A clown is walking west on board a train moving east at high speed.

How is the clown moving according to a cardiologist standing at the platform while the train passes?

Relative motion

Answer: 2
Motion depends on the observer. In this case, if you use the telescope test you can tell the clown is moving east from the perspective of the cardiologist.

1. East, at the same speed as the train 2. East, slightly slower than the train 3. West 4. The clown is not moving according to the cardiologist
0
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1 D'Amato PTHS 2007

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0
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D'Amato PTHS 2007

A hockey puck glides across the ice at a constant speed. In which direction(s) are forces being exerted on the hockey puck?

Motion with constant velocity

Answer: 5
An object moving at constant velocity has a net force of zero. There is no unbalanced force in the direction of motion
Fice on puck

1. Up 2. Down 3. In the direction of its motion 4. Opposite the direction of its motion 5. Both 1 & 2 6. 1, 2, and 3
0 0
2

puck
Fearth on puck
0
3

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4

0
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0
6

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1 D'Amato PTHS 2007

4

D'Amato PTHS 2007

A baseball has just left the hand that threw it straight upward. What is the direction of the net force on the ball?

Motion with constant velocity

Answer: 2
The ball has left the hand. The hand is not touching. There is no force exerted by the hand.

1. Up 2. Down 3. There is no net force exerted on the ball 4. There is not enough information to tell

ball

Fearth on ball
The only force on the ball is down. That's why the ball is accelerating in the down direction
4

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1

A brick rests on a table which sits on the floor. Which of these would NOT appear on a free body diagram for the table?
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Force of brick on table Force of earth on table Force of table on earth Force of floor on table ALL of these would appear
0 0 0 0 0

Force

Answer: 3
A free body diagram for the table shows forces exerted on the table.
Ffloor on table

table
Fbrick on table

Fearth on table

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2

3

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D'Amato PTHS 2007

Which of these situations does NOT include a force exerted by each underlined object on the other?
1. A book rests on the surface of a desk 2. A ball flies into the air after leaving the hand that threw it 3. A wagon is pulled at constant speed by a rope 4. A brick falls freely toward the earth 5. All of these describe a force

Force

Answer: 2
A force is a push or pull between two objects. The only objects that can push or pull without touching are: • the earth • a charged object • a magnetic object.

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Chris drives 30km to work in 30 minutes. Grey drives 10km to work in 12 minutes. Who has a faster average speed?
1. 2. 3. 4. Chris Grey They are the same Answer cannot be determined

Speed

Answer: 1
Speed = how far / how long

Chris: v= ∆x ∆t 30km = 30min = 1km/min

Grey: v= ∆x ∆t 10 km = 12 min =< 1km/min

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2

Chris and Charles both start moving from rest when the light turns green. Ten seconds later, Chris is going 60 mph and Charles is going 55 mph. Which is true?
1. Chris and Charles were never at the same position 2. Chris and Charles were never going the same speed at the same time 3. Chris has a greater average acceleration than Charles 4. All of these statements are true
13

Answer: 4

0

+

Position x is where the object is located on the coordinate axis We choose the coordinate axis or use the axis specified
100

An axis has an origin and a scale in the positive and negative direction Sometimes we just talk about positive, negative, and zero

10

200

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+
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If an object has a constant speed in the negative direction, which of the following is true?
1. The position of the object must be negative 2. The velocity of the object must be negative 3. The acceleration of the object must be negative 4. The acceleration of the object must be zero 5. Both 2 and 4
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Speed

Answer: 5
Acceleration is change in velocity Constant velocity = no acceleration = no net force Going in the negative direction = negative velocity Speeding up in the negative direction = negative acceleration

0
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D'Amato PTHS 2007

Which statement about the quantity "net force" is NOT correct?
1. An object always moves in the direction of the net force exerted on it 2. The net force is the total of all the forces exerted on an object of interest 3. If all forces exerted on an object are balanced by other forces, the net force on the object is zero 4. An object can be in motion with a net force of zero 5. More than one of these is NOT correct 17

Net force

Answer: 1
Definition: the total of all forces exerted on an object Zero net force = no forces at all OR all forces balanced by other forces No net force = no CHANGE IN motion = not moving OR moving at constant velocity

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3

Which of these pairs of forces is an example of Newton's third law FA on B = –FB on A?
1. 2. You are seated on a bench. The earth exerts a force on you, and the bench exerts a force on you. A pen sits on a desk. The desk exerts a force on the pen, and the pen exerts a force on the desk. You pull on a rope. The rope pulls on a wagon. A book slides across a tabletop. The book exerts a downward force on the table, and the table exerts a frictional force to slow the book. Both 2 and 4
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Newton's third law

Answer: 2 FA on B = − FB on A

If object A exerts a force on object B, object B exerts an equal force on object A in the opposite direction

3. 4.

man

wagon

5.

