EMC Design

Fundamentals
EMC Design
Fundamentals
James Colotti
EMC Certified by NARTE
Staff Analog Design Engineer
Telephonics - Command Systems Division
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Copyright Telephonics 2003-2005
Outline
Outline
♦ Introduction
- Importance of EMC
- Problems with non-compliance
♦ Concepts & Definitions
♦ Standards
- FCC, US Military, EU, RTCA
♦ Design Guidelines and Methodology
- EM Waves, Shielding
- Layout and Partitioning
- Power Distribution
- Power Conversion
- Signal Distribution
♦ Design Process
♦ References and Vendors
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Introduction
Introduction
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Importance of EMC
Importance of EMC
♦ Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) requires that
systems/equipment be able to tolerate a specified degree
of interference and not generate more than a specified
amount of interference
♦ EMC is becoming more important because there are so
many more opportunities today for EMC issues
♦ Increase use of electronic devices
- Automotive applications
- Personal computing/entertainment/communication
♦ Increased potential for susceptibility/emissions
- Lower supply voltages
- Increasing clock frequencies, faster slew rates
- Increasing packaging density
- Demand for smaller, lighter, cheaper, lower-power devices
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Problems with Non-Compliance
Problems with Non-Compliance
♦ Product may be blocked from market
♦ Practical impact can be minor annoyance to lethal
…and everything in between
Significant
Property Loss
Lost Revenue, Minor
Property Loss
Death or
Serious Injury
Annoyance,
Delays
•RADAR, Landing
System Interruption
•Erroneous Ordnance
Firing
•Improper Deployment
of Airbags
•Critical communications
Interference/Interruption
•Automated Monetary
Transactions
•AM/FM/XM/TV
Interference
•Cell Phone
Interference
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Non-Compliance (continued)
Non-Compliance (continued)
♦ Fortunately, industry is well regulated and standards are
comprehensive
♦ Major EMC issues are relatively rare
♦ For cost-effective compliance
- EMC considered throughout product/system development
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Concepts
&
Definitions
Concepts
&
Definitions
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Concepts & Definitions
Concepts & Definitions
♦ Electromagnetic Interference (EMI)
- Electromagnetic emissions from a device or system that
interfere with the normal operation of another device or system
- Also referred to as Radio Frequency Interference (RFI)
♦ Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC)
- The ability of equipment or system to function satisfactorily in
its Electromagnetic Environment (EME) without introducing
intolerable electromagnetic disturbance to anything in that
environment
- In other words:
Tolerate a specified degree of interference,
Not generate more than a specified amount of interference,
Be self-compatible
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Concepts & Definitions, Continued
Concepts & Definitions, Continued
♦ For an EMC problem to exist:
- System/Device that generates interference
- System/Device that is susceptible to the interference
- Coupling path
♦ Mitigation of EMC Issues
- Reduce interference levels generated by culprit
- Increase the susceptibility (immunity) threshold of the victim
- Reduce the effectiveness of the coupling path
- Combination of the above

System/Device
that generates
interference

(Culprit)
System/Device
that is
susceptible to
Interference
(Victim)
Coupling Path
Conducted
• Power Lines
• Signal Lines
Radiated
• Magnetic
• Electric
• Plane Wave
Operating Freq Selection Reduce # of Interconnections Operating Freq Selection
Reduce Signal Level
Filter Interconnections Freq Dithering
Add Local Filtering Shielding Add Local Filtering
Modify Signal Routing Increase Separation Modify Signal Routing
Receiver (Victim) Coupling Path Source (Culprit)
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Standards
Standards
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Some of the Institutes that
Establish EMC Standards
Some of the Institutes that
Establish EMC Standards
♦ Federal Communication Commission (FCC)
♦ US Military
♦ European Union (EU)
♦ Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics (RTCA)
♦ This lecture’s main focus is on EMC Fundamentals, not
- Electro Static Discharge (ESD)
- Direct Lightning Effects
- Antenna Lead Conducted Emissions/Susceptibility
- RF Radiation Safety
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FCC Part 15
FCC Part 15
66 to 56 *
56
60
79
73
Quasi-Peak Limit
(dBuV)
Average Limit
(dBuV)
Frequency
(MHz)
56 to 46 *
46
50
0.15 – 0.5
0.5 – 5
5 - 30
Class B
66
60
0.15 – 0.5
0.5 - 30.0
Class A
Conducted Emissions
*Decrease as logarithm of frequency
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FCC Part 15
FCC Part 15
Field Strength Limit
(uV/m)
Frequency
(MHz)
100
150
200
500
30 – 88
88 – 216
216 – 960
above 960
Class B
(3 meters)
90
150
210
300
30 – 88
88 – 216
216 – 960
above 960
Class A
(10 meters)
General Radiated Emission
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MIL-STD-461E
MIL-STD-461E
♦ Requirements for the Control of EMI Characteristics of Subsystems & Equipment
Conducted Susceptibility, Dampened Sinusoidal Transients, Cables & Power Leads, 10 kHz to 100 MHz CS116
Radiated Susceptibility, Transient Electromagnetic Field RS105
Radiated Susceptibility, Electric Field, 10 kHz to 40 GHz RS103
Radiated Susceptibility, Magnetic Field, 30 Hz to 100 kHz RS101
Radiated Emissions, Antenna Spurious and Harmonic Outputs, 10 kHz to 40 GHz RE103
Radiated Emissions, Electric Field, 10 kHz to 18 GHz RE102
Radiated Emissions, Magnetic Field, 30 Hz to 100 kHz RE101
Conducted Susceptibility, Bulk Cable Injection, Impulse Excitation CS115
Conducted Susceptibility, Bulk Cable Injection, 10 kHz to 200 MHz CS114
Conducted Susceptibility, Structure Current, 60 Hz to 100 kHz CS109
Conducted Susceptibility, Antenna Port, Cross Modulation, 30 Hz to 20 GHz CS105
Conducted Susceptibility, Antenna Port, Rejection of Undesired Signals, 30 Hz to 20 GHz CS104
Conducted Susceptibility, Antenna Port, Intermodulation, 15 kHz to 10 GHz CS103
Conducted Susceptibility, Power Leads, 30 Hz to 50 kHz CS101
Conducted Emissions, Antenna Terminal, 10 kHz to 40 GHz CE106
Conducted Emissions, Power Leads, 10 kHz to 10 MHz CE102
Conducted Emissions, Power Leads, 30 Hz to 10 kHz CE101
Description Req’t
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EU Standard Examples (Emissions)
EU Standard Examples (Emissions)
Limitation of voltage changes, voltage fluctuations and flicker in
public low-voltage supply systems
EN61000-3-3
Limits for harmonic current emissions (equipment input current up to
and including 16 A per phase)
EN61000-3-2
Limits and methods of measurement of radio disturbance
characteristics of electrical lighting and similar equipment
EN55015
Emission requirements for household appliances, electric tools and
similar apparatus
EN55014-1
Limits and methods of measurement of radio disturbance
characteristics of broadcast receivers and associated equipment
EN55013
Industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) radio frequency equipment -
Radio disturbance characteristics - Limits and methods of
measurement
(Also known as CISPR-11)
EN55011
Limits and methods of measurement of radio disturbance
characteristics of information technology equipment
(Also known as CISPR-22)
EN55022
Generic emissions standard for industrial environment EN50081-2
Generic emissions standard for residential, commercial and light
industrial environments.
EN50081-1
Description Standard
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EU Standard Examples (Immunity)
EU Standard Examples (Immunity)
Equipment for general lighting purposes — EMC immunity
requirements
EN61547
Voltage Dips and Interruptions Test EN61000-4-11
Immunity for residential, commercial and light-industrial
environments
EN61000-6-1
Immunity for industrial environments EN61000-6-2
Electrostatic Discharge EN61000-4-2
Electromagnetic compatibility — Product family standard for lifts,
escalators and passenger conveyors — Immunity
EN12016
Power Frequency Magnetic Test EN61000-4-8
Conducted Immunity Test EN61000-4-6
Surge Test EN61000-4-5
Electrical Fast Transient/Burst Test EN61000-4-4
Radiated Susceptibility Test EN61000-4-3
Description Standard
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Standard Example - RTCA
Standard Example - RTCA
♦ DO-160, Environmental Conditions & Test Procedures for Airborne
Equipment
Power Lines: 0.15-30 MHz
Interconnecting Cables: 0.15-100 MHz
Radiated: 2-6,000 MHz
Emission of Radio Frequency 21
Conducted: 0.01-400 MHz
Radiated: 0.1-2, 8 or 18 GHz
Radio Frequency Susceptibility (Radiated
and Conducted)
20
0.01 - 150 kHz or 0.2 - 15 kHz Audio Frequency Conducted Susceptibility –
Power Inputs
18
Interconnection Cabling
E field and H Field
400 Hz – 15 kHz and spikes
Induced Signal Susceptibility 19
Pin & Bulk injection, Pulse & Dampened
Sine
Lightning Induced Transient Susceptibility 22
Power Leads
Up to 600 V or 2x Line Voltage
Voltage Spike 17
115 VAC, 28 VDC and 14 VDC Power
Voltage/frequency range, interruptions,
surges
Power Input 16
Notes Title Section
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Standard Summary
Standard Summary
♦ Numerous EMC standards exists
♦ Common Fundamental Theme
- Conducted Emission Limits
- Radiated Emission Limits
- Conducted Susceptibility (Immunity) Limits
- Radiated Susceptibility (Immunity) Limits
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Design Guidelines
and
Methodology
Design Guidelines
and
Methodology
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Electromagnetic Waves
Electromagnetic Waves
♦ Electromagnetic waves consist of two orthogonal fields
- Electric, E-Field (V/m)
- Magnetic, H-Field (A/m)
♦ Wave Impedance, Z
W
=E/H Ω
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Electromagnetic Waves
Electromagnetic Waves
♦ E-Fields, high impedance, wire (dipole)
♦ H-Fields, low impedance, current loops (xformer)
♦ In far field, all waves become plane waves
d/λ
π
λ
2
> d
Far Field for a Point Source
Ω = =


