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[12th to 14th SEPTEMBER, 2009]



Held at

DEPARTMENT OF ZOOLOGY, PATNA UNIVERSITY, PATNA 800005 Mob: +919204323713, +919835417970

Tele-fax : +91612 / 2372010
E-mail :



Executive Summary:

Prof. R. C. Sinha, Chief Executive, CENC, Deptt. Of Zoology, Patna University, Patna.

Inaugural Lecture:








Commission, Bihar

Synopsis of the function from Day 1 to Day 3

Lecture 1:

Conflict resolution in solid waste management

by Shri Sanjiv Kumar,

General Manager, Ramky Enviro Engineers Limited.

Lecture 2:

Municipal Solid Waste Processing & Disposal site selection & EIA by
Shri Sanjiv Kumar, General Manager, Ramky Enviro Engineers Limited.

Lecture 3:

Impact of municipal solid waste on Environment & Health by Dr. Ajay

Krishna, Asst. Professor, Deptt. of Community Medicine, Patna Medical College, Patna. MSW

Lecture 4:

Collection, Storage, Segregation & Treatment by Shri S. N. Rao,

Ex. Member Secretary, Bihar State Pollution Control Board, Patna.

Lecture 5:

Xenographic toner:- A Cradle-to-Grave by Prof. S. I. Ahson, Pro-ViceChancellor, Patna University, Patna.

Lecture 6:

MSW (Management & Handling) Rules, 2000 & their Compliance by

Shri S. N. RAO, Ex. Member Secretary, Bihar State Pollution Control Board, Patna.

Lecture 7:

Energy Recovery

by Prof. Om Prakash, Asst. Professor, Deptt. of

Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Patna.

Lecture 8:

Waste Categorization & Quantification

Technology, Patna.

by Dr. Santosh Kumar,

Visiting Professor, Deptt. of Civil Engineering, National Institute of

Lecture 9:

Municipal Solid Waste Management: Role of NGOs, Rag pickers and Public sectors by Dr. Navin Kumar, Bihar State Pollution Control Board,

Popular Lecture: Space Debris by Prof. Rajmani Pd. Sinha, University Professor & Head, Deptt. of Physics, P.U., Patna.

Annexure I: List of Participants

Annexure II: Annexure III:

Copy of the Certificate of participation Group Photograph of all the participants

Executive Summary
During the calendar year 2008 2009, German Technical Co-operation (GTZ) has offered four All India Training Program to Centre for Environment & Nature Conservation (Nodal Training Institute), Department of Zoology, Patna University, Patna on the following topics: (i) Municipal Solid Waste Management from 12th 14th Sept09, (ii) Bio-medical Waste Management to be held from 10th 12th Oct09, (iii) Hazardous Waste Management from 21st 23rd Nov09 and (iv) Environmental Impact Assessment to be held from 19th 21st Dec09. The first Training Program Municipal Solid Waste Management was conducted from 12th 14th September09 wherein delegates from Assam, Bihar, Gujarat, Punjab, Jammu &Kashmir, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh Pollution Control Boards, Officials from Industries, Officials from Danapur Cantonment, NGOs, Research Students engaged in the field of Environment attended the 3-Day training program. Municipal Solid Waste Management issues are presently at the forefront of public attention. The continuous population increase all over the country, urbanization and economic growth currently being experienced has resulted in the exponential rise of solid wastes. The role of municipalities in the development of cities and towns is very crucial and important in todays context when urbanization is moving at a very rapid pace. The municipal bodies in spite of their best efforts are unable to perform better in terms of financial management and efficient delivery of urban services. A rising quality of life and high rates of resource consumption patterns have had an unintended and negative impact on the urban environment and generation of wastes far beyond the handling capacities of urban departments and agencies, municipal bodies. Cities are now seized with the problems of high volume of wastes, the cost involved, the disposal technologies and methodologies and the impact of wastes on the local and global environment. But these problems have also provided a window of opportunities for cities to final solutions involving the communities and the private sectors involving innovative technologies and disposal methods and involving behaviour changes and awareness raising. Awareness raising can be done through training program. Training is one of the most important tools to develop human resources and facilitate the transition to a more sustainable world. It should aim at filling the gaps in knowledge and skill that could help individuals find employment and be involved in environmental and developmental work. At the same time, training program should promote a greater awareness of environmental and developmental issues as a two-way learning process. Training program strengthen national capacities particularly in scientific education and training to enable government, employees and workers to meet their environmental and developmental objectives to facilitate the transfer and assimilation of a new environmentally