Fwagon on man

Fman on wagon

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2

0
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0
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D'Amato PTHS 2007

A battery-powered hover cart glides toward you across the floor. You have a stick. How do you need to tap the cart to make it move in a circle around your feet?
1. In line with the circumference of the circle 2. Outward from the circle 3. Inward toward your feet 4. At a tangent to the circle 5. Backwards and outwards

Circular motion

Answer: 3
An object moving in a circular path (or part of a circular path) has a net force toward the center of the circle Net force to center? It will move in a circle Moving in a circle? There is a net force to the center

0
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D'Amato PTHS 2007

It is possible for two cars to have the same speed but different velocities?
1. Yes, if the cars have different masses 2. Yes, if the cars start from different points 3. Yes, if the cars have different engines 4. Yes, if the cars are going in different directions 5. No, it is not possible
0
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Speed and velocity

Answer: 4
Speed means how fast you are going Velocity means how fast you are going and in what direction 50mph east and 50mph northeast: same speed different velocity

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4

What force(s) cause the earth to rotate around the sun once every year?
1. The force of the earth's movement 2. The force of the sun's gravitational attraction 3. The force of the sun's solar wind 4. The force of swirling etheric vortices 5. Both 1 and 2
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Circular motion

Answer: 2
Moving in a circle? There is a net force to the center In this case, the force is the gravitational attraction between the earth and the sun No force is required to keep the earth moving

0
2

0
3

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0
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D'Amato PTHS 2007

A stationary soccer ball is kicked and rolls away over the grass. What quantity does it have after the kick that it did not have before?
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Mass Force Inertia Impulse Momentum

Momentum

Answer: 5
The momentum of an object is a equal to its mass times its velocity

p = mv

0
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0
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D'Amato PTHS 2007

A Radio Flyer wagon carrying one school book rolls along a level sidewalk. Which other Radio Flyer would have MORE momentum?
1. A wagon loaded with school books, not moving 2. An empty wagon rolling at the same speed 3. An identical wagon rolling faster 4. None of these
0
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1 D'Amato PTHS 2007

Momentum

Answer: 3

p = mv
Momentum increases when velocity increases or when mass increases

0
2

0
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5

Cart A and cart B roll toward each other on a smooth track and collide. What quantity will always be the same before and after the collision?
1. The force of A plus the force of B 2. The speed of A plus the speed of B 3. The velocity of A plus the velocity of B 4. The total momentum of both carts 5. All these quantities stay the same
31

Momentum

Answer: 4

pbefore = pafter mA vA1 + mB vB1 = mA vA 2 + mB vB2
Although velocities can change during a collision or explosion, the total amount of momentum remains the same

0

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D'Amato PTHS 2007

What is the term we use when the total amount of some quantity remains the same before and after an event?
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Coincidence Convergence Congruence Conditioning Conservation Constantiation Cromulence

Conservation

Answer: 5
If the total amount of some quantity remains the same, even though it can change form or be transferred, we say that it is conserved. In your personal finances, your net worth is conserved even though you may take money out of your bank account and put it in your pocket. This is always true after a visit to the ATM right?

$ wallet before + $ ATM before = $ wallet after + $ ATM after
0 0 2 0 3 0 4 0 5 0 6 0 7

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D'Amato PTHS 2007

Chris throws a ball up in the air. If we say that the ball and the earth are the system, what does that mean?
1. 2. 3. The motion of the ball is determined by the earth The ball and earth obey rules of physics We are considering the ball and earth separately from Chris and other objects Nothing else interacts with the ball and the earth

System

Answer: 3
system

environment

4.