= =



m
F
m
H
Z
W
377 120
10
36
1
10 4
9
7
0
0
π
π
π
ε
µ
Impedance of Plain Wave
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Shielding
Shielding
♦ Enclosure/Chassis
- Mechanical Structure
- Thermal Path
- Can form an overall shield (important EMC component)
- Can be used as “first” line of defense for Radiated
emission/susceptibility
♦ Some Applications Cannot Afford Overall Shield
- Rely of other means of controlling EMC
♦ Enclosure material
- Metal
- Plastic with conductive coating
(Conductive paint or vacuum deposition)
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Shielding Illustration
Shielding Illustration
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Shielding Effectiveness
Shielding Effectiveness
♦ Shielding effectiveness (SE) is a measure of how well an
enclosure attenuates electromagnetic fields
♦ Theoretical SE of homogeneous material
- Reflective losses, R
- Absorption losses, A and
- Secondary reflective losses, B (ignore if A>8 dB)
Outside
Inside
E
E
Log SEdB
10
20 =
A R SE B A R SE + = ⇒ + + =
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SE Equations
SE Equations
R = 20Log
h 10
0 462 0136
0354
. .
.
r f
r
f
r
r
r
r
|
\

|
.
|
+ +

¸

(
¸
(
(
(
(
µ
σ
µ
σ
|
|
.
|

\
|
r
2
r
3
10 e
r f
Log 10 - 354 = R
σ
µ
R = 168 + 10 Log p
10
f
σ
µ
r
r
|
\

|
.
|
|
Magnetic Field Reflective Loss
Electric Field Reflective Loss
Plane Wave Reflective Loss
A t f r r = 0 003338 . µ σ
Absorptive Loss
where:
t = Material thickness (mils)
µ
r
= Material permeability relative to air
σ
r
= Material conductivity relative to copper
f = Frequency (Hz)
r = Source to shield distance (inches)
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SE Theoretical Examples
SE Theoretical Examples
>200
>200
>200
>200
>200
125
Magnetic
(dB)
Cold Rolled Steel (60 mils)
>200
>200
>200
>200
>200
>200
Electric
(dB)
>200
>200
>200
>200
>200
>200
Plane
(dB)
>200
>200
>200
>200
165
141
Plane
(dB)
>200
184
106
74
57
45
Magnetic
(dB)
Copper (3 mils)
>200
193
154
162
186
>200
Electric
(dB)
>200 >200 >200 1G
188 >200 >200 100M
130 >200 >200 10M
118 >200 >200 1M
121 >200 101 100k
129 >200 58 10k
Plane
(dB)
Electric
(dB)
Magnetic
(dB)
Aluminum (60 mils)
Freq
(Hz)
♦ r=12”
♦ µ
r
= 1 (Aluminum), 180 (Cold Rolled Steel), 1 (Copper)
♦ σ
r
= 0.6 (Aluminum), 0.17 (Cold Rolled Steel), 1 (Copper)
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SE Practical Considerations
SE Practical Considerations
♦ SE is typically limited by apertures & seams
- Removable Covers
- Holes for control/display components
- Holes for ventilation
- Holes for connectors
♦ Mitigation of apertures and seams
- Minimize size and number of apertures and seams
- Use gaskets/spring-fingers to seal metal-to-metal interface
- Interfaces free of paint and debris
- Adequate mating surface area
- Avoid Galvanic Corrosion
- Use of EMI/conductive control/display components
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Holes/Apertures d>t
Holes/Apertures d>t
0dB SE ≈


t
d
d
Log SE
2
20
10
λ

d
2
If <
λ
d
2
If >
λ
♦ Single Hole


t
d
s
♦ Multiple Holes
n Log
d
20Log SE
10 10
10
2
− ≈
λ
1 < > <
d
s
and d
2
s If
λ
where:
t = Material thickness
n = Number of Holes
s = edge to edge hole spacing
Notes:
1. d is the longest dimension of the hole.
2. Maximum SE is that of a solid barrier without aperture.
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Holes/Apertures d<t (w<t)
Holes/Apertures d<t (w<t)
♦ Behaves like a waveguide below cutoff

t
w
w
c
2 = λ
Cutoff wavelength
Absorption factor of WG below cutoff
For frequencies well below cutoff
Absorption loss
2
1
2
|
|
.
|

\
|
− =
c c
f
f
λ
π
α
w
c
π
λ
π
α = =
2
55 2
109 4
164 6
>200 8
Loss t/w
w
t
t A 3 . 27 686 . 8 = = α
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Enclosure Seams
Enclosure Seams
♦ SE can be limited by the failure of seams to make adequate
contact
- Contact area must be conductive
- Adequate cross-section of overlap
- Adequate number of contact points
♦ Gasketing helps ensure electrical contact between fasteners
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Gasketing Examples
Gasketing Examples
♦ Fingerstock (≈100 dB @ 2GHz)
- Large Selection (shape, size, plating)
- Wide mechanical compression range
- High shielding effectiveness
- Good for frequent access applications
- No environmental seal
♦ Oriented Wire (≈80 dB @ 2GHz)
- Provides both EMI and Moisture Seal
- Lower SE than all-metal gaskets
- Sponge or Solid Silicone, Aluminum or Monel
- Mechanically versatile – die cut
♦ Conductive Elastomers (≈80 dB @ 2GHz)
- Provides both EMI and Moisture Seal
- Lower SE than all-metal gaskets
- Mechanically versatile – die cut or molded
Courtesy of Tecknit
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Panel Components
Panel Components
Air
Ventilation
Panels
EMC Switch
Shield
Shielded
Windows
Courtesy of Tecknit
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Galvanic Series
Galvanic Series
♦ Galvanic Corrosion
-Two dissimilar metals in electrical contact in presence of an
electrolyte
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Galvanic Series Table
Galvanic Series Table
0.35
Beryllium Copper, Low Brasses or Bronzes, Silver Solder, Copper, Ni-Cr Alloys, Austenitic Corrosion-Resistant Steels, Most Chrome-
Moly Steels, Specialty High-Temp Stainless Steels
0.40 Commercial Yellow Brasses and Bronzes
0.15 Silver, High-Silver Alloys
0.30 Nickel, Nickel-Copper Alloys, Titanium, Titanium Alloys, Monel
0.10 Rhodium Plating
0.00 Gold, Wrought Platinum, Graphite Carbon
1.85 Beryllium
1.75 Wrought and Cast Magnesium Alloys
1.25 Wrought Zinc, Zinc Die Casting Alloys
1.20 Hot-Dip Galvanized or Electro-Galvanized Steel
0.95 Cast aluminum Alloys (other than Al-Si), Cadmium Plating
0.90 Wrought Aluminum Alloys (except 2000 series cast Al-Si alloys), 6000 Series Aluminum
0.85 Wrought Gray or Malleable Iron, Plain Carbon and Low-Alloy Steels, Armco Iron, Cold-Rolled Steel
0.75 Wrought 2000 Series Aluminum Alloys
0.70 Lead, High-Lead Alloys
0.65 Tin-Lead Solder, Terneplate
0.60 Chromium or Tin Plating, 12% Cr type Corrosion Resistant Steels, Most 400 Series Stainless Steels
0.50 18% Cr-type Corrosion Resistant Steels, Common 300 Series Stainless Steels
0.45 High Brasses and Bronzes, Naval Brass, Muntz Metal
Anodic
Index
(V)
Metallurgical Category
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Galvanic Series Notes
Galvanic Series Notes
♦ For harsh environments
- Outdoors, high humidity/salt
- Typically design for < 0.15 V difference
♦ For normal environments
- Storage in warehouses, no-temperature/humidity control
- Typically < 0.25 V difference
♦ For controlled environments
- Temperature/humidity controlled
- Typically design for < 0.50 V difference
♦ Mitigation of Galvanic Corrosion
- Choosing metals with the least potential difference
- Finishes, such as MIL-C-5541, Class 3 using minimal dip immersion
- Plating
- Insulators, as electrically/thermally appropriate
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System Partitioning/Guidelines
System Partitioning/Guidelines
♦ Minimize interconnections between WRAs/LRUs
♦ Minimize the distribution of analog signals
♦ Control interference at the source

