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Active Filters
TEARNING OBJECTIVES
upon compretion of this chapter on active filters, you will be able to;
'
' '
types of rowpass fiIters: 20 dB/decade, _40 dB/ dB/decade roll_off. 'D"s'gn or anaryzs for three tlpes of highpass filters: +20 dB, +40 dB, and +60 dB per decade of roll_off. cascade a rowpass firter with a highpass firter to make a wide bandpass firter. calculate &e lower and upper cutoff frequencies of either a bandpass or a notch filtcr if you are given (l) uanawiatn ,"roJunt frequency, (2) and quariry fac_ tor, or (3) resonant frequency and qualiry factor. decade, or
'
Name the four general classifications of frlters and sketch a frequencyresponse c.rve that shows the band of frequencies ttrat tt eV pass and stop. Design or anaryze cir, cuitl forthree
60
"":ry
*t
b;;idth
291
Acti\rs Fiiters
,AE
'
.
'
' '
and resonant frequency of a bandpass or notch filtcr fu a given lower and upper cutoff frequency. Desigl a bandpass filter frat uses only one op amp. Make a notch filter by (l) designrng a bandpass filter circuit with the same bandwidth and a resonant frequency equal to the norch frequency, and (2) properly connecting the
c:loilarc thc quality factor, bandwidth,
ba$flss circuit to an inverting adder. Expldn fu operrth of a *erco e$ralizer circuir Lhc PSffu b si'lrllr tb pcrfcmace of filter circuits.
n{ frfmtEtxuJ
Afibcr is a circuit thal is designed to pass a specifred band of frequencies while attenuming all signals outside this band Filter networks may be eitber active or passive. Passive fiber rctwor*s contain only resistors, inductors, and capacitors . Acrtve filters, which are fu mly type covered in this text, employ transistors or op amps plus resistors, inductors, ad c+acitss. Inductors are not often used in active frlters, because tby are bulky and cocdy and may bave large internal resistive componenfs. There are four types of filters: lowpss, highpass, batdpass, andbandetimination
(also referred to as bandreject or notch) filters. Figure
lvol
ll1
illustrates frequency
t
I
t I
T.i
li'
Requency
T
(a) Lowpass filter.
f"
(b) Highpass filter.
Frequency
fi f, .fn
(c) Baodpass filter.
Frequency
N.I
fi f, h ,.:: Bandelimination filtcr. (d)
fotr categuiqs of filErs.
Frcquency
FIGURE
Frequercy rcsporrse for
296
ehapter
1.r
t.lL pf,"tkthe magnitude of the ourpur vorrage of a iowpass filrer u".ru. rr"qu"n"y.'ir," is a prot for the ideal lowpass fi"lter, while the dashed tir* iiai"ut" the curves for practical lowpass filters. The range of frequencies rhat are tansmiyldi. k sband. The ratge of frequencies that are afienuated is known as the srop bana. heciionfrequency,f is also called the 0.707 frequency, the 3dB frequency, the comer frequency, or the break frequancy.
response plots for the four types of filters. A Iowpass filter is a circuit that has a constant outpiit voltage from dc up to a cubfffrequey* rrequency increases abovef,, the ouput voltage is attenuated l:ge taecreasesl. rg,* f f _f
l ;""Iil;"
.; ; ;";
banderimina_ tion filters are shown T.Iigr.rti(c) irra 16. once again, ,h";fiJfine represents the ideal plot, while dashed lines show rt" p*"JCA curves. Hlters are an integral part of electronic nurloortr uoa are used in applications from audio circuits to digital signal processing systems.
Highpass filters attenuate the output voltage for all frequencies Abovef the magnitud" oith" ourpr, voltage is constant. below the cutoff theFigure lll(b) is the plot foi idear and practicar highpass filters. The ,o=tid tin" is idear curve, the dashed curves show how praclical t igt p*r firten deviate ,rr" io"a Bandpass filters pass only a uiu orftoquencies whire anenuatirfail fre,uencies outside the band. Bandelimination firten p"rf.T *"Jyilporr,. way; that is, band+limination firters reject a specified uiiJ of frequen"i", ."irit"'iussing an frequen_ cies outside &e band.
frequeacyf,.
