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MericheM Liquid hydrocarbon-TreaTing TechnoLogies

Shell Global Solutions (US) Inc. and Merichem Company have formed an alliance to allow Shell Global Solutions to market and license Merichems technologies.
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Selecting the optimum treatment for removing impurities from hydrocarbon streams is a challenging task for any refiner. To help customers access best-in-class solutions, Shell Global Solutions has an alliance with Merichem Company, the leading technology licensor for caustic treating of light and middle distillate hydrocarbons. This allows Shell Global Solutions to offer a series of proven liquid hydrocarbon treating technologies that complement its own technology portfolio. These are designed to remove mercaptans, carbonyl sulphide (COS), hydrogen sulphide (H2S), carbon dioxide (CO2) and naphthenic acids. The Shell Global SolutionsMerichem offer covers the following technologies:
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THIOleX; THIOleX COS; ReGen ;

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nAPFInInG; nAPFInInG HiTAn; eXOMeR; AQuAFInInG; MeRICOn; CHlOReX; AMIneX; and AMIneX COS.

ReGen ulS; MeRICAT; MeRICAT C; MeRICAT J; MeRICAT II;

Merichem has a 70-year track record in the oil and gas business, and has licensed more than 800 process units worldwide.

AT A GLANCE
customer driver: legislative constraints (permits/licence to operate, fuel specifications); margin improvement (product upgrade, optimised production, efficiency and availability) solution: A suite of technologies to remove H2S, mercaptans, COS and other acidic contaminants from hydrocarbon streams Value delivered: High performance impurity removal; smaller unit footprint and reduced capital and operating expenditures Proof point: More than 800 licensed process units worldwide

AbOuT THe TeCHnOlOGy Merichems licensed technologies are primarily based on its proprietary, state-of-the-art, non-dispersive FIbeR FIlM Contactor. A retaining cylinder packed with very fine, proprietary metal fibres, the FIbeR FIlM Contactor has been licensed worldwide to treat problems throughout the hydrocarbon processing industries. The technology achieves non-dispersive-phase contact without the problems inherent in conventional dispersive mixing devices, such as aqueous phase carryover, hydrocarbon losses, lack of turndown ability, long settling times, plugging and flooding. Moreover, because the aqueous phase adheres to the fibres in the FIbeR FIlM Contactor rather than being dispersed into the

Untreated hydrocarbon

Treated hydrocarbon

pRoof poINTS
Tpra
Fresh caustic or lean caustic from REGEN

Spent caustic or rich caustic to REGEN

Figure 1: THIOleX technology employs the FIbeR FIlM Contactor as the mass transfer device and utilises caustic as the treating reagent to remove acid gas and mercaptan compounds from liquid and gas hydrocarbon streams.

Turkish oil company Tpra selected Merichem technologies to treat a 22,000 barrel-per-stream-day hydrocarbon stream at its Izmir refinery. nAPFInInG, MeRICAT II, and AQuAFInInG technologies are being used to help meet jet fuel specifications. Merichem also licensed its MeRICOn spent caustic neutralisation technology to treat up to 1.6 m3/h of spent caustic ahead of the existing wastewater treatment plant.

Samsung Total Petrochemicals Co. ltd.


Samsung selected Merichem technologies for its heavy-ends by-product upgrade project. nAPFInInG, MeRICAT II and AQuAFInInG technologies treat 15,000 barrels-per-stream-day of jet fuel in order to meet internationally accepted jet fuel specifications.