Power Bus
Signals



Culprit

Potential
Victim


Potential
Victim


Potential
Victim

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Control Interference at the Source
Control Interference at the Source
♦ Preferred Approach – Shield/Filter the Source (Culprit)

Power Bus
Signals



Culprit

Potential
Victim


Potential
Victim


Potential
Victim

♦ Alternate Approach – Shield/Filter Potential Receivers (Victims)

Power Bus
Signals



Culprit

Potential
Victim


Potential
Victim


Potential
Victim

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CCA Layout and Partitioning
CCA Layout and Partitioning
♦ Layout is 3 Dimensional
- Component placement (X & Y)
- Signal and Power Routing (X & Y)
- PWB Stack Up (Z)
♦ Dedicate layer(s) to ground
- Forms reference planes for signals
- EMI Control (high speed, fast slew rate, critical analog/RF)
- Simpler impedance control
♦ Dedicate layer(s) to Supply Voltages
- In addition to dedicated ground layers
- Low ESL/ESR power distribution
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One and Two Layer
One and Two Layer

One Sided
Signals, Grounds, Supplies
• Inexpensive
• Difficult to control EMI without
external shield
• Difficult to control impedance
Dielectric

Two Sided
Signals, Ground, Supplies
• Inexpensive (slightly more than 1
sided)
• EMI mitigation with ground plane
• Impedance control simplified with
ground plane
Dielectric
Ground Plane
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Radiation Example, 50 MHz Clock
Radiation Example, 50 MHz Clock
E-Field
Probe
♦ Adding ground
plane reduces
emission of
fundamental ≈40 dB

E-Field
Probe
PWB: 2” x 6” x 0.060” (FR4)
Trace: 5” x 0.050”
E-Field Probe Spacing: 2”
(Emco 7405-004)
Source: 50 MHz, 4 ns rise/fall,
3 Vp
With Ground Plane
(Micro-Strip)
No Ground Plane
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Multi-Layer Stack Up Examples
Multi-Layer Stack Up Examples

Signal
Ground Plane
Signal
Signal
Supply Plane
Signal
Ground Plane
Signal
Ground Plane
Signal
High Speed Digital PWB

High Density

Ten Layers

Two Micro-Strip
Routing Layers

Four Asymmetrical
Strip-Line Routing
Layers

Single Supply Plane

Two Sided
1
1


Signal
Signal
Supply Plane
Ground Plane
Signal
Signal
High Speed Digital PWB

Moderate Density

Six Layers

Two Micro-Strip
Routing Layers

Two Buried Micro-Strip
Routing Layers

Single Supply Plane

Two Sided
2
2

Analog Signal/Power
Ground Plane
Analog Signal/Power
Digital Signal
Digital Supply Plane
Signal
Ground Plane
Signal
Ground Plane
Digital Signal
Mixed Analog/RF/Digital PWB
• Moderate Density
• Ten Layers
• Two Micro-Strip Routing Layers
• Four Asymmetrical Strip-Line
Routing Layers
• Single Digital Supply Plane
• Analog supplies on inner layers
- Routing Clearance Considerations
- Improved isolation
• Two Sided
3
3

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PWB Example
PWB Example
FPGA &
Support
Logic
High Speed
Digital I/O
VME I/O Digital &
Power
♦ Three Channel, L-Band VME Receiver
- Shield removed for clarity
IF Processing
RF Sections
Video
ADCs
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CCA Level Shielding
CCA Level Shielding
♦ Used in conjunction with PWB ground plane(s)
♦ Supplement shielding of overall enclosure or instead of
overall enclosure
♦ Isolate sections of CCA
- Local Oscillators, Front Ends,
High Speed Digital, Low Level
Analog (audio, video)
Courtesy of Mueller
Metal CCA Shield
Examples
Metalized Plastic
Shield Examples
Courtesy of Leader Tech
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COTS Power Supply Selection
COTS Power Supply Selection
(AC/DC Power Converters)
(AC/DC Power Converters)
♦ EMC Selection Considerations
- AC Input EMC Specification Compliance
- Radiated emission/immunity compliance
- Open frame, enclosed, stand-alone
- Hold-Up Time
- DC to AC Noise Isolation
- DC to DC Noise Isolation (Multi-output)
- DC to DC Galvanic Isolation (Multi-output)
♦ Non-EMC Selection Considerations
- Safety compliance
- Size & weight
- Efficiency
- Line/Load/Temperature Regulation
- Operating/Storage Temperature Ranges
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DC/DC Converter Design/Selection
DC/DC Converter Design/Selection
♦ Small Converters at CCA Level
- Local regulation in critical applications
- Generate unavailable voltages (3.3 to 1.25 VDC for FPGA core)
- Many complete COTs solutions available (Vicor, Interpoint, etc.)
- Many discrete solutions available (Linear Tech, National, etc.)
♦ Linear
- Inherently Quiet
- Provide noise isolation, input to output
- Typically much less efficient (depends on V
In
-V
Out
difference)
- Three terminal devices provide no Galvanic isolation
♦ Switching
- Can be configured for Galvanic isolation
- Typically noisier than Linear (however mitigation options exist)
- Pulse Width Modulation, Controlled di/dt and dV/dt
- Pulse Width Modulation, Spread Spectrum
- Resonant mode (zero current switching)
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PWM, Controlled Transition, Spread Spectrum
PWM, Controlled Transition, Spread Spectrum
♦ Linear Technology LT1777 (Controlled di/dt & dV/dt)
Controlled
Transition
Time PWM
Standard
PWM
♦ Linear Technology LTC3252 (Spread spectrum 1.0-1.6 MHz)
Spread
Spectrum
PWM
Fixed
Frequency
PWM
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PWM, Resonant Mode Comparison
PWM, Resonant Mode Comparison
♦ Resonant Mode Vs PWM
- 48 VDC Input, 5 VDC Output
- 100 kHz to 30 MHz, Input Noise
Courtesy of Vicor
PWM
Topology
Resonant
Mode
Topology
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Power Distribution – System Level
Power Distribution – System Level