sound, socially acceptable new technology and know-how. These issues had been amply demonstrated in this training program on MSWM. During the 3-Day training program there was a general consensus that there was a need of complete rethinking of Waste to Wealth Concept. There was a clear need for current approach of waste disposal that focused on municipalities to move towards waste processing and waste recycling that involved privatepublic partnerships aiming for eventual waste minimization. Some of the defining criteria for future waste minimization program should include more community participation, understand economic benefits / recovery of waste focusing on life cycles rather than the end of the pipe treatment. A number of lectures were delivered by different experts on different aspects of Municipal Solid Waste Management which have been compiled in this Proceeding. During the discussion / interactive session it was felt that Municipal Solid Wastes (Management & Handling) Rules, 2000 needed amendment especially regarding action against defaulting Government Officials who failed to comply the said Rules. MSWM Rules 2000 needed more teeth to prosecute the defaulting Govt. Officials for not complying the said Rules. Presently, there was a tedious process for suing the Govt. Officials and as such, not much have been achieved till date despite the fact that Rule came into force in the year 2000. Many states in India have not yet constructed the well designed disposal land-fill site resulting in the dumping of MSW in low-lying area having an adverse affect on the environment. The other thing which emerged from the training program that there should be a regular training program of this type so that the people are made aware of their rights & responsibilities.



(L to R: Prof. R. C. Sinha, Chief Executive, CENC, Honble Mr. Justice R. Prasad, Member, Human Rights Commission, Bihar, Prof. Kashi Nath, Principal, Science College, Patna, Prof. M. Mohiuddin, Former ViceChancellor, P. U., Prof. S. K. Srivastava, Head of the Deptt. of Zoology, P.U.)

All India Training Program on Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) had been organized by the Centre for Environment & Nature Conservation (CENC) with the support of German Technical Cooperation (GTZ) from 10th to 12th September, 2009 which was attended by delegates from across the country. The Training Program was inaugurated by Honble Justice R. Prasad, Member, Human Rights Commission, Bihar. While inaugurating the event, Honble Justice Prasad appreciated topic of the training program as very appropriate and need of the time which needed to be tackled immediately. He elaborated the provisions of the Constitution and its various amendments relating to the protection of environment as well as obligations and duties of the citizens in this regard. He elaborated at length the provisions of the MSWM Rules, 2000. During his address, he also said that the Honble Supreme Courts direction for imparting compulsory environment education from school to university level so that the children were made aware from the very childhood.

Justice Prasad said further that Judiciary had been taking steps to give directions to the appropriate authorities for maintaining a good environment and the Government needed to play a more pro-active role. He opined that only making rules by Government were not enough. The MSWM Rules needed to be implemented to realize the benefits for society. He lauded the efforts of the Centre for conducting such training program with the support of GTZ and wished the training program a grand success.

Prof. M. Mohiuddin, Former ViceChancellor, Patna University presided over the function. He thanked Justice Prasad for giving a detailed account of the role of Judiciary in the field of environment and from time to time giving directions to the appropriate authorities to comply the provisions of MSWM Rules. He also spoke of the ancient city of Patliputra once the capital of India and Bihar from where Purist thoughts emanated and spread to large parts of the world. He lamented that now Patna is now one of dirtiest city of India where there was no storage of wastes at source as well as there was no segregation into bio-degradable and non-bio-degradable wastes. He further said that the Patna Municipal Corporation was responsible for the Municipal Solid Waste Management as per MSWM Rules but their performance was disappointing. He hoped that such training program would definitely make the people aware and situation would improve. He appreciated the efforts of the Centre for conducting such training program.

