstance that there should so long have existed upon so important a subject such a wide misunderstanding. would not only preclude them from proposing concessions to the Catholics. . Journal. with whom he and discussed. a proposition connected with a subject upon which he was known to entertain such a decided opinion. mission to state to Parliament the . circumstances which change of ministry and their statements. and requiring a positive assurance in writing. their The or to ministers refused to withdraw statement. made in the Lords on the 26th March. but even among the very members of the Cabinet in which the measure originated that in submitting to the King . sufficient care Howick some should not have been taken by Lord to avoid the possibility of a misconception is on either side certainly extraordinary . were subsequently led to the published. as they conceived. and in the Commons on the same day. but from all measures connected with such concessions. to which they might in future propose to him. Lord Grenville must have digested. give the written assurance to demanded affairs to and the King communicated them of his his intention of intrusting the management Lord Grenville and Lord Howick then asked and obtained from the King perother ministers. In reviewing this transaction.

their partizans of course go further. Lord Sidmouth declared in the House of Lords that he plicable. LORD PALMEHSTON. and scruple not to affirm that the King fully understood the extent of the measure to ranks and appointments in the army and which he assented.1807. was the fact. perhaps more likely to arrive at the truth by a deduction from admitted facts. however. is wholly inexSuch. that he retracted his word in consequence of private representations made to him by interested persons. Lords Grenville and Howick not only assert that from the beginning their intentions were to open to all the Catholics and all descriptions of persons navy. there certainly from such a review are very strong grounds for believing that Now . and never conceived till the second was drawn up that anything more was in contemplation than to extend to England the Irish Act of 1793 on the . previous to its being communicated to the King. 71 arranged the measure. of this nature facts are more to be depended upon than the most confident assertions of the parties concerned and however high the characters of Lord Grenville or Lord Howick may stand. than by trusting implicitly to their explanations of their own views and intentions. and that the ministers were In matters the victims of secret intrigue and cabal. other hand. we are . but seemed to wonder that any person could have mistaken their meaning . understood the first despatch precisely as the King did. journal. should almost to the last have mistaken its nature and extent.

and suffering him to misconceive was nearly as culpable as an attempt with regard to the it proposal to deceive him if all their would have been. and the other two Cabinet ministers rightly understood its nature . when Lord Grenville found. Elliot should hit that upon its real meaning ?* Is it possible Lord Grenville or Lord Howick are so unused ignorant of the force of words. nor Mr. when they laid their proposition before the King they themselves only meant to extend the Act of 1793 . nor many of the Cabinet. rather than any original mistake of the King. Elliot and the Irish deputies. It was their bounden duty to take care that he should not misunderstand them .72 THE LIFE OF first BOOK I. that the King. Lord Sidmouth. as not to be able to draw up a despatch without leaving doubtful and ill explained so very material a to composition. or so point as that upon which the essence of the measure they were about to adopt depended? It is but a poor excuse for them to say that the King misunderstood them. nor the Irish deputies. how happened it that the despatch was so ambiguously worded that neither the King. he did not choose that his bill should fall short of their expectations. Government from the first persons into the army and navy. Journal. from what passed in that interview. intended to admit it to do not singular so by a * The change in the extent of the bill was probably owing to the conversation between Mr. and that the subsequent misunderstanding arose from a change of plan on the part of the two lords. . If it were not so. is that Lord Howick should propose Moreover. how far the wishes of the Catholics extended.

or not look at them at all ? The omission of an accompanying note proves more against the ministers than the want of any comment does against the King. the extension of the Act of 1793 had been all that means cut off. as proving them to Mutiny Bill have been warranted in their supposition that they were acting with the Bang's consent. and returned by him the next day without comment. and are not read by him. What then was more natural than that. on the other hand. planation of this circumstance is. A circumstance upon which the partizans of the ministry lay great stress. because some stages of discussion are by that however. Mutiny Bill ? 73 clause in the A measure so new and journal. the despatches relative to it which are sent to the King are considered as sent merely pro formd. was meant. LORD PALMEBSTON. and that there was no note enclosed.1807. seeing this despatch and the clauses to be merely explanatory of those which he had already seen. speci- The exwhenever fying that the despatch contains new matter. Lord Grenville in his speech dwells much upon the length of time which elapsed between the notice of the . If. to introduce such a proposition into the was natural and proper. important is not usually introduced as a clause to any Bill. that any business is in progress. unless there is a note in the box. is that the second despatch to the Lord Lieutenant was sent to the King with the amended clauses. and requesting his attention to it. he should either run them carelessly over.

from deference to the King's opinions. safety of Ireland was If they thought that the consistent with the King's ideas . . must have heard by the newspapers that the Bill had been introduced and is it not singular that a week should be suffered the following Wednesday (the llth). argues Lord Grenville. which was not made The King. journal. might not for some days hear of the debate in question and as he only came to town to his wishes ? but. When. they dropped the obnoxious bill. But if ministers cannot be acquitted of some degree of insincerity in their transactions with the King previous to the explanation. he informs his ministers that they had mistaken his sentiments. he might naturally think that it would be time enough for him to put a stop to further proceedings when he next went to town. and the second reading was not to come on till the next Thursday. . the King being at Windsor. and that there was no necessity for incon- venient hurry. or the constitutional principles by which it was their duty to have been guided.74 THE LIFE OF Bill. BOOK I. on Wednesdays. and acted in opposition to elapse before on the other hand. and the notification of the King's decided objection to till it. separate which was given in the House by Lord Howick the day of his first conversation with the King (the 4th). neither can their subsequent conduct be in any way reconciled with the respect which they owed to their Sovereign. there were but two lines of conduct which they could with propriety pursue.

whether active or passive. situations it was incumbent upon them to resign which they could no longer hold without sacrificing the compromising their own honour. them that nothing could permanently secure the tranquillity of the country but such an enlargement of the political privileges of that description of its inhabitants as it was contrary to the King's determination to grant. They asserted that nothing but their strong conviction of the imperious necessity of adopting some measure to relieve the Catholics from the restrictions under which they laboured would have induced them to propose the measure which they had framed for that purpose and yet. by stating in Parliament the opinions on which they did not act. proposals and retain their places. It is idle to which might from the Sovereign's disregard of those opinions. they exempted themselves from the responsibility their advice. but if it appeared to journal. since ministers are and must be responsible for any policy. thereby taking upon themselves all the responsibility of any of those fatal effects to the country which they prophesied would be the inevitable consequences of rejecting contend that. result that is adopted while they remain in power. they should have adopted those ideas without reserve. 75 respecting the Catholics. If this . LORD PALMEESTON. they consented to withdraw their . or public advantage. other light. though nothing had occurred to diminish that imperious necessity. But they viewed the matter in antheir places and insisted upon retaining both and their opinions.1807.

an unprincipled minister might sanction and give effect to the most profligate policy by his acquiescence in it. the administration goes on . then comes into operation one of those salutary checks which the practice of the Constitution has imposed on the royal prerogative. Should he fail in his search. Should he succeed. the latter may even concede to the opinion of the former but that whenever discussions that . or the former to give King and is willing way to the latter. course. and the Sovereign must necessarily abandon a line of conduct which he cannot find men of character and ability willing to pursue. Journal. and by new ministers begin to execute his ideas either proposing or omitting to propose any particular measure. that so long as the his ministers think together. therefore. arise between the Sovereign and his Cabinet upon great and important questions. BOOK I. which till this instance has invament by saying riably been pursued is. then those individual who went out may properly as members of Parliament oppose to their utmost what they resisted when in office. and yet secure himself from punish- were not The that he had disapproved of it. upon points not concerning the great interests of the country.76 THE LIFE OF so. if a difference of opinion should unfortunately take place. the ministers are bound in honour to retire from their situations and give the King an opportunity of ascertaining whether he can find other servants who will enter more readily the into his views. . and neither party succeed in convincing the other.

Lord Lord C. Ryder. Bickerton. ministerial arrangements 77 The new were completed : Journal. . Lord Palmerston. Chatham . Gen. War and Colonies Home Department Lord Chancellor Lord Privy Seal President of the Council. . . . - 0/ Lord Bathurst . Lord Auckland. . Lord Holland. Lords of the Admiralty Lord Gambier. Foreign Affairs. . Hon. Newport. Lord Sandwich. Sheridan. FitzPatrick. Lord Chichester. Hope. Lord Lord Lord Lord Lord } Castlereagh . Pigott. C. Lord Mulgrave Lord Lord Grenville.. by the end of March.. Hon. Mr. Mr. Sec. .. Sturges Bourne. Mr. Lord Sidmouth. Camden Lord Howick.u. . Lord Lieut. H. Lord Temple. Tierney. Mr. Capt. .. Duke of Bedford. Lords of the Treasury . Long .. Thomas Plomer. . Hon. W. . Eldon Westmoreland . . Sir R. Sir J. S. .ofthe Exchequer. and were . Rose Mr. Secretary for Ireland. Mr. Fr Trade* f **" ^^ of . Master General Ordnance the\-r . . R. . Wellesley Master of the Horse Lord Hertford.. Rt. . R. Hawkesbury. Somerset Titchfield. Paymasters of Forces. Dundas G. . (Sir Si | Board of Control Treasurer of the Secretary at Navy Hon. j Chanc. Windham.. War Duke of Montrose Duke of Richmond Sir A.General Solicitor-General Sir V. Spencer Perceval G.. Mr.. Sir Gibbs ... W. of Ireland. Lord Erskine. Lord Moira. Ward. . James Buller. vice Sir A. J. LOED PALMERSTON. of .1807. as follows vice First Lord of the Treasury Duke of Portland Lord of the Admiralty. Hon. Canning Henry \ Petty. Lord Spencer. Postmasters-General . Lord ru. Grenville. . Attorney. f The above formed the Cabinet. .

and speaks with credit in defence of the Government in regard to the Copenhagen Expedition . People did not take up the morning's reports of the debates and again put them down. BOOK Now in Parliament . Visits his Irish estates Is offered the Chancellorship of the Exchequer. II. which after . on the dissolution. Member for Cambridge University Makes a successful speech on bringing forward the estimates Cites passages from the despatches of Lord Wellington. had been returned for NewThere was not so much and such constant stated that talking in the House of Commons then as there is now. and becomes Secretary at War Becomes. Lord Palmerston. lost amidst tlfe wilderness of commonplace remarks of common- men on commonplace subjects. place but which in reality is for the most part twaddle.78 THE LIFE OF BOOK II. after the Canning and Castlereagh quarrel refuses. then driving Mas- sena out of Portugal Describes a shooting party in Essex Correspondence with the Commander-in-Chief as to the position of Secretary at War. The ordinary affairs of Government. and prevents or impedes the transaction of business. ^ HAVE failing at port. which. after once more Cambridge. in the flattering way it has become the fashion to adopt in speaking of ourselves. we call business-like speaking.

Copenhagen was taken. But the novice who passed with tolerable credit in the judgment of those men whose opinion was the test of success and failure. were permitted to pass off quietly. Remarks. Robert name. and which. Lord Palmerston thus speaks of first A his own " : In September of this year (1807). to . mind if speech under such circumstances was an Maiden 81 important affair. and was judged by the assembly he addressed as listened to.1808. and who knew at once how to detect accompanied by energy. therefore. I had leisure. almost certain. on which I received many compliments. and put together a speech. When a new member was animated by ambition. LORD PALMEBSTON. and the Danish fleet carried off. with little or much speech about them. if he persevered in a Parliamentary career. time lay Lords of the Admiralty had nothing to do but to sign their The Danish expedition was study the Copenhagen papers. Papers At that relating to it were laid before Parliament. Any great affair was debated in a great manner by the leading men. to 79 be gone through as a matter of course. to obtain place and distinction. ends in giving ascendency in any body of men who live much together was henceforth classed. " Auto- the great subject of debate at the beginning of the Session in 1808. fit or unfit to be one of the select to be ordeal it The was a severe one. without every member all have making a speech which no other member wanted to hear. he made a trial of his strength.

Petersburg. He married Duke of Devonshire. and neither Windham nor Whitbread were as good as usual in fact. 1808. Milnes. f Described in the Whig Guide. " He chose to make a second speech on a following show that he was as good in reply as on His speech was a bad one. was one of the most brilliant and convincing speech I ever heard it lasted near three hours. DEAR ELIZABETH. I thought it spirit paper that I was to make a fool of myself for the entertainment of the House last night . speech was the debate. the House with him throughout.80 THE LIFE OF known as Orator Milnes. as a " squat gentleman. Feb. sonbyf was dull and heavy. and I have scarcely Ponever heard such loud and frequent cheers. a daughter of the He became Ambassador at St. although one should flounder a doing so. You will see by this day's tempted by some evil ever.* better had made a splendid speech on the first night of the discussion. * so powerful that it gave a decisive turn to Lord Granville LevesonJ made a very ' Father of the present Lord Houghton. Autobiography. to prefirst He thus writes modestly to his sister To the : Hon. howin was a good opportunity of breaklittle ing the ice. and was the father of the . and my paration. He carried . " Letters relative to " MY Admiralty." night. Temple.' it is said by Palmerston. speech was thought better than his second. Canning's . 4. as it was impossible to talk any very egre- Canning's gious nonsense upon so good a cause. and was created Earl Granville. % prolific in commonplaces. BOOK II. at Paris. Miss E. fifth and afterwards present Earl. " Speech." Then Secretary at War.

. 6. I. that the approbation of the expedition . was not so large as I expected. I thought we were it so than I we should have had three to is one. in which they expressed their place. G ." To the " MY Hon. though began to fear I had exposed myself. and other parts of the Continent. and I began in a few hours afterwards to be reconciled to my fate. .1808.* Our division The Opposition were less not more numerous. condemning. 81 good speech. as far as he had any opportunity of collecting their sentiments. " Many thanks for your congratulations. 8p pledged by the address. instead of Letters. DEAR ELIZABETH. I certainly felt glad I when the thing was over. and stated an important fact that all the impartial people in Russia. but during this weather people to come up to town.. but Maiden the outline of what was as follows. In the House was. Feb. " Admiralty. VOL. " PALHERSTON. as they * For the motion Against it . The papers have not been very first liberal in their allowance of report to I said me . Miss E. . LORD PALMEBSTON. but that the papers were in themselves improper to be produced.108 253 145 Majority for Government . Temple. ! difficult to get " Ever your affectionate brother. our Danish expedition. but my friends were so obliging as to say I had not talked much nonsense. but expected. highly applauded. 1808. to a certain degree. . " Adieu my best love to all..

the Crown Prince proved . and expose the authors to Buonaparte's That they were unnecessary. Letters. since it was evident from various circumstances that she had determined unwilling to to join France. how could refusing our guarantee the Danes have defended themselves without our as- sistance justified ? on either supposition ministers were equally In conclusion I adverted to the slight inconsistency in those who. when the temptation was the strongest. and was not likely to do so now. would betray the sources from whence we obtained intelligence. refusal to accept our offers of alliance proved If we could have defended his hostility Denmark. Vincent to do the same thing at did at Copenhagen. was fleet. intend to seize the to resist . as Buonaparte never did respect . because That the expedition could be justified without them. have exerted them. and mean to dine with her to-morrow at Peggy's. vengeance. I saw Emma to-day. although subsequent events prevented these orders from being executed. Zealand and the Danish fleet France that the neutrality been no protection. was an object to of Denmark would have neutrality. Her this. I was about . by if we co"uld not. if That Denmark was unable she had possessed the means. but. and his facility the and that in fact it was evident he did greatest . . having sent out orders to Lord St.82 THE LIFE OF BOOK II. I did not feel so much alarmed as I expected to be. now blame ministers for having acted at Lisbon which we Copenhagen on their own half an hour on my legs principles.

as we have he had produced .1808. This marred. to be sure. seen. which were perceptible to the last when Lord Palmerston spoke unprepared. as you will see by a letter from him. it may be as well to direct their attention to two letters any still to be found in the recently-published correspondence of Napoleon : G 2 . was evidently composed with much care. well- instructed young man if had been speaking. it often cost him pains to find it. do for a house . mind going ? Square. is returned to Cambridge. and in those parts which had been carefully consigned to memory was spoken with great ease and facility but in others there was that hes^ation and superabundance . If there are for defects which might not they did the House would entertaining doubts as to the necessity of the action which the orator defended." The speech which this correspondence alludes Remarks. but every one recognized that a clever. LOED PALMEESTON. how is far upwards should you way. no doubt. at first as to the impression and made him doubtful. and to which become accustomed. but " Adieu ! There a nice house in Manchester it is. 83 William. Ever your to " PALMERSTON. the continued effect of his delivery. and made ready allowance remain. sadly out of the my " dear Tilly. affectionate brother. General style of gesture with the hands. I do not know what we shall Letters. . for though he always used the right word. and was seeking for words .

" Si 1'Angleterre n'accepte pas la mediation de la Eussie. to his younger his which." " Au Marechal BERNADOTTE. et sera porteur d'une lettre a mon ministre. . and might serve as a lesson to English landlords having Irish estates. tions. et que la correspoudance continue avec 1'Angleterre. " Je ne vetix pas tarder a vous faire connaitre mes inten- jusqu'au dernier moment. ne se ressente de a laisse faire de la Baltique et que si 1'Angleterre refuse la mediation de la Russie. " NAPOLEON. a vous emparer de tout le continent danois. la violation qu'il je ne puis empecher qu'il . ou que je la Vous serez destine'. quelque soit sujet avec M. au plus tard. 1807. " Villes Saint-Cloud. mon desir de menager Danemark. Dhnanche. de Dreher. 31 Juillet. " Saint-Cloud. il faut que le Danemark lui declare la guerre. 1807. on de faire la guerre a 1'Angleterre ou de me la faire. dans ce dernier declare au Danemark. shows in the most agreeable manner business-like habits and generous and liberal views. vous aurez une conference sur ce Vous lui direz que. Gouverneur des Hanseatiques. courrier continuera sa route sur Copenhague.84 THE LIFE OF BOOK II. 2 Aout. PE TALLEYRAND. il faut necessairement qu'il choisisse. " NAPOLEON. though it relates to matters strictly private." I here insert another letter from Lord Palmerston sister. par laquelle vons lui " Le meme ferez connaitre mon me'contentement de ce que les proraesses qu'a faites le " Danemark n'ont point d'effet. Lottors - " A M. qu'il faut tenir secretes cas.

it work of time. craggy mountains. of which between eight and nine lie together to the north of Sligo. and had continued with little intermission. 1808. .* who was not so much interested day. his brother. re- turned home very soon. . " MY . Letters. LORD PALMEESTON. To the 85 Hon. everything. " The rain. " Cliffoney. and on the other by bog and high. persevered. however. however. and all the arable may be rendered worth three times its present value. Thursday. I employed in walking and riding about the town of Sligo with Chambers. 9th. but almost all the waste ground bog is capable of being brought into cultivation. I have in this part my visit of the country about ten thousand acres. I may almost say. September 12. 8th. and saw the greatest part of the estate. and it will be absolutely necessary for me to repeat it make next summer. Miss E. which had commenced the Visit to Irish morning we left Dublin. and to accomplish The present objects which done. * must be the much must be first I must in the Mr. in seeing the estate as in keeping himself dry. and probably annual for some time. This. It is It is a tract of wholly unimproved or . We. William Templo. we estate took another ride over the whole of that part of the which lies connected by the sea-coast. Temple. I find is there a great deal. . was more particularly violent this and William. bounded on one side by the sea. DEAR ELIZABETH. country about two miles broad and six long. and Friday.1808. . to be done.

and the condition of the people calls loudly for both. to get rid of the cases where it can be accom- i After that. or some five shillings. hut on the roadside. Latin. roads. however. The thirst for education great that there are now three or four schools upon the estate. to establish schools. a quarter. are the most im- portant points at present. I mean to endeavour to introduce a Scotch farmer. and attach to each three or four acres of land. and to build a pier and make a little port near a village that stands on a point of land projecting into Donegal Bay. as opportunities occur. masters will be under pleasure. are to put the parish church in a state of repair. and the boys pay him half a crown. to be turned off at for their have security good conduct. I shall my control. so as to make it fit for service . Then. Letters. i and . and called Mullaghmore. writing. no one would imagine. and arithmetic. where there are great advantages of water little and stone .86 THE LIFE OF BOOK II. which keep a cow and grow potatoes without making the schoolmaster into a farmer. They are taught reading. and what. make in middlemen in some plished. and even Greek. if the salary paid by the boys is not sufficient. the deand as the ficiency may be made up in money . to establish a manufacturing village in a centrical part of the estate. to teach the people how to improve their land . "I mean will to build three good school-houses on the estate. . instance set about. to Projected improvements. The people join in engaging some itinerant master they run him up a miserable mud is so . " The schools and roads. from the appearance of the establishment.