'
i*
rrgcar
n"q*n"y*apo;;ilffiil;ilJana
' *
,1.1
BASIC LOW.PASS FILTER
iii.i
introduqion
The circuit of Fig. rl2(a)is a commonly used lowpass active firter. The filtering is done by the Rc network *d op amp i. uJ * unirygain The resistor it. is q" equal to.R and is incruded for dc " ".;Iif; is infinire and the offset. [At dc, the *;";;; dc resistance path to ground f9r "upu"Itiu" both irp"r t ;""Id; ;;iiee section gai.l The differential voltage between pior ira, z *a 3 is essentially 0 v. Therefore, the volt_ age across capacitor c eu.u{sgtput vortage tr,, b"""u*" ttris vottag" folrower. E; divides between rt and C. n" capacitoi roilg" equals V,"ircuit'isl and is
vo=
where ar is the &equency in radians per second (ot = 2zrfland7 is equal to .?t Rewriting Eq. (I.lla) to obtain the voltage gain
f,fffi
1/i0f
X Et
(11la)
l,
Acr.:*=,;he
,
"tor"Oioop
A.",we hare
Vlt.
(lrrb)
To show that the circuit of Fig. I l2(a) is a low_pass filhr; consider how A.rLn Eq. (l I _l b) varies as frequency is varied. er u.ry io* a"qJncies, oat,is, as, car approaches o, lA.rl = frequencies, as upp.*io infrniry, .1,'10,"1":o.higb lArrl =0. (n" absolute value srgn, I ' l, indicates magaitude.)
Active Fitters
ftr=
1o
uttl
ko
Il.tII
C=
uF
__l_
^
V
l ',= Gilnc*8,
+
l
I
v
(a) lrwpass filrer fm a mlloff of 20 dB/decade.
l.o .0 0.707 e
'6
6
o^
JE
6
a0
{ 9"
0.1
o
20
o E
A.l
co,
ac
L0ro,
l0oa"
(b) Frequency reepclse plct fcr the clrc:t of pa* (a).
tr'IGURE
I12
20dB/decade roll_off
Lowpass fiher and frequency_response plot for a filter with a
Figure l1'2(b) is a plot ol la.rl u"o* or and shows that fo,r frequencies greater than the cutoff frequency an lActl decraser at a rate of 20 dB/decade*. This is the same as saying that the voltage gain is divided by l0 when the frequency
of
ro
is increasea uy io
1'l1.2 Designing the Fitter
[ecutofffrequency ar" is defined as that frequency of .E, where 0.707 times its lowfrequency value. This impirtani point'will be Section 1l1.3. The cutoff frequency is evaluated from
lA.rl i, reduced to aiirr*a n ir,;i i,
(112a)
": # =21f"
*dB = 20
,ofr#
298
Chager
is the cutofffrequency in radians mr n is in ohms, and ci, in r_"al
yl"1 rl
ti
AffiH,fi;fffit,"H:,$XTi#1":"rf,
R= I @'C
2nf.
c
(lr2b)
Exampte
II.l
l0 kO and C : 0.00I rF in fig. II2(a); whar is the cutoff frequency? Solu3ion By Eq. (ttea),
kt,iR
:
'
.f.
Example
C
(10
x tdXOOOr x]ffi
= lO0lrad/s
:
ll2
#=
:gorlc :
r5.e klrz
tlet6. tt2(a),calcu} for lowpass fitrer in Fig. tt.\ar, carculate = 0.005 pF.
R for a cutofffrequency
of
21g,,z and
solutloa From Eq. (It2b),
;fut=ffi Examprerr3
Calculare R in
,?_
I
:15'e&o
Fig. l12(a) for
a cutofrfieguency
of
3O
Solution F*n Eq. (tl_2b),
had/s and C _ 0.01 pF.
r_:_E Desi8r.hocedure The desi ar r^_. _ ' '" t ^ phht il;;;;u;ne desisn of a lowpass filter simir* to Fig. rr2(a)is
2. Choose the capaci 3.
,?= I I c@3.3k0
accom
I 9I*
the
cutotrjeeuT"y"it5er
c,il;;;ffi[xi:f;fr.'n''
ro.
orf,
p,F.
uetrveenb'ool and 0.r
Artive Fihers
z.JY
,lr.i Flta
Reqonse
<,.r.