Prof. Kashi Nath, Principal Science College, also addressed the gathering and said that he was delighted to have such training program being conducted in Science College Campus where delegates from across the country were attending. He thanked GTZ for supporting the training program and lauded the efforts of CENC, P.U. for conducting such training program.

Earlier Prof. R. C. Sinha, Chief Executive, CENC, P.U. welcomed the guests and dignitaries on the dais and the delegates attending the training program. While delivering the welcome address, Prof. Sinha gave a brief account of various activities and contributions of the Centre. He gave a comprehensive account of the courses to be covered during 3-Day training program and emphasized the need of proper Municipal Solid Waste Management. There was an urgent need of proper disposal site at Patna for proper management of MSW. He was sorry to note that despite several reminders to the Commissioner, Patna Municipal Corporation to depute some officers to attend the training program, they did not attend and were conspicuous by their absence.

The Inaugural session concluded with the vote of thanks proposed by Prof. S. K. Srivastava, Head of the Deptt. of Zoology, Patna University. He thanked German Technical Co-operation (GTZ) for supporting the training program and hoped that such type of training program would be supported in future as well. He also thanked the delegates and the media present in the hall.

DAY 1 [12 September, 2009] [Technical Session I]


In Chair: Prof. S. N. Sinha, Former V.C., Bihar University & Prof. R.C. Sinha, Chief Executive, CENC

[Lecture I] Sri Sanjiv Kumar, Ramky Industries, Delhi Topic: MSW & Spatial Planning He spoke on the gravity of the situation with respect to Solid Waste Management and problems faced by urban local bodies. He said that there were conflicts all around the SWM which were between the public and urban local bodies or between the city and the surrounding villages (ULB vs Panchayat) for land and transport of garbage. There was also a conflict in the understanding of publicprivate partnership (PPP), commercial viability and the market as well as conflict in the relevant regulatory instruments. The strategy which could be considered was the land-use plan with provision for waste management (Solid and liquid waste of municipal, bio-medical and industrial origin) on a long term basis with projection of growth of population and migration. The use of land not suitable for other purposes should be selected as disposal site. Apart from saving land there should be a resource recovery and recycling. He also spoke on the MSWM Rules, 2000 which should be adopted by all States and remediation and rehabilitation of old dump sits.

[Technical Session II]

In Chair: Sri S. N. Rao, Former MS, BSPCB, Patna & Dr. B. Krishna, Former Scientist, BSI, Kolkata

[Lecture I] Sri Sanjiv Kumar, Ramky Industries, Delhi Topic: EIA: approach & methodology for disposal options He started with the different types of wastes and the common hazardous waste management practices including the biomedical waste management practices and impacts of indiscriminate disposal on health and environment. Thereafter, he emphasized on the need and importance of EIA. He dealt in detail about the criteria of site selection and the methodology of site selection. He presented a check list for impact analysis and the various components to be covered under EIA so as to arrive at a realistic conclusion. EIA is to ensure the following: - Long term environment soundness

- Safeguard sensitive resources like ground water and soil, - Health aspects, - Social acceptance.

In his concluding remarks, the speaker discussed the aspects of spatial planning in cities and presented 3-major projects being carried out by Ramky Industries. Chairpersons thanked the speaker for giving nice and elaborate presentation on conducting EIA on sanitary landfills.

[Lecture II] Dr. A. Krishna, Assistant Professor, Community Medicine, PMCH, Patna. Topic Impact of MSW on Environment and Health Dr. A Krishna gave a very lucid presentation on the impact of unscientific method of disposal of MSW which adversely affected the quality of ground water and environment as subsequently health of the people. He also spoke on different disposal methods of solid wastes:

(a) Dumping not a scientific method reported by WHO in 1967. (b) Controlled Tippingvery satisfactory method. (c) Incineration. (d) Composting (e) Manure pits (Usually practiced in rural areas) (f) Burial.