' Give . The universal cry was. LOED PALMEESTON. in different places. however. I fancy they Letters. and both are in need of a communication with Sligo market. must be 87 Catholics. that T T-. as they have no other means of subsistence. us roads. and no petty landlords. and call a profit-rent. or at the utmost ten or twelve acres. of at least two or three hundred. reserve to themselves a small portion. and let out the rest to under-tenants. " These people take a certain quantity of ground. . ready " The worst circumstance attending the property for fuel is Condition of tenantry. " Roads are the first necessity for the improvement of the land. Their condition. Jbjvery farm swarms with p . devils while they live upon the part they reserve without paying any rent for it.1808. . for the people will not send their children to a Protestant. and the people on the seaside to get turf from the bogs . which they keep themselves. The sea-coast abounds with a shelly sand. shore and the upper country will enable the inhabitants of the bogs to reclaim their waste ground with this manure.' . In my last ride the day was very fine. and an excess. They make these unfortunate pay the rent of the landlord. it is so populous. who have each four or five. will be improved as I gradually get rid of the middlemen. to the number. They are too poor to them improve their land. and the whole tenantry came out to meet me. and yet it is impossible to turn out. which is the best possible manure for boggy ground and roads of communication between the . little holders. or petty landlords.

What admirable news from Portugal Last we heard of the surrender of Lisbon and the night ! " fleet by an express from Cork to Dublin . ! What as well as military contest he I is waging with us . though not to the downfall of the change The distinguished admiral. but it was a necessary consequence of the battle. and doubt not of equal success in both.THE LIFE OF Letters. BOOK II. Canning had led to the necessity of a of ministry. but seems to have steadied his own. * . A life. Adieu my dear Elizabeth. hope Saumarez* will fall in with the Russians in the Baltic. "PALMERSTON. Our best love to '*' ! all. by a singular combination of circumstances. new era He takes place in Lord Palmerston's had spoken but once since his entry into now the House of Commons. What will the croakers say now ? They have not a twig left to perch upon. afterwards created. " Ever your affectionate brother. and he was but twenty-five years of age when. He was Nelson's second in command at the battle of the Nile. and then I think we shall have beat I only Alexander into the warmest friendship and regard a triumph to the orders in Council is It is a complete the opening of the Dutch ports confession of defeat by Buonaparte in the commercial for us. The well-known quarrel between Lord Castlereagh and Mr." Remarks. he had an offer which would have turned most heads. and one did not feel anxious about it. Lord de Saumarez. for his brilliant achievements. He died in 1836.

Lord Malmesbury.C. to Milnes. the Exchequer. and received a letter from Perceval.B. He turned. as too hazardous an attempt for so young and inexAfterwards Earl of Mulgrave. He died in 1831. and LordLieutenant of the East Riding of Yorkshire. and to consult my friends. Perceval became Remarks. to those young men who had given promise of ability and amongst these was undoubtedly . the Junior Lord of the Admiralty. LORD PALMEBSTON.* then First Lord of the clined " I wrote to Admiralty. and to which he thus alludes " I was at that time (the breaking-up of the Port.1809. The result was that I de- the Chancellorship of the Exchequer. however. Prime Minister. * .Auto: land Ministry) at Broadlands (October. 1809). Grandfather of the present Marquess of Normanby. as he had a proposal to make to me which he thought would be agreeable I went up to town. a general officer. I Ex- " Perceval said that if I declined to be Chancellor of the Exchequer he should perhaps be able to offer me the War Office but he felt bound to offer it first . have expected the proposal which he now received. not unnaturally. 89 party in the possession of power. G. and consulted with Lord Mulgrave. who could hardly. and had to fill up important places without any very ready means of doing so with men of established reputation. desiring me to come to town immediately.. and he offered me the Chancellorship of Offered : was a good deal surprised at so ship of c unexpected an offer. Mr. therefore. then at Park Place. and begged a little time to think of it.

f " Broadlands. setting on for London. by dint of boat-cloaks. The letter of Mr. and am. " MY DEAR LORD MALMESBURY. Perceval here alluded to has not been preserved. Autobiography. . and accepted the offer of Secretary have obtained. through the kindness of Lord Malmesbury. "I got to town this morning. with other correspondence of his distinguished grandfather. in consequence. 1809. Had I known this before. 15. and sworn a Council on the 1st of November. t These letters which came into my possession in the way I have were in print when I heard they were about to be published by Lord Malmesbury himself. perienced a man. the interesting correspondence to which I Lord Palmerston here Correspondence with alludes. As it is. our weather has been remarkably fine for our purpose. although the . Oct. infinitely surprised at the proposal he had to make to me. He having been deprived of the assistance of member of the Privy * MY " Oct. latter was not quite so strong as the former. stated . I cannot avoid doing so and at all events they have an appropriate place in Lord Palmerston's biography. 1809. and went to Perceval's. from which we returned last night .90 THE LIFE OF BOOK II. 16. one can always keep out the cold. with plenty of wind and sunshine and. I might not have given them in extenso. m Lord Malmesbury. as you may imagine. On the 28th of October. where I shall be early to-morrow morning. stated that. and was. it made everything look very bright and cheerful. and. " We have been spending three days very pleasantly on a sailing party." " DEAR LORD MALMESBURY. " I have just received the enclosed lettert from ^r ^ Perceval.

of course. He said that he felt great difficulty in finding any one to take the situation. Lord S. lie felt much in need of some one to take off his shoulders part of the labour of his offices in Correspond- Lord and out of the House . one of the Lords of . and Sturges Bourne Treasury. who declined taking it unless Lord Sidmouth formed part of the administration. in. but also my great fears that I should find myself wholly incompetent for the situation. and that in the House practice would soon enable me to get on well enough for the purposes of business. and my want of practice in public speaking. 91 Huskisson* and Sturges Bourne. both in and out of the House.1809. Member for tlic Huskisson had been Secretary of the Treasury. He said he had previously offered it to Yansittart. and they had decided that it was not expedient to take Perceval's Exchequer. both from my inexperience in the details of matters of finance. That in the office Harrison and his own secretary would be able to afford me great assistance. and proposed to me to take the former. To this he replied that he should of course take the principal share of the Treasury business. Annexed it. to this office it. he offered a seat in the Cabinet if I chose and he this thought it better I should have I. LOED PALMEHSTON. and that he did not at the he could * moment know of any one else to whom offer it. expressed to him how much honoured I felt by very flattering proof of the good opinion he was pleased to entertain of me. that he meant for that purpose to divide the situations of Chancellor of the Exchequer and First Lord of the Treasury. He named Mimes.

Thirdly. The approaching session * This office. I am quite without knowledge of finance. which had to deal with the accounts of the War Department. The inconvenience. Correspondcuce with Pomfret speaker man who made so great a figure as a 1 i Lord as the only other person he had thought i T i / ol. I found it likely I could take the Chancellorship. and afterwards. to be put above his proper level. however. was distinct from that of the Secretary for War. to be gained. I feel the might most extreme embarrassment to own I know what answer but is to give. Now. these proposals. Of course one's vanity and ambition . he appeared to think it possible that I might come in at first as a Lord of the Upon Treasury. M11 !. it was possible that it 1 lelt objections to either 01 . and where much be lost. he else might not be able to find any one in the short interval which would possibly elapse. if upon fagging at the business between this and the meeting of Parliament. and parman. as he only rises to fall the lower. I could be promoted to it. The Secretary for War was. as not carrying so Alternative offer of a much use much weight to him as if I Lord- ship of the fccCTBtaiyahip held the Chancellorship. I should not be of so and that then in the House. that if I declined it ultimately. properly speaking. the office of Secretary at War* be to be disposed of. further conversation. the war minister.92 THE LIFE OF the BOOK II. . would lead it is to accept the brilliant offer first proposed throwing it for a great stake. he suggested that / TJ i. if I chose to take that. very muck also may I have always thought ticularly a young unfortunate for any one. of this arrangement would be. and usually held the Colonial Department. and never but once spoke in the House.

fagging and assistance I but fear that I never should be able to act properly in the House. f i 111 -.1809. one of f i 93 will be infinite difficulty. but still the same objections hold good as to the parlia- . to a certain objections of the above sort. r* Perceval says that the state ot the finances 01 this country. all persons not born with the talents of at first Fox must make many bad speeches they speak a great deal on many subjects. . as they cannot be masters of all. at first sight is liable to fewer I might. and I should be apprehensive that instead of materially assisting Perceval.. LOED PALMERSTON. would make a Chancellor of the Exchequer exceedingly ridiculous. from the number of speakers in opposition. I should only bring disgrace and ridicule upon him and myself. Correspondence with . By might get on in the office. as calculated Lord Malmesbury. good deal of debating must of course devolve upon the person holding the Chancellorship of the Ex- my part A chequer Pitt or if . I don't know upon which of the two points I should feel most alarmed. the warfare of the House of Commons will certainly be for us very severe. . and a bad speech. and the few debaters on our side of the question. though tolerated in any person not in a responsible situation. particularly if his friends could not set off against his bad oratory a great knowledge and capacity for business . The second proposal of coming in first as simply a Lord of the Treasury. qualify myself for the other office in the interval between this and the meeting of Parliament . what has lately happened in public affairs. p and trom to carry on the war. degree. . is very embarrassing .

I think the choice lies between being Chancellor of the Exchequer and Secretary at The other was filled by Mr. or in which one would not be so prominent if one did not at first do as well as one ought to do. when near the opening of the session. I think. one vacant for any great length of time so that I think I am in a great degree called upon to make my determination as to the office now. and of course one* must be filled by the Chancellor of the Exchequer. to keep . reduces itself to a choice between taking the office now. as to-morrow. if offices which he wishes. There are now two seats in the Treasury vacant. or being raised to it gradually by a previous seat at the Treasury board. Correspondence with Lord Malmesbury. whoever he may be . probably. He has given me till Wednesday see me He at first proposed to have my answer but I begged to have till the next day. it would therefore be impossible. that he must again before he could positively say that this was at his disposal. seems one better suited to a beginner. and in which I might hope not to fail. And thus the second proposal. I thought by that time I could have your sentiments to consider. as it might be come not impossible. it at War. I should myself strongly incline to being Secretary From what one has heard of the office.94 THE LIFE OF BOOK II. T i IT/-* would not be fair to Perceval and the Government it to into the Treasury unless with a pretty determined view of taking the Chancellorship. . upon the * subject. mentary part if I ultimately take the other and t * i j. for Perceval to make the division of his difficult. however. Snowden Barne. Perceval said.

and though a man of very brilliant talents. since the latter I 95 should certainly prefer to being a Lord of the Treasury simply. you a duplicate of it this letter by Broad- should by any accident miscarry. I think. Christchurch post. and certainly an . and even then could be sent to Winchester at a later hour. but that. as the mail does not pass through there till seven or eight o'clock. I think. One consideration not to be wholly overlooked is. I should . alone determine my choice. to stand. though a assistance in debate. till near five. and the ground of War Office is. but if Perceval cannot find another as good as me for the it's clear. Our party Exchequer. Correspond- Lord did not mention whether the seat in the Cabinet would go with the War Office great honour. that we may probably not remain in long enough to retrieve any blunders made the at the outset .1809. my as our post does not go it Should you be too late for the groom can take your answer. much doubt " I send but there must be many well fitted for the office. another being Perceval the Chancellor and Perceval First Lord. War. " PALMERSTON. " Yours most affectionately. I think. as the time of deliberation is so short that I cannot wait lands in case for another post day." . that we are too it not take Milnes would probably unless his ambition got the better of his weak partiality to Canning and his steadiness his aversion to Perceval . quite high enough for is me to leave off upon. certainly ill off for second-rates. should not. LORD PALMERSTON.

Correspondence with Lord Mulmesbury. and the dangers which menace it from abroad . 17. yet you would easily get habituated to the first. without the adequate means of resisting and counteracting Lord Malmes. to experience all the buffetings to which this would expose you. and I cannot wish you to be placed at once in the breach. I therefore am decidedly of opinion that you would not self. As you wish to have my answer by to-morrow morning. without any great me apprehension that I should deviate from consideration. than Perceval's offer to you. l nad J ust answered your post. or after the sort of . and soon acquire the latter. for although it is a post which requires great labour and knowledge of finance. . " demur as to the propriety of your accepting the Chancellor- ship of the Exchequer . " " New Hall. Oct. By what I say of the ' times. either in the in instance. by taking the one post. nor of course more In different pleasing to me. and put my for answer into the when your servant. which he proposes to place you preparatory seminary since. you would virtually pledge . letter of the 15th. who had sought me in vain at Heron Court. it on more mature Nothing can be more flattering to you.t erceva] 5 by the pub l iCj or by your . I should not times.96 THE LIFE OF BOOK II. bury'sopinion. brought me the one written to send for yesterday explanatory of the reason which induced Perceval you in such haste. I have little time (it is now a quarter-past seven) to bestow on perusing it but although . the subject is a very important and serious one. and under less perplexing circumstances. 1809. yet it strikes so manifestly what is best for you to do.' I short duration of this Government do not refer to the probable that consideration would be a narrow and selfish motive for refusing to become a member of it but I mean the peculiarly irritated state of the country. feirly either by were you to undertake the Chancellorship of the first p Exchequer. a(.them. that I think I can venture to give an immediate opinion.

"But. if it my opinion. on the other hand. hy confirming the opinion which I had at first entertained of Perceval's very flattering proposal. " I will return your letter to me to-morrow. " Most truly and affectionately yours. since every reason I could possibly urge you have anticipated in your very judicious and most rational remarks. time stated. I wish be of any use to you. you to decline the greater office. which. and I do it more confidently. am strongly inclined to recomSecretaryship at War (with the It is a very reputable situation. I advise. "I have many thanks to give you for your Lord Palmer8 which afforded me great satisfaction. or quit with any discredit. Maimesbury. ." " Admiralty. my dear Harry.1809. T. to and deliberation . 97 yourself to accept the other and if. 18. fully sensible of the honour he did me in offering me the Ex- VOL. bringing you too forward at once. I am just returned result of my from Perceval. n . without Cabinet). LOED PALMEESTON. for you to tell Perceval his Government to be strong and lasting from the bottom of " Ever. and very kind which had heen strengthened by all the reflection I had been able to bestow on the subject during the time that has elapsed since I wrote to you. if you hold it a short time. at the expiration of the Correspond- Wlth you would increase the" difficulties you are desirous to alleviate. " MY DEAR LORD letter. infallibly lead you to the higher posts in the Cabinet. my heart. 1809. I can have no if and one from which * objection. will. whom I stated the that. Without hesitation. MALMESBURY. Oct. "M. "I have not time to add a word more. you were to decline it. I to mend you take the you are dismissed you will not fall from a perilous height.

98

THE LIFE OF
it
^

BOOK

II.

Correspondence with

chequer, I thought

Lord

1111 should,

most prudent to decline
i
/^

it,

but

however,

leel

c

ment

of Secretary

much gratmed by the appointat War, if it should be at his

i

i

i

disposal.

very frankly that, as he had mentioned in our former interview, it depended
then told

He

me

upon certain other arrangements whether he should
be able to give me the office. That, conceiving that Milnes would be a very great acquisition to Government, if the bias he had in favour of Canning did not prevent him from joining us, he had written to him to say that he had to offer him such an official situation

would probably be That, should Milnes come up in disposed to accept. consequence, he meant to offer him the Chancellorship
as (if inclined to take any) he

of the Exchequer. But that it was possible Milnes might decline so ostensible a post, and that then,
rather than run the risk of losing his support, he wished to offer him the War Office, which, in case he

That declined the other, he possibly might accept. such a case he would only have it in his power to in
offer

me

a seat at the Treasury, which he
as
it

still

hoped

I

would take,

would

let

me more

into business,

stood our ground, pave the way to some He said he felt that this prefurther advance. ference of Milnes might not appear very flattering
and, if
to me, but he trusted I should view
light,
it

we

in its right

as

proceeding

from his great

secure a doubtful friend
service to our cause.

who

anxiety to might be of essential

I assured

him that

my principal

wish was

that his

Government should receive every

1809.

LORD PALMEESTON.

99

and that no personal considerations would prevent me from acquiescing m , , , any arrangement which could conduce to that end,
possible accession to strength,
. .
-,

...
,

Correspondence with

Lord Malmesbury.

but that in point of fact the first offer he had made me of the Exchequer was so very flattering, that,

having declined

that, I could not in

any case object

to giving Milnes the preference as to the

War

Office

;

and that should he decide

to take

it,

I should

very

I trust willingly take a seat at the Treasury. will approve of this resolution. It may not at

you
first

sight appear worth while to Treasury ; but in as far as

move from hence
it

to the

will initiate

me

into

Treasury business, and give me better opportunities of communicating with Perceval and others as to the
matter and conduct of debates which
will be a desirable
strict confidence

may

arise,

it

Perceval then told me, in (which, however, I do not consider

move.

myself as violating in mentioning it ioyou), that there was an idea of making G-eorge Rose Chancellor of
the Exchequer; that the king had objected to it upon the ground of his being Clerk of the Parlia-

ment
other
;

an

office

he thought inconsistent with the

that this objection, however,

might perhaps

be obviated

that this appointment would, however, ; be considered as temporary, and that if the adminis-

tration lasted, I
tion.

might still look forward to the situaWhatever may be the result of this business, it

must always be a source of great pride and gratification to me to have been thought worthy of so and I am persuaded that no aftersplendid an offer
;

H

2

100

THE LIFE OF

BOOK

II.

Correspondenee with

Lord

thoughts will diminish the satisfaction I having been right in declining it.
" Milnes' answer
;

feel

of

cannot be received
fail

for

some

days I hear anything more upon this subject. " Ever, my dear Lord Malmesbury,
"

but I shall not

to let

you know

as soon as

Yours most

affectionately, "

PALMERSTON.

" There

is

a hitch in Dundas' appointment to the

Department, arising from Lord Melville, who probably wants it himself. Perceval seems, however,
to think the general feeling against Lord Melville too strong to render it advisable to take him in and probably when he finds that object
;

War

unattainable,

he will

let

his

son accept what

is

tendered to him. " Lord

Mulgrave has sent

to offer

my

seat at this

Board
tioned.

to

Percy but that, of course, is not to be menI had immediately communicated Perceval's

offer to

Lord Mulgrave, who talked to me about it in the kindest and most handsome manner, saying that,
in his opinion, the only objection to
at once

would
;

arise

from

my own

accepting it feelings upon the
it,

my

subject

and

that, if I

was not nervous about

he

advised

me

to take it."

1809.

LOBD PALMEESTON.
"

101

Admiralty, Oct. 23, 1809.

Correspond-

"6
"

O'clock.

MY

encewith Lord

BEAR LORD MALMESBURY,
" I have time only just to
tell

you that Milnes

has come to town

and having had a long conference with Perceval, and also one with Canning, he has
;

determined, upon

support altogether. This latter resolution, which surprised me exceedingly, is founded upon real and unaffected diffidence.
I think it a great pity,

hearing both Perceval, but declines

sides,
office

heartily

to

both for him and for
office

us, as
it.

he

would be more useful in

than out of

The
condi-

War

Office

has consequently come to me,

tionally,

however, upon arrangements I will preIn the mean time, Perceval having sently mention. very handsomely given me the option of the Cabinet

with the

War

Office (if I
to

on the whole

go to it), I thought it best decline it and I trust that, although
;

you seemed
will not,
office is

to be of a different opinion at first,

you

on the whole, think I was wrong. The one which does not invariably, or, indeed,

seat there was conseusually go witli the Cabinet. quently not an object to me for appearance' sake ; and

A

considering
general,

how young

I

am

in

office,

people in

from expecting to see me in the Cabinet by taking the War Office, would perhaps
so far

only wonder
it

how
'

I

got there.