The system is the part of the world we are interested in at the moment. It's a choice. The environment is everything outside the system. We draw the system with a circle around it.
0 0
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6

What do we call a force exerted by an object outside the system on an object inside the system?
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Work Energy Interference External interaction Extrinsic force

System

Answer: 4

ball and ramp: internal interaction

ramp and table: external interaction

An internal interaction is between objects in the system. An external interaction involves an object outside the system.
0
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D'Amato PTHS 2007

Consider a system that includes a ball at the top of a ramp, the ramp, and the earth. What is an example of a process that could occur in this system?
1. The system is considered at an instant in time 2. The ball rolls to the bottom of the ramp 3. A hand holds the ball in place at the top of the ramp 4. The system is analyzed using physics rules
39

Energy

Answer: 2
initial state
final state

0

0
2

0
3

0
4

A process is when the system changes from one state to another state over a period of time. The process is a change from an initial state to a final state
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1 D'Amato PTHS 2007

In any system of objects that does not interact with the environment, which of the following quantities is NOT always conserved?
1. 2. 3. 4. Mass Energy Momentum Velocity

Principles of conservation

Answer: 4
In any isolated system, mass never appears or disappears although it may change form. The same is true for energy and momentum.

initial state

final state

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0
2

0
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0
4

Bonus question: is this an isolated system?
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7

What is the real name of "Chalk smashing potential"?

Energy

Answer: 3
brick

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Momentum Work Energy Temperature Inertia Height

earth

0

0
2

0
3

0
4

0
5

0
6

We used the idea of "chalk smashing potential" as a way to visualize the concept of energy. A system can contain energy in many different forms. Energy is, technically, the ability to do stuff.
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D'Amato PTHS 2007

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1 D'Amato PTHS 2007

An object is raised above the surface of the earth. What kind of energy has been increased in the system of object and earth?
1. 2. 3. 4. Kinetic energy Vertical energy Potential energy Gravitational potential energy 5. Internal energy

Gravitational Potential Energy

Answer: 4

brick

earth

0
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0
2

0
3

0
4

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5

When an object and the earth are separated against their mutual attraction they gain more ability to do stuff if released. For a system to contain gravitational potential energy, the earth must be included in the system.
46
D'Amato PTHS 2007

A fast mving racecar slows down on a level track. Which o statement is correct about the system that includes racecar, track, and earth?
1. Gravitational potential energy has decreased 2. Kinetic energy has decreased 3. Kinetic energy has increased 4. Kinetic energy has not changed 5. More than one of these is true
47

Kinetic Energy

Answer: 3
The energy of a moving object is called kinetic energy. If the object moves faster its kinetic energy increases

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8

What is the term for an external interaction that changes the total amount of energy in a system?
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Non-conservative force Impulse External influence Work Environmental factor

Work

Answer: 4
brick
positive work

brick
earth earth

When something from outside the system causes the total energy in the system to change, this is work If the total energy in the system increases we say positive work has been done
0 0
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0
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D'Amato PTHS 2007

Which situation describes a transformation of energy from one form to another?
1. A block is supported 2m above the ground by a wire 2. A block is supported 2m above the ground by a stretched spring 3. A ball rolls at constant speed across a level surface 4. A ball is released from rest at the top of a hill, and rolls down 5. More than one of these decsribes a transformation of energy
51

Energy
Type of energy in the system Something is elevated above the earth Something is moving Something elastic is stretched or compressed from its rest position Electric charges are separated

Answer: 4
Symbol Name Gravitational Potential Energy Kinetic Energy Elastic Potential Energy Electrostatic Potential Energy Increases when: System object moves higher System object moves faster Object is stretched or compressed more More charges are separated Decreases when:

Ug K Us Uq

System object moves lower System object moves slower

Object is stretched or compressed less

Fewer charges are separated

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D'Amato PTHS 2007

Which statement describes an observation about fire walking?
1. Some people walk on burning hot coals without injury 2. Evaporating perspiration cools the soles of the feet 3. The soles of the feet are protected by a layer of ash 4. Mental concentration and spiritual powers protect the feet 5. Some people will believe anything you tell them
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Observation

Answer: 1
An observation is a report of what you can see or measure, without any attempt to explain. Think of a radio announcer at a ballgame or a crime scene investigator trying to describe accurately and neutrally what she sees.

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9

Which is a possible explanation for why people can walk on burning coals without injury?
1. Some people have a power of mind over matter 2. Evaporating perspiration protects the feet 3. A layer of ash insulates the feet 4. The coals are not really hot 5. All but 4
55

Explanations

Answer: 5
An explanation is an idea that could possibly account for what you have observed. Think of how you could explain the phenomenon using what you know. You may need to propose a new idea to explain what you see -- maybe even magic.