He discussed the importance of public health and indicated that the contamination during handling of MSW during disposal stage led to various types of diseases like diarrhoea and dysentery, cholera, parasitic diseases etc. He cautioned people of proper and thorough cleaning of hands and fingers before taking food. He also displayed the pictures of ghats along the river Ganges in Patna and how the city looked clean during Chhath festival. Chairpersons thanked the speaker for giving an excellent presentation. DAY 2 [Technical Session III]

In Chair: Prof. S. N. Sinha, Former V.C., Bihar University & Prof. R.C. Sinha, Chief Executive, CENC

[Lecture I] Sri S.N. Rao, Former Member Secretary, BSPCB, Patna. Topic MSW collection, Storage, Segregation and treatment. Shri S.N. Rao said that about 42 million tons of MSW was generated per annum in India by Urban Local Bodies and about 10% increase every year in municipal solid waste generation. In Bihar, there were 5 Nagar Nigams, 80 Nagar Panchayats and 32 Nagar Parishads. Proper municipal solid waste management in these local bodies was minimal or non-existent. He further said that wastes could be broadly divided into biodegradable (organic) and nonbiodegradable (Inorganic). He emphasized on the need of segregation at source so that their collection and disposal could be easier. The equipment required for collection and transportation included small dustbins at household level, mid-level dust bins for collection from individual household to collection Centres properly designed containers for easy handling and unloading of wastes into transport vehicles properly designed vehicles for easy unloading and handling at processing Centres. He further spoke on treatment and preventive options i.e. Reduce Reuse Recover Recycle. He strongly advocated the option for composting. [Lecture II] Prof. S.I. Ahson, Pro-Vice-Chancellor, Patna University.

Topic Disposal of e-waste

Prof. Ahson presented a focused lecture on Xerographic toner: A cradleto- grave phenomenon in the xerographic process. Toner has a significant impact on the environment and on different cultures and communities around the world. Toner is essentially very small particle of plastic and pigment that is able to maintain a particular polar electric/ magnetic charge. The toner particle weighs 1 nanogram and the size is about 100 microns. He further said that the toner production relied on oil. Oil exploration and drilling take a very heavy toll on the environment because drilling operation often created oil spills which damage the ecosystems surrounding the operation as well as the downstream. He further spoke on the transformation of oil into a finished toner product (1) Carbon black and (2) Plastic polymer. Carbon black is used as a black pigment as printing ink which is created from the incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. During the venting process sulfates are released and organic particles which causes respiratory problem and also cancer of the lung and urinary bladder. The e-wastes are disposed off into the waste stream: (1) land fill and (2) recycling

[Technical Session IV]

In Chair: Dr. B. Krishna, Former Scientist, BSI, Kolkata & Er. H.C.P. Sinha, Former Director, PDIL, Sindri

[Lecture I] Dr. Om Prakash, Asstt. Professor, Deptt.of Mech, Engineering, NIT, Patna. Topic Energy Recovery. Dr. Om Prakash said that the biogas was an important renewable energy resource for rural area in India which was produced by anaerobic digestion of biological wastes and was eco-friendly, clean, cheap and versatile fuel. The biogas comprised of 55-65% methane, 35-45% carbon dioxide, 0.5 1.0 % hydrogen sulfide and traces of water vapor. The calorific value of biogas was 20 MJ/m3 (4713 Kcal/m3). He spoke at length about the factors affecting optimum biogas production and different types of biogas digesters. He concluded by stating that in the present energy and environment situation biogas was an excellent alternative to conventional fuels which could be commercially utilized for various applications.