DC Power Bus (Single Voltage)
System AC
Power
DC/DC
Converter

Load

AC/DC
Power Converter
DC/DC
Converter

Load
DC/DC
Converter

Load
DC/DC
Converter

Load

DC Power Supply (Multiple Voltages)
System AC
Power

Load

AC/DC
Power Converter

Load

Load

Load

DC Power
(Multiple
Voltages)
System AC
Power

Load(s)
AC/DC
Power Converter
DC Power
(Multiple
Voltages)
System AC
Power

Load(s)
AC/DC
Power Converter
DC Power
(Multiple
Voltages)
System AC
Power

Load(s)
AC/DC
Power Converter
♦ Distributed DC
- One Primary Converter
- Multiple Secondary
Converters at each load
- Typical Application:
Large ground based system
♦ Direct DC
- One Primary Converter
for all loads
- Typical Application:
Home Computer
♦ Separate Primary
- One AC/DC Converter per unit
- Typical Application:
RADAR System housed in
multiple units
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Power Distribution Examples
Power Distribution Examples
AN/APS-147 LAMPS RADAR
(Separate Primary Distribution)
Multiple Access
Beamforming
Equipment
(Distributed DC)
Personal Computer
(Direct DC Distribution)
Courtesy of Dell
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Power Distribution Comparison
Power Distribution Comparison
x
-
+
Load
Iso
+
+
-
Power
Effic
x
-
+
Load
Reg
x
-
+
Load
Ground
Loops
May not be practical on large
systems with heavy current
demands and/or tight
regulation requirements
Only one Converter is directly
exposed to input.
Notes
Separate
Primary
Direct
DC
Distributed
DC
Architecture
♦ Legend:
“+” Advantage
“-” Disadvantage
“x” Neutral
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Signal Distribution
Signal Distribution
♦ Avoid routing analog signals over long distances in harsh
environments, but if unavoidable:
- Differential
- Amplify at source and attenuate/filter at destination
♦ Inter-Unit (LRU or WRA)
- Digital preferred over analog
- Differential preferred over single ended
- Minimize number of interconnects
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Cable Shields
Cable Shields
♦ Shields of external interconnecting cables
- Essentially extensions of the chassis enclosure
♦ Shielding Effectiveness and Transfer Impedance
- Properties of material
- Degree of coverage
- Geometry
♦ Shields are an important part of EMC design, especially in
systems that require compliance to EMP and/or Indirect
Lightning Effects
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Cable Shield Termination
Cable Shield Termination
♦ Maintaining quality SE and Transfer Impedance depends on
effective termination of shields at both ends
- 360 Degree Backshells
- If high frequency isolation is
needed, avoid using long
leads to terminate shields
Coax Shield Terminated with
Excessive Lead Length
Unassembled 360
Degree Backshell for D
Connector
Circular D38999 Mil
Connector with 360
Degree Backshel
Exploded View of 360 Degree
Backshell for D38999 Connector
l
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Shield Example
Shield Example
95% Coverage Double Copper Shield
Shielding Effectiveness
60
80
90
90
100
100
100
100
Plane
Wave
(dB)
60 60 10 G
80 80 1 G
0.0060 90 90 100 M
0.0011 90 90 10 M
0.0014 100 70 1 M
0.0080 100 36 100 k
0.0080 100 16 10 k
100 0 1 k
Xer Z
(Ω/m)
Electric
(dB)
Magnetic
(dB)
Frequency
(Hz)
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Transfer Impedance Example
Transfer Impedance Example
s
i
T
I
V
Z = (Ω per meter)
CS116 of MIL-STD-461E Example
10 A at 10 MHz


I
S


V
i


Transfer Impedance
( ) ( ) mV m
m
A l Z I V
T s i
22 2 0011 . 0 10 =
|
.
|

\
|

= =
Induced Voltage of 22 mV is well below
damage/upset threshold of most logic
families.
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Coupling Example #1, 0.3-200 MHz
Coupling Example #1, 0.3-200 MHz
♦ Two Parallel Lines, One shielded, One unshielded
- 0.5” Over Ground Plane, 10” Long, Separated by 2”
- Shielded Line has 0.5” exposed
Both shielded ends grounded
with 1” loop (19 nH)
Both ends of shield
ungrounded
Both ends of shield grounded
with 3” loop (60 nH)
Continuous shield
with both ends of
grounded directly
Both ends of shield
directly grounded
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Coupling Example #2, 0.3-200 MHz
Coupling Example #2, 0.3-200 MHz
♦ Two Parallel Lines, One shielded, One unshielded
- 0.5” Over Ground Plane, 10” Long, Separated by 0.5”
- Shielded Line has 0.5” exposed
Both ends of shield
ungrounded
Both shielded ends grounded
with 1” loop (19 nH)
Both ends of shield grounded
with 3” loop (60 nH)
Continuous shield
with both ends of
grounded directly
Both ends of shield
directly grounded
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Filter Connectors
Filter Connectors
♦ Applications for connectors with integral filtering and/or
transient suppressors
- Shields not permitted on interconnection cables
- Isolation needed between assemblies (WRAs, LRUs)
♦ Filtering effectiveness is typically much better than discrete
filters
- Parasitics
- Interconnection Coupling
(between filter & connector)
Courtesy of G&H Technology
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Discrete Filter vs. Filter Connector
Discrete Filter vs. Filter Connector
♦ Portable RADAR System, I/O Cables Unshielded
♦ RADAR Headset cable interferes with 100 - 200 MHz
Communication band
Filter Connector
(1nH, 8000 pF)
Discrete LC Filter at
Connector
(1nH, 8200p)
Baseline
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Signal Spectra & Filter Connectors
Signal Spectra & Filter Connectors

20 dB/Decade
40 dB/Decade
f
1
f
2 Frequency (Hz)
A(f)
( )
MHz
ns t
f
W
9 . 15
20
1 1
1
= = =
π π
( )
MHz
ns ns t t
f
f r
159
2 2
1 2 1 2
2
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
π π
Frequency Domain
Typical 50 MHz Clock Example
♦ Come in many types and filter capabilities
- Filter Topologies: Pi, C, LC
- Various cutoff frequencies
- In some cases, not larger than standard non-filtered version
♦ Selection Considerations
- Spectrum of Signals
- Source/Sink Capability of Driver
- Source/Load Impedances
- Cable effects

t
r
Time
A(t)
t
w
t
f
Time Domain
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EMC Design Process
EMC Design Process
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Design Process
Design Process
♦ Starts with a System/Device Specification
- Describes the applicable EMC Requirement(s)
♦ Develop and Implement an EMC Control Plan
- Details EMC Requirements and clarifies interpretation
- Lists applicable documents
- Defines management approach
- Defines the design procedures/techniques
- EMC design is most efficiently accomplished when considered
early in the program
♦ Process Example
- Intended for large system
- Can easily be tailored for smaller system or a single device.
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EMC Design Flow Diagram
EMC Design Flow Diagram

System/Device
Specification
Generate
EMC/EMI
Control Plan
• Cull EMC Requirements from System/Device Specification
and clarifies interpretation
• Summarize applicable documents, specifications and
standards
• EMC Program Organization and Responsibilities
• Defines design procedures and techniques
Chassis/
Enclosure
Bonding
and
Grounding
PWB Layout
and
Construction
• Shielding
• Material Selection
• Gasketing
• Covers
Mechanical Design Electrical Design System Design
Hardware
Partitioning and
Location
Power
Conversion and
Distribution
Signal
Distribution
• Conversion Topology
Linear, Resonant,
PWM
• Connector Selection
Filter/Non-Filter
• Filter location/type
• Single Ended,
Differential
• Logic Family
• Connector Selection
Filter/Non-Filter
• Filter location/type
• Cable harnessing
and shielding
• Signal Spectrum
• Micro-strip, stripline
• Number of layers
• Ground layers
• Separation of analog,
RF, digital and power
• System functional
allocation
• Separation of analog,
RF, digital and power

• Single vs. Multi Point
Ground
• Chassis component
bonding
• EMC Engineer may need to be involved with SOW and/or
specification prior to contract award.
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Typical EMC Engineer’s Involvement
Typical EMC Engineer’s Involvement
♦ Prepare EMC Section of Proposal
♦ Contract/SOW Review and Recommendations
♦ Interference Prediction
♦ Design Testing
♦ Interference Control Design
♦ Preparation of EMC Control Plan
♦ Subcontractor and Vendor EMC Control
♦ Internal Electrical and Mechanical Design Reviews
♦ EMC Design Reviews with the Customer
♦ Interference Testing of Critical Items
♦ Amend the EMC Control Plan, as Necessary
♦ Liaison with Manufacturing
♦ In-Process Inspection During Manufacturing
♦ Preparation of EMC Test Plan/Procedure
♦ Performance of EMC Qualification Tests
♦ Redesign and Retest where Necessary
♦ Preparation and Submittal of EMC Test Report or Declaration
Design
Manufacture
Test
Pre-Award
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References
References
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References
References
♦ “New Dimensions in Shielding”, Robert B. Cowdell, IEEE
Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility, 1968 March
♦ “Alleviating Noise Concerns in Handheld Wireless Products”, Tony
Armstrong, Power Electronics Technology, 2003 October
♦ “Electromagnetic Compatibility Design Guide”, Tecknit
♦ “Metals Galvanic Compatibility Chart”, Instrument Specialties
♦ “EMI Shielding Theory”, Chomerics
♦ “Shield that Cable!”, Bruce Morgen, Electronic Products, 1983
August 15
♦ “Interference Coupling - Attack it Early”, Richard J Mohr,
Electronic Design News, 1969 July
♦ “Simplified Method of Analyzing Transients in Interference
Prediction” H.L. Rehkopf, Presented at the Eighth IEEE
Symposium of EMC, San Francisco, CA, 1966
♦ “Electronic Systems Failures & Anomalies Attributed to EMI”
NASA Reference Publication 1374
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Committees and Organizations
Committees and Organizations
♦ Comité Internationale Spécial des Perturbations
Radioelectrotechnique (CISPR)
♦ Federal Communication Commission (FCC), www.FCC.gov
♦ European Union, www.Europa.eu.int
♦ Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics (RTCA)
www.RTCA.org
♦ National Association of Radio & Telecommunications Engineers
(NARTE), www.NARTE.org
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Gasket and Shielding Vendors
Gasket and Shielding Vendors
♦ www.Chomerics.com
♦ www.LairdTech.com
♦ www.Tecknit.com
♦ www.Spira-EMI.com
♦ www.WaveZero.com
♦ www.LeaderTechInc.com
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Backshell Vendors
Backshell Vendors
♦ www.SunBankCorp.com
♦ www.TycoElectronics.com
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Filter Connector Vendors
Filter Connector Vendors
♦ www.GHtech.com
♦ www.SpectrumControl.com
♦ www.Amphenol-Aerospace.com
♦ www.EMPconnectors.com
♦ www.Sabritec.com