With

would have been necessary, and the business of the DepartOffice certainly not
;

the Exchequer but with the War

ment

will, I

take

it,

be quite sufficient to occupy one's

in high dudgeon at a letter. at the same time without reserve or limitation. morrow. and may . Office. It would undoubtedly have been highly interesting but for all . more candid perhaps than cautious. rather sulkily. which. Exchequer. and. Perceval will of course keep one sufficiently informed to answer all one's wishes. which Perceval wishes according as are it to keep unsettled till towith the intention of giving me one or other. at first which the depend are.102 THE LIFE OF BOOK II. Correspond- ence with Lord time without attending. upon the reasons and decision of Perceval. of his long and disThis offer Lord Melville refuses King and unwise in policy which Perceval placed . which Perceval wrote to him. his resolve alluding to the ground on the apprehension of the popular clamour which his taking office might The situations create against the Government. but conoffering cluding by the proffer of an earldom as a testimony reasons which had induced of the approbation of the tinguished services. Lord Melville is. Cabinet Councils. the War best suit his other arrangements. has been offered to him. which it seems not impossible Lord Melville may not let him take. observes that they are unfounded in fact. explaining as delicately as possible. the him absolutely to decline Lord Melville an official situation. purposes of business or debate. the Treasurer of the Navy. I fancy. and the final decision of Dundas about the War Department. in consequence of Milnes' refusal. doubts I The arrangements on mentioned in the first page the determination of Rose upon the at least.

as it will a The little shake the allegiance of the Scotch members. or. MY DEAR LORD MALMESBURY. is to be. but he will certainly support us. Department. I am Rose also the Exchequer. There are but three thousand five hundred men fit for duty out of the whole garrison." " "Admiralty. 25.. I am to dine to-morrow at Perceval's. officers of the two self have given twenty different and contradictory opinions on the subject. and the enemy are rapidly increasing their preparations for attack. " loss. should Rose take the Exchequer. LOED PALNERSTON. Dundas will be a great " Adieu.1809. The ' not upon what foundation. to meet Milnes and stance. If Dundas does not come in. and. my dear Lord Malmesbury. 103 the Board of Trade. but I know Lowther. 1809. Oct. Ryder will probably have Correspond- Lord the War Department. and that Perceval to offer War means the latter to defection of Dundas may Charles Long. but Dundas has positively refused the told. " Nothing is settled as yet . though he does not take ' idea of having recourse to the Doctor seems again revived in consequence of this circum- office. Ever yours most affectionately. and Strachan himservices has changed his mind three or four times about . can be. We have had very bad accounts this morning from Flushing. " PALMERSTON. and shall probably hear something more about my own fate. The Cabinet have not yet decided whether the island The indeed. retained or not. be hurtful.

" PALMERSTON. as there indeed must. . giving the same answer. 27. but the land sickness seems rather to increase than abate. Lord Melville has relented. or think he well be given. There appears to be full I office. Lord His present opinion is. and I should is take it. and my accordingly entered upon functions this morning. and I think I very much. The navy continues perfectly healthy. amounting to what would be equivalent to at least eighteen sail of the line. my dear Lord Malmesbury. t The Eight Hon. no one else in fact to whom it can will." " Admiralty. " Yours affectionately.| I believe. Oct. but he accordingly yesterday agreed to take office has preferred returning to the Board of Control. and Long. besides the same fleet which would be necessary for the blockade if we had not the island.104 THE LIFE OF BOOK II. it was yesterday settled that I should be Upon Rose* Secretary at War. George Eose was Vice-President of the Board of Trade and Treasurer of the Navy. as * we want a Secretary of State in the The Eight Hon. 1809. that it is not tenable without an enormous naval force. and Dundas . " declining to be Chancellor of the Exchequer. It is Richard Ryder to whom the War Department was offered. Correspondcncti witli it. " MY DEAR LORD MALMESBURY. " Ever. Charles Long was joint Paymaster-General of the Forces. employment in the a nature to but at the same time not of shall like it alarm one.

who always found something to condemn on all sides. Malnes was.1809. The Jubilee seems to have been very happily celebrated everywhere. 105 Lord Harrowby has agreed to take the Foreign Department if Lord Wellesley de- House of Commons. The former I am almost in- clined to think will remain stanch to us. as I expected. Canning. His pre- is very strong. it is not impossible that is he may Percy has. against trimstruggle ming and political intrigue on the other. with the hope of taking him a little away from the turf. a certain confidence in himself. with Milnes and Lowther. and on this occasion. take before the session Lord Lonsdale will no doubt be glad to get him employed. refused the Admiralty. He seems to wish it himself. at Baling. Perceval. clines it. who will most probably take it. after being a partizan of Mr.' He seems very much steadier than he used to be. he became a partizan of Mr. for on returning he expressed his hopes that we should be able to fix * in his this honest little as it is a sent opinion at least * seat. and the town * Mr. fellow firmly of principle on the one hand. and I should not be surprised if he were to fag very hard in Parliament he acquires. as he will. " I dined yesterday at Perceval's. Correspondcnce with Lord Malmesbury. better than its effect Nothing could be in London. as it has been seen. and then if the office open it for him. Perceval and very friendly to Mr. Canning. at one time very hostile to Mr. . and over. and Lord Mulgrave has offered it to Lowther. But he was a highminded impressionable man. but not enough so to join his ministry. and Perceval still keeps . LOED PALMEESTON.

that peace would not take place. that Lord Wellesley has but under an impression as to what has happened which is not quite correct. MY DEAR LORD MALMESBURY. The public offices and a few other buildings were illuminated. the bulk of the We were the great attraction. " I understand office. was presenting papers. . and cheering any carriage passed by. containing assurances from persons at his court. " Adieu ! my dear Lord Malmesbury. " " Ever yours most PALMERSTON. and that they were resolved upon breaking the armistice. Austrian ambassador in London. affectionately. " 1809. "War Office. 9. and agreed to take it therefore arrival. and the mob were occupied the whole night in gaping at them. building Nothing seems yet to be known of the terms of peace. Correspond- Lord appeared in the evening to be as quiet and orderly as could possibly be wished. upon his have conceived the case Prince Strahremberg. The only exercise of their sovereign authority was compelling all the coachmen and servants to pull off their hats as as they passed the illuminated crowns over the Admiralty gate.* two days before the news arrived.106 THE LIFE OF BOOK II. although no doubt can be entertained of its having been signed. * is just possible that to he finds himself when. But Strahremberg." Nov. and mob were stationed opposite this the whole of the night.

expense infinitely beyond its and the peace between France and Austria It will at least furnish a pretence for the measure. than it is. 107 to be stronger his inclination towards us Con-espond- may be weakened. in point of fact.1809. place " Its inadequacy to get through the current business that comes before it is really a disgrace to the it be accomplished in arranging the interior details . value I fear it could not possibly have been retained without an . clearly to this. the mean time a great number of lives have I by the disorder in the island. as the Cabinet have for a month had all the documents before and in them on which it is founded. but if one is confined it is some satisfaction to have some real business to do . but to join it. It has at length been determined to abandon Walcheren. He understands that a distinct Lord proposition to place -him at the head of the Govern- ment had been rejected by Canning. and if they leave us in long enough. to vote at an a public orator to-morrow. There is a good deal to be done . Now. LORD PALMEBSTON. that I not to be at the head of the Government. so as to of on a respectable footing. I continue to like this office very much. He change understands that the offer now made him is. I trust much may the office. is only to be regretted that this decision was not sooner taken. and return lost been am going town on election for to Saturday or Sunday. to Cambridge this evening. what did take place was so nearly tantamount cannot conceive it probable that any can take place in his determination. and that was the point on which he went out.

as perpetual re- necessary with the Treasury and Sir I trust. " I * however. and reconsidered by Granville Leveson. Nov. which I had hoped to and it would not get settled. David. .108 THE LIFE OF . Adieu my " dear Lord Malmesbury. BOOK II. " William is come to town to " begin his law. have left London to-morrow.* by which I think we shall provide for the current business. who had held that office in succession immediately before Lord Palmerston. 24. TTT VV e are them to agree to a plan proposed originally by Sir James Pulteiiey. to induce now working as we " can contrive to do ! it. are still undecided be convenient for me to leave town until some ." War Office. and the arrear must then be got rid of as well at the Treasury. Ever yours most affectionately. " MY DEAR LORD MALMESBFRY. as some arrangements respecting the Clerical Establishment. and shall in that case who could not am glad to find Lord Wellesley has so readily Secretaries at The two War.f accomplish my probably be able to bring Sulivan. t Sir David Dnndas. " I regret much to find that it is not in to my power to execute my intention of going Park Place to-morrow. Correspondence with country i and the arrear of Regimental Accounts unn Lord settled is ol a i magnitude not i -i to be conceived. determination ference is is made upon them. " PALMERSTON. 1809. that I shall be able to visit next week.

to arrive in the course of a week or ten days. and that on his advising him not. he yet hoped that much might still accomplished. and felt. Milnes left . LOED PALMERSTON. Milnes said that nine reasons out of ten which had occurred to himself acceptance of office. Arbuthnot * told me to join Perthat Canning yesterday. Sydenham. finally turned the sc^le. that he determined ceval. conveyed to him by Mr. out in the and may be exDonegal immediately. pected ' ' It was in consequence of reading all the papers and correspondence which had passed among the different actors in the late comedy of errors. and that he does it i f n i ^ p i with such cheerful views ot the prospect before him. . sort weighed against the and that Canning's opinion had How far anything of this may have passed between them it is impossible to say but I am quite convinced that. if there is any faith to be placed in human nature. and that whatever considerations might have operated in persuading him to decline office. confident that as much could be done as had been performed by any He was to set ministry since the death of Mr.1809. He writes to Arbuthnot that. although the present 11 Correspondence w^h Lord situation of affairs in Europe was certainly far from be promising. London zealously resolved to support Perceval. at all events. * Secretary of the Treasury. Pitt. that Milnes asked his opinion of the propriety of his doing so. 109 accepted the offer made to him. a leaning to I find old Canning was not among the number. or his friends give out that he persuaded Milnes not to take office.

which was the balance he acknowledged to be due by him. a letter the other day to say. and one personally which I should perhaps be held so responsible. he was indebted to the public in the sum of 97. struck me that this for was so very objectionable a thing. . somewhat mixed up with Mr. xlix. instead of 6. 79. have his conduct forgotten. xlviii. Dundas was not aware of the impolicy General Delancey of bringing the to himself and latter again under the best he can hope is to public discussion. Vide Annual Register. whose fraudulent transactions with the public money were brought before the notice of Parliament in 1807. Correspond- Dundas has a strong Lord He sent me national propensity to a job. under the title of contingencies/or additional charge and responsibility for unsettled accounts. from which it appeared that General Delancey. p. who fully agreed with me as to the impropriety of the appointment. but subducting these charges. presented in 1806.110 THE LIFE OF BOOK II. late Barrack-master-General. to take credit to himself for one per cent.* The Treasury are en- when Lord Palmerston here alludes to the first report of the Commis" sioners of Military Enquiry." Annual He was also. It appeared also that he had charged the ]0blic twice in one year with his pay and allowances from the whole of which it followed that. according to the third report Register. Treasurer of the Ordnance. vol. he requested I would make out It a warrant appointing him one accordingly. Alex. Davison. 100-102. p. had been accustomed. Sir David Dundas was his son-in-law..865Z. and the affair I wonder that has in consequence been stopped.. who filled that office * from 1793 to 1804. . not yet audited. that the King having signified his pleasure that General Deshould be made a Commissioner for managing lancey Chelsea Hospital. in making up his accounts with the public. which on no account could be allowed.415?. that I communicated the thing to Perceval. of the Commissioners. to be in other respects correct. supposing his accounts. vol. on the whole expenditure of the barrack department.

at their head . ! that side of the House would they neither respect nor trust him. if I . supposed that Tierney will succeed Ponsonby." Dec. my dear Lord Malmesbury. they do not seem apprehensive of any great defalcation. not so much from the harm which he would have done us by his individual strength. Ever yours affectionately. from but first it their seats being vacant by office . a situation for which he was well qualified. speculating politicians will probably not attend at first. " I am at very fearful it will not be in my power am to visit you Park Place this Christmas. Ill Corresponddeavouring to sound the disposition of members by 6DCC \Vlto. appears to be thought that if we stand the brunt of attack we shall rather gain than lose Petty 's elevation to the Upper House is a great circumstance for us. " War Office.1809. 1809. as least. " PALMERSTON. as. but. from the unity and vigour the Opposition would have acquired by placing him. ostensibly at attacks. man whom many on willingly follow " Adieu " . " MY DEAR LORD MALMESBURY. letters announcing the time fixed for the meeting of Lord Parliament generally speaking. 21. Some . but into which there is not another individual among them whom they can with equal advantage " It is elect. who decidedly retires but Tierney is not the . LOED PALMEESTON. and some votes will be unavailable the first day or two.

" i - Lord Malmesbury. but doubtful whether it will lead to anything. " Ever yours most affectionately. Nor is there any truth in the report of overtures having been received from France for a congress. . it is " Perceval seems to feel very confident as to the meeting of Parliament. cation about an exchange of prisoners. ! my Malmesbury." Remarks. The acceptance of the War Office. perhaps the most remarkable Nineteen out of circumstance in this biography. I believe. It is intended to lay before the House all the official correspondence relative to the expedition. " PALMERSTON. Correspondence with able . resignations and disputes of the latter the Cabinet appear to have had enough to satisfy them. at the highest * twenty young men either hastily grasp Walcheren. go down seeing the /*' to Cambridge. I must * t r best time lor This is the i ' Johmans collected.112 THE LIFE OF to BOOK IT. point " Adieu dear Lord services. leave town for a couple of days.* but to resist any further inquiry. and under the present circumstances it would be unwise to lose an occasion of maintaining one's ground among them. as detailed in the is above correspondence. unless in the course of debate anything should be urged by persons connected with either of the two which should place the question in a different of view from that in which it now stands. or other There has been some sort of communinegotiation. There is. rumours of no foundation whatever for the .

LORD PALMEBSTON. and wary as to exerting it beyond them. mediocrity in after years. despatches from Lord Wellington in Portugal he is shooting. and he was about to increase it by becoming member for the University which he had twice position received from his new he was also in a already essayed to represent foremost post in that great fight which was waging between the universal tyranny of Napoleon and the . 113 post they can get. But. I. and nearly shot by a spring gun at Mr.1810. shrinking from the temptation to be great in their youth. VOL. He is reading . . the addition which his post was still considerable. spirit of liberty which still defied him in Great Britain. with considerable sucspeech on the war estimates in the is House of Commons. He is life going in for at every corner of it. He is playing whist and drinking punch with the fellows at Cambridge. to these The following letters to his sister relate two subjects and the ordinary occupations of a gay though busy man's existence. consent to embrace Remarks. or. testing his . It requires more than an ordinary lantern to discover a man who is daily strength with confidence and without vanity ready to use it to the full extent of its powers. his first He making. Conyers' he is . cess. field lending one of his comical hats for the huntingto his brother William at Broadlands. own though Lord Palmerston had declined the brilliant offer to accept the safe one.

Jan. aged 76. when he retired from t public He died Feb. borough. has been about with Lord John Townshend. and for Knaresborough from 1793 to 1818. The weather has been remarkably favourable for my purposes. and though it has . John's. .f intending to stand upon Petty's interest find that among my friends I do not he has made any way. " I went to Cambridge on Monday evening. Lord John Townshend had formerly represented the University in He sat for Westminster from 1788 to 1790. I found everything looking very well. . . Miss Temple. besides. life. . which came in a very questionable shape. " Admiralty.114 THE LIFE OF To the BOOK II. Law.C. . 1833. 1810. who is also of St. G. . He is. between six and seven this morning. him.. I do not much fear only nineteen and a half. Parliament from 1780 to 1784. " I enclose some little billets-doux for you and William. although a number of new candidates have been showing thembut I am not much apprehensive of their selves doing me much harm. being both mild and dry and I suppose it has been equally propitious for William's snipe shooting. The state of things in India is unpleasant. "My Hon. 4. * The present Earl of Ellenborough.* a son of Lord Ellen. so that at all events he cannot stand for a year and a I left Cambridge last night. Governor-General of India from 1842 to 1844. DEAR FANNY. 25. Letters. and arrived here half. . .B. but been expected that from being a Johnian he would draw off much of my strength. and spent Tuesday and yesterday in paying visits and playing whist and drinking punch with the fellows.

1810. A distinguished member of the H. which are the more flatter- ing.. of late so busily engaged in preparing the army estimates." " MY Street. reports of the murder and imprisonment of Sir George Barlow* and Lord Mjnto. that I really have not had time to write to am you. he was. when he was raised to an . Windham make honourable mention of me in what I speech . 27. certainly least expected. DEAR FANNY. Envoy Extraordinary to Vienna Viceroy of Corsica. and. when he was made a peer President of the Board of Control in 1806 Governor-General of India from 1807 to 1813. in 1779. and hope that. i 2 .1810. As Sir Gilbert Elliot. . 1797. However. " I glad to hear that Elizabeth's cold is so much better.E. tion from the Opposition.C. " Adieu my dear Fanny. My friends were on the report. Feb. earldom. It is of course bound to say that I had acquitted myself well but I have received expressions of commenda. with this beautiful I have been weather. . . though there is still hanging over me some little discussion very gratifying to me to find that I got through the business in a manner that was generally considered satisfactory. . ! . t Then Governor-General of India.f . that ordeal is now nearly over. " Lower Grosvenor PALMERSTON. " Ever your " affectionate brother.I. it will soon get quite well. Civil Service. He died in 1814. at that time Governor of Madras. as they may to be considered as conveying the real opinion of those from was pleased his * whom they proceed. LORD PALMEBSTON. is 115 but there not the slightest foundation for the Letters..

Courier We because Sir John Anstruther. would not take notice of him. and abused the Chairtimes attempted to rise. and snapping his fingers at him. who had been from 1798 to 1806. As he said went out he shook his at the Speaker. and he was a d d insignificant little puppy.116 THE LIFE OF BOOK II. and I think was very in not being sent to Newgate or the Tower. barring a few mistakes in figures. . coarseness. flew out into such a passion. Letters. of which. it is only surprising there are so few. He is now amusing himself with the serjeant-at-arms. lucky "I shall not be able to get down to Park Place this week. to say gives a very good report of what I said. and vulgarity from Fuller. as he met me entering the House yesterday. took occasion. in man and the House to such a degree that it became at last necessary to commit him fist to custody. said he did not care that for him or the House either. who. and swore. but I have ordered a new pair of pumps. " had last night a most extraordinary display of folly. with whom I had never before exchanged a word. when he several order to put some very gross and absurd questions to Lord Chatham.* Chairman of the Committee. Whitbread. to 1 me about ' some very handsome things The perspicuity and information. however. and as soon as they are ready I shall take the first opportunity of running parties " Did * down to join your dancing you see the following epigram the other day Chief Justice of Bengal A distinguished lawyer.

eldest son of the first Lord Auckland. both in rhyme and point. he did not give it to It certainly would have made an outcry . is a very fit man any mark of favour. " Adieu ! my dear Fanny . " PALMERSTON. I cannot help thinking. his son. denial and disinterestedness on the part of Perceval At events it is that. 24. ' 117 in the Chronicle it. Wm. " ' Lord Chatham. I think. you see. Yorke. it is by Jekyll . and the other day in the House. on the whole. that he did it from independent conviction of what was right. and moreover. that it is almost a pity he has taken it. Stood waiting for Sir Kichard Strachan Sir Kichard. as he stood so high as an independent character. " Ever your affectionate brother. obtained for * . for On all the other hand. Stood waiting but for what ? Lord Chatham !' " It " very good. has succeeded poor Edenf as Teller is of the Exchequer. very a great instance of selfpoor.1810. he is. in answer to a taunt- ing cheer from the Opposition. but there not a man. he added." Afterwards a Master in Chancery. eager to get at 'em. 1810. a post which the Prince Regent him by personally soliciting it from Lord Eldon. with his sword undrawn. F. I am persuaded. ' ? if you did not it it is a pity you :* Letters. t The Hon. having said that he should support every and any Government during the life of the present King. on the Opposition side who would not have taken it under is the same circumstances. should miss and I send you . and that he had nothing to hope or fear from any set of ministers. was found drowned in the Thames Feb. my best love to all. Eden. LORD PALMEBSTON. with his large family.