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D'Amato PTHS 2007

How would we investigate possible explanations for why some people can walk on burning hot coals without injury?
1. Ask people how they are able to perform this feat 2. Look for evidence to confirm our ideas 3. Find out what the experts think 4. List all possible explanations and try to disprove each one 5. Observe similar odd feats like fire-breathing
57

Testing

Answer: 4
Ideas are tested by trying to show they are false. Use the idea to make a prediction. If the prediction does not come true, the explanation is no good. Idea: "This is a good used car for me to buy" Prediction: "If I turn the key, the car will start" Test: Turn the key

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2

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D'Amato PTHS 2007

How could you test the idea that mental concentration protects the feet during a firewalk?
1. Ask many experimental subjects to attempt a firewalk using mental concentration 2. Ask many experimental subjects to attempt other feats using mental concentration 3. Ask subjects to describe how mental concentration works 4. Ask many experimental subjects to attempt a firewalk without using mental concentration
59

Testing

Answer: 4
The only definite conclusion is disproof. If you can firewalk without mental concentration, mental concentration is not necessary to walk over hot coals Idea: "This is a good used car for me to buy" Car starts: idea may be correct Tires are good: idea may be correct Brakes work: idea may be correct Hole in the floor: idea is NOT CORRECT

0

0
2

0
3

0
4

Keep testing until disproved or satisfied with maybe!
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10

Which observation is NOT explained by the idea that liquids and gases are composed of a large number of tiny particles in continuous random motion?
1. Alcohol gradually disappears from paper 2. A balloon full of air has a round shape 3. Open a bottle of perfume and soon you will smell it 4. Milk eventually mixes into coffee even without stirring 5. ALL of these can be so explained
61

Kinetic Molecular Theory of Matter

Answer: 5
Tiny molecules are in constant random motion. Alcohol molecules jump off the paper sooner or later Air molecules collide continuously with the walls of a balloon Perfume molecules move among air molecules, across the room to your nose Milk and coffee molecules jostle and intermingle like dancers in a crowded club

0

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D'Amato PTHS 2007

Which statement is NOT true about an inflated balloon?

Kinetic Molecular Theory of Matter

Answer: 1
1. Air molecules are packed together tightly inside 2. Air molecules are continually colliding with the inside walls of the balloon 3. Air molecules are continually colliding with the outside walls of the balloon 4. The area inside the balloon 0 is mostly empty space 1 63 5. ALL of these are true D'Amato PTHS 2007 Air and other gases at room temperature are mostly empty space. Molecules move at high speeds through empty space, colliding with all surfaces and sometimes with each other These collisions cause gases to exert pressure on all surfaces A large number of tiny collisions feels like a continuous force
0
2

0
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D'Amato PTHS 2007

Which will NOT occur when the temperature of a box of gas is increased, according to our model?
1. Gas molecules will move more quickly 2. Gas molecules will collide with the walls of the box more often 3. Gas molecules will collide harder with the walls of the box 4. The amount of empty space inside the box will decrease 5. The pressure inside the box will increase
65

Fluids at rest

Answer: 4
An increase in temperature means an increase in the speed of the rapidly moving microscopic particles In gas, this means more and harder collisions with surfaces including the walls of the container In liquid, this means its more likely that liquid molecules will escape each other and become gas

0

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11

Consider four similar containers of liquid. In which will you measure the greatest pressure at the bottom of the ruler?
1. 2.

Fluids at rest

Answer: 5
Pressure in a liquid or gas is exerted because of the force required to support the fluid above. The depth below the surface of the fluid is the only factor that influences the pressure at any point

bucket

flask

3.

4.

5.
All pressures are the same

cylinder

funnel

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D'Amato PTHS 2007

Consider the point indicated in an open container of liquid. In which direction is the pressure greatest?
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Direction 1 Direction 2 Direction 3 Direction 4 All the same

Fluids at rest

Answer: 5
At any small point, pressure is the same in all directions. We explain this by saying that microscopic particles are colliding from all directions.

1

3
69

4
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D'Amato PTHS 2007

Compare the pressure exerted by the liquid on the submerged block X at point A and point B
1. 2. 3. 4. A is greater than B B is greater than A A is equal to at B There is not enough information to compare
A
X

Fluids at rest

Answer: 2
Deeper in the fluid means more pressure. Pressure is the same in all directions at a given depth.

B
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12

If block X is sinking in the fluid, what is the direction of the force exerted on the block by the liquid?
1. 2. 3. 4. up down none There is not enough information to tell

Fluids at rest

Answer: 1
There is always an upward force exerted by the fluid on a submerged or a partially submerged object But that does not mean the object will always float! Why not?
Fliquid on block

block
X X

Does this block float or sink?

0
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0
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4

Fearth on block
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