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Human Development- Generally defined as the progressive and continuous change in the individual from conception up to death. Research in Human Development Cross-sectional approach- Samples of different ages are studied at the same time Longitudinal approach- The same samples are studied over time Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development I. Sensorimotor Stage. (birth to 2 years). Response to the world by infants is through reflex actions which develop from simple to complex reflexes that become organized behaviours (schemas). The most familiar of the schemas is the “sucking schema”. You must have observed that the infant places into his mouth and suck anything that he can hold or grasp. Preoperational Stage.(2 to 7 years) Children now use symbols like mental images, words, and gestures to represent objects and events. At this stage, the child engaged in a lot of play.Symbolic play is many times done by imitation Characteristics of child at this stage: o o o o Centration- the child is unable to see more than one aspect of element Egocentrism- finds difficulty in understanding another’s perspective Animism- sees personality in inanimate objects Fantasy-reality- believes that fantasy is the same as reality
The child thinks that he is the center of the universe. During this stage, the development of language occurs at a rapid pace. Children learn how to interact with their environment in a more complex manner through the use of words and images.
Concrete Operations Stage (7 to 11 years)The children can now acquire certain logical structures that allow them to perform mental operations. Child knows that Pedro is taller than Mario, and that Mario is taller than Juan, he can infer that Pedro is taller than Juan. They can only apply this new understanding to concrete objects ( those they have actually experienced). In other words, imagined objects or those they have not seen, heard, or touched, continue to remain somewhat mystical to these children, and abstract thinking has yet to develop. IV. Formal Operations Stage (11 to 15 years) Mental operations are now applied to verbal or logical statements and not limited to concrete objects.Mental operations at this stage become more logical, abstract and hypothetical and are not limited to concrete objects.Adolescents can now think on their own.They also develop an increased understanding of the world and the idea of cause and effect. Moral Development Morality- the concept of appropriate conduct or behaviour Two Stages of Piaget’s Cognitive- Moral Development Stages 1) The Morality of Constraints. Also called heteronomous morality. Moral behaviour or moral judgment by the child is based on rules by authority perceived as absolutes. Following rules is the good thing to do. Rules are automatically obeyed without question.Objective consequences of an act in this stage become primary in determining morality 2) The Morality of Cooperation. Also called as autonomous morality. Morality at this stage originates from within the child. The adolescents follows rules not because these are imposed by external influences particularly adults but he sees obedience of rules as necessary for the survival of the society he belongs to. The person at this stage develop Reciprocity- states that a punishment must be logically related to the offense. Intentions and motives of the doer in this stage become primary in determining morality Kohlberg’s Cognitive- Moral Development Theory Conventional-conforming with accepted standards -following accepted customs Level I. Preconventional Morality (up to age nine) Stage 1. Punishment and obedience orientation. Stage 2. Instrumental relativist orientation. Level II. Conventional Morality (age nine to adolescence) Stage 3. “Good” boy/girl orientation, conformity Stage 4. Law, authority and other orientation Level III. Postconventional Morality (adulthood) Stage 5. Social contract legalistic orientation Stage 6. Universal ethical consideration
It’s the ego's job to meet the needs of the id. Oral Stage-Sets the foundation for personality development. When the id wants something. irresponsible adult disorganized (anal expulsive). Superego-By the age of five. although it is often useful to make deals and exchange favors with others. drink alcohol. It wants the person to be perfect. they see that there are different sides to any issue. Doing the right thing is obeying authority and avoiding punishment. Many equate the superego with the conscience as it dictates our belief of right and wrong. whether their parents are sleeping. or bite his or her nails. Rigid or strict toilet training may result in a dirty. At stages 3 and 4. and more concerned with the principles and values that make for a good society. babies are not real considerate of their parents' wishes."I could ask my father Girma to buy it forme. At stage 3. Structure of Personality Id-Also called as pleasure principle. the child places into his mouth anything that he is able to grasp). Sucking is an important activity at this stage not only to obtain food to satisfy hunger. messy. The child may resist completely the urge to defecate in a free and enjoyable manner. and at stage 6 they define the principles by which agreement will be most just. or bathing. compulsive. and chew anything they can get. In terms of personality. The id doesn't care about reality. Concerned with needs fulfilment. lick. It operates according to the reality principle. May result in excessive neatness during adulthood. Oral activities among infants are satisfying (e. gullible. criminality and other behaviours that disturb others." The ego . one is free to pursue one's own interests. This type of personality may have a stronger tendency to smoke. the Superego develops. Since everything is relative.At stage 4. which basically means having helpful motives toward people close to one . Fixation at this stage can occur due to strict and punitive toilet training. only its own satisfaction. the second part of the personality begins to develop. but he might say no. unhappy and extremely moralistic individual. If you think about it. Focus of pleasure is in the anus.g. Toilet training. and expectations. At stage 5 they emphasize basic rights and the democratic processes that give everyone a say. May result in extreme orderliness during adulthood. according to Freud. Because of fixation the anal character is stingy (unwilling to spend). they emphasize being a good person. The id shouts . nothing else is important. is a crucial event because it is the first big conflict between the child's id impulses and society's rules.Page 2 of 4 At stage 1 children think of what is right as that which authority says is right. bite. Holding in and expelling feces gives great sensual pleasure to the child. At stage 2. relaxing. these individuals may become overly dependent upon others. At stages 5 and 6 people are less concerned with maintaining society for it own sake. They have no care for time. A strong superego may lead to a rigid personality. eating dinner. Ego-Within the next three years. while taking into consideration the reality of the situation. extremely . young people think as members of the conventional society with its values.It is called psychosexual developmental stages because to the use of libido (sexual urge or desire) during childhood and adolescence is associated with different sensitive or erogenous zones (any area of the body especially sensitive to sexual stimulation) of the body. Focus of pleasure is in the mouth." Freud’s Psychosexual Developmental Stages. The ego is based on the reality principle. norms."I want it now! Take it!" The super ego . and perpetual followers. disrespect of others’ rights and extreme cases. children are no longer so impressed by any single authority. over eat. as the child interacts more and more with the world. but reality is taken into account to satisfy these biological needs. Integration of the three personality structures o A six-year-old child Bereket spots his favorite candy in a supermarket. The Superego is the moral part of us and develops due to the moral and ethical restraints placed on us by our caregivers. the concern shifts toward obeying laws to maintain society as a whole. A weak superego may lead to violation of norms. Satisfaction of biological needs is not given up.Personality wise. The id wants whatever feels good at the time. but also a source of intense pleasure for the child. about the needs of anyone else. and control (anal retentive). with no consideration for the reality of the situation. The demands of toilet training by parents are imposed at this stage. perfection. Anal Stage."Thou shall not steal. This is why babies suck. after effects of an anal fixation during this stage can result in an obsession with cleanliness.