where he arrived the 5th. " MY DEAR 11 FANNY. he took up a defensive situation before He was now blockaded by the British forces. He pursued the enemy with skill and on the 6th the French crossed the Aquado into Spain. the army at the time he spoke of was within a few miles of the spot where it was intended to fight a battle. the messenger. Oct. vol. 19. which will decide the fate of Portugal. Friday.. 16. Letters - War Office. Wellington. Wellington said. dated the 5th inst." . a battle must ere this have been fought. 1810. when Massena broke up and retired. and immediately put his troops in motion in three columns. were covered by the lines of Torres Vedras in a triple defence. whilst the We game of our chief was a defensive one. that Massena would be forced to retire from want of provisions. received information that he had retired. vii. at * The French were Condexa. But we met with no provocation from Massena. and probably of Nothing of consequence had happened in the retreat. 539. Despatches are just arrived from Lord WelThe French had pushed lington. he was expected at Rio Mayor. KNIGHT'S History of England. p. only a few skirmishes between the cavalry and light troops. contrary to general opinion.* means them to fight the enemy .118 THE LIFE OF " BOOK II. and on the 7th. and as the French were advancing with the evident intention of fighting. near on the 1st Lord Wellington saysf the army are within a few leagues of the ground on which he Santarem. When Massena retired. and Lord Wellington fell back by Pombal to Leyria and Alcobaga. 1810. Spain. on their outposts towards Coimbra on the 30th . " Santarem. These lines were maintained harmlessly for six weeks. " As Lord f Note from an Officer in the Guards. left Lisbon." . who long maintained. " On the 6th of March. the day on which Walsh. Nov. and had to depend for his supplies on the bare country behind him.

and therefore I killed only one brace of pheasants. Afterwards Lord Melbourne. . of the roads Nous passons par des dreadfully ' : chemins affreux herisses de rockers. nous passons a travers un desert. no probability of any for some days.1810. and returned to town on Tuesday morning. DowdesThe day was terribly stormy. and Our army were " Adieu ! in high health and spirits. he says. " I went down to Conyers' on Monday morning to breakfast. it blew an well. which gives a striking He complains picture of the state of his army. sends an intercepted letter from 119 Stuart Massena.' His artillery and baggage have suffered much. dated Vizeu. September 27tb. Love to all. 1810. He says he means to go to Coimbra. and must. Lamb* was luckier.' that consequently he lived on potatoes grain they gathered in the fields. shot there on Monday. on ne ' rencontre nulle part une dine . where he hears the English and Portuguese army is. LORD PALMERSTON. and. Letters. 29. Oct. absolute hurricane. and always * MY "War Office. " This wind must bring us news in a day or two. and a Dr. " Ever your affectionate brother. as the wind blows. " PALMERSTON. . rest two days at Vizeu to repair damages. " Still no news from Portugal. could get no guides that his men they dug up. He says: Monseigneur. The party consisted of William and Lady Caroline Lamb." " DEAR FAKNY.

being worth 1000/. Shee. Conyers and Julia were as delightful as entertaining as ever. " Sulivan has told General to you I have made Shee AgentVolunteers and Local Military* It is a very good appointment. and a good deal of pecuniary responsibility attached to the office . the fields being entirely grass. notwithstanding his animated eulo- . found the wind lower when he by which means he killed four brace. in my progress by the wire of a spring-gun. and. it was not loaded. The chief objection to the shooting is that it is all wood shooting. BOOK II. and usual. but I did not feel quite comfortable during the rest of the Old day whenever a bramble caught my legs. per annum. lest he should leave it behind him. dear Mrs. but I have no doubt he will get through it very well. but he is overruled by the youthful ardour of his sons . Letters.120 THE LIFE OF fired. and he was dying for employment and. Luckily. in the mean time he dares not go into any of his woods. There is a good deal to do. is afraid of putting foot into any of his numerous plantations. which on those looking round I saw staring me full in the face. though fond of planting. Conyers as woods contain more spring-guns and steelI was unpleasantly disturbed traps than pheasants. or at least the powder in the pan was quite wet and useless . however. " Mrs. Conyers says he is sure some dreadful accident will happen some day with them. and Mr. between ourselves. I suspect some excuse for seeing a little less of .

Will you clothing owe her ? Tell William he may hunt Pitch whenever he likes. do it. Your " PALMERSTON. 1810. all on the kick and tfie go. for for the Romsey people. " Adieu " ! my dear Fanny. We are. affectionate brother. but have probably a month to run. 29. Dec. LORD PALMERSTON. and has been so for the last two days. " I Pray tell Emma how acquisition. being rich and idle. " My cold is quite well. DEAR FANNY." ." " "War MY Office. " The King is a little better. as I always am to hear of her glad be at anything agreeable must that happens to her. I enclose a draft for 501. very dangerously ill. a Nimrod. and much amused at William becoming tell Elizabeth to let me know what I . " PALMERSTON. the former agent. " Adieu ! My love to all. Hassell. at Walcot. I 121 giums of her to was very glad to be able Letters. I believe. as usual.1810. " Ever your affectionate brother. but has been. I think. and I am sure he will be well and pleasantly carried and whenever he goes out it will do Highlander I am good to let young John Ashley ride him. He may wear any of my leading the field next. various comical hats if he likes them. complaining the first time he goes out of the hounds I expect to hear of his pottering about the covers. has resigned.

" I have just observed that I was tempted to make . and enthusiastic people. by the pressure of external circumstances. I quote a passage. and we required it has do not present the opposition of those numerous fortresses to invaders which are to be found on the Continent. and this not only in the regular army. though in some of the many biographical sketches it has been already quoted. and the country never at any period of its history stood in so proud and glorious a position.122 THE LIFE OF is BOOK II. patriotic. we are still progresable to maintain the war with augmenting force and a population. I should make further extracts from a speech which bears ample evidence of careful preparation. In allusion to what statement said of Lord Palmerston's on the esti- much noticed at the time mates. we do present the more insuperable barrier of a highspirited. men in arms. but in the militia. Bemarks. Our physical strength has risen as the crisis that if become more important . We have six hundred thousand thousand. besides a navy of two hundred The masculine energies of the nation were never more conspicuous. consolidated into an impregnable military mass. After a conflict for fifteen years against an enemy whose power has been sively increasing. volunteers. Speech. military force is at this moment as efficient in discipline as it is in numbers . because it indeed. if shows our force at that time in arms. and " Our other descriptions of force. I were not cautious of overloading these volumes with already published matter. Kemarks.

and he gathered round him that general good-will which gives a slow but steady current to a statesman's fortunes. whether of . when we see him stepping on to the platform of life with the same gay and somewhat jaunty step. and the Remarks. I confess. the business-like speech. indulgent if I might probably have pardoned me had done so. That. moreover..whereas it may be thought on critic the other hand. LOED PALMEBSTON. 123 further extracts from this very able speech. but naturally grave and naturally gay hearty in any pursuit. writes the lively He was boasts of the "new pumps. to which I here wish more particularly to call attention. that carried him on cheerfully and steadily along a sunshiny path through his long career. to age. There was." &c. under the apparent mixture of seriousness and frivolity which marked . is the universality of the man. with detail and pleasure on this life. indeed. that I have letters injudiciously quoted which may seem frivolous when introduced into the biography of a veteran statesman. not a prig or a coxcomb. who makes letter. business in room . in his old there is something that freshens and brightens his memory in recurring to his youth. the senate or of pleasure in the balltaking pains to please without seeming to expect admiration.1810. But I have dwelt. early epoch of those who only Lord Palmerston's saw or knew him because. and yet with the same serious and business-like intent. Hence he never made those enemies who are aroused by high pretensions.

124 THE LIFE OF BOOK II. who was exclusively charged with the discipline. this portion of and character. Kemarks. 1st. The qualities to which I thus draw attention were tested in a very trying manner not long after his entry into his new office. he put aside the temptation of a seat in the Cabinet and one of the first offices of state. who had little or nothing to do with details. which contrast favourably and singularly with the diffidence shown when. concerning which the Commander-in-Chief and the Secretary at War came into conflict. . and promotions of the army and there was then the Secretary at War. the question being merely a personal one. or at times of another department. recruiting. and I may mention two cases almost immediately after On Lord Palmerston's installation at the War Office. There was then the Commander- in-Chief of the army. the whole these duties were pretty clearly separated and defined. especially in respect to forms . tending the settlement of the military accounts. a steady pluck and a reliance on the strength of a right cause. with controlling the military disbursements and superin. Lord Palmerston's life. in other words. The one nevertheless ran in certain instances into the other. but to consider the general war policy and the direction of the He was great military operations of the country. There existed at that time a Secretary for War. usually the Minister of the Colonies. who was charged with and responsible for the expenses and accounts of the army or. Generals on the home staff had the right to a .

he undertook to inform the * March 25. and not to themselves fied he ought to be satisthat the said clothiers were paid. LOED PALMEESTON. in order to make payments accordingly. The Secretary at . or were satisfied is. But the Secretary at War said that have proof that the clothiers who had furnished the articles required were satisfied with the he ought to Dublic money being paid that to the colonels' agents. War. He : contended that the War was his subordinate. in fact. for whom the Remarks. colonels 2nd. admitting that a general ought not to be paid for aides-de-camp when he had not got them. But Sir stepped his province Secretary at in interfering on his own authority in these matters. required a all return from the Horse Guards of generals on the and his their aides-de-camp on duty. who had been appointed* Commander-in-Chief after the temporary retiremerflr of the Duke of York. 125 certain number of aides-de-camp. and intimately connected with at War David Dundas. 1809. for the goods delivered. they would be paid. the sum granted being paid The to their agents. deemed that Lord Palmerston had greatly overthe military expense.1810. Government paid and they often got paid for aidesde-camp whom they never had. . deeming staff this a question of expense. There can be no doubt that what the Secretary required in both instances was essentially for the public service. much of regiments were allowed so to clothe the men. that all orders ought to come from him but.

however. had no business to inquire as to whether the persons who furnished them were paid or not. in extraordinary. were approved. With respect to the clothiers. would not recede. &c." he says. to be applied for a public purpose. as to his general pohe held. and likely to lead to such consequences. Secretary at War when this was the case. The Secretary at War. doctrine seems also recognized in the sixth report of the Commissioners of Military Inquiry. and that the War Office. Remarks. which. the persons they employed for regimental clothes as they would for their own clothes." that he could not attempt to answer it offhand. though inferior to that of civil Commander-in-Chief. He Office complained. an independent post. advancing as his theory. He applied on the subject to Mr. He maintained that with respect to the clothiers he was merely fulfilling his duty according to a recent Act of Parliament. and the . servant of the crown in military matters. " " I have and the always understood. moreover. was not subordinate to it.. so was something. if the clothes. and that. and as the sition. Perceval. that the Com- mander-in-Chief presides over the discipline. generally that the War was becoming too arrogant and independent. that though the payment made to the colonels was public money. his It own language "so novel. they were to deal with it as private money owing . however. he objected alto- gether to any interference. as the represenrative of Parliamentary control over the military expenditure.126 THE LIFE OF BOOK II.

he persisted in In May. 127 Secretary at War over the finance of the army .1810. blended. November 1. 1804. however. previous mutual communication should take place." On the one hand. each responsible and competent to act independon matters which concern his particular proently vince but that on questions in which the two are is . and contented himself with begging both parties to pocket their differences. 1811. or which have reference to the civil police of the country. are as formerly to be addressed to the Right Hon. and tion all letters which have for their object the construc- and explanation of Acts of Parliament regarding the military service. in pursuance of the trust reposed in you and your duty to us. according to the discipline of war. which " All applications relative to military disbursesays. Lord Palmerston referred for his independence to an order. the Secretary at War. Perceval refused to decide which was the right one.." There were certainly two sides to the shield. But Mr. returned to his and though when the Duke of York post* he was more moderate and cour* teous in his language than Sir David. ments or to pecuniary claims to pay allowances." On the other hand. This Sir David. that Remarks. . &c. refused to do . Sir David Dundas founded his superiority on the instruction given in the Secretary " You at War's commission under the sign manual : are to observe and follow such orders and directions as you shall from time to time receive from us or the general of our forces for the time being. LOED PALMERSTON.

regulated his Eoyal as Highness's decision." stating that " no alteration could take place in this situation without the interference of Parliament" This consideration.* Pages 384-417. in fact. This. BOOK II. Bemarks.128 THE LIFE OF . consequently the views of the parties were ultimately brought before the Prince Regent. An and will be found in the * Appendix. adding. to whom Lord Palmerston clearly stated that he considered himself placed " as a sort of barrier between the military authority of the officers in command of the same theory the army. but it prevented the entire subordination of the civil authority to the military one a result of which Lord Palmerston may fairly claim the merit. the nature of the disagreement should be . in fact. . the Secretary suggested by relative to his functions. without saying what they were War . and adopted if the two authorities were agreed whilst. solved none of the questions that had been raised . explanation that he wrote at this time of the historical character and position of the Secretary at War is one of the ablest papers in the "War Office. who would take the pleasure of his Royal Highness the Regent thereupon. placed before the First Lord of the Treasury. then it should be new was communicated to the Commander-in-Chief. if they disagreed. that if anything at which was to leave things they were. and the civil rights of the people.

J. was but a rickety one. which. universally considered the weakest that ever undertook to hold the helm of a great VOL. and the country saw with affairs . sire May 11. Palmerston remains in Lord Liverpool's Government in favour of Catholic Emancipation Turn in the war Speaks Speech on army estimates Policy as to colonies State of England Alarm Escape from assassination Correspondence at Horse Guards Speeches in Parliament General position Without party friends New party formed Election for Cambridge separates him from the old Tories Correspondence. as may be seen by one or two of the letters I have quoted. yet which suffered K . ministry of Perceval. A CONSIDERABLE space now intervenes in the private correspondence in my possession. Meanwhile the isi2. disappointment the advent of an administration. terminated by the melancholy death of that statesman. The general de- produced by this event was to see a Government formed equal to the critical situation of but this desire was rendered abortive by the public and private differences existing at that time amongst leading statesmen. 129 BOOK Perceval's death III. state. LORD PALMEESTON. 1812.1812.

Grattan. than almost any other that has conducted the affairs of England. without rise or fall. according to him. Peel. He did not had not the right to exclude the Catholic body from participation in its affairs assert that the State . there was one exception when Mr.130 THE LIFE OF from BOOK III. general rule. No one made better speeches on the question. supreme over all other considerations . during fifteen years the post which he had received in 1810 from Mr. the Secretaryship for Ireland. having refused. or spoke less when a speech from him was not it wanted. . To this . he made an eloquent oration in support of it. that his place required him to speak on. a consideration for the public interests was. Still the line he took was cautious. to made Perceval. opponents. however. uniting during this period the pleasures of a man of the world with the duties of a man one went more into what is " fashionable society. maintained. itself by the measures it adopted for its . whatever was. without going out of the beaten track as a volunteer for distinction. His ambition seemed confined to per- forming his peculiar functions with credit. and was more favoured by events." or attended vulgarly termed no more scrupulously to the affairs of his office of business. brought forward the question of Catholic Emancipation. but in this case he contended that the State imperilled security. in 1813. before the offer was Mr. In this administration Lord less Palmerston.

" that there is no real Speech. . wise to say to men of rank and property. of what honours and what glory might not the page of British history have been deprived ? To what perils and calamities might not this country 2 K . have a deep it " Is interest in the common country where. a Nelson. by the circumstances of birth and education. usefully employ themselves in the humbler avoca.1813. by it is that they live in a the blessings of a free constitution. . happened that. themselves only excepted. and industry in the by avocations of political life. had belonged to this class of the nately community. public honour they never shall attain ? What we have lost by the continuance of this of private life. accompanied by such other corresponding regulations as the is House may ultimately adopt. to make himself honoured and respected by his countrymen. indeed. and to render good possible for the honest exertion of talents service to the State that they alone can never be permitted to enter this career that they may. from old lineage or present possessions. or a Pitt. LORD PALMERSTON. he " said. who. a Burke. weal. a Fox. tions but that public service they never can perform. 131 *' If I think. any man. danger in the removal of these disabilities. both inconvenience and danger I do think there in the continuance of the present anomalous state of things. system it is not for man to know what we might have If it had unfortulost can be more easily imagined. a Wellington.

and which struck him the more forcibly. But it is for us to consider whether secret we will force it to spend its strength in fences. and we must deal with them as we can. saw. a gallant and faith." Kemarks. It is in vain to think that by any human pressure we can stop the spring which gushes from the earth. He ful mastiff standing by our side. for his nature was not one that lingers over abstract rights or spethe broad fact which struck ctllative theories : him practically. was. a snarling cur worrying our heels in the other. converting it into the means of national prosperity and public this wealth. soil. have been exposed ? The question is not whether we would have so large a part of the population Catholic or not. and corrupting our undermining our or whether we shall once turn the current into the open and spacious channel of honourable and constitutional ambition. The war in the mean time took a sudden turn . when their contentment would strengthen England. that the discontented condition of a large portion of British subjects weakened. Ireland.132 THE LIFE OF BOOK III. Speech. light penetrated the gloom that had long obscured the prospects of Europe the great conqueror became : the conquered . He argued in manner . as being one of a school which considered the power and greatness of his country the main object of a statesman. and he who had refused to have his sway limited by the Ehine accepted as his empire . in the one case. There they are. at and hidden courses.

with which it was easier to deal when the Minister who had to ask for the means to support a large army could plead we were engaged in a gigantic conflict. that . mander at and that of Europe. at the War Office. who had just been making one of those powerful but discursive harangues with which he used to overawe the Treasury bench and one cannot but admire the readiness and courage with . he could foe. namely. he had heavier in the House of Commons. pretend was wanted a foreign one of these occasions (in 1816) he had to encounter Mr. with an army which still seemed large not to those it who had to pay for for it. 133 a microscopic island in the Mediterranean. Brougham. him most would have feared to provoke. but in a new . struggle with fortune he was again overpowered decided his and in the last and fatal battle which fate. a British comthe head of British troops had been This was a proud time for England. cannot retort upon that honourable gentleman himself. " The honourable and learned member Speech which I certainly has made an accusation. usually silent Secretary at War puts aside the arguments of a speech it would have been difficult to answer. But if he had lighter work tary at War were over. than when. LORD PALMEESTON. and retorts the sarcasm of an antagonist whom see air. and the more severe and exciting labours of the Secrevictorious. In such a position it was certain he would not long remain . We can rising. with an undisturbed and half careless as he says. On which the.1816.

will abstain from all declamation. the same number in 25.200 in . his observations. the colonial garrisons. respect to the old colonies. and from any dissertation on the Constitution.000 men provided only.800 in our old colonies." he urged. "for this augmentation. most entirely peopled and Upper Canada had been alsettled since the war com- . the total 99. the Bahamas included. which we had the progress of the war. Speech.000. In the whole of our North American possessions. Exclusive of the troops in India. and confine myself to the business at present on hand the Army Remarks. at all events. and 22. those stationed in Great Britain in our old colonies. and the army in occupation of France. in the votes : was These were divided under four heads those in Ireland is." It may be interesting to notice the extent and em- ployment of our army at this period.134 THE LIFE OF House with BOOK III. as a reserve for reliefs to Speech. . larger The increasing population required certainly means of defence not to be used against the inhabitants. the " new. number of men proposed . he very seldom troubles the I. there were only 4." says Lord Palmerston. those that the colonies . There were many causes. we had during possessed previously to the war It and those in our acquired new colonies.000.000 men more than there had been in 1791. was proposed to have in Great Britain. the estimates " 7. Add to these 3. Estimates of the current year.000 troops Ireland 23. more than had garrisoned them previously to the With outbreak of the war.

did not insinuate any suspicions of Speech. Malta. there had been established a considerable naval arsenal. Lucie. St.000.000 for these colonies. 30. the Cape. which involved the presence of an additional military force. . LORD PALMEBSTON. as a matter of political prudence. Still.1816. Berbice. " The new or captured colonies were Ceylon. He country had equally made the discovery that peace was the preferable policy. Demerara.000 in our the numbers in 1791. He was always provide for possible firmly convinced that amongst nations weakness would never be a foundation for security. the enemy's garrisons there had capitulated to the number of Tobago. in the case of a rupture. But the large increase it colonial possessions rendered necessary to keep up a considerable increased reserve at home. whether they should reduce all the military plain " The establishments of the country below their just level . not two-thirds of the garrisons that the enemy had kept up. Trinidad. Mauritius. The 25.000 men for the home station exceeded by 7. He hoped that each broils with the United States. Essequibo. and. many months might At Antigua elapse ere reinforcements could be sent. In all. 135 menced. we must contingencies. question for the House to consider was. action This was after all their losses and from sickness. the African Settlements. by deaths in The Government only proposed 22. The navigation between the two countries was moreover suspended during the winter. and the Ionian Islands.

the saving would bear any comparison with the injury that it might proFor. these circumstances. I myself re- member saying. and whether. when speaking to in favour of the American Union struggle for an American audience." Remarks. therefore. under it. before the Southern independence began. they did so. Speech. and which will pass through many phases during the present generation. to abdicate the high rank we now maintained in Europe. to take our station amongst secondary powers. and so much treasure to A discussion no doubt was then commencing which is still going on. attain. before it is terminated by the decision of posterity.136 THE LIFE OF if BOOK III. the diminu- tion of expenditure would not be half Would country and the House seemed to imagine. and descend from that high and elevated station which it had cost us so much labour. that you should not ask the opinion of a healthy man as to the . the fertile sources of our commercial wealth. even if the plans of retrenchso great as the ment so loudly called for were adopted. after all. duce. be a wise or expedient course. and confine ourselves entirely to our own island ? He would again repeat that the question was not whether we should carry into effect such diminution of the military establish- ments of the country as would save the people from the income-tax for he contended that no possible reduction in those establishments could accomplish that end but whether we should compel the Crown to abandon all our colonial possessions. so much blood.

was only when the consolidated power of the United States was in serious peril that the resolve of preserving it intact. more frequently brought before a popular assembly than their importance. LOBD PALMEBSTON. after a obscurity. men. let him be a distinguished peer or commoner. Who has not seen statesmen fatigued with office and pining to lay down its burthens. it was the invalid alone who could Remarks should not ask a great and powerful state in the height of its prosperity what are the It is a You advantages of being great and powerful. what did not Italy make.1816. In fact. efforts What efforts has not Poland made. undervalue what they possess. So. 137 value of health estimate it. became intense. to regain the independence and recover the glory of past but The expense of dignity and unforgotten years ! influence is. that feels the loss it has its that finds incurred. willing to brief repose undergo any amount of toil and responsibility in order to reach once more that point in the political ladder from which they not unwillingly descended? It is just so with in a people. . is the same indiwhether he opens his house and keeps up a vidual. just said. as I have consideration. state greatness fallen. there has been a tendency of late years in England amongst a certain class of politicians to underrate the advantages of vast empire and great This is natural. its power diminished or menaced. or thinks it it is about to sustain. at any sacrifice. Let us admit that a great gentleman. . and found them. however.