Outline

Introduction

- Importance of EMC - Problems with non-compliance

♦ ♦ ♦

Concepts & Definitions Standards
- FCC, US Military, EU, RTCA EM Waves, Shielding Layout and Partitioning Power Distribution Power Conversion Signal Distribution

Design Guidelines and Methodology

♦ ♦
Revision 3

Design Process References and Vendors
Copyright Telephonics 2003-2005
1

Introduction

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2

cheaper. lighter.Automotive applications .Personal computing/entertainment/communication - ♦ Increased potential for susceptibility/emissions Lower supply voltages Increasing clock frequencies.Importance of EMC ♦ Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) requires that systems/equipment be able to tolerate a specified degree of interference and not generate more than a specified amount of interference ♦ EMC is becoming more important because there are so many more opportunities today for EMC issues ♦ Increase use of electronic devices . faster slew rates Increasing packaging density Demand for smaller. lower-power devices Revision 3 Copyright Telephonics 2003-2005 3 .

Delays •AM/FM/XM/TV Interference •Cell Phone Interference Lost Revenue.Problems with Non-Compliance ♦ ♦ Product may be blocked from market Practical impact can be minor annoyance to lethal …and everything in between Annoyance. Minor Property Loss Significant Property Loss Death or Serious Injury •RADAR. Landing System Interruption •Erroneous Ordnance Firing •Improper Deployment of Airbags •Critical communications Interference/Interruption •Automated Monetary Transactions Revision 3 Copyright Telephonics 2003-2005 4 .

Non-Compliance (continued) ♦ Fortunately. industry is well regulated and standards are comprehensive Major EMC issues are relatively rare For cost-effective compliance .EMC considered throughout product/system development ♦ ♦ Revision 3 Copyright Telephonics 2003-2005 5 .

Concepts & Definitions Revision 3 Copyright Telephonics 2003-2005 6 .

Not generate more than a specified amount of interference. Be self-compatible Revision 3 Copyright Telephonics 2003-2005 7 .Also referred to as Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) ♦ Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) .The ability of equipment or system to function satisfactorily in its Electromagnetic Environment (EME) without introducing intolerable electromagnetic disturbance to anything in that environment .Electromagnetic emissions from a device or system that interfere with the normal operation of another device or system .In other words: Tolerate a specified degree of interference.Concepts & Definitions ♦ Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) .

System/Device that generates interference . Continued .System/Device that is susceptible to the interference .♦ For an EMC problem to exist: Concepts & Definitions.Coupling path System/Device that generates interference (Culprit) Coupling Path Conducted • Power Lines • Signal Lines Radiated • Magnetic • Electric • Plane Wave System/Device that is susceptible to Interference (Victim) ♦ Mitigation of EMC Issues - Reduce interference levels generated by culprit Increase the susceptibility (immunity) threshold of the victim Reduce the effectiveness of the coupling path Combination of the above Source (Culprit) Modify Signal Routing Add Local Filtering Operating Freq Selection Freq Dithering Reduce Signal Level Coupling Path Increase Separation Shielding Reduce # of Interconnections Filter Interconnections Receiver (Victim) Modify Signal Routing Add Local Filtering Operating Freq Selection Revision 3 Copyright Telephonics 2003-2005 8 .

Standards Revision 3 Copyright Telephonics 2003-2005 9 .

not Electro Static Discharge (ESD) Direct Lightning Effects Antenna Lead Conducted Emissions/Susceptibility RF Radiation Safety Revision 3 Copyright Telephonics 2003-2005 10 .Some of the Institutes that Establish EMC Standards ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ Federal Communication Commission (FCC) US Military European Union (EU) Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics (RTCA) This lecture’s main focus is on EMC Fundamentals.

FCC Part 15 Conducted Emissions Frequency (MHz) Class A Class B 0.30.30 Quasi-Peak Limit (dBuV) 79 73 66 to 56 * 56 60 Average Limit (dBuV) 66 60 56 to 46 * 46 50 *Decrease as logarithm of frequency Revision 3 Copyright Telephonics 2003-2005 11 .5 – 5 5 .5 0.0 0.15 – 0.15 – 0.5 .5 0.

FCC Part 15 General Radiated Emission Frequency (MHz) Class A (10 meters) 30 – 88 88 – 216 216 – 960 above 960 30 – 88 88 – 216 216 – 960 above 960 Field Strength Limit (uV/m) 90 150 210 300 100 150 200 500 Class B (3 meters) Revision 3 Copyright Telephonics 2003-2005 12 .

Electric Field. 60 Hz to 100 kHz Conducted Susceptibility. 10 kHz to 200 MHz Conducted Susceptibility. Antenna Terminal. 10 kHz to 100 MHz Radiated Emissions. Rejection of Undesired Signals. Bulk Cable Injection. Power Leads. 10 kHz to 10 MHz Conducted Emissions. 10 kHz to 40 GHz Radiated Susceptibility. Antenna Port. 30 Hz to 20 GHz Conducted Susceptibility. Electric Field. 10 kHz to 18 GHz Radiated Emissions. 30 Hz to 10 kHz Conducted Emissions. Magnetic Field. 30 Hz to 50 kHz Conducted Susceptibility. Bulk Cable Injection. 15 kHz to 10 GHz Conducted Susceptibility. Antenna Port. Cables & Power Leads. Cross Modulation. 30 Hz to 20 GHz Conducted Susceptibility. Power Leads. 30 Hz to 100 kHz Radiated Susceptibility. Intermodulation. 30 Hz to 100 kHz Radiated Emissions. 10 kHz to 40 GHz Radiated Susceptibility. 10 kHz to 40 GHz Conducted Susceptibility.MIL-STD-461E ♦ Requirements for the Control of EMI Characteristics of Subsystems & Equipment Req’t CE101 CE102 CE106 CS101 CS103 CS104 CS105 CS109 CS114 CS115 CS116 RE101 RE102 RE103 RS101 RS103 RS105 Description Conducted Emissions. Power Leads. Antenna Port. Impulse Excitation Conducted Susceptibility. Magnetic Field. Dampened Sinusoidal Transients. Transient Electromagnetic Field Revision 3 Copyright Telephonics 2003-2005 13 . Structure Current. Antenna Spurious and Harmonic Outputs.

commercial and light industrial environments. voltage fluctuations and flicker in public low-voltage supply systems Copyright Telephonics 2003-2005 14 Revision 3 .Limits and methods of measurement (Also known as CISPR-11) EN55013 EN55014-1 EN55015 EN61000-3-2 EN61000-3-3 Limits and methods of measurement of radio disturbance characteristics of broadcast receivers and associated equipment Emission requirements for household appliances. scientific and medical (ISM) radio frequency equipment Radio disturbance characteristics .EU Standard Examples (Emissions) Standard EN50081-1 EN50081-2 EN55022 Description Generic emissions standard for residential. Generic emissions standard for industrial environment Limits and methods of measurement of radio disturbance characteristics of information technology equipment (Also known as CISPR-22) EN55011 Industrial. electric tools and similar apparatus Limits and methods of measurement of radio disturbance characteristics of electrical lighting and similar equipment Limits for harmonic current emissions (equipment input current up to and including 16 A per phase) Limitation of voltage changes.

commercial and light-industrial environments Immunity for industrial environments Equipment for general lighting purposes — EMC immunity requirements Electromagnetic compatibility — Product family standard for lifts. escalators and passenger conveyors — Immunity Description Revision 3 Copyright Telephonics 2003-2005 15 .EU Standard Examples (Immunity) Standard EN61000-4-2 EN61000-4-3 EN61000-4-4 EN61000-4-5 EN61000-4-6 EN61000-4-8 EN61000-4-11 EN61000-6-1 EN61000-6-2 EN61547 EN12016 Electrostatic Discharge Radiated Susceptibility Test Electrical Fast Transient/Burst Test Surge Test Conducted Immunity Test Power Frequency Magnetic Test Voltage Dips and Interruptions Test Immunity for residential.