[Lecture II] Sri S.N. Rao, Former Member Secretary, BSPCB, Patna. Topic MSW (Management & Handling) Rules 2000. The speaker, Sri S. N. Rao with his vast experience in the field of Environment spoke on the constraints of pollution control boards in the implementation of MSWM rules. He suggested that for the compliance of MSWM Rules following should be done; (i) All communities public, students and all citizens to be involved in the management along with the regulatory bodies. (ii) Filing court cases against defaulters was no solution to pollution abatement because no further action was possible

process. He further said that with economic growth rising for 6% to 8%, the responsibility of the state Pollution Control Boards was increasing and this problem was further compounded due to Right to Information Act (RTI) in vogue now. With the above background, he explained MSW (M & H) Rules 2000 in chronological manner through audio-visual presentation. Further, he cited the example of Suryapet Municipality in the State of Andhra Pradesh where the MSW Rules were being complied. His presentation evolved many questions from the delegates. The Chairpersons thanked the special for giving a nice presentation.

(iii) Consultation and persuasion process should be preferred over control & command

when the matter became subjudice.

DAY 3 [Technical Session V]

In Chair: Prof. R.C. Sinha, Chief Executive, CENC & Dr. B. Krishna, Former Scientist, BSI, Kolkata

[Lecture I] Prof. S. Kumar, Visiting Professor, NIT, Patna. Topic: Waste Categorization and Quantification Prof. Kumar emphasized on two points (i) Waste Categorization &(2) Quantification. He defined waste as resource material kept in a wrong place. Therefore, one needed to establish its place of utilization by using the proper means. He further said that there was more generation of wastes by richer and affluent community and less by poor community. Regarding the Quantification of Wastes he emphasized on need of the standard method formulated by CPCB, Delhi being the nodal agency for framing rules and regulations. Presently there was a lot of variation in the data pertaining to waste quantification / generation per capita per day for every city / or town. The variations in the data of generation became an impediment in correct formulation of waste disposal. Thus, there was an urgent need of standardized method of quantification. His lecture was very impressive and interesting. The session came to close with big applaud from the delegates and he was thanked by the Chairpersons for his excellent lecture. [Lecture II] Dr. Naveen Kumar, Bihar State Pollution Control Board, Patna. Topic: Municipal Solid Waste Management: Role of NGOs, Rag pickers & public sectors. Dr. N. Kumar initially spoke on the Worlds changing scenario of MSWM and spelt out in detail the garbage menace and also about the effects of MSW on the adverse effect on the environment. The further spoke on MSWM Rule 2000 and the responsibility of the Municipal Authority, SPCBs the State Government and the Central Government. He dealt in detail about the participation of the public, private sectors and the community and also role of informal sector. He emphasized on the need of concept Waste to Wealth.

PROJECT WORK & GROUP DISCUSSION Participants: All delegates attending the Training Program. For the project work, the participants were divided into 3 groups



Sanitary Landfill Site selection for MSW for any city / town




Applicability of MSW (M & H) Rules, 2000; constraints if any and suggestion for amendments




The role of mass awareness in MSWM

All the three groups were given about 45 minutes to work on their respective project and then come out with their views and suggestions. After the completion of the project, a group leader was asked to come to the dais and present their project work before all the audience present in the Hall and group leader was asked to answer to the questions posed by the audience.

The summary of the recommendation by each group is as follows: GROUP I Landfill site should be for at least 25 years. Landfill site should be: (1) Away from water source (2) Away from habitation (3) Away from sensitive zones i.e., religious site, i.e. temple, mosque, church or lake. The land fill site should be a dry land and the distance should be such that the transport cost was low. Last but not the least, the landfill site should be close to Zerosensitivity Index. They also spoke on the constraints in carrying out EIA because of the following: (i) Inadequate baseline data (ii) Insufficient expertise in most aspects of the system (iii) Effective public participation. (iv) Poor EMP compliance and ineffective enforcement. GROUP II The leader of group II spoke on the genesis of MSWM Rules 2000 and its applicability and responsibility of different sectors in the implementation of the above rule. Although there were provisions for penalty for contravention of the provisions of the MSWM Rule and also offences by Government Departments, these provisions should be made simpler so that the officers who fail to comply could be punished immediately. It has been the experience of the Pollution Control Board officers that most of the time the Govt. Officials failed to perform their functions but even then no action was being taken against the defaulting officer. GROUP III