As three or four servants in livery and a large house place a man in this world of ours higher than things . insensibly.138 THE LIFE OF establishment. but irresistibly. what his expenditure ought minister the thought the more of for muddling away He should have for his expenditure bring him." and made by All that seven-eighths that the proper effect should be obtained is. hospitality gives in- fluence. so a nation has its servants in livery. gained much by a conspicuous mansion and frequent dinners and assemblies. his different. may interest in the figure He likes that it the English nation. its large house. large or cottage and never offers whether he lodges a glass of wine to a rank is is a friend. BOOK in III. but I has a certain pride and believe every Englishman I sented and sustained. in later years. and to is who is minister who niggardly as to what he ought to . but his influence A certain degree of show and quietly. " should be the great nation. of us ask " the appear great nation. but the accompaniments of its position. they he would be placed if inhabiting a small lodging with a dirty maid to open the door. without needless or improper cost." No man his is money. its large estab- necessary to its existence. The careless as to what he spends. His ability is the same. his is the same. wealth the same. and without which its position would not be duly repre- lishments things not absolutely be mistaken. It is all affect very well to sneer at these us in spite of our philosophy. Lord Palmerston himself.

one of characteristics. country from ing states still burns in the breasts of Englishmen. made . should be one of England's great national characteristics also . he was also in most cases influenced by an honorable desire for public distinction. 139 spend. are equally acting against the instincts of our Remarks. and to make England the leading power in the world. both and for his native land. It is this desire which is at the bottom of much of our individual honesty. for himself These were the ideas of Lord Palmerston. and examine the motives which bring him into the House of Commons and direct his conduct there. is. much and which an Englishman's great individual of our individual energy. would merely look into his own mind. do not know the spirit which its traditional affects to despise prestige or consideration as an object for the government of his nation.1816. . If. indeed. In the speech I have just quoted especial reference is to be wiser than its predecessor Every age wishes to assume and inasmuch as there was formerly a somewhat exaggerated value to our colonies. He wished to make himself one of England's leaders. the Member of Parliament who rank amongst the leadof the world. in short. he would find that. though actuated in some degree by public and party motives. for a nation which has no longer a wish for distinction has already a propensity to decline. LORD PALMEESTON. and they who think to acquire an honourpeople able or durable popularity by bringing down this .

From many. we derive no direct revenue. the analysis of whose waters gives no indication of the nature of their powers. so there is now minded tendency to There are many places presenting no peculiar advantage to us by their possession. An encouragement to enterprise. Webster political prestige." he not fills only the minds of others with a vast idea of the . Kemarka. often carries capital into particular channels through which which it would not otherwise flow. though it is one of the main conit circulates. alone or in itself that greatness. is is not an hour in the day in which the British drum not beating in some region of the earth. though we indirectly feed our The wealth of nations is frequently formed and nourished by means only perceptible in national resources. their results. tributors to constitute national greatness. to navigation. the profit to be derived from them. Nor does wealth. and through enriching our distant possessions and returning to centre in our revenue at home. political soon vanishes when Commercial prosperity importance departs. as you see the vital energies of the human body maintained or restored by certain springs. attached to colonial possessions. and says. to speculation produced by those colonial relations.140 THE LIFE OF BOOK III. an enemy. but of which the loss would be exceedingly disastrous if they were in the hands of a supercilious and narrowunderrate their importance. no small portion of political importance depends on " There When Mr. without any distinct or accurate idea as to.

find tion of a fortress. in fact. altogether forgetful of the imperial spirit which. no statesman there talk of abandoning a terrino general or admiral advocate the resignatory. The historian who fall in after times shall write on the decline and greatness. The power of the imagination is not to be overlooked by those who assume to direct the destiny of and it is singular to find so many of the empires . talking about the United States. 141 power and majesty of Great Britain. and bracing up our minds for great deeds on great occasions.1816. but he gives us. without disputing as a general axiom the advantage of buying at the cheapest still dearest. the people of the United States are strengthening. have more closely connected with our central power. the British people. Whilst we. already rising a new school of economists who. are markets and selling at the disposed to consider that under our . since the extent of its dominions was menaced. of British may possibly question the policy with which we have from year to year been separating ourselves from possessions that we might. . an elevated sense of our own dignity Remarks. with the advantages of steam and telegraph. animating us thereby to noble achievements. gentlemen who cite to us as a model the great Transatlantic commonwealth. are daily loosening the bonds which formerly bound our empire together. is the peculiar characteristic of the American republic. and You fighting for the permanent solidity of theirs. LORD PALMEBSTON. There is. enforcing.

but I may be pass on to observe. hardly possible to realize. peculiar circumstances a system of colonial combined with a system of emigration commerce relieving the mother-country from a superfluous population on the one hand. looking to the condition of established.142 THE LIFE OF BOOK III. that the defence of onr . and which the future already compromised things now could only. But without dwelling further on theories which the present is not disposed to accept. by giving to our distant countrymen a regular market for their produce. and to our people at home a regular market for their manufactures might on the whole have been more adapted to our safe and steady prosperity as well as to our united empire than a system which destroys the sentiment of national affection by referring everything to individual interest. achieve by such arrangeas it ments with the colonial legislatures possible to imagine. as well as first by a poor law which deranges the movements of the machinery by which the prin- ciples of free trade are to be worked out. and creating new and certain cus- tomers for her on the other maintaining the feeling of Englishman for Englishman in every quarter of the globe. if hours. and sends us into the world on a speculation for customers whose demands must be regulated by laws over which we have no control. Remarks. to produce better articles at cheaper labour a necessity already resisted by trades unions and limitations on working force us. and who in a free struggle for competition must we mean to surpass them.

of the Archbishop of Canterbury. A good speech on the Army ligion Estimates was thus a good speech on the question which most excited the interest of the wealthy and and Carlile. LOED PALMEBSTON. the peaceful. There were no leaders of any authority in favour of such rising . 143 colonies. and contrived to persuade many others. It is strange to us. who can judge the past dispassionately. then. and collected that interest round the . and government. the throne and the altar. was not the only reason for maintaining the standing army which was asked for on their behalf. each of whom was furnished with a musket and a bayonet and paid a shilling a day for could protect us. though jealously provided for at the time Remarks. there few seditious was nothing but the pamphlets of a writers. to read in contemporary memoirs of the panic which existed even amongst thinking persons during the five or six years which succeeded the war. of which I have been speaking. the administration and the friends of the administration had persuaded themselves. Still. order.1816. and the speeches of a few mob orators to threaten the peace of the country. that we were on the eve of a from which nothing but a few thousand men. He. there were no funds or arms to aid it . who was for maintaining the army was the friend of his terrible catastrophe. as ducing it King and he who was with of the for re- was in atheistic league Cobbett who were menacing us with irreand a republic. patriotism. as to the probability of a general rising against law.

in an able sketch. .' He alleged to be unconstitutional to increase the severity of the laws against so-called sedition and libel. as others would the oppressive policy of the administration. in the researches of the careful student of his life. One of his biographers." Narrow The most notable event of Lord Palmerston's life at this period was his escape from being killed. be observed that. or. Palmerston is brought into con- nection with the successive suspensions of old-established liberties which distinguish this gloomy epoch of our history. Eemarks. speaker. starving fellowcountrymen at Peterloo. He spoke no word in favour of any it. which. though Lord Palmerston advocated officially the maintenance of a to which was thought necessary to preserve public tranquillity. he never spoke in favour of any of those force measures that were adopted to suppress public liberty. who sabred their poor. rendered necessary. found in the War Secretary no apologist. the dangerous spirit of the country. says. as some would say. Nor was his voice ever heard in justi- fication spies to lure of the odious inhumanity which employed and incite such pitiable wretches as Thistlewood and Brandreth to the crimes which resulted in their deaths as traitors. have took no public share in the attempts to cramp the liberty of the press. His name was never identified with the attempts by many of the ' Six Acts.144 THE LIFE OF But it is BOOK III. The yeomanry. to is the series of speeches delivered from year year in defence of the magnitude of those military establishments. " The sole link by which.

after reading through the private correspondence of Lord Palmer. LOED PALMEBSTON. for. a 145 when madman. and in referring to this period I find abundant proof of a belief I have always entertained. and to this he owed the last fortyyears of his seven existence. and the be considered one of the most right to distinguished of England's statesmen. on the 8th April. it is A said. happy and accidental turn of prevented the ball taking a direction. 1818.1818. I feel bound to state that I have never found in any compositions of the same kind. In other respects he pursued Remarks. such of and I only regret that extracts from this correspondence would be of too special a kind to justify me in introducing them to the general reader. straightforward. such comprehensive views.t his ease in debate. and at times indulged in a certain flippant and overbearing manner. I. with the view VOL. that tut a small part of the merits of an able public man is ever seen by the public I say this. Meanwhile the Secretary at War had become perfectly g. of at once discountenancing L an . such regard for private and public interests. undisturbed the smooth and even road of his rising career . shot at and Narrow e& slightly wounded him above the hip. which. as he was going up the stairs at the his fatal War body. clear. ston as Secretary at War. Office. Lieutenant Davies. and simple a such attention to details. thought for the highest authority only weighs with him where the arguments independence are authoritative . so style.

and no eloquence ever heard within these walls. where an . Thus he says on one occasion." But when this way of waiving the question at issue was found insufficient.. to be a violation of the stitution of this however. . but never inopportunely to persist in. under had been made an apprehension of approaching war. he was occasionally tempted to employ. he looked back to the Concountry. he would find many instances in which an augmentation of our forces in time of peace. the noble it lord [Nugent] considered Constitution. not only a waste of the time of the House. that he should consider any attempt on his part to argue the necessity. Many instances had occurred in time of peace. : " He could only repeat now what he had said before. With respect to calling out the veterans. If the justification of this measure was not sufficiently established by the events that had taken place since August last [the month of the Manchester tragedy]. or of internal commotion. If. would carry conviction with it. and it was again brought forward. he was certain that no argument he could use. when defending the Govern- ment from the accusation of having unconstitutionally called out the veterans Speech. were so that the reasons for this increase of force notorious to every person in the country. he came clearly and boldly to the direct justification of the course which the " Government had thought fit to pursue. opponent. but as trifling with the public understanding. augmentation of the military force had been effected. Remarks.146 THE LIFE OF BOOK III...

in their answer to the speech. . but a specific vote of money was agreed to for sentences.1818. and in the address in answer to it. and both Houses of Parliament. 147 without any bill of indemnity. style l the subsistence of those troops. Is it Canning. had been obtained. plainly If. that Speech. up additional force In answer he would only ask gentlemen to turn their to attention to the events period forbear from adverting to the conspiracy that was discovered in London. He would A metropolis. was. conspiracy to destroy some hundreds of individuals. it appeared. necessary ?' noble lord would this ask. and to create a provisional government. "The now to to keep that. the intention of calling out this additional force was mentioned. rapidly strung together. lord. therefore. LORD PALMERSTON. it they would find answer their country satisfactorily for having allowed so many months to But elapse without having agitated the question. a matter of no importance to the L 2 . to burn different parts of the which he which had passed since the had referred. adverted to the circumstance. gentle- men conceived this proceeding to be unconstitutional. he contended. or any measure of the kind mentioned by the noble lord being deemed He admitted the argument of the noble necessary. no force could be constitutionally embodied without the consent of Parliament but that consent. In the speech from the throne." The following are rather in the of Mr. difficult to not only was the circumstance mentioned in the speech from the throne.

and March last? Did not the noble lord know that meetings of armed men had taken place in Scotland ? Was he not aware. by which he for to cite the British education British officers. to bring persons to trial for the highest crime the law of this country contemplated know Did he not of high treason? that the scenes which gave rise to these comthe crime missions took place in February . expenses of a private education. so preferences. in one instance. regretting only that they did not ride /" Nor is it amiss pregnant with advocates '' British argument. purporting to be issued by a provisional government the object of those signing it being. and for Scotland. officer Asa "During the recent war a foreign know how to had praised in the highest degree the British cavalry. Speech. they would probably be compelled to seek for instruction in German or . The effect of discontinuing this establishment" (the to drive as recently founded Military College) "would be these young men to other quarters and they would have no means of defraying the . r>5 'to obtain theii rights by force of arms ? specimen of his lighter manner. that. a body of these men had Had he not acted in hostility to the regular troops ? seen the proclamation that was posted up in the town of Glasgow. Did not the noble lord know that special commissions were issued for the North of England. gentlemen opposite. I quote a few words by which he defends the establishment of a riding-school. as they stated.148 THE LIFE OF BOOK III.

For his own part. with British habits. but in coming to right conclusions and the principles This is . . seemed to both. after that gentleman had entered the House of Commons and assumed the character of financial as all ministers Tormented Remarks. critical 149 French establishments." to see the British soldier were by Mr." have power over a pleasant remark. The honourable said that there who gentleman. the impressions they received were decide the character of the future man. he wished with a British character. and arithmetic.1818. he replies much in the strain which those who saw him " says. who seldom omitted an opportunity of deprecating the introduction of foreign and every assimilation to foreign customs in our troops for he was persuaded he would have concurred with him in the proofficers. priety of giving to our military youth the advantages of a military education. are no doubt those which a wise Government should . with a British education. and with as little as possible of anything foreign. calculated He regretted he did not observe a gallant officer in his place. Joseph Hume. past events. economist. LOED PALMERSTON. He recollected that he had heard of an ancient in his later sage were two things over which even the immortal gods themselves had no powernamely. but the merits of the speaker did not lie in making pleasant remarks. which he lays down as those that ought to guide us in times of peace as to our military establishment. He days will remember. at that period when to Speech. however.

150 THE LIFE OF follow. Thus. Bemarks. he was offered by Lord Liverpool on one occasion the Governor-Generalship of India. had a very lively interest in him. it isolated one. to recruit the different regiments rapidly and cheaply. Mr. which. therefore. . nor even of ." he says. if he accepted. Sulivan. He was Lord Liverpool." Yet although Lord Palmerston's ability was fully acknowledged. let its organization be so framed as to enable us. to satisfy Mr. not then an adherent of Canning. in the event of war. steadily to the . with a seat in the House of Lords . was an His private friends were never such as could be called political friends. He certainly was not a Whig. were the only men with whom he could be said to be intimate. never having followed that statesman out of office nor was he an adherent of Lord Eldon. or felt a strong desire to make his parliamentary position more important. Fox. since the time of Mr. however. and Sir George Shee. let it economical be efficient . being intended. was the society most in fashion. and on another the it Post Office. disliked him. for he had voted since 1812 in favour of concessions to the Catholics. No George IY. BOOK III. and his public position a good one. son with his place. Huskis- He stuck. whom he made afterwards Under Secretary of State. Neither did he belong to any of the particular sections which divided the House of Commons and the Tory party. always one. still " Let such " be establishment. his brother-inlaw. and yet he lived chiefly with Whig society.

the military monarchies united in order to over- throw the constitutions that had been established.1822. The sovereigns.* but I repeat here. and to prevent any others from being formed. were rallied under the cry of " liberty . The doctrines of the sovereigns thus leagued together. Long at last burst forth. LORD PALMEHSTON. Italy there feeling of distrust it and anger. . we had marched with the various nations who finally subdued him. who were liberal in making promises during the contest shrunk from fulfilling them when the battle was over. . and who honestly believed that their power was divine. that in the war which we had waged on the Continent against Napoleon. 151 House of Commons. I have observed elsewhere. but against the tyranny which he had The people of Germany everywhere established. however. not merely against the tyrant. Remarks. shocked the feelings most common with the English people. We ceased for a moment to think of reform in England our minds were fixed with * Historical Characters. as if foreseeing his future destiny and circumstances now gave his fortunes a direction . were revolutions In Spain and in the North of Ger- many In this crisis revolutions seemed impending." all who joined the standard of the allies thought that if victory crowned their efforts they were to live hereafter under the shelter of free institutions. which they ever afterwards followed. Out of the dis- appointment which fear or duplicity created grew up a general smouldering.

152 THE LIFE OF on despotism abroad. which was the despotic pretensions of for resisting the great continental powers. the anti-Catholic rising in power. sympathise with crowns and courts rather than with popular rights. as they On the other hand. cide the fate of Spain. to look up to him as their leader. This was more especially the case with those who advocated the Catholic claims. opinions. Canning to the Foreign Office and Mr. so. but never inspiring Englishmen with the conviction of their power. when his sudden death* : brought Mr. that of satisfying the pre- dominant feeling in England. party. Canning * became more jealous of those On August who were. whose general tendencies were liberal. or who 12. and satisfying them with regard to the principles for which it was to be exerted. was accused of lackeying the heels of a confederacy of which almost every Englishman would have grasped the throat nevertheless he was about to proceed to Verona to take part in the congress which was to de. which he did really being appearing at times rash. saw Mr. in BOOK Ill- Remarks. without going to war for constitutional The extraordinary tact and skill with this. undertook a task by no means easy. rallied led by degrees public opinion around him. disgust Lord Castlereagh. and most men. which he had always coveted and never yet been able to attain. to thought. 1822. who was some degree unjustly. Canning at once seeing the means by which he could acquire a popularity. .

1825. it being generally understood that Parliament would be dissolved the next summer. 1825. 153 seemed Under to these cir- Remarks. . who was to say that . Lord Palmerston. and Goulburn were all anti-Catholics. Bankes. William Bankes elected. Lord Chief Baron of the Exchequer). After a contest with Lord Hervey (the late Marquis of Bristol) and Mr. Bankes Lord Hervey. Mr. came * : Smyth. again Emancipation forward with the same colours in 1825. in 1822. me Chief Secretary for Ireland. f " was . Copley. 219 . 1825. I was the only one of the four " voted for Emancipation. In November. had afterwards been elected on the death of Gribbs and on . . with a view of turning out Bankes and shortly afterwards Goulburn. This " is what he himself says of this election Auto- the death of Smyth. . LORD PALMEBSTON. cumstances. 1820. It was soon manifest that the object of certain parties Autobiography. though beat by me in 1811. his partisans. 419 281 . for who had been returned Catholic Cambridge University as a friend in 1812. wrote to Sir J. announced himself as a fourth candidate. 1826. he was going to begin to canvass the University. The canvass lasted from the end of November. Scarlett . and a most who laborious task for myself and my friends it became. Scarlett (the late Lord Abinger. then Attorney-G-eneral. The numbers who actually polled were as follows t : * For Mr. till the dissolution in June. likely to be. Copley. 1818.