01-400 MHz Radiated: 0.2 . Pulse & Dampened Sine 17 18 19 Voltage Spike Audio Frequency Conducted Susceptibility – Power Inputs Induced Signal Susceptibility 20 21 Radio Frequency Susceptibility (Radiated and Conducted) Emission of Radio Frequency 22 Lightning Induced Transient Susceptibility Revision 3 Copyright Telephonics 2003-2005 16 .15-100 MHz Radiated: 2-6. 8 or 18 GHz Power Lines: 0.150 kHz or 0.01 . 28 VDC and 14 VDC Power Voltage/frequency range.15-30 MHz Interconnecting Cables: 0. interruptions.000 MHz Pin & Bulk injection.RTCA ♦ DO-160.1-2. surges Power Leads Up to 600 V or 2x Line Voltage 0. Environmental Conditions & Test Procedures for Airborne Equipment Section 16 Power Input Title Notes 115 VAC.Standard Example .15 kHz Interconnection Cabling E field and H Field 400 Hz – 15 kHz and spikes Conducted: 0.

Standard Summary
♦ ♦

Numerous EMC standards exists Common Fundamental Theme
Conducted Emission Limits Radiated Emission Limits Conducted Susceptibility (Immunity) Limits Radiated Susceptibility (Immunity) Limits

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17

Design Guidelines and Methodology

Revision 3

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18

Electromagnetic Waves

Electromagnetic waves consist of two orthogonal fields
- Electric, E-Field (V/m) - Magnetic, H-Field (A/m)

Wave Impedance, ZW=E/H Ω

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19

current loops (xformer) In far field. low impedance. all waves become plane waves d> λ 2π Far Field for a Point Source ZW = µ0 = ε0 H m = 120π = 377 Ω 1 F • 10 −9 36π m 4π • 10 −7 Impedance of Plain Wave d/λ Revision 3 Copyright Telephonics 2003-2005 20 . wire (dipole) H-Fields.Electromagnetic Waves ♦ ♦ ♦ E-Fields. high impedance.

Rely of other means of controlling EMC Enclosure material .Shielding ♦ Enclosure/Chassis - Mechanical Structure Thermal Path Can form an overall shield (important EMC component) Can be used as “first” line of defense for Radiated emission/susceptibility ♦ ♦ Some Applications Cannot Afford Overall Shield .Plastic with conductive coating (Conductive paint or vacuum deposition) Revision 3 Copyright Telephonics 2003-2005 21 .Metal .

Shielding Illustration Revision 3 Copyright Telephonics 2003-2005 22 .

B (ignore if A>8 dB) SE = R + A + B ⇒ SE = R + A Revision 3 Copyright Telephonics 2003-2005 23 . A and .Secondary reflective losses.Reflective losses. R .Absorption losses.Shielding Effectiveness ♦ Shielding effectiveness (SE) is a measure of how well an enclosure attenuates electromagnetic fields EInside SEdB = 20 Log10 EOutside ♦ Theoretical SE of homogeneous material .

462  R h = 20Log10    r      µr 0136r . 003338t µrσrf Absorptive Loss Magnetic Field Reflective Loss  f 3µr r 2   Re = 354 . + + 0.SE Equations    0.10 Log10    σ r   Electric Field Reflective Loss where: t = Material thickness (mils) µr = Material permeability relative to air σr = Material conductivity relative to copper f = Frequency (Hz) r = Source to shield distance (inches) Rp = 168 + 10 Log σ   r  10  µ f   r  Plane Wave Reflective Loss Revision 3 Copyright Telephonics 2003-2005 24 .354  fσ r µr  fσ r  A = 0.

180 (Cold Rolled Steel). 0. 1 (Copper) Revision 3 Copyright Telephonics 2003-2005 25 . 1 (Copper) σr = 0.SE Theoretical Examples Freq (Hz) 10k 100k 1M 10M 100M 1G Aluminum (60 mils) Magnetic (dB) Electric (dB) Plane (dB) Cold Rolled Steel (60 mils) Magnetic (dB) Electric (dB) Plane (dB) Copper (3 mils) Magnetic (dB) Electric (dB) Plane (dB) 58 101 >200 >200 >200 >200 >200 >200 >200 >200 >200 >200 141 165 >200 >200 >200 >200 125 >200 >200 >200 >200 >200 >200 >200 >200 >200 >200 >200 >200 >200 >200 >200 >200 >200 45 57 74 106 184 >200 >200 186 162 154 193 >200 129 121 118 130 188 >200 ♦ ♦ ♦ r=12” µr = 1 (Aluminum).6 (Aluminum).17 (Cold Rolled Steel).

SE Practical Considerations ♦ SE is typically limited by apertures & seams Removable Covers Holes for control/display components Holes for ventilation Holes for connectors ♦ Mitigation of apertures and seams - Minimize size and number of apertures and seams Use gaskets/spring-fingers to seal metal-to-metal interface Interfaces free of paint and debris Adequate mating surface area Avoid Galvanic Corrosion Use of EMI/conductive control/display components Revision 3 Copyright Telephonics 2003-2005 26 .

2. Revision 3 Copyright Telephonics 2003-2005 27 . Maximum SE is that of a solid barrier without aperture.Holes/Apertures d>t ♦ d Single Hole If If ♦ s d Multiple Holes If s < λ 2 <d >d SE ≈ 0dB SE ≈ 20 Log10 λ 2 > d and s <1 d λ 2 λ 2d SE ≈ 20Log10 λ 2d − 10 Log10 n t t where: t = Material thickness n = Number of Holes s = edge to edge hole spacing Notes: 1. d is the longest dimension of the hole.

Holes/Apertures d<t (w<t) ♦ Behaves like a waveguide below cutoff λc = 2w α= 2π Cutoff wavelength w λc  f  1−   f   c 2 Absorption factor of WG below cutoff α= t 2π λc = π w For frequencies well below cutoff t/w Loss >200 164 109 55 28 t A = 8.686αt = 27.3 w Absorption loss 8 6 4 2 Revision 3 Copyright Telephonics 2003-2005 .

Adequate cross-section of overlap .Adequate number of contact points ♦ Gasketing helps ensure electrical contact between fasteners Revision 3 Copyright Telephonics 2003-2005 29 .Contact area must be conductive .Enclosure Seams ♦ SE can be limited by the failure of seams to make adequate contact .

Provides both EMI and Moisture Seal .Mechanically versatile – die cut or molded Conductive Elastomers (≈80 dB @ 2GHz) Courtesy of Tecknit Revision 3 Copyright Telephonics 2003-2005 30 . size. Aluminum or Monel Mechanically versatile – die cut ♦ .Lower SE than all-metal gaskets .Gasketing Examples ♦ - Fingerstock (≈100 dB @ 2GHz) Large Selection (shape. plating) Wide mechanical compression range High shielding effectiveness Good for frequent access applications No environmental seal ♦ - Oriented Wire (≈80 dB @ 2GHz) Provides both EMI and Moisture Seal Lower SE than all-metal gaskets Sponge or Solid Silicone.

Panel Components Air Ventilation Panels EMC Switch Shield Shielded Windows Courtesy of Tecknit Revision 3 Copyright Telephonics 2003-2005 31 .

Galvanic Series ♦ Galvanic Corrosion -Two dissimilar metals in electrical contact in presence of an electrolyte Revision 3 Copyright Telephonics 2003-2005 32 .

Naval Brass. 12% Cr type Corrosion Resistant Steels. Silver Solder. Terneplate Lead.00 0. Nickel-Copper Alloys.90 0.85 Commercial Yellow Brasses and Bronzes High Brasses and Bronzes. Zinc Die Casting Alloys Wrought and Cast Magnesium Alloys Beryllium Revision 3 Copyright Telephonics 2003-2005 33 .75 1. Ni-Cr Alloys.Galvanic Series Table Metallurgical Category Gold. Common 300 Series Stainless Steels Chromium or Tin Plating. Most ChromeMoly Steels.75 0.65 0. Low Brasses or Bronzes. Wrought Platinum.45 0. Cadmium Plating Hot-Dip Galvanized or Electro-Galvanized Steel Wrought Zinc.60 0. Titanium Alloys.50 0.25 1. High-Lead Alloys Wrought 2000 Series Aluminum Alloys Wrought Gray or Malleable Iron.15 0. High-Silver Alloys Nickel.30 0.10 0.70 0.85 0. Specialty High-Temp Stainless Steels Anodic Index (V) 0.35 0. Titanium.40 0.20 1. 6000 Series Aluminum Cast aluminum Alloys (other than Al-Si). Monel Beryllium Copper. Muntz Metal 18% Cr-type Corrosion Resistant Steels. Graphite Carbon Rhodium Plating Silver. Armco Iron. Most 400 Series Stainless Steels Tin-Lead Solder. Plain Carbon and Low-Alloy Steels.95 1. Cold-Rolled Steel Wrought Aluminum Alloys (except 2000 series cast Al-Si alloys). Austenitic Corrosion-Resistant Steels. Copper.