hydrocarbon phase, carryover is virtually eliminated. uncontrollable emulsions are also eliminated because effective phase contact occurs without dispersion. PROCeSS deSCRIPTIOn THIOleX: Caustic extraction of acid gas and mercaptan compounds from liquid and gas hydrocarbon streams (Figure 1). The technology has been licensed for over 220 units since 1980. THIOleX COS: Caustic/catalyst extraction of acid gas and COS compounds from liquid and gas hydrocarbon streams. ReGen: Regeneration of rich caustic streams to improve caustic utilisation. Typically, ReGen is used to regenerate the mercaptide-rich caustic that THIOleX purges, returning a lean caustic stream for additional mercaptan removal. disulphide oil (dSO) gravity separation or solvent washing minimises the impact of dSO back-extraction (Figure 2). It can also be used to revive rich or spent caustic streams emanating from refinery treating units. ReGen technology was first licensed in 1980. To date, Merichem has granted operating licences to 151 units worldwide. ReGen ulS: Regeneration of mercaptide-rich caustic, which yields a lean caustic with minimal dSO backextraction into the lPG. ultra-low sulphur levels can be achieved in the treated product. Ideal applications are high-sulphur coker lPG streams and lPG streams, and lPG products requiring less than 5ppm sulphur. The technology can often treat lPG pre-fractionation in a single train, whereas conventional technologies usually require multiple trains post-fractionation. MeRICAT and MeRICAT C: A caustic/catalyst/air mixture removes hydrogen sulphide and sweetens mercaptan compounds in gasoline, naphtha, condensate and crude oil streams (Figure 3). The technology has been licensed to more than 148 units since 1977.

Refineria de Cartagena SA (Reficar)


Reficar selected Merichem technologies to treat hydrocarbons and spent caustic at its refinery in Cartagena, Colombia. AMIneX, THIOleX and ReGen technologies are used to treat coker lPG and saturated lPG at the facility. In addition, nAPFInInG, MeRICAT II, and AQuAFInInG technologies, in conjunction with salt and clay beds, treat kerosene and jet fuel streams.

Shell eastern Petroleum Pte ltd


Shell selected Merichem technologies for a revamp project at its refinery in Pulau bukom, Singapore. Merichem will supply its THIOleX and ReGen technologies to treat propane/propylene, butane/ butylene and light catalytically cracked gasoline streams in order to meet product specifications.

source Crude distillation unit

stream (impurities) Overhead offgas (H2S, RSH, COS, CO2) Saturated lPG (H2S, RSH, COS) lSR/HSR naphtha (H2S, RSH) Jet fuel/kerosene (RCOOH, RSH) diesel (RCOOH)

applicable technologies AMIneX, THIOleX, ReGen, ReGen ulS AMIneX, THIOleX, ReGen, ReGen ulS THIOleX, ReGen, MeRICAT nAPFInInG HiTAn, MeRICAT II, MeRICAT J, AQuAFInInG nAPFInInG HiTAn, AQuAFInInG CHlOReX

downstream applications

Catalytic refomer

unstabilised reformate (HCl, nH4Cl) unsaturated lPG (H2S, RSH, COS) light FCC gasoline (H2S, RSH) Heavy or full range FCC gasoline (H2S, RSH)

FCC or RCC

THIOleX, ReGen, ReGen ulS THIOleX, ReGen, MeRICAT, eXOMeR MeRICAT, MeRICAT II, MeRICAT J, eXOMeR

Coker, visbreaker or hydrocracker

lPG and naphtha (H2S, RSH, COS)

AMIneX, THIOleX, ReGen, ReGen ulS, MeRICAT

source Midstream applications nGl fractionation

stream (impurities) natural gas (H2S, RSH, COS, CO2) Propane (H2S, RSH, COS) butane (H2S, RSH) natural gasoline (H2S, RSH)

applicable technologies AMIneX, THIOleX, ReGen, ReGen ulS AMIneX, THIOleX, ReGen, ReGen ulS THIOleX, ReGen, ReGen ulS THIOleX, ReGen, MeRICAT II, MeRICAT J

source Gas production field

stream (impurities) natural gas (H2S, RSH, COS, CO2) lPG (H2S, RSH, COS) Condensate (H2S, RSH)

applicable technologies AMIneX, THIOleX, ReGen AMIneX, THIOleX, ReGen nAPFInInG, THIOleX, ReGen, MeRICAT, MeRICAT II AMIneX, THIOleX, ReGen nAPFInInG, MeRICAT

upstream applications

Oil production field

Associated gas (HCl, nH4, nH4Cl) light crude oil (H2S, CO2, RCOOH, RSH)

Oil sands heavy oil upgrader

Fuel gas (H2S, RSH, COS, CO2) lPG (H2S, RSH, COS)

AMIneX, THIOleX, ReGen AMIneX, THIOleX, ReGen

Offgas Air

Untreated hydrocarbon

Treated hydrocarbon

Oxidiser

DSO gravity separator

Fresh solvent Solvent wash

Air

Catalyst

Coal Catalyst Rich caustic from THIOLEX Lean caustic to THIOLEX

Spent caustic

Fresh cascaded caustic

Spent caustic

Fresh caustic

Solvent/DSO

Sand filter

Figure 2: ReGen technology processes regenerable rich caustic streams produced in the refinery, allowing it to be recycled thereby significantly improving caustic utilisation. Typically ReGen is coupled with extractive THIOleX technology to regenerate the mercaptide-rich caustic purged from the THIOleX system, returning a lean caustic stream for additional mercaptan removal.