Thc value of 461 at
is found by letting lilftC
= I in Eq. (1l_lb):
A, tt:
Therefore.
llI
ll
:6/45"_: o'707 ./ 45"
ar. is
gs
megnilud e
of A61at
'Arri
,m
=+ \:
= 0.707 =
3
dB
dle piu= angle is 45.. The soLd cun'e in Fig. l r2(b) shows how the magnitude of the actual frequency rcspoos€ deviates from the straight dashedrine approximation in the viciniry of ar". At 0.1a,. tAcLi I (0 dB), unJ o.t (20 dB). rabre rr_l gives both the magnirude and the phase angre ror or"rl'nt varues of ro between 0.lr,r. and l0ar.. Many applications require steeper rolloffs after the cutoff frequency. one cornmon filter configuration that gives steepei rolloffs is the Butterworth
:
;;;i;::l;;;i

fitier
TABLE
PHASE ANGLE FOB THE LOWPASS FILTER OF FtG. 112(al
'1.1
MAGNITUDE AND
a
0,1ar.
]errl
1.0
Phase angle (deg)
u.2tu,
0.5o4
@.
o.97 0.89
0.7A7
t4
27 45
6
2r,
4a.
lAol."
o.445 o.25
63
76 84
0.I
,,.2
INTRODUCNAN TO THE BT,TTERWORTH FILTER
In many lowpass filter applications, it is necessary for the closedJoop gain to be as close I as possible within the passband. The Butterworth fitter is best suited for this type of application. The Butterworrh firter is also n.a u^*i^oib,"flZi *"i.rn*firter, and alr filters in this chapter will be of the Butterworth " type. Figure ll.3 shows rhe ideal (solid the practicar (dashed lines) frequen.y ,LrpoorJ;;;;;" 9") ,yp"s of Butterworth filters' As the rolloffs become stegJ*r they approach the idear firteimore closely. Two active firters similar to Fig. t b; ;;;r,nr. ,o give a roroff of 40'dB/decade This rvourd not u. mL most economi"* a"*iin, because it would recuirc two op amps. In section ll3.1, it is shown how one op ampcan ie used to build
to
*a
ri(ri;;il
"r"pil
single op smp to give a 4,_dBldecade roll_off. Then in Secdon l14' a 4GdB/decaae ntterls cascade.d witrr a 20dB/cecadefilter tc produce a 50{B/decade filter.
a Bufter*'orth filter with a
300
Chapter
it
or zo dB/decade, the phase angle will increase by +s' at ,,. we now proceed to a Butterworth filter that has a rolloff sleeper than 2O dB/decade.
filter has
Butterworth firters are not designed to keep a constant phase angre at the cutofffre_ quency' A basic lowpass firter of dB/decade has a phase ,"giE"r _45o 20 at ot". A 40dB/decade Bunerworth a phase angre of
a phase angre
of

!]grhas
135' at ar..'Therefore, for each
90o
ir"r"*"
ar to", anda 6GdB/decade
'*,
0 dB l.o 3 dB 0.797 0.707 pornt
. 20d8
0.1
2OdB/decade
60dB/decade
,+kdBdecadc
oc
plots for
lA
a>"
0.0t
v.terc
FIGURE
.
1
l13
Frequency_response
Butterworth filters.
three types
of
lowpass
1.3 _ 4O.DBIDECADE LOW.PASS BUTTERWORTH FILTEN
I
t3,!
Simr,tified Dasign proceciure
Tne circuit
a rolloff of zt0 dB/decade; that is, aftcr the creases by 40 dB as ar increases !o
oiFig. ii'i(a) is one uf ii," uor; commody
ploq which is
ii.sed
ITlTr.r,":*i* unity rs connected for dc
voltage across C1 equals output voltage, " tzr. The design of the lowpass tttei or dig. 1r4(a) i1 ereatlr simplified by making re_ sistors R1 = R2 = rt rhen there are only fivl iteps in the design procedure.
94. Since the op amp circuit is basicariy
g.i1
y:i.t*
lOar.. Thc"otgTfuq*ocy, sorid rine in *g. sbows the actual in more detail in section'1r3.2. The op amp "*pt"io"a
lowpass fliers. It ploduces the magnitude of A61 de_
iii6l
u,
RTis
incrded
uoffi
f*
"tr;r, f;ffi;;;*
d"
"rprained amplifier), the
fur
section
Design procedure
l.
Choose the cutofffrequency,
2. Pick C1; choose a conyeniert udue [enveen 100 pF and 0.1 p,F. 3. Make Cz'= ZCr. 4. Calculate
at"otf..
^ fi=. @"Cr
5. Choose Ry= 2R.
0.707
(1i3)
iz=R
(a) Lowpass filter for
a
rolloff of 4O dB/decade.