Typically design for < 0.Typically < 0.50 V difference ♦ Mitigation of Galvanic Corrosion - Choosing metals with the least potential difference Finishes.Temperature/humidity controlled .Typically design for < 0.Storage in warehouses.25 V difference ♦ For controlled environments .15 V difference ♦ For normal environments .Outdoors. no-temperature/humidity control . Class 3 using minimal dip immersion Plating Insulators. as electrically/thermally appropriate Revision 3 Copyright Telephonics 2003-2005 34 . high humidity/salt .Galvanic Series Notes ♦ For harsh environments . such as MIL-C-5541.

System Partitioning/Guidelines ♦ ♦ ♦ Minimize interconnections between WRAs/LRUs Minimize the distribution of analog signals Control interference at the source Culprit Potential Victim Potential Victim Potential Victim Power Bus Signals Revision 3 Copyright Telephonics 2003-2005 35 .

Control Interference at the Source ♦ Preferred Approach – Shield/Filter the Source (Culprit) Potential Victim Potential Victim Potential Victim Culprit Power Bus Signals ♦ Alternate Approach – Shield/Filter Potential Receivers (Victims) Potential Victim Potential Victim Potential Victim Culprit Power Bus Signals Revision 3 Copyright Telephonics 2003-2005 36 .

EMI Control (high speed.Forms reference planes for signals .In addition to dedicated ground layers .Component placement (X & Y) . critical analog/RF) .Signal and Power Routing (X & Y) . fast slew rate.Simpler impedance control ♦ Dedicate layer(s) to Supply Voltages .CCA Layout and Partitioning ♦ Layout is 3 Dimensional .PWB Stack Up (Z) ♦ Dedicate layer(s) to ground .Low ESL/ESR power distribution Revision 3 Copyright Telephonics 2003-2005 37 .

One and Two Layer Signals. Ground. Supplies Dielectric One Sided • Inexpensive • Difficult to control EMI without external shield • Difficult to control impedance Signals. Supplies Dielectric Two Sided Ground Plane • Inexpensive (slightly more than 1 sided) • EMI mitigation with ground plane • Impedance control simplified with ground plane Revision 3 Copyright Telephonics 2003-2005 38 . Grounds.

50 MHz Clock E-Field Probe E-Field Probe ♦ Adding ground plane reduces emission of fundamental ≈40 dB PWB: 2” x 6” x 0. 3 Vp No Ground Plane With Ground Plane (Micro-Strip) Revision 3 Copyright Telephonics 2003-2005 39 . 4 ns rise/fall.050” E-Field Probe Spacing: 2” (Emco 7405-004) Source: 50 MHz.Radiation Example.060” (FR4) Trace: 5” x 0.

Improved isolation • Two Sided Revision 3 Copyright Telephonics 2003-2005 40 .Multi-Layer Stack Up Examples 1 Signal Ground Plane Signal Signal Ground Plane Supply Plane Signal Signal Ground Plane Signal 3 2 Signal Ground Plane Analog Signal/Power Analog Signal/Power Signal Signal Ground Plane Supply Plane Signal Signal Ground Plane Digital Supply Plane Digital Signal Digital Signal Ground Plane Signal High Speed Digital PWB • High Density • Ten Layers • Two Micro-Strip Routing Layers • Four Asymmetrical Strip-Line Routing Layers • Single Supply Plane • Two Sided High Speed Digital PWB • Moderate Density • Six Layers • Two Micro-Strip Routing Layers • Two Buried Micro-Strip Routing Layers • Single Supply Plane • Two Sided Mixed Analog/RF/Digital PWB • Moderate Density • Ten Layers • Two Micro-Strip Routing Layers • Four Asymmetrical Strip-Line Routing Layers • Single Digital Supply Plane • Analog supplies on inner layers .Routing Clearance Considerations .

L-Band VME Receiver .PWB Example ♦ Three Channel.Shield removed for clarity VME I/O Digital & Power IF Processing RF Sections Video ADCs FPGA & Support Logic High Speed Digital I/O Revision 3 Copyright Telephonics 2003-2005 41 .

video) Metal CCA Shield Examples ♦ Courtesy of Leader Tech Metalized Plastic Shield Examples Courtesy of Mueller Revision 3 Copyright Telephonics 2003-2005 42 .CCA Level Shielding ♦ ♦ Used in conjunction with PWB ground plane(s) Supplement shielding of overall enclosure or instead of overall enclosure Isolate sections of CCA . Low Level Analog (audio. Front Ends.Local Oscillators. High Speed Digital.

stand-alone Hold-Up Time DC to AC Noise Isolation DC to DC Noise Isolation (Multi-output) DC to DC Galvanic Isolation (Multi-output) Safety compliance Size & weight Efficiency Line/Load/Temperature Regulation Operating/Storage Temperature Ranges ♦ Non-EMC Selection Considerations Revision 3 Copyright Telephonics 2003-2005 43 . enclosed.COTS Power Supply Selection (AC/DC Power Converters) ♦ EMC Selection Considerations - AC Input EMC Specification Compliance Radiated emission/immunity compliance Open frame.

etc. National. Interpoint.) Inherently Quiet Provide noise isolation. etc. Controlled di/dt and dV/dt Pulse Width Modulation.) Many discrete solutions available (Linear Tech.25 VDC for FPGA core) Many complete COTs solutions available (Vicor.3 to 1. Spread Spectrum Resonant mode (zero current switching) Revision 3 Copyright Telephonics 2003-2005 44 .DC/DC Converter Design/Selection ♦ Small Converters at CCA Level - Local regulation in critical applications Generate unavailable voltages (3. input to output Typically much less efficient (depends on VIn-VOut difference) Three terminal devices provide no Galvanic isolation ♦ Linear - ♦ Switching Can be configured for Galvanic isolation Typically noisier than Linear (however mitigation options exist) Pulse Width Modulation.

Spread Spectrum ♦ Linear Technology LT1777 (Controlled di/dt & dV/dt) Standard PWM Controlled Transition Time PWM ♦ Linear Technology LTC3252 (Spread spectrum 1. Controlled Transition.6 MHz) Fixed Frequency PWM Spread Spectrum PWM Revision 3 Copyright Telephonics 2003-2005 45 .0-1.PWM.

100 kHz to 30 MHz. 5 VDC Output . Resonant Mode Comparison ♦ Resonant Mode Vs PWM . Input Noise Courtesy of Vicor PWM Topology Resonant Mode Topology Revision 3 Copyright Telephonics 2003-2005 46 .PWM.48 VDC Input.

One AC/DC Converter per unit .Power Distribution – System Level System AC Power AC/DC Power Converter DC Power Bus (Single Voltage) ♦ DC/DC Converter Distributed DC DC/DC Converter DC/DC Converter DC/DC Converter Load Load Load Load .Typical Application: Large ground based system System AC Power AC/DC Power Converter DC Power Supply (Multiple Voltages) ♦ Load Direct DC Load Load Load .One Primary Converter .One Primary Converter for all loads .Typical Application: Home Computer System AC Power AC/DC Power Converter Load(s) DC Power (Multiple Voltages) ♦ Load(s) System AC Power AC/DC Power Converter Separate Primary DC Power (Multiple Voltages) System AC Power AC/DC Power Converter Load(s) .Multiple Secondary Converters at each load .Typical Application: RADAR System housed in multiple units 47 DC Power (Multiple Voltages) Revision 3 Copyright Telephonics 2003-2005 .

Power Distribution Examples AN/APS-147 LAMPS RADAR (Separate Primary Distribution) Multiple Access Beamforming Equipment (Distributed DC) Courtesy of Dell Personal Computer (Direct DC Distribution) Revision 3 Copyright Telephonics 2003-2005 48 .

Power Distribution Comparison Architecture Load Ground Loops + Load Reg Power Effic Load Iso Notes Distributed DC + - + Only one Converter is directly exposed to input. May not be practical on large systems with heavy current demands and/or tight regulation requirements Direct DC - - + - Separate Primary x x + x ♦ Legend: “+” Advantage “-” Disadvantage “x” Neutral Revision 3 Copyright Telephonics 2003-2005 49 .