The earth provides enough for every mans need, but not enough for every mans greed Mahatma Gandhi. It was high time to understand this saying and realize the

The leader of Group III spoke on the role of mass awareness on MSWM.

importance of solid wastes management. For an effective solid wastes management programme 3Ms Man, Mass and Media plays a pivotal role. She proposed a model for bringing about mass awareness awakening of ignorant minds, the sleeping souls and the reluctant hearts. Display of posters, banners, hoardings from pillar to post signifying the importance of SWM, hazards due to the accumulation of solid wastes, etc. Nukad Nataks by the students of schools and colleges. Revision of the school and college curriculum and the incorporation of field work/ practical training Programme to students, youth the grass root of the society. Organizing workshops, seminars, lectures. Promoting Documentary films, advertisements through electronic and print media. Demonstrating effective management practices (appropriate waste collection, segregation, disposal, treatment and resource recovery processes) at public places by learned and trained men of NGOs, pollution control board or other organizations. This mass awareness the widespread wakening of minds can effectively cut down the generation of solid wastes can effectively manage solid wastes through appropriate collection, segregation, disposal and treatment procedures, even turn

wastes into wealth through efficient recycle, recharge and reuse practices, can also create job opportunities such as incineration 10,000 tons of wastes creates 1 job, land filling creates 6 jobs, recycling creates 36 jobs. Besides these an effective SWM through mass awareness would surely make the planet EARTH a conducive place to live in for the present and also for the generations to come. VALEDICTORY FUNCTION (Date: 14th September, 2009) The Valedictory function of the 3-Day All India Training Program on Municipal Solid Waste Management was held on 14th of September, 2009 at 3:00 pm in the Auditorium of Geology Department, Patna University, Patna.

(L to R: Prof. R. C. Sinha, Chief Executive, CENC,, Prof. (Dr.) R. K. Mahto, Former Vice-Chancellor, M.U., Prof. (Dr.) S. I. Ahson, Pro Vice-Chancellor, P.U., Er. H.C.P. Sinha, Former Director, PDIL, Sindri and Prof. Kashi Nath, Principal, Science College, Patna,) Prof. (Dr.) S.I. Ahson, Pro ViceChancellor, Patna University was the Chief Guest of the Valedictory Function. In his address, he emphasized on the need of such training program because awareness was essential for the solid waste management. Most of the people were not aware of MSWM Rule, 2000 and as such it was expected that trainees when they returned to their respective places would make the people aware of the Municipal Solid Waste Management so as to keep the environment clean. He expressed his happiness over the participation of the young students of the University and hoped that they would make the Campus clean and green. He added that such type of activities in the University campus would definitely bring good name and fame of Patna University.

Prof.(Dr.) R. K. Mahto, Former ViceChancellor, Magadh University praised the Centre for Environment & Nature Conservation for organizing such type of All India Training Program. He however, lamented on the present state of affairs in Bihar regarding the MSWM. He suggested that Patna Municipal Corporation should effectively implement the MSWM Rule, 2000.

Earlier, Prof. R. C. Sinha, Chief Executive, CENC, Patna University welcomed the Chief Guest Prof.(Dr.) S.I. Ahson, Pro Vice-Chancellor, P.U. and the President, Prof.(Dr.) R. K. Mahto, Former Vice-Chancellor, M.U. He spoke about the mission of such training program being organized by CENC. He further added that there was upgrading of human resources capabilities to enable them to meet the environmental & developmental activities by such training program. He thanked GTZ for supporting the training program.

Prof.(Dr.) Kashi Nath, Principal Science College proposed the Vote of Thanks and he especially thanked German Technical Co-operation (GTZ) for supporting the training program. He also thanked the participants for coming from all parts of India and hoped that the 3-Day training program must have been fruitful and enjoyable. He concluded by praising the efforts of CENC, P.U. for organizing such training program in Science College Campus and wished for more such training program.