,*, 6
'6
d
E
t.o
0.707
0
3
20
Slope =
!e
?
oo
bo
6
S
6
o.l
49 6376."16"
oo g
o
=
an
A.la"
FIGURE
&)c
o,
l0 ac
(b) Frcquencyresporse plot for the low_pass filterofpart (a).
U4
4O dB/decade.
Circuit and freguency plot for
a
lowpass
filter of
Exnmple
ll4
t
of I kHz. I;:t
Determine R1 and rt2 in Fig. ll4(a) for a cutoff frequency
Ct:
0.01 pF.
Solution Pick C2 :2Cr = 2(0.01 #,D :0.02pF.
Select Rr
:
Rz
:
R from Eq. (11.3):
lQ:
aad
alffi , @=11,258'f!
Ry:2(11,258 O)
=
22,516
dL
irt
E
3{t2
Chapter
ll9.2 Filter
11
Response
I
filter of Fig. I l4(a) not only iis i_;(;;'#lnro.."rdr;,;;;;,rosr has a steeper up to about Ill;!;ffi#:;, ,l1rur,*,. noio i ,, , =0 rad,s (dc i;11#;.fi:tffiry':: pr,,.""ng,"io,;;#&iffi;.';;,":Ttyi#:,i_,1,?HTi,Trif*J;
,l rorroff arter a" tnan aoes
The solid curve in Fie.
aft)
shows that the
The next rowoass firrer
;1:,,g1fl.",yJ",*."fflff**":i,Ii,
l,c'.rl 20
4.7u"
0.25et"
;";d*ir""0i,"1. g t,
o.
*" firrer Fig. ' d'**;;;iliil ,,. ofonry
' the
ri)ir,n
rr
var_
FIGS. tiz(a) AND t1a{a)
Phase aagle (deg)
dB/decade;
Fig. ll2(a)
1.0
*40 dB/decade; Fig. ll4(a)
1.0
Fig. It2(a)
Fig. 114(a)
O.5a"
arc
o.97 0.89
2r"
4r"
l0<o"
o.7M
0.445
4.25
0.1
0.998 0.97 4.707 0.24 0.053
0.01
6
14 'r1
45 63 76 84
*21
8
43
90
 137  143
172
t r1 _ 6O.DB/DECADE
LOW.PASS BUTTERWORTH FILTEB
Design procedure
1t4., Simptified
of 11'r'l $:jl#Tfim::"'r*20 dB/decade Th9 gyerall ctosedloo
ond filter.
or
,1ii^:1" rowpass nrter or 40 dB/decade g1r: or"oil rollof,lof 60 dB/decade. 'o 'p ga,o agl is the gain or tne n st nit urr"J*" gain of rhe sec_
is buirt
tr, = lr:
For a Bufterworrh
fr
Vo,
Ei
"q,"n;y;;;il','#ffi tffi$TlX?tr,,tr"1tr;il.?;T.fl l*teerharrhe
Design procedure
firter
u Vo E' ^ T;
u14)
l. j
Choose the cutoff
i*"*,:;#,,":
::HT:l, i;,::trween
Cr = ]Cr
f
o
oo, and o I pF
and
Cz
= 2Ct
(ils)
AatiY? Frkers
_4ti dB/decade
aa rrUJ 2OdBidecade

Rn=2*
ftz=R
Rl=&
3
3
,:,
cr
T +
t+r L;
v
I
Lla
I
(a) Lowpass filter for a rolloff
v
of 60 dB/decade.
I
,?,
I
lo
s! 5 'a
o
a
bo
u,l
t.' t^
Slope = 66
E
te
oo
'6
@
= 6976""*"
s
o
0.1a"
0)c
l0 a"
(b) plot of frequency response for the circuit of part (a).
FIGURE Lowpass filter designed for a rolloff of corresponding frequency_response plot. 4. Calculate
lrs
60
dB/decade and
R:
5'
I
@,
Cl
(116)
5.Makefil:ft2=ft:=R. &.: 2R and ft, = R. For best rcsurts the value of R shourd be between
If
the
r0 ar,d iOo kc. value of R is outside this range, you should go back and pick a new value of c3.
I
304
Chapter i I
Example 1l5 For the
and R for a cutoff frequency

60dB/dec'11"*r3:.{ter of Fig. 1r5(a), deterrnine the of t ktlz. kid'= 0.01 g,F.