" . and Canning of being attacked. Wynn. Charles W. I beat Bankes by 122. and threw myself on my political enemies. anti-Catholic hands . . This support. Eldon. the Whigs." Duke of Buckingham's withdraw from it into the Upper " Court and Times of George IV. that I fully expect him to House. therefore in favour of Copley as there were but two to be returned in Army were and though the Duke of Wellington and Peel condemned the cabal. ment was exerted and. for support against my political friends the Tories. and enabled me to triumph Copley. and the Duke of Wellington. from all accounts. the Secretaries to the and many others did all they could against Treasury. headed the poll. in violation of the understanding upon which the Government was formed. the me. was handsomely granted. " I had complained to Lord Liverpool. but. * sident of the Extract from a letter from the Eight Hon. PreBoard of Control. to the Duke of Buckingham : " 12 May. and the active influence of the anti-Catholic members of the Governand Goulburn. which I asked on the ground of our accordance upon Catholic Emancipation. Auto- was me as well as Bankes. his re-election for Cambridge is so doubtful (to say the best of it). and the Duke of York. against me.154 THE LIFE OF to eject BOOK III. 1825. and by which the Catholic question was to be an open one and I told Lord . " I stood on " indeed. but and Goulburn by 192. the Treasury. Bathurst.* " The Church. my personal interest in the University. " I have heard nothing lately about Lord Palmerston.

the Wm. Poor The destruction of every party begins by its more violent driving the more moderate into union with their opponents. if 155 Liverpool that I was beat I should quit the AutoTories. which I fancy by of the hand relates to some of our joint concerns. " I send you the enclosed. I think that every occupation or amusement which has brought a statesman in contact with his fellow-men.1825. and the bets are that Mrs. British Legation. but are mingled with others. but is now out of danger. Letters. Tempk. Berlin. 1825. July 19. The Duke of St. Remarks. " MY DEAR WILLIAM. apart from the interest which they possess as affecting the private life of a man so well known to the public. at the melt advantageously into his main proper time. " Stanhope Street. To Eon. LORD PALMEBSTON. Coutts will soon be duchess. though for forty-eight hours he was in a very alarm- ing * state. giving to him career."* This was tfo first decided step towards a me 'and the and they were the The of the letters that follow relate in part to this election. Albans is dead. breach between aggressors. " Canning has had a very dangerous attack inflammation of the bowels. has been useful in awakening for him sympathies and knowledge which. members . I racing. for. and which has not alienated him from graver pursuits. singularly illustrative man of the world gossiping. and looking after his property. for make no apology giving them . Government.

The Duke of York and Duchess pattern of juvenile sentiment. my hanging on the wall. daughter of Admiral Lord Hugh Seymour. and two stone lighter. she is wise no doubt she will. not more than she has been accustomed to spend entirely is upon her own dress and amusements. M.. and as a speculation the stage is a better thing. to a Mr. and she opinion insuperable.P. Letters. Lady Emmeline makes no hand of Leopold. and if despair. on the leads stood yesterday at 93. George Dawson marries Miss Seymour. Watson says that two days ago the thermometer on one of the walls in the The parties referred to are the Eight Hon.000/. it is delightful to see unsophisticated minds meeting luxury of a first and refined . and the lady he married in August. as they say she does not like him. Dawson Darner. though somewhat raised by the reflected heat it study window from the opposite walls. some connection by marriage of King-killing Smith of Norwich. and F. G.156 THE LIFE OF BOOK III. we are fried alive last : thermometer above 80 every day for the out of week . was sent staring and gaping into the country. brother of the late Earl of Portarlington. " As to weather. Nightingale. Seymour. Embley is sold for 125. Young who has been in attendance for the last two years. sister * of the recently deceased Admiral Sir George . Bradshaw goes about the picture of misery and I fancy Miss Tree will be off at last. in the mysterious affection. of are He a four inches shorter than her. 1825 Miss Seymour. and completely shaded from the sun.* Three objections in my He has no money.

is to the eastward. in the shade on the other side of the same wall . LOED PALMEESTON. for stakes which. I have been un- lucky in my racing this year as yet.1825. too. Berlin. " I have paid for you two hundred pounds. I also send you a power of attorney. I am inclined to think that both this and the Welsh Slate Company to sign the will turn out profitable concerns. 157 kitchen garden stood at 130 in the sun. of course the heat had got through the wall but they say it has been 92 fairly in the shade. Wm. . and which would have been worth winAs yet I have just won within two pounds of ning. August 1825." To the Eon. and deposited in my iron chest in The two hundred pounds you may pay this room. 5. me whenever convenient. in order to enable the solicitors of the company it is deed of settlement for you. Stanhope Street. . but not a turnip-leaf " Yours affectionately. being your second instalment of ten pounds a share upon twenty shares in the Cornwall and Devon Mining Company and I have got your shares made out in your name. " Temple. " PALMERSTON. and the weather likely to last. shall birds. my horses having been ill and lame at the moment when they were to run they would probably have won. The wind. . and at 100 Letters. " MY DEAR WILLIAM. to be executed by you. if well. and at your leisure. We have plenty of to cover them.

a capital of between five and six thousand pounds to be immediately laid out but I am inclined to . prepared as and he thinks that a very considerable exporttrade of this turf could be carried on with the town of Sligo and the coast beyond it. Letters.158 THE LIFE OF amount I BOOK III. I am going in a fortnight to Sligo again. who is not nearly so much pulled and harassed as he was last year. and I could get the vanced by the commissioners in money Ireland. especially Sulivan. been for some time. and goes on Tuesday they go Sulivans are gone for a few days to the Flemings. and to carry down in return to my new harbour turf from the bogs. The Sir Watkin's shooting-box on Bala. and from thence Bangor. by means of which I should be enabled to bring up a shelly sand from the sea-beach to reclaim the bogs. and to settle some further improvements with Mr. though he has had all fully as much to do . This would require fuel . forfeits. the whom I have employed to survey civil engineer recommends me to lay down He bogs. better this year than they have to meet Bowles. They are. Fanny to is gone to to Powis Castle. to see the progress of my harbour. the have had to pay for stakes and . and the children are remarkably well and evidently living at much benefited by Broom House. think it will answer. Nimmo. who adare . I think. an iron railroad of about my six miles in length. so that I have all to my training-bills to boot bring myself home " yet before the but I hope end of the season.

may " Yours affectionately. Temple. is. August 8. " Stanhope Street. in exchange for Day thought ill of her my ' . for Biondetta's walking over. " MY DEAR WILLIAM. taking repayment by annual instalments of so much per cent. as she beat Black and black ' in a canter .. But this matter I shall settle when on the spot. but she had. I expect to be back at Broadlands about the middle of September. 159 authorized by Parliament to issue Exchequer bills in aid of public works of this kind for the internal im- Letters. Conquest is a three-year old filly by Waterloo. LORD PALMEBSTON. dam by Rubens. Wm. greater in glory than amounts to a cup and 170. provement of Ireland. according to the conditions of the race. " As you take an interest about list my racing concerns. as however. by which you of eight . but she has turned out all tolerably well. brood-mare Mignonet. which I took in the early part of the year from Tattersall. in consequence of her age and of her competitor having won this . 1825. of the Salisbury races last won five races out and the cup luckily. " PALMERSTON. added to the interest.1825. Berlin. an exact match to that which I won it the other day at Southampton." Hon. as I only got 15/. will see that I is. I send you the week. a great advantage in weight. and I think it possible I take a trip to Paris later in the year. The result of Salisbury in profit.

Stakes at had the distemper just as he was to have run at Bath and Cheltenham for good stakes but in a trial with . Lugberough." To the Hon. " It is so long since I have written to you that I really almost forget when it was. Temple. 2. the Corona- Stockbridge. Berlin. we have had an uninterrupted course of hot and dry weather for a long time. Our weather has been finer than yours. 1825. the cup at Southampton. which were greatly approved by their respective receivers. . " PALMERSTON. he was found to be as good as Lugberough. and a 25. rainy. the very pretty little bronzes you sent me. till last week. guiltless till BOOK III. of Grey Leg turns out very tion He won that day. and the cup at SalisHe would have done more if he had not bury. which do credit to the Prussian artists.160 THE LIFE OF winch she had been well. Letters.. year. I safely delivered all your other packets. Wm. " Stanhope Street. " Yours affectionately. and you have been so excellent a correspondent that my silence is I received the other day the more unpardonable. stake. value 39. Dec. giving weight for age. " MY DEAR WILLIAM. They have really con- trived to give a sharpness and fineness of execution to their iron of which one hardly supposed that metal to be susceptible. but For the still last week it has been windy and not cold. for.

more leisure to attend to it. where I was well with the state of bring my Fairburn property. I had Nimmo. which was very prosperous and satisfactory. obliged to begin a canvass. apprehension as to the result. which I trust will materially improve a few years. I shall soon my lime-works into I play. M . where 1 am and Letters. 161 " I am just setting off for Cambridge. I found the general aspect of affairs in that country rapidly improving. LORD PALMERSTON. I believe I gave you a report of my Irish journey. and have some chance of finding coal. Indeed. as the Attorney. because I think I am sure of a great many Protestants. the engineer. and we made arrangements for carrying into effect divers operations. with me for ten days in Sligo. From satisfied property in the course of Ireland. from a coincidence of opi- I do not feel much nion on other questions and of many Whigs. have lately been for a week at Brighton. if . which is really increasing in the most extraordinary manner. It is rather a bore to have to go through the labour of a canvass so long before the time but this is just a time of year when I have . and I shall not be sorry to get the matter over. There literally are as many lodging-houses in different stages of progress as there are completed and occu- VOL. I struck across to Yorkshire. i. after passing a day at my Powis also Castle. I should expect to have Whig interest at Cambridge. from an agreement on the Catholic question.1825. there all is no the Whig candidate.General Goulburn have both declared themselves candidates for the general election.

162

THE LIFE OF
Where

BOOK

III.

Letters.

pied.
all

they are to find inhabitants for them I do not understand; but it may fairly be said that

by next summer the accommodation of the place will be nearly twice what it was last summer, and all the

new

houses are upon a grand style of architectural

decoration. " What a sad thing the death of the poor Duchess It was caused by an internal inflamof Rutland is
!

mation.

She had an attack of the same kind two
it

years ago, and
getic

was subdued only by the most ener-

means immediately resorted to. Probably in this case the country practitioners were afraid of doing but as much as a London one would have done
;

Halford,

who was

sent

for, stated himself to

have

very

little

hopes from the
is

moment he

first

heard of

the attack. " There

a

call

for ten

pounds a share upon the

Welsh

Slate

Company.

I shall

pay the instalment

upon your twenty shares, and you can repay me I saw our quarry as I returned from afterwards. and found it a remarkably fine one, and I Ireland,
think the undertaking likely to answer well.* All we want is a railroad to the sea, as at present the slates are sent twelve miles along an infamously bad
road
*
;

but some other slate owners, whose quarries

These slate mines proved a happy speculation. In a moment of Lord Palmerston, as a panic many of the shareholders withdrew. Director of the Company that conducted them, felt bound to remain, and he took the shares of all his friends who wished <b retire. The
ultimate success of the undertaking was complete, and his foresight and perseverance were rewarded.

1825.

LORD PALMERSTON.

163

are near ours, are equally interested in this, and a survey has been made of a line for a railway, and in the cpurse of this next year
it

Letters.

is

probable that such
for the purchase

a road will be made.
"
I

have just agreed with Breton
I

of his estate at Ashfield.

give him 12,000/. for it, which is fully 1000/. more than it can by possibut from local bility be worth to anybody else
;

contiguity it is so desirable to money well laid out. I trust
unless
find

me
it

that I think the

will enable

me

to

turn the road, and extend the park to the canal,
I

greater difficulties
;

in

dealing with
is

Fletcher than I expect
tied

but as Fletcher's estate

and cannot be sold during his lifetime, he cannot have much interest in making unneIf it was a saleable estate he cessary objections.

up by

entail,

would refuse every accommodation in order

to

compel

me
"

to give

him a

large price for

it.
;

We

but as I

have had quantities of partridges this year returned -late from Ireland they were wild
I

as hawks.

hear a good account of the pheasants, but have not as yet broke cover.
"

Adieu

!

the result of

my dear William. my canvass.

I will let

you know

" Ever yours affectionately,
"

PALMERSTON."

M

2

164

THE LIFE OF
To Laurence Sulivan, Esq., War

BOOK

III.

Office.

Letters.

Stanhope Street, Dec.

2,

1825.

"

MY

DEAR SULIVAN, " Read the enclosed,* and send
post,

it

me down

to

Cambridge by the

with any remarks that

occur to you. I feel that I must make some allusion to the Catholic question, or I should appear to shrink

from

it,

and that I must avow

my

conviction that I

am
;

right, without putting it

forward in a manner

disagree with me and that while I ought to state that I do not fear an examination of my public conduct, I must

that would be offensive to those

who

not place my expectation of support upon the result of that examination being with every voter a perfect concurrence of sentiment.
**

Yours

affectionately, "

PALMERSTON."

To Laurence Sulivan,

Esq.,

War

Office.

"

Cambridge, Dec.

4,

1825.

"

MY

DEAR SULIVAN,
"
for

Thank you on as well as going

your amendments.

I

am

I could expect

in fact, as well

as possible ; I think I shall have all the Johnians and most of the Trinity men. The Protestants will

support

me

as a Tory,

That

is if

no

Whig
*

and the Whigs as a Catholic. candidate starts, for that was the

His address to his constituents.

1825.

LOED PALMEESTON.
which Smyth of Peterhouse
it.

165

qualification with

ten-

Letters.

dered

me

his vote before I could ask

The small

Colleges I have not yet gone into, for I attacked and I do not hurry, but St. John's and Trinity first
;

let

every man talk his fill, and many have much to say about the Catholic question, and I encourage
to

them
tions,

open their minds and state all their objecbecause it gives me an opportunity of explainviews, which are
;

ing

my

more

rational than

some of

and of suggesting answers to some of their arguments, which may give them matter for

them fancy
reflection
;

and a man who has been used

to hear

certain positions echoed about as self-evident

among

a small knot of his friends,
find

how much may

sometimes surprised to on the other side. The be said
is

greatest

number of those

I

have spoken

to

do not

promise, saying they wish to keep themselves disengaged, but generally accompanying this with expressions of personal goodwill, and an admission of a certain degree of claim on the part of an old

member.
much, and

Bankes has certainly
I doubt his

lost

ground very

being returned. Copley is unpopular with the Whigs, and there is a general some think it feeling that his canvass is premature
especially so, considering that

he would probably

succeed to the Chief Justiceship if vacant. Groulburn has not been much talked of; but the Master of
Trinity told me to-day he had heard from him, and that he means to stand. He and Copley cannot both

go

to

a poll, as they would clash

in

all

points,

though I expect one from Webb of Clare. Wood says he thinks I am secure. Berlin.* will" be here to-night. but will The Trinity men are likely probably soon be here. " PALMERSTOX. petitors. Copley is coming I is to form a committee. " Stanhope Street. and and Protestantism. filling up every interval which anything else allowed to exist. which for the last months has hung upon me like a nightmare. in order to have people engaged. but I have been overwhelmed with business. down immediately. Temple." To the Hon. including my canvass. Jime 5. " I have been a horrid bad correspondent for some time past six . * Next week This is will decide the matter. college. have not yet had one refusal. but I shall not leave this I have seen every man.166 THE LIFE OF BOOK III. who is the Dragon of and I Wantley of the Protestants. politics. Yours affectionately. : The the way people win by taking pains. Letters. at least. am collecting one is driven to it by the measures of one's com- Bankes has not yet appeared. Wm. a nominal one. People are all extremely civil. I have just heard. " Bankes. unless. 1826. but it is useless to go through all the manual exercise of a contest now. I cannot yet say how till long I shall stay here. " MY DEAR WILLIAM. to throw him over. .

I have told him he must find another Secretary at War. for I certainly will not continue in office. My own opinion is that Copley will be first. If I am beat. and Goul- burn about 500 . Bankes from 600 to a few more. Bankes third. " Yours affectionately. if I inclusive. I should say it would be Copley and I something about 650 each. and lasts till Letters. by which you will see that your friend would be guilty of a misdemeanour if he entered a foreign service without leave from the King of England. shabbily. and Goulburn fourth.1820. I next. but I know nothing about . The latter certainly goes to the which is a great advantage to me. Thursday 15th. succeed can prevail upon people to come up. I think I shall. begins 167 election on Tuesday 13th. and. If I was to guess numbers. bring me in. " My dear William. LORD PALMERSTON.* poll. and ill. in fact. their numbers. The Whigs have behaved most handsomely to me they have given me cordial and hearty support. " PALMERSTON. " I send you the Foreign Enlistment Act." This opinion proved correct. timidly. and may overstate them. which I hope to do. . Liverpool has acted as he always does to a friend in personal questions.

and many apologies for ^my apparent remissness as to writing. would leave 2. as well as with the writer's conscientious attention to business. To the lion. that it threw me into an arrear of every other business. was clear. I knew feeling Every one must be struck with the kind and affectionate which this correspondence manifests. Stanhope Street.* " The result of my contest was most . supposing each man voted for two candidates and supposing that 200 of . I have within the last five minutes finished working up my War Office arrears. obtained just before the poll began about 700 prothe total number of voters was 1800. mises but not that of my . . This would give 2. Wm. which I am only now beginning to work down.400 votes. that the must have more than 600 each * N. " MY DEAR WILLIAM.168 THE LIFE OF BOOK III. people gave plumpers. Berlin. 1826. and am even with the papers of this very day. would be 600 apiece. whom perhaps 1300 might be expected to vote. Letters.B. my expectations I knew my own I had opponents. gratifying. " Temple. winning candidates at the poll . therefore. but I really have been so much occupied for the last six months by my Cam- bridge canvass. and beyond strength.600 votes. July 17. " Many thanks for your letters arid congra- tulations. public and private. It it which. between four candidates. and I turn accordingly to write you a few lines.

some did in order to out. But then therefore. no official man ever was The first two days of our polling I kept before. this and bers to be divided less . that if I should fail at Camtell him bridge. and to turn All these various possibilities and contingencies made me feel the result might be exand on the day of the dissolution tremely doubtful . would not give 600 each and if. and would probably poll more than his 600. I knew. In fact. this would leave me 600 polled would barely do. 169 700 promises a great number would. and that would leave the numvotes. and I did not know what their real numbers so that it Again. not be present. begging me not to come to any decision in the event of failure without communication with him. however. and so the matter rested but wrote me . should most indubitably have immediately quitted the Government. Liverpool a civil answer.1826. . even though he should not resign and. I polled 600 I might win. LOED PALMEESTON. as it is I feel that I have been dealt with by them in a if I had been beat I way in which. I reckoned my that out of my casualties at 100 . me I wrote to Liverpool to to give him that I thought it fair notice then. that Copley was strong. Bankes' friends were most confident in their boasting. Letters. were. among the other three candidates . go into Bankes' scale. G-oulburn's friends might leave him. in fact. probably. from various causes. I should be unable to continue my connection with a Government under which and by which such a result would have been brought about.