Figure 3: MeRICAT and MeRICAT C technologies employ the FIbeR FIlM Contactor as the mass transfer device and utilise a caustic/catalyst/air mixture as the treating reagent to remove hydrogen sulphide and sweeten mercaptan compounds in gasoline, naphtha, condensate and crude oil streams.

MeRICAT J: A special solution mixed with air oxidises heavy mercaptans in jet fuel and middle distillate streams without the need for a fixed carbon bed. MeRICAT II: A caustic/catalyst/air mixture removes hydrogen sulphide and sweetens mercaptan compounds in jet fuel, kerosene and gasoline and naphtha streams. MeRICAT II has been licensed to over 43 units since 1986. nAPFInInG and nAPFInInG HiTAn: Caustic extraction of naphthenic acid compounds from jet fuel, kerosene, diesel, condensate and crude oil streams. nAPFInInG technology was first licensed in 1977. Since then, Merichem has granted operating licences to 75 units worldwide. unlike electrostatic precipitators, the technology offers an on-stream factor between routine turnarounds of 100% and can process high TAn (>0.1 mg KOH/g) feeds. eXOMeR: A proprietary treating reagent removes the recombinant mercaptans that form in selectively hydrotreated fluidised catalytic cracked gasoline or heavier molecular weight mercaptans from liquid hydrocarbon streams. The capital expenditure for a grassroots eXOMeR unit is 3550% of the cost of incremental hydrotreating capacity, and the operating costs per barrel are approximately 6070% less when compared with hydrotreating. AQuAFInInG: Water extraction of soluble organic and inorganic impurities from liquid and gas hydrocarbon streams. AQuAFInInG technology was first licensed in 1978 and to date has Merichem has granted 90 unit operating licenses worldwide. MeRICOn: On-site solutions for the processing of spent caustics to reduce their biochemical oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand, control odour and adjust acidity.

The technology produces a neutral brine effluent stream that can be routed to waste-water treating facilities, evaporation ponds or waterways. MeRICOn technology was first licensed in 1988. To date, Merichem has granted operating licences to 27 units worldwide. CHlOReX: Alkaline water extraction of inorganic chloride compounds from reformer gas and liquid product streams. CHlOReX designs produce a more readily handled effluent stream compared with the waste material generated by sacrificial solid adsorbent beds. The technology has been licensed four times since 1991. AMIneX and AMIneX COS: A special amine removes acid gas and COS compounds from lPG-type and gas streams. The technology has been licensed 27 times since 1998.

HAve yOu COnSIdeRed HOW yOu CAn


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Process feedstocks that contain difficult-to-remove impurities Achieve higher levels of impurity removal? Avoid emulsification, carryover and pressure drop in your mixing vessels? Minimise your use of fresh caustic?

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All statements regarding Merichem Company, its affiliates and their products are based solely on information provided by Merichem Company and have not been independently verified by Shell Global Solutions.
For more information, please visit our website at www.shell.com/globalsolutions
Shell Global Solutions is a network of independent technology companies in the Shell Group. In this brochure, the expression Shell Global Solutions is sometimes used for convenience where reference is made to these companies in general, or where no useful purpose is served by identifying a particular company. The information contained in this material is intended to be general in nature and must not be relied on as specific advice in connection with any decisions you may make. Shell Global Solutions is not liable for any action you may take as a result of you relying on such material or for any loss or damage suffered by you as a result of you taking this action. Furthermore, these materials do not in any way constitute an offer to provide specific services. Some services may not be available in certain countries or political subdivisions thereof. Copyright 2010 Shell Global Solutions International bv. All rights reserved. no part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical including by photocopy, recording or information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from Shell Global Solutions International bv. GS33311110 en(A)