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The positive sense of the force components on the cut section viewed toward the origin coincides with the positive direction of the coordinate axes as shown in Fig. (b).

The three components of moment which can occur at a section of a member act around the three coordinate axes Fig. (c).

The quantities shown in Fig.(c) will be represented alternatively by double headed vectors as in fig. (d). The sense of these vectors follows the righthand screw rule. *Mx is the torque = T

For planar problems the notation for and the diagrammatic representation of the forces components are shown in Fig. (e and f).

Side view of forces acts on the body; P (axial force), V (shear force), and the M (moment). 7

From the drawing shown before (P = F): Fx: Axial Force Fy, Fz: Shear Force (normal or direct stress) = (shear force) =

P A

VQ It

T=

T.R J

Mc I

Q Q

a) Axial Force

b) Shear Force

c) Torsion Force

d) Bending Moment

Sign Conventions: 1) SHEAR is considered Positive at section when it tends to Rotate the portion of the beam. In The Clock Wise Direction about an axis through @ point in side the force and normal to the plane of loading, otherwise it is negative. For concreteness consider a beam, such as shown in Fig. (1-a). Any part of this beam to either side of an imaginary cut, as (1-1), which is made perpendicular to the x-axis of the member, can treated as a free body.

8

P

L/2

L/2 X

Z X

P/2

P/2

(a) To maintain a segment of a beam Fy such as shown in Fig. (1-b) in equilibrium Mz there must be an internal vertical force Fy at the cut to satisfy the equation Fx Fy = 0 . This force is called; "Shear force, v". The shear is numerically equal to the algebraic sum of all the X Assumption P/2 vertical components of the external forces the external forces acting on the (b) Section 1-1 isolated segment, but it opposite in direction.

Fy =V

By apply: +

Fy = 0

Fy = P/2

P/2

(c)

v

(+ v) Shear

v

(- v) Shear

P/2

P/2

2) BENDING MOMENT is considered Positive at section when it tends to bend the member Con @ + ve upward; otherwise it is negative.

P +M +M

1

P/2 ( + ) Moment P/2

+M

-M

-M

-M

( - ) Moment

Ex1: P P

1

-M

1

3) AXIAL FORCE

10

Fx = 0

--- (1)

10 kN

RAX -6 =0 RAX = 6 kN + MA = 0

4

A

--- (2)

3m

104/5 = 8 kN

2m 10 kN

Fy = 0

--- (3)

RAx = 6 kN

4 3

103/5 = 6 kN

A

1

B

2

RAY = 3.2 kN

3m

X

2m

RBY = 4.8 kN

1

6 kN V1

M1 N1

A.S.F.

3.2 kN X

- 6 kN

Constant

Fx = 0

6- N1 = 0

N1= 6 kN

3.2kN

S.F.D.

+

Linear 1st Degree

+9.6kN -4.8kN

Fy = 0

B.M.D.

11

+ MA = 0 + 3.2 * X M1 = 0

M = + 3.2X kN

8 kN

2

6 kN M2 N2 V2

Fx = 0

N2= 0

6 kN

6-6- N2 = 0 +

3.2 kN 3

Fy = 0

+ 3.2 8 +V2 = 0 V2= 4.8 kN + MA = 0 + 3.2 * X2 8 (X2 3) M2 = 0 Just for Checking: Where X = 5m Where X = 3m M = - 4.8 5 +24 = 0 M = - 4.8 3 +24 = 9.6

M2 = - 4.8X2 +24

Note:

dM dV =V , =P dx dx

12

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