The number of my because it makes me and because. I was still ahead of him. me from and who would perhaps have regretted their sacrifice of opinion if we had been beat. hope for so large a majority. other hand.170 THE LIFE OF BOOK III. I think the question has gained by the . running this sort of race. that party number. and to avoid being plagued by other candidates. and were indeed my chief and most active friends and to them and the Johnians I owe my triumph over the No Popery faction behind the Government. many of the anti-Catholics who personal regard or college feeling. was urging his friends Bankes. back everybody who had not some particular reason for wishing to vote early away. or wishing to give me such as wanting to go a plumper. is majority most satisfactory. for all the Johnians who supported me cannot hold now on this subject the violent language which they formerly did. on the up as fast as he could. are now carried away by the feeling on the Catholic question must abate . me. The Whigs supported me most handsomely. in order that the anti-Catholics might think him the most likely of the two to beat weight into his scale. One advantage at Cambridge will be. and might throw their When I found on Wednesday evening that. Letters. I began to think myself pretty sure of victory but even to the last I did not venture to . . voted for also. or had won by a small pride of triumph by becoming parties in so decided a success. feel pretty secure as to the future. if not in it. in order to get ahead of Goulburn.

a very im- portant advantage. of the Government in is they are attempting every improvement which thwarted and impeded. the election will have little upon it. and then it will teach the landlords the folly of splitting their estates into forty-shilling free- adopt a system of management more advantageous to themselves and to the holds. in numerical it Letters. In the first place. In the first 171 general election. as far as regard^ those who sit facing them but in truth the real opposition effect . The Government are as strong as any Government can wish to be. to and lead them progress of society in Ireland. strength I found that . am inclined to believe that will be upon the antiCatholics but the grand point is. place. that the No Popery cry has been tried in many places and has everywhere failed and \fe may now appeal to the rather increased . " As to the commonplace balance between Opposition and Government. The breaking loose of is the Irish tenantry from their landlords. of the present day behind the Treasury Bench and it is by the stupid old Tory party. we have experience of facts to show that there does not exist among the people of England that bigoted prejudice on this point which the anti-Catholics accused them of entertaining.1826. it will make the representation of Ireland almost entirely for the question . opposing all the measures and principles which he held most important it is by these that the progress . On . LOED PALMEESTON. too. who bawl out the memory and praises of Pitt while they are sit .

and have had some time. have started most prosperously with my racing I have four horses this year Lugbe- rough. as it that Heaven will protect us has done from our enemies. more liberal However. " I concerns. which are intimately habits of the : connected with the moral these questions. which you must remember. " I ran for the first time this year the other day. because my horses could not start. the young squires than the old ones. BOOK III. and we must hope from our friends. Lugberough won the Bath Stakes a very . merce on the corn laws . and people everything like them. Grey Leg. bred by myself got by Whalebone out of Mignonet. and which I bred also. currency on money . at Bath. and a mare four-year old. \ the question . in which there are about 150 new members. The next session will All these questions will come under be interesting. colonial slavery the laws . and my fourth is now a three-year old colt I call Foxbury. as she is by Waterloo out of a mare by Rubens. pay forfeits for many which were the best worth having. the Government find support from the Whigs and resistance from their self- on all denominated are friends. a new Parliament. on the principles of comon the settlement of the .172 THE LIFE OF Catholic . on regulating the trade in on the game laws. Letters. and call Conquest. Last year my horses were ill a great part of the season and though I won several races I had to . which I got last year. the large Sorcerer mare.

age considered. " Adieu. to build a school.* I shall let you know how a I go it. his most forbe worth midable rival being Shakespear. Letters. and lost a second only because he swerved from the course the boy. on. LORD PALMEESTON. my dear William. " Yours affectionately. " Clanwilliam departed suddenly for Paris. . beating also some ." N. not knowing just him. 173 good stake won Conquest beating several good horses.B. chiefly to settle to buy the Methodist chapel in Banning Street for a national school. on their " The Bowles set off this morning tour of inspection round the southern and western coasts. I thus won three out of four. Lugberough has the advantage. probably. There is no betting in all this. tolerable nags and Foxbmy won one race. We had had raised a subscription laid the foundations. and the idea that his expenses might probably be repaid * him by his stables. Nothing but the love of horses and sport.1826. value 110. and save us some money. who was second for the Derby. " PALMERSTON. to run to-day at "Wells. and but this chapel will answer our purpose excellently. and is among the bettors. but I I campaign of couple hope to make a brilliant have just been to Broadlands for of days. how manage Foxbury is to . a race also. is and I think may win and Lugberough race which favourite to run at Cheltenham next week for a will it for 700 probably. but with respect to whom.

and improving the . it I have no doubt that in a short time the coasting trade . the greater part of the time at Cliffony. where I found him very busy. with Nirnmo the engineer. and as much as any harbour on the west coast of Ireland. Berlin. Oct. and if I can get people which Nimmo thinks probable to lay down a railroad to it from the end of Loch Erne. where ships may wait the tide to enter. " It is a long time since I last wrote to you . comfortable. feet and will have fourteen water at high spring tides enough depth to admit vessels of 300 tons. and very happy order. I and went on I to Shee's at remained two days. 1826. increasing his system of his tenantry. in G-alway. Dunmore. and will be an excellent one for my purposes : it will be about one quarter English acres in extent. will be much frequented by a distance of fourteen English miles. " MY DEAR WILLIAM. Letters. 21. From thence I went on to remained eighteen days. " Londonderry.174 THE LIFE OF To the BOOK III- Hon. have been busily employed or actively moving I left London just this day month. and it has an excellent anchorage in front of it. Wm. very getting his estate into income. My and a nearly completed. about in Ireland. stayed only a few hours in Dublin. looking over the progress of my improvements I where and planning arrangements harbour is for the future. Sligo. it would become the exporting and importing harbour for a large tract . Temple.. the 21st of Sept.

I have begun cultivating my bogs. and would communicate with an inland navigation of nearly forty miles in extent. however. the permanent outlay at the time let it is so cannot exceed 8/. . as far as I am able to calculate at present this is likely to answer extremely well. setting on the one hand all the expense incurred upon the acre in the four years. and may possibly fall short of that sum.. turnips and rape.1826. and which will consist of potatoes. turnips. which in : March last were wet unwalkable bog. . I shall leave to others. and on the other all the profit made by selling the crops which it will have pro- duced. and adding a top-dressing of sea-sand and clay . and hay the fourth. of which I have about two thousand Irish acres I have got thirty acres now producing potatoes. It seems probable that in the fourth year after an acre of bog has been thus taken into cultivation it may be let on lease at a rent of from twenty to thirty shillings . oats the second and third. Letter. and only profit by it if they undertake it in the mean time it will give . 175 of very fertile country lying on the banks of that lake. LORD PALMEESTON. while he . at least upon his money. or sow it with . and rape. so that a proprietor may in this manner make 12 per cent. throwing the ashes on as manure. and that. turnip. much scope to the industry of my tenants. which was begun in April then to dig up the surface and pile it in heaps and burn it then to level the ground and form it into ridges and plant it with potatoes. This speculation. or rape the first year. The process was first to drain them slightly.

who no doubt of its children. and I think with upon have about 600 acres of that description on the coast. and an absentee. so that my future progress will be more I have been planting bent rapid and less expensive. am houses according to even though getting the people to build some a plan of village which Nimmo hope to do so. . but it is itself very good food for cattle. gives employment to his tenantry. I have just got two schools on foot. and at that rate I shall have scope enough for a tolerable number their condition. grows and planted closely in rows fourteen feet apart it is almost all growing. and that which was the most troublesome to cultivate. however. I 140 acres. but am at war with my as usual forbids the people to send their priest. it The bent was in clusters. and I see that in another year it will very much stop the sand. Letters. begun upon my worst bog. I have.1 have no doubt that by extending my plantation I shall succeed in covering the greater part of the six hundred acres with green bent. and. which only cost taken up from parts where me 50. . held once a month. . 176 THE LIFE OF BOOK III. and this year I planted bent on about success. I of years to come. and have prospering and increasing. I have established an infant linen market at Cliifony.. a great tract of blowing sand. I know I that if I I was resident I should beat him in a moment. and provides the means of enlarging their holdings and improving do not expect to be able to accomplish more than about sixty acres a year. and when that has stopped the blowing of the sand it soon gives way to grass.

1826.

LORD PALMERSTON.
I

177

and

and as a proof that my tenants and I are not upon very bad terms, I found when I arrived there the other day that one fellow was buildhave
laid out
;

Letters,

ing a good house two stories high, and to have a slated roof, and which when finished will not cost

him
will.

less

than

ISO/.,

he has no

lease,

upon a piece of ground of which and of which he is merely tenant at

Of

course,

my
will
I

friend

Timon

not of Athens,

but of Cliffony
cost of his slates.

have

his building lease,

and as

an encouragement

have promised to give him the I have established a lime kiln at

the foot of a mountain where I can

make

lime at 6d.

a barrel, which

sells in the neighbourhood for Is. a and by contenting myself with a profit of 4rf. barrel, I can undersell the others and supply the people with

an

article of great

importance to them both for the

improvement of
houses.

their land

and the

cleanliness of their

In the whole, I find a considerable improvement going on in the country, and I trust its progress

by the operations I am carrying on. But I have a great mind when I go to Cambridge at Christmas to see if I cannot find some zealous Simeonite who would curb the ardent enthusiasm which would impel him to the banks of the Ganges,
will be accelerated

and might content himself with winning his Jerusalem spurs by a campaign in the parish of Ahamlish. My

own

opinion is that a very great deal might be effected by a well-informed man who would talk to the
people,

and
i.

even

if

by an Englishman, and that he did not make Protestants of them, he might
especially

VOL.

x

178
Letters.

THE LIFE OF
Christians.

BOOK

III.

make them

They

really are a

good and

simple-minded people, though they quarrel among each other without end or reason, and get most joyously drunk whenever they lose a relation or
friend.

" I went from Sligo to Lord Belmore's, near Enniskillen, a palace called Castle Coole, built by Wyatt,

and faced with Portland stone, very large and handsome. I am going from hence by the Giant's Cause-

way and

Belfast to Dublin,

and from thence back

to

London for the meeting of Parliament. Ireland has been much better off than England as to its crops. The potatoes are beyond example abundant, the wheat
very

and the oats and barley not nearly so bad as in England, and the hay a fair crop on the western coast, though scanty on the eastern.
fine,

"

The

carried

war is, however, on more vigorously than ever, and the whole
Catholic and Anti-Catholic

people are by the ears, like an undisciplined pack of hounds. It is most marvellous, to be sure, that sensible statesmen should be frightened by the bugbear of foreign interference clashing with domestic allegiance,

and should

see with calmness

and apathy a

civil

war

raging throughout Ireland, engrossing all the thoughts and passions of the people, diverting them from the

and retarding the progress of pursuits of industry, national prosperity, and menacing, in the event of foreign hostilities, inconveniences of the most formidable

and embarrassing

description.

I can forgive old

women

like the Chancellor, spoonies like Liverpool,

1826.

LORD PALMEESTON.

179

ignoramuses like Westmoreland, old stumped-up Tories like Bathurst but how such a man as Peel,
;

Letters.

liberal,

enlightened, and fresh minded, should find

himself running in such a pack is hardly intelligible. I think he must in his heart regret those early pledges
to opinions so different

and youthful prejudices which have committed him from the comprehensive and
statesmanlike views which he takes of public affairs. But the day is fast approaching, as it seems to me, when

this

matter will be settled as

it

must

be

;

and in

spite of

the orgies in this Sir George Hill

town and Armagh, the eloquence of and Lord G. Beresford, and the
to the
* '

'Prentice Boys' motto of * No surrender,' the days of Protestant ascendency I ttyink are numbered. It is strange that in this en-

bumpers pledged

lightened age and enlightened country people should be still debating whether it is wise to convert four or
five millions of

men from enemies

to

friends,

and

whether
"

it is

safe to give peace to Ireland.

Adieu,

my
"

dear William,
affectionately,

Yours

" PALMERSTON."

180

THE LIFE OF

BOOK IV.

BOOK

IV.

Mr. Canning Prime Minister, and Palmerston offered the Chancellorship of the Exchequer Enters the Cabinet finally as Minister of War Canning dies Lord Goderich Prime Minister Palmerston again
offered the Chancellorship of the Exchequer, which the King, however, secures for Herries Saying of Lord Anglesey Lord Goderich

succeeded by the
Remarks.

Duke

of Wellington.

IT will be seen from preceding quotations that* the partizans of Mr. Canning and those of Lord Eldoii

were become two factions in Lord Liverpool's Government that Lord Palmerston had taken his place
;

with the former, and that only an event was necessary to range under hostile standards persons who

were already of opposite opinions. That event came on the death of Lord Liverpool and the necessity of choosing his successor. The
successor, as

we know, was Mr. Canning. His
is,

ascent

to the Premiership

no doubt, one of the great
It

events of

our later history.

broke

down

for

ever the "resistant," or, as it was then termed, " Protestant " party which under the protection of George III. had held the greatest share of political

power

since the deaths of Mr.

Fox and Mr.

Pitt,

new Mr. Canning had. the democratic hue has become gradually more and more predominant. Minister. as the necessity of this junction became session he more and more apparent from the bitterness of his former associates becoming more and more intense. and that before the ensuing must join those as friends whom he had so He was not indisposed. But. The Secretary at War was therefore at once sum- moned to the Cabinet. in which. Lord Liverpool was taken ill. It was necessary that some little time should elapse before he could form an open coalition with the Whigs. LOED PALMERSTON. though in a very friendly way. Canning was declared -i Mfi 111 Autobiography. in the first instance. would have removed him from England. and he made. ir rv and in April ol that year Mr. Lord Palmerston naturally became elevated in this Remarks. and his reputation as a man of business suggested the idea of making him Chancellor of the Exchequer. change. Mr. to form his Administration within a very small circle. on the other hand. if accepted. A large division of the Tories had deserted him. to have as many high offices as possible to dispose of. Canning shrewdly foresaw that his present condition could not last long. 1827. 181 and brought forward a Liberal party of various colours. and commanded * to form a Government.* " In February. two or three oifers to Lord Palmerston.1827. after the change in our constitution which took place in 1832. long faced as opponents. . which. Autobiography. Lord Palmerston thus records these offers. therefore.

Croker. to relieve him both in the Treasury Office and in the House of Commons. Peel. and who was standing by. in order that I might be re-elected during the holidays. Lord Bathurst. to have a separate Chancellor of the Exchequer. desired me not to leave town for Easter with- out letting the him kjiow . the Foreign Office just before the recess and after dinner he proposed to me to take immediately the office of Chancellor of the Exchequer.' Canning had. and should be glad to have my assistance. and upon this break-up he sent for me. Beckett. biography.182 THE LIFE OF the Tories retired in a body. retracted). but who reoffice. some little time before. leaving Canning alone in his glory. instead of being First Lord of the Treasury . He said wished to keep the Foreign Office as Prime Minister. ^ BOOK IV. Lord Bexley (who. that he wished. the Upon this A Duke Lord Eldon. Wetherell. and to leave him more leisure for general matters. however. Lord Melville. "Canning gave a great dinner at his house at . Wallace. * all sent in their resignations. Duke of Montrose. of Wellington. Lord Westmoreland. Lord Londonderry. to offer office me a seat in the Cabinet and he of Chancellor of the Exchequer. but he found that there were official attributes "i attached to the First Lord of the Treasury which rendered it necessary that the Prime Minister should be First Lord . in mained who had not resigned. artfully . Duke of Dorset. " I accepted both offers. and be ready to start again as soon as the House met. however.

when I should go to the Exchequer. did not fancy me as Chancellor of the Exchequer. " In the meanwhile intrigues were set on foot. Greorge IY.1827. 183 suggested that there was going to be a contest at Cambridge between Goulburn and Bankes. Canning said that I must take the Exchequer then. for the seat vacated Auto- by Copley made Chancellor and created Lord Lyndhurst and strongly advised me to wait. . There were questions coming on about palaces and crown lands which the King was very anxious about. and he wished either to have a creature of his own have the office at the Exchequer.* " to Herries. Towards the end. of * And also Joint Secretary of the Treasury. It was then agreed that I should remain Secretary at War till the end of the session. or rather about the middle. or else wait till the end of the session. usual courtesy of the University. He wanted to have Herries in that office. by the .. the Secretary. LORD PALMEBSTON. who personally hated me. and Auditor of the Civil List.with that contest saying that. but might be in danger head into a battle begun by other people. as it would not be convenient that I should be out of if I ran my Parliament for a fortnight during the session. I should have no contest if I vacated upon changing office. whose numerous occupations would compel him to leave details very much to George Harrison. in order that I might not incur the danger of being mixed up. or to of Chancellor of the Exchequer held by the First Lord.

when Commons. he said. I might . for a moment were shown upon the counte- I was a little surprised. Autobiography. like a man who hide from another the emotions of embarrassment which nance. of the Duke of York in January. Canning sent for me. to carry our intended arrangement into " Having finished his statement he walked to the wishes to other end of the room. his Government. I was perfectly . and as I was ad- ministering the discipline and patronage of the army by virtue of my office of Secretary at War. that if service that I he thought it better for the public should remain as I was. that he felt himself . and. That it had been arranged that I was to have it. contented to do so moreover. said that he wished to speak to me the Chancellorship of the Exchequer. the session. offices in the person of the that minister was in the Prime Minister. was attended with great official convenience and the result. House of unable effect.184 THE LIFE OF BOOK IV. and that I had no selfish objects in view. was. and saw that there was something behind which he did not choose to I said that my only wish was to be useful to tell. evidently much about embarrassed. and he had at that time much wished that I should but that since . had been strongly pressed upon him by all the financial department that it was extremely imthen it portant that the First Lord should also be Chancellor of the Exchequer and that the union of the two . as the office of Commander-in-Chief had been vacant since the death that.

afterwards he again sent for me. but that the King had Governor obliged to " Not said said he the very thing I knew. be satisfied 185 well. importance " ot my junctions. LORD PALMERSTON. political.1827. '* I thanked him very kindly for his offer. as he doing much mischief. by the my last appointment of a Commander-in-Chief. The offer was the Governor-Generalship of India. as well as Some weeks after this Canning sent for me again. assured . to say he had a proposition to make to me which he should not himself have thought of. some arrangement should be made that would be satisfactory to me. and in making which he he had an offer to had only one difficulty. and said that he would take care that when my double functions ceased. admitted the justness of remark. for the present at least. " I told him military man should well consider that I thought there ought to be a as Commander-in-Chief. which he could very sincerely assure me was far from being the case. and long grow make which might be more worth my consideration. laughed so heartily that I observed Canning looked quite put out. and that was to go as I to Jamaica. Canning seemed much relieved by the manner in which I took his communication. and that was lest I should think he wanted to get rid of me. but that he had the power of " who that man should be. and was sure. military and good. with the Autobiography. that it was just should like. and I was serious again.

like the rest of the world. Wm. " Temple. Berlin. for affording a scope for doing good upon a magnificent theatre of action . him I was not insensible to the splendour of the post which he was now proposing. I happened not to have a family for whom I should be desirous of providing. April 19. That I felt what means it afforded for increasing one's fortune. . THE LIFE OF BOOK IV. and my health would not stand the climate of India. he should think himself obliged to go out if a Catholic were head of the Government . I had already. at Peel's the resignations of last week." The following letters tend thus rapidly drawn : to complete the sketch To Letters. the Hon. " You must have been all surprised. Stanhope Street.* but the others were unexpected. had all along explained that. I said. for gratifying one's love of power. and the same motives which influenced me then still operated now. Oxford.186 Autobiography. but my ambition was satisfied with my position at home. indeed. the Duke * of Wellington gives out that he is went because This not an unimportant fact in judging the conduct of this critical statesman at the period we are treating of. declined the office when offered me by Lord Liverpool. as he was expected by Canning. stated fairly public ground. and from his peculiar connection with generally without a Westmoreland. at a time when I was not in the Cabinet. that he could not serve under a Catholic chief . 1827. " MY DEAR WILLIAM.

but he parts with undiminished . became a question. and personal feelings on both sides have cooled. and no doubt he thought it his master-stroke. Bathurst. I have no doubt the Duke will return to his command. simply saying he received it 'with the same regret with King is which the Duke appeared to have sent it. because it is not a political office . and made. 187 Canning's letters were uncivil Melville. cordiality. and wrote a short and equivocal answer to his letter of resignation. but in the irreparable one . on what footing he should hold it. In the mean time. however. The appointment of Clarence to the navy has given great satisfaction and is certainly a wise measure. that he might have the pleasure of coming back again. he this so strongly that it when declared himself perfectly ready to quit the Cabinet if it was thought not tenable with that situation. the duties done as in the late interregnum . to that service.1827. LORD PALMERSTON. Duke persuaded him. and told him that if he did not go now he would be turned out six months hence . and when arrangements for the new Government have been glad to find that nobody else is to be The situation will be left vacant. and it is the more provoking that he should have resigned this and he felt office. Peel is a great loss . . because the Letters. I am appointed. because his colleagues went Bexley. The very angry with him.' I take it that this was worked about by Eldon. The Duke is a great loss command of the army an in the Cabinet. and one understands and respects his motive. The Heir Pre- . three months ago.

to which he will ultimately return. I believe. but it. declined by Dudley.* Canning is at present First Lord of the Treasury and Chancellor of the Exchequer. and Plunkett be Master of the Rolls here I know not for certain. am * to be Chancellor of the Exchequer. sumptive cannot be always quite passive. prevent the Heir from being drawn into cabals and intrigues. who Seal has. and by giving them. stating that he wishes the Government to contain as many Protestants as possible. been probably learnt that he was meant will to hold only ad interim. a community of interest. the King particularly wishes to have a it is Protestant there. Copley is Chan- cellor as Lord Ashbourne. but as " Protestants " are meant. . that the King has him into action placed everything at Canning's disposal. as Canning will remain Foreign Secretary. not easy to find one is. Robinson not filled is . but that if will be satisfied with none can be found he an entirely Catholic list. The Home Office is Colonial Secretary. of course. they say. as it were. but retaining his embassy. also.388 THE LIFE OF BOOK IV. By f All these are merely the arrangements first contemplated. and useful to bring it is by placing him in official communication with the King. Hus- kisson. The present state of things is. fit for Harrowby remains as he The Privy it and. I to Ireland. and till final arrangements are made.f but this I suspect that Leach go Chancellor . having taken the other situation only for the moment. and G-ranville Foreign Affairs. those opposed to Catholic " " Emancipation . and by Catholics those in favour of it. Letters.

and as it might be incon- venient to have session. My own opinion. and the next best thing is to secure the influence of Government in the hands of men favourable to the question.1827. is that some of them ought to be brought into Lansdowne and Holland. Cam. however. because they are wise enough to know that in the present state of the King's opinion. even though he made no stipulation on the Catholic question.Letters. LORD PALMERSTON. considerations Among other which make me glad of it one of the chief is. that I trust will give me" better means than I have hitherto possessed of assisting you in your diplomatic advancement. and without some such arrangement its strong chief reliance must be upon a party upon whom we office . Canning has all along received from the Whigs assurances of their support in the event of his forming a Government of which he should be the head. in order that volve me in this contest my re-election may not in- . move makes an immediate vacancy and a contest at 189 Copley's bridge. no Government can be formed upon the principle of carrying that question as a Cabinet measure. and who may throw us over at . I am to be put immediately into the Cabinet. till it is out of Parliament during the probable that I shall not be moved is me the session over . perhaps. is postponed. shall have no hold. in the Lords. and Abercromby and Tierney in the Commons and I should not be surprised if this were to The Government would then be very happen. but in the mean time this. it will thereupon ensue.