Latency Stage. Through the lessons learned during the previous stages. not yielding to reason) The child who gets praise for his toilet training behaviour may become generous and productive Phallic Stage.. It is also referred to as the homosexual phase because of the relationships children of the same sex. Both boys and girls develop castration anxiety. Focus of pleasure is in the genitals (the penis for boys and the clitoris for girls). pedantic( pedant. There is no area of bodily attachment or erogenous zone in this stage. the tasks are the same.resulting from real or imagined threats to your sexual functions Oedipus Complex-boys develop unconscious sexual desires for their mother. adolescents direct their sexual urges onto opposite sex peers. This stage is called the gang stage because the children form same-sex groups. . Boys also develop a fear that their father will punish them for these feelings. Freud said that from puberty onward the individual’s great task is freeing himself from the parents.a person who pays more attention to formal rules) and obstinate (stubborn. Primary focus of pleasure is the genitals. Begins at the start of puberty when sexual urges are once again awakened. Pleasure focuses on masturbation (self-manipulation) of the genitals. He becomes rivals with his father and sees him as competition for the mother’s affection. Children interact and play mostly with same sex peers. this means releasing his tie to the mother and finding a woman of his own.Page 3 of 4 orderly. For the daughter. Electra Complex-girls develop unconscious sexual attraction to their father. such as by castrating them. she too must separate from the parents and establish a life of her own. Genital Stage. The girl being jealous of her mother maintains relationship with her father. The boy must also resolve his rivalry with his father and free himself of his father’s domination of him. For the son.This stage is characterized by Oedipus complex (derived from a Greek mythology where Oedipus accidentally killed his father in a battle and later married his own mother) in boys and Electra complex in girls.
Success in this stage leads to a sense of purpose. while failure results in regret. resulting in a sense of guilt. Children need to develop a sense of personal control over physical skills and a sense of independence. care. bitterness. Role Social Confusion Relationships Relationships Yound Adulthood Intimacy vs. Adults need to create or nurture things that will outlast them. Failure to successfully complete a stage can result in a reduced ability to complete further stages and therefore a more unhealthy personality and sense of self. often by having children or creating a positive change that benefits other people. Children need to begin asserting control and power over the envi ronment. while failure results in shallow involvement in the world. Success at this stage leads to feelings of wisdom. Success leads to an ability to stay true to yourself. Teens need to develop a sense of self and personal identity. Undergoes eight stages and characterized by a crisis (the so called crisis is due to two conflicting traits). Older adults need to look back on life and feel a sense of fulfillment. while failure results in feelings of inferiority. Stage Infancy (birth to 18 months) Early Childhood (2 to 3 years) Basic Conflict Trust vs. Children need to cope with new social and academic demands. and despair. Success leads to feelings of autonomy. Success leads to feelings of usefulness and accomplishment. (19 to 40 years) Isolation Middle Generativity vs.Page 4 of 4 Erick Erikson’s Psychosocial Development Stages. while failure leads to role confusion and a weak sense of self. and affection. Shame and Doubt Important Events Feeding Toilet Training Outcome Children develop a sense of trust when caregivers provide reliabilty. Inferiority Exploration School Identity vs. Children who try to exert too much power experience disapproval. successful completion of each stage results in a healthy personality and successful interactions with others. Despair Work and Parenthood Reflection on Life . Success leads to a sense of competence. while failure results in loneliness and isolation. failure results in feelings of shame and doubt. Preschool (3 to 5 Initiative vs. Mistrust Autonomy vs. According to the theory. A lack of this will lead to mistrust. Adulthood (40 to Stagnation 65 years) Maturity(65 to death) Ego Integrity vs. Success leads to strong relationships. loving relationships with other people. years) Guilt School Age (6 to 11 years) Adolescence (12 to 18 years) Industry vs. Young adults need to form intimate.