Differential preferred over single ended .Minimize number of interconnects Revision 3 Copyright Telephonics 2003-2005 50 .Signal Distribution ♦ Avoid routing analog signals over long distances in harsh environments.Differential .Digital preferred over analog . but if unavoidable: .Amplify at source and attenuate/filter at destination ♦ Inter-Unit (LRU or WRA) .

especially in systems that require compliance to EMP and/or Indirect Lightning Effects Revision 3 Copyright Telephonics 2003-2005 51 .Properties of material .Degree of coverage .Essentially extensions of the chassis enclosure Shielding Effectiveness and Transfer Impedance .Cable Shields ♦ ♦ Shields of external interconnecting cables .Geometry ♦ Shields are an important part of EMC design.

Cable Shield Termination ♦ Maintaining quality SE and Transfer Impedance depends on effective termination of shields at both ends . avoid using long leads to terminate shields Coax Shield Terminated with Excessive Lead Length Unassembled 360 Degree Backshell for D Connector Revision 3 Circular D38999 Mil Connector with 360 Degree Backshell Copyright Telephonics 2003-2005 Exploded View of 360 Degree Backshell for D38999 Connector 52 .If high frequency isolation is needed.360 Degree Backshells .

0060 Xer Z (Ω/m) Revision 3 Copyright Telephonics 2003-2005 53 .0080 0.0080 0.Shield Example 95% Coverage Double Copper Shield Shielding Effectiveness Frequency (Hz) 1k 10 k 100 k 1M 10 M 100 M 1G 10 G Magnetic (dB) 0 16 36 70 90 90 80 60 Electric (dB) 100 100 100 100 90 90 80 60 Plane Wave (dB) 100 100 100 100 90 90 80 60 0.0014 0.0011 0.

Revision 3 Copyright Telephonics 2003-2005 54 .Transfer Impedance Example ZT = CS116 of MIL-STD-461E Example 10 A at 10 MHz IS Vi Is (Ω per meter) Vi Transfer Impedance Ω  Vi = I s Z T l = (10 A) 0.0011 (2m ) = 22mV m  Induced Voltage of 22 mV is well below damage/upset threshold of most logic families.

5” exposed Both ends of shield ungrounded Both ends of shield grounded with 3” loop (60 nH) Both shielded ends grounded with 1” loop (19 nH) Both ends of shield directly grounded Continuous shield with both ends of grounded directly Copyright Telephonics 2003-2005 55 Revision 3 .3-200 MHz ♦ Two Parallel Lines.Shielded Line has 0. One unshielded .Coupling Example #1.5” Over Ground Plane.0. 0. One shielded. Separated by 2” . 10” Long.

Separated by 0.Coupling Example #2.Shielded Line has 0.0.5” . 10” Long. One shielded.5” Over Ground Plane.3-200 MHz ♦ Two Parallel Lines. One unshielded . 0.5” exposed Both ends of shield ungrounded Both ends of shield grounded with 3” loop (60 nH) Both shielded ends grounded with 1” loop (19 nH) Both ends of shield directly grounded Continuous shield with both ends of grounded directly Copyright Telephonics 2003-2005 56 Revision 3 .

Interconnection Coupling (between filter & connector) ♦ Courtesy of G&H Technology Revision 3 Copyright Telephonics 2003-2005 57 .Filter Connectors ♦ Applications for connectors with integral filtering and/or transient suppressors .Parasitics .Isolation needed between assemblies (WRAs. LRUs) Filtering effectiveness is typically much better than discrete filters .Shields not permitted on interconnection cables .

200 MHz Communication band Baseline Discrete LC Filter at Connector (1nH. 8200p) Filter Connector (1nH.Discrete Filter vs. I/O Cables Unshielded RADAR Headset cable interferes with 100 . Filter Connector ♦ ♦ Portable RADAR System. 8000 pF) Revision 3 Copyright Telephonics 2003-2005 58 .

Various cutoff frequencies . C. LC .Signal Spectra & Filter Connectors ♦ Come in many types and filter capabilities .9MHz πtW π (20ns ) f2 = tr tf  2 1  2 1 =     (2ns + 2ns )  = 159 MHz π  tr + t f  π     Revision 3 Copyright Telephonics 2003-2005 59 .Filter Topologies: Pi.In some cases. not larger than standard non-filtered version ♦ Selection Considerations - Spectrum of Signals Source/Sink Capability of Driver Source/Load Impedances Cable effects Time Domain A(t) tw Frequency Domain A(f) 20 dB/Decade 40 dB/Decade f1 f2 Frequency (Hz) Typical 50 MHz Clock Example f1 = Time 1 1 = = 15.

EMC Design Process Revision 3 Copyright Telephonics 2003-2005 60 .

Can easily be tailored for smaller system or a single device.Describes the applicable EMC Requirement(s) ♦ Develop and Implement an EMC Control Plan - Details EMC Requirements and clarifies interpretation Lists applicable documents Defines management approach Defines the design procedures/techniques EMC design is most efficiently accomplished when considered early in the program ♦ Process Example . Revision 3 Copyright Telephonics 2003-2005 61 .Design Process ♦ Starts with a System/Device Specification .Intended for large system .

RF. Generate EMC/EMI Control Plan • Cull EMC Requirements from System/Device Specification and clarifies interpretation • Summarize applicable documents. digital and power • • • • PWB Layout and Construction Micro-strip. RF. specifications and standards • EMC Program Organization and Responsibilities • Defines design procedures and techniques Mechanical Design Electrical Design System Design Chassis/ Enclosure • • • • Shielding Material Selection Gasketing Covers Bonding and Grounding • Single vs. digital and power Power Conversion and Distribution • Conversion Topology Linear. Resonant. Differential • Logic Family • Connector Selection Filter/Non-Filter • Filter location/type • Cable harnessing and shielding • Signal Spectrum 62 Revision 3 Copyright Telephonics 2003-2005 .EMC Design Flow Diagram System/Device Specification • EMC Engineer may need to be involved with SOW and/or specification prior to contract award. Multi Point Ground • Chassis component bonding Hardware Partitioning and Location • System functional allocation • Separation of analog. PWM • Connector Selection Filter/Non-Filter • Filter location/type Signal Distribution • Single Ended. stripline Number of layers Ground layers Separation of analog.

Typical EMC Engineer’s Involvement ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ Prepare EMC Section of Proposal Pre-Award Contract/SOW Review and Recommendations Interference Prediction Design Design Testing Interference Control Design Preparation of EMC Control Plan Subcontractor and Vendor EMC Control Internal Electrical and Mechanical Design Reviews EMC Design Reviews with the Customer Interference Testing of Critical Items Amend the EMC Control Plan. as Necessary Liaison with Manufacturing Manufacture In-Process Inspection During Manufacturing Preparation of EMC Test Plan/Procedure Test Performance of EMC Qualification Tests Redesign and Retest where Necessary Preparation and Submittal of EMC Test Report or Declaration Copyright Telephonics 2003-2005 63 Revision 3 .

References Revision 3 Copyright Telephonics 2003-2005 64 .

Bruce Morgen. Instrument Specialties “EMI Shielding Theory”.L. San Francisco. Electronic Design News. Rehkopf. CA. 2003 October “Electromagnetic Compatibility Design Guide”. 1966 “Electronic Systems Failures & Anomalies Attributed to EMI” NASA Reference Publication 1374 Copyright Telephonics 2003-2005 65 ♦ Revision 3 . Chomerics “Shield that Cable!”. Robert B. Presented at the Eighth IEEE Symposium of EMC. 1969 July “Simplified Method of Analyzing Transients in Interference Prediction” H. 1968 March “Alleviating Noise Concerns in Handheld Wireless Products”. Tony Armstrong. IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility. 1983 August 15 “Interference Coupling .References ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ “New Dimensions in Shielding”. Cowdell.Attack it Early”. Richard J Mohr. Tecknit “Metals Galvanic Compatibility Chart”. Electronic Products. Power Electronics Technology.

www.gov European Union.Committees and Organizations ♦ Comité Internationale Spécial des Perturbations Radioelectrotechnique (CISPR) Federal Communication Commission (FCC).org ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ Revision 3 Copyright Telephonics 2003-2005 66 . www.Europa. www.RTCA.NARTE.eu.FCC.int Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics (RTCA) www.org National Association of Radio & Telecommunications Engineers (NARTE).

com www.Spira-EMI.com www.WaveZero.Gasket and Shielding Vendors ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ www.LeaderTechInc.com www.Tecknit.Chomerics.LairdTech.com www.com Revision 3 Copyright Telephonics 2003-2005 67 .com www.

Backshell Vendors ♦ ♦ www.SunBankCorp.TycoElectronics.com www.com Revision 3 Copyright Telephonics 2003-2005 68 .

Amphenol-Aerospace.EMPconnectors.Sabritec.GHtech.com www.com www.SpectrumControl.com www.com Revision 3 Copyright Telephonics 2003-2005 69 .Filter Connector Vendors ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ www.com www.

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