" All arrangements are now settled. however. nor my intended appointment as Chancellor of Exchequer. Hon. am just going down when Broadlands for a few days. and will write again I return next week. but on his own account as an inis . Wm.190 THE LIFE OF BOOK IV. Secretary for Ireland. terests. come round to the oat-sieve I know. in which ! I think he is as right as possible. May 4. The Whigs join us and some of them will come in a body into office immediately. Those." Temple. at least as to general principle. . " Stanhope Street. " Yours affectionately. any moment of caprice or cabal. I " Adieu to my dear William. by degrees and one by one. " MY DEAR WILLIAM. that Canning means to deal out that sieve very sparingly. Letters. . we must not look for any cordial support from them now. and with zeal. Master of the Mint. For as to the Tories. not mention to anybody the assurance of support from the Whigs which Canning has received. who are not to be in the Cabinet Tierney. and to found his Government upon public opinion rather than borough inthey will all by instinct . who would hardly vote for our measures before. Woods and Forests Advocate William Lamb Calcraft. Judge not as a Whig. namely. unless you hear To the Do it from other quarters. " " PALMERSTON. Berlin. 1827. Not but that. and Abercrornby. I believe.

. LOED PALMEBSTON.1827. are the Duke of Portland. if arrangements can be made by which Secretary. I do not know. that in the absence of a Commander-in-Chief the patronage of the army devolves on the Secretary at War. and have boldly will see You . to succeed them. but continue Secretary at War till the end of the session. . having in addition to my own duties those of the Commander-in-Chief to perform. I am in the Cabinet. in opinion. without dispossessing any individual. arrangement leaves the door open for the Duke of Wellington's return when the other arrangements are made. that it by the debates that the Whigs have joined us manfully and in earnest. 191 The provisional members of the Cabinet Letters. Privy Seal Dudley. is. I should think Lansdowne would be and Lord Holland Privy Seal. and then. Affairs and Bourne. but at the end of the session Lord Lansdowne will come in. in that case the First Lordship of the Treasury will also be disposable. and then Canning will probably resume the Foreign Office. some military man ought to be my placed in the command of the army . At the end of the session I shall be Chancellor of the Exchequer. all Home the patronage and influence properly belonging to the situation of First Minister can be attached to that appointment . and if the Duke of Wellington cannot be brought back again. This is the natural constitution of my office. and I suppose some others of his party. Home Office who is Foreign dividual. . some general officer high up in the list ought to be placed The advantage of the present upon the staff.

sition. Nothing can be more satisfactory to Canning than the footing on which their accession is placed he gives up no opinion either on parliamentary reform or any other question. Letters. " The Tories are furious at this junction. and distinctly said so last night in the House. Indeed. and they come in as joining a Government already formed. if they did not support him. charges of inconsistency. but simply because they see as well as Peel that the having Canning at the head of the Government must of itself necessarily give a great advantage to the question and because they agree with him on . because that it puts the Government out of their they see Peel power. faced they know . They make him a compliment of most of the questions on which they differ with him. maintain his position. parted good friends with Canning. and yesterday showed a good deal more personal opinion between them than might have been looked for. declaring that. and excludes them from a return. and because. makes his Government and carries it through the session. it to be impossible that the Catholic question should be made a Cabinet measure. he by reason of the defection of his colleagues. Peel's speech two nights before was . He. in the first place.192 TEE LIFE OF all BOOK IV. could not. and do not join us upon any such expectation. almost all other great questions of foreign and domestic policy . but it is easy to foresee that their lines of march must daily diverge. and not as original ingredients in its compo.

193 rather of a hostile His reference to Letters. and return at present " Adieu ! is is impossible. then Peel would naturally have defended himself by referring to Canning's former course but . I gave up the army. O . and to do am very sorry now that he sure he was worked upon . Some friends had probably been speaking of him as fit to be leader VOL. yours aifectionately. on the contrary." Poor Canning enjoyed but a short time. as we know. and put aside at once any idea of a higher one. " The Duke it is. premiership one hardly sees why and his sliding down from that eminence one hardly sees how ! singular evidence of that nice tact with which Lord Palmerston always discerned first The gives a the place that suited him. Canning's correspondence in 1812 was needless. I. If Canning had blamed Peel for retiring. gone out of his way to acquit Peel of blame or any want of perfect candour. as Canning had.1827. where not necessary. " PALMERSTON. very angry with him for it. is always more or less personal. The annexed letters extend over the period which intervened between the rise of Lord G-oderich to the Remarks. complexion. however. the brilliant triumph of his genius. and such a.reference. by the old Chancellor the King. I think. the reference could only be looked upon as unfriendly. LORD PALMEBSTON. at the time when his own advancement was in question.

Remarks. moreover. Fox said that Palmerston to House of Commons. which he never neglected. "I write before I go out . to his marvellous constitution arrived and laborious according to a man him from aptitude filling it ." and owing much. the Lord justifying the able proverb that "everything arrives man who proud no doubt. . " Letters. DEAR SULIVAN. 1827. Esq. well qualified to judge. at this can wait for it. . many years We shall see in these letters the usual traces of a kind heart and of a busy life. " MY Stanhope Street. but let if I hear any- thing more before post-time. August 14.194 THE LIFE OF BOOK IV. He felt. and with attention he loved. situation when age. that to undertake it would exact a strain on his faculties and a change in his habits that he was encounter. I will you know. of life. of the House of Commons. with the management of his paternal property. he should have been in his grave. occupied with public affairs. disqualified and held it with undiminished subsequent to the period when. to the interests of those To Laurence Sulivan. according to the general rule that fixes the term of human existence. ! indisposed to no man of the after sixty could Singular destiny undertake the leadership Mr. He was in the prime nence and had attained a certain degree of emibut he saw instantaneously that the distin- guished post suggested to him was above the position he had then acquired.

mons. either by going to the Colonial Office himself. it may not be easy for him to make any arrangement.1827. Peel's style of speaking is not so much remarkable Brougham and brilliancy as for those very qua- which Huskisson shares with him. having succeeded Harrowby. . House of Commons. As to the lead of the House of Comwho may go . has every qualification for it in a great but. the person so But in various o 2 . 195 " I quite agree with who ought to you that Huskisson is the man represent the Government in the Letters. LORD PALMEBSTON. ways I should be quite unequal To go no further than one point. whose powers lie in argument and statement. and Brougham with but exaggeration The Duke of Portland . without degree. except eloquence he has quite sufficient faculty of speaking having that. or by taking the there. I have heard and though I know G-oderich's good-will nothing towards me. the man whose rather than in is ridicule us. He to enable him in these times. even if I felt this world that I was for it. which fit to there are very I should it. office of some other person As to myself. and in the present credit. to perform his duty with is He is fully equal to opponents he for eloquence lities is speaking up to the mark of any for even likely to be pitted against . state of the House. so few things indeed in much dislike . one of them. style of speaking would be the most embarrassing to a man of Huskisson's turn of mind. there remain but two gaps to be filled and it is quite clear that Lord Holland must in some way or other be put into .

coming up really is There can be no use whatever in your for even if I were to change office there nothing which we have to do that could not The only things just as well be done by successors. and in some respects he But he would not do . will do you essential good. DEAR SULIVAN. and of all irksome slaveries there is none more difficult to me than that as . . " Yours affectionately. 1827. identified with the debating is. "I am Herries offered his to be Chancellor of Exchequer. may. I trust. " PALMERSTON. Esq. it that Tierney may risk has strong claims.196 THE LIFE OF BOOK IV. and The first office was Secretary at War. there can be no earthly reason why you should cut short holidays of which you stood so much in need. people think it. and which. now in town and therefore. really happen what will or . equal to it at least. health . even if you were not be finished vacancies in the class above. . I think it not unlikely success of the individual. and the selection of two juniors to fill the Our regulations could in a couple of days. unsettled are the appointment of an assistant estimate clerk. him by the King's desire but he did not feel . " MY "August 15. besides the character of the Govern- ment were." To Laurence Sulivan. without going abroad and Goderich could not wait his return. Letters. him too sly. placed must be in a perpetual state of canvass .

" War Office. . possibility of a is dissolution of the Government. " MY DEAR WILLIAM. for the moment at . him pointedly. Berlin. and I now only state briefly the The King wants Herries present situation of things. since the great loss we have all sustained." To the Hon. am Board of Trade. to complain. Wm Temple. and Goderich wishes to have me. but he is a great friend of Knighton. Neither party will give way and there is a great to . 1827. till it is an- nounced officially. but I will not think you need come to town yet let you know if it should be necessary when I have talked with Herries. appointment. probably not in I do to be sworn in on Friday. for fear Yours affectionately. " PALMERSTON. to be Chancellor of the Exchequer the Whigs object . LOED PALMERSTON. who. " I have not time to make excuses for not having written to you sooner. " Do not mention my " appointment of accidents. 197 Huskisson goes to the Colonies succeeds and Charles Grant Letters. which I have not yet done. " Goderich sent for me to-day. to propose this to me. Herries himself not particularly desirous it is said. saying he had written yesterday to the King about it. August 24. . urges the The Whigs certainly have some cause The King refuses. . him at the I the Cabinet.1827.

and I believe has held some about the Whigs. the result and perpetually on the verge of a quarrel of which is that nothing is done. to the conduct of that party. or the whole Cabinet would march. and would produce the worst consequences on our foreign relations and domestic policy.198 THE LIFE OF take in Lord Holland. including commerce and Ireland. would be most unfortunate in every possible way. and presses Herries. to whom they pressed. The last. Huskisson has arrived at Paris. ancl the Tories come in bodily. The first e^ent would bring back a Government just like Liverpool's. One of two things must follow either a mixed Go: vernment would be made by Goderich of some of his present colleagues and the Tories. and is expected here in a few days. however. foreign and domestic. Letters. giving up their views on condition that a corresponding sacrifice is made by the others. I think they would be very foolish to go indiscreet language out on a personal question of this kind. Herries is anti-Catholic and anti-Liberal. I think it too probable that they will go out. whom they reject. if some means cannot be found to parry the question . it is obvious. in trying moments when personal feeling came into play. Still. each party . least. to forward which they avowedly But looking back joined Canning's administration. and to give up the means which office affords them of giving effect to all the great principles of national policy. consisting of men differing on all great questions. . and I certainly should consider their secession as a great public misfortune. BOOK IV.

to take it Government from dissolution. it 199 and till has been agreed to let the matter stand over Letter*. Office. in Wales. Dudley remains at the Foreign where he has done incomparably well. If this and the Greek can be well settled. to save the against his will. whom the King at first proposed might be induced. I trust we shall find her co-operate with us in the ultimate arrange- A'Court writes. in a letter received to-day.1827. to it. . probably cut the knot by saying that he will not lead the House of Commons which he rmtst do. or muttering to him'self while chinking his sovereigns. the state of Europe will be as satisfactory as it can perhaps ever be expected to be . Sulivan and Eliz. and Charles Grant to succeed him at the Board of Trade. and ment. Our Portuguese affairs are beginning to clear up. " Fanny and Bowles are in Scotland. that and Austria enthey do not expect Don Pedro . He may of Exchequer or else Sturges Bourne. He is intended for the Colonial Office. and we are getting Austria to take much the same " view of the matter as ourselves. tions with Brazil shall be brought to a close to at Vienna at least to the affair end of the year. LOBD PALMEESTON. much for a time. " till the gages negotiakeep Miguel that is. unless he is himself Chancellor his return. and has surprised all those who only knew him by seeing him abstracted and absent in society. for when Portugal is put to rights the French must quit Spain.

to make arrangements for the business of the session. but must be back again in London by the 12th November. I hope." To the Hon. " MY " DEAR WILLIAM. Miguel will. have been arranging themselves in Ferdinand has made his bar- a satisfactory manner. " I stanhope street' Oci 19 ' 1827 ' am off to-morrow for Ireland for three weeks. Wm. and can undo a little of Metternich's absolutism in his mind. of Wellington will be gazetted Commander-in-Chief to-night. and he wants energy to and good faith to stick to anything inconvenient at the moment. gain with his ultras. and they have all submitted. What his terms to them are remains to be seen pro: bably he will keep his promises as much as may be convenient to him. Fanny and Bowles are not yet returned from tour. &c. but has much to do with people resist. who are both . and if we can send him to Lisbon imbued with proper sentiments as to the necessary dependence of Portugal on England. Berlin. He conies in without any stipulations or conditions whatever. " Yours affectionately. Temple.200 THE LIFE OF The Duke BOOK IV. come here soon. but give a their northern European affairs very good account of themselves. He is no fool and no bigot. Letters. " PALMERSTON. affairs of Portugal may yet turn out Our troops will probably be withdrawn as . as the Cabinet hold their usual autumnal assembly on the 13th. the well.

been playing her game on this point. invasion from Spain being over. 201 soon as Miguel arrives. an indirect offer of the mediation of Austria and Prussia between the allies and Turkey. G-reece is an object of more uncertain interest but yet I cannot believe that the Turk will . and the alliance end in nothing. I believe. Damas gave him a very proper answer. saying stating that it that the three powers humbly thought that they were strong enough to execute their own intentions . Metternich has even had the face to make to the allies. or actually going. professing to us her anxiety to assist us. . subjects to their sovereign . * See Appendix. where the position of her army becomes every day more and we have reason false and un- to think that when our pleasant .1827. very glad also to get out of Spain. the ground of our France would. hold out earnest. when he finds the three allies really in usual double Austria has. on the other hand. because then. and that her only reason for not being a party to the treaty was an abstract principle. are gone. was now evident that the treaty* was become a dead letter. assuring her that the allies would separate. through the French Government. she has been urging the Porte not to give way. pp. be occupation will cease. France will pubtroops licly proclaim the approaching departure of hers from Spain. I believe. LOED PALMEBSTON. which forbade her to recognize the existence on earth of such a state of things as a continued resistance of while. 418-21. all danger of Letters. and never could be executed.

202 THE LIFE OF treaty. which influenced the public policy. The Duke credit we can of to Gordon will not go to the Ordnance. Murray will be Major-General of Ordnance. will gradually connect himself a little more with England. money enough to go on with till the end of that month. in the way of mediation from our obliging friends at Vienna and Berlin. they might still be ad- mitted. so far BOOK IV. who goes Commander-in-Chief to India. Metternich. not see that Russia is the windward quarter of the heavens. however. but probably Canada. happened to be just beginning to become an effective measure that we needed no assistance . if Parliament will not meet find till February. and their assistance in that shape would be willingly received. as it takes near a fortnight to get part any vote that can be turned into money. and that he should look for shelter to the westward. Letters. and that his dirty weather must come from thence. Clinton. instead of Lord Dalhousie. We know that we can do till the end of January. Parliament must meet in the early of January. . who is Lieutenant-General of Ordnance. who Taylor will be goes to the Cape and Sir H. perhaps. of both but Metternich must be an idiot if he does . and that the from having become a dead letter. Lieutenant-General of Ordnance. will go to the Mauritius instead of Cole. . instead of Lord Combermere. not in the Cabinet. but if we should not have cash or beyond that. Sir G. but that if they chose now to become parties to the treaty. There was a personal dislike between him and Can- ning.

Wm. girls' school one hundred. He asked . LOED PALMERSTON." To the Eon. " Adieu yours affectionately. and have heard since my return has increased from five scholars boys' school has not yet got a I get one it will be equally thriving. and. any opportunity enabled him. He has had Letters. but The master I when spoke again to Dudley about you the day before yesterday. 203 These are very good arrangements. DEAR WILLIAM. " " MY Stanhope Street.1827. race. The King has not yet forgiven the seceders. and will be very little useful for the fisherv. nor indeed definitively settled. and he repeated his assurances of an earnest desire to attend to my wishes as soon as have no doubt. My harbour is / just finished. I agreeing to all he asked my . which that to after all got him to by was not very unreasonable I have assist me. Whig and Tory will soon be erased from our vocabulary. Nov. but are not yet The Whigs public. but had been so long free that it was naturally to be expected. where I found my im- provements going on well and I hope to find my people in a few years somewhat resembling a civilized . 1827. a sharp attack of gout. about I made my bishop my schools. are getting into good-humour again. ! " PALMERSTON. and. Temple. 27. 7 and in the end will be a a concordat with commercial port. " I returned about a fortnight ago from a three weeks' trip to Sligo. Berlin.

.204 THE LIFE OF BOOK IV. I asked what water he meant. whether you would feel any repugnance to go to South America. if it asked what the appointment was which he had in contemplation. It is a display of power and an indication of determination which they will appreciate. and whether there is any chance of the alliance falling to pieces before that time and. He said he had noin America. and fatigue to con- present force in Greece. whether you would have any objection to cross the He said he water. dated the 5th. arid that it was possible it might be more easy to find an opening for you. But I am . on the other hand. but that certainly I should very much prefer some appointment in Europe were possible to find one. that it smooth and not increase our difficulties. He said that in Europe they were terribly crowded. I said that of course when a man embraces a profession. meant. sure he will do what he can for you. My own conjecture is. It deprives them of all possibility of keeping up their army in the Morea for as to supplies by land. Letters. they must their . he was prepared to go wherever that profession might call him. and his inquiry was only a general one and so we left the matter. sume calculate that if what has been done should not be . and sickness. and that I was sure that was your feeling . how long it will take for the Greeks. The only question then is. the march is too long and difficult. By our last from Constantinople. the Turks seemed as much puzzled as surprised with the accounts smash will at Navarino. I thing particular in view.

Embassy at Peters- under A' Court. " PALMERSTON. Let me know " We are still in uncertainty about is Turkey and Greece. " Clanwilliam has hinted to me that it is pro- bable that the Secretaryship of will be offered to you. your wishes on this matter. and with his hands before . . same time. " MY Stanhope DEAR WILLIAM. burgh however.* who. at the to him his letters of recall . will not be formally appointed till he returns to England and he cannot leave Portugal till . when his influence is diminished. course might have prevented the collision and now frightened. From what I have seen he is of him since I came into the Cabinet. . because he must deliver and Lamb must. Street. . . 4. 1827. " Adieu ! yours affectionately. He thwarted us underhand while a different . I am convinced he prefers the tortuous to the straight course. that the Turk cross-legged. " Temple. and really wishes to help us. deliver his credentials. where the option is before him. will sit most probable is.1827. LORD PALMERSTON. as the French Afterwards Lord Heytesbury. Dec. and say he will do nothing * or." To the Hon. something more ' 205 effectual. part. Miguel has arrived there. shape of those ulterior measures alluded to in the Metternich has acted a shabby and a foolish treaty. may perhaps ' be done in the Letters. Wm. What him.

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