From Eq. (lt_5),
values
of
c1, c2,
Solution
and
Cr
=
iCt:
10.0t rr,F) = 0.005 p,F
C2:2C3:2(0.01 pfl =
From Eq. (116),
0.O2 p,F
R: ______ 1_ (6.28X1
i
to'Xoot x to.o;
:
15,915
o
;".ffi,i:
Exampre 1l5 shows that the value of nin Fig. r15(a) is different from those of Fig. 1t4(a), arthough the cutoff tue saie. ThJ;.;;ary so dB in the passband untit ttre
f.d;;;,
.u.na"qu"r"y
trrat
f
e".
I
"1"*,r"r"*ted;
then
lA.r! =
,l4.2 Filter Besponse
The sorid line in Fig' is rhe actuar The dashed curve in to: viciniu.to* dot 1i,trre..teeuency response for Fig. I l_5(a). '15g) tl! r""igrtrio" Tabre ,_3 pares the magnitudes of Asproi the r"" pr.s frlters prase"r"a in ,r,i. chapter. com_ Note
tu*
"pp.r;;;;;.
[:',*:',fx],$::lr;f
i:i','*^;;;*
to r (0dB) untir the cutofffrequency,
Il?ij,r;ii, ]fttj,ro^ rHE LowpASs FTLTERS oF F,cs. 11.2(at,
2A dB/docade; Fig. ll2(a) A.la"
O.25at" 0.5ar"
arc
,t0
dB/decade;
Fig. 114{a)
1.0
d)
dB/decade:
Fig. lls(a)
1.0
1.0
0.yt
0.89 o.707
2a"
4t
l0ar.
0.45
0.25
0.1
0.998 0.97 0.707
o.w
0.992
0.7a7 o.124
0.u
0.053
0.01
0.a22
0.ml
A.rrx
Fbs
JU_
rL FI. a3res fu rhe lowpass firter of Fig 1!5(a) range from 0" at ar : 0 (dB *br b as tte hps ntr ar approaches o. Tabre lI4 compares the phase angies for the 6tren. c*
A[ digtal siglal
eeqrEocies above the Nyquist
processing syslems use a lowpass firter at the front erd to atren_ irqu"n"y, which is oneharne sampting ,ate.
7A8IE I1.4 P.HASE ANGLES FOR THE LOWPASS FILTERS OF FGS. tl2(a), 1t4(al, AND 11_5(a)
20
0.7a" 0.25o4
0.5ar. ac
2ro"
dB/decade;
Fig. ll2(a)
4O dB/decade; Fig. ll4(a)
_80
60
dB/decade;
Fig. ll5(a)
_4o 27" *63" 76"
940
6"
45'
21" 43"
900
12 29
60"
4at"
137.
10o"
143 172
 135' 210
226
256
,I5
HIGH.PASS BUTTENWORTH FILTERS
1l5.1 lntroduction
A highpass filter is a circuit that attenuates all signars below a specified cutoff frequency a" and passes all
signars whose frequency is above thecutoff
rnu, a highpass fiirer perioru.s iirc opposite fuacdo; of i" t"rrj *".. nrra, Figure ll6 is a prot of the magnrtud€ rr'". .i"rrJoop gain versus ,, for three types of Butterworth filters' The phase angle for a circuit ot zo'diiaecarie
is *45" ar
ar..
frequ"of.
,3,
0dB 3 dB
,rl rf
",I
0.707 point
Passband
20 dB
>
60 dB/decade
O.lot"
o)c
l0ro"
rhree highpass
FICURE
!f6
Comparison
Butterworth filten.
of frequency respotrse for
3+S
Chapier
li
Phase angies at a" increcse by *45" for each increaseof 20 dB/decacie. The phase gles for these three types an_ of t igrrpu* rrrt"r* are kr this book the design lompared in section 1l 5.s. n ters' In fact' the only differince of rhe lowpass fir_ "irrirr,pr* L* wuG *ifi d ,lr" p";tion of ,t,e fittering
,il;;;,#
capacirors and resisrors
I 15.2 Z0dB/Decade
Fiker
compare the highpassT*:
"f
Fie' rrz(a) with the rowpass firter of Fig.
lr2(a)
and
it!:I3i":"11:,1ffi'i:11#;*:l*:lt:",:,p,;;i';;dd,ominimizedc in Fig. t t 7 (a).,ilr,n* vortage y" .qrrr, ["11,,,*
*r"r;
rl
ffi ;:r.rt::riJ;B*'
'"
* l
;fifi$
n
I
x E'
(U7)
Rt=
,a)
Y
I
nl
I
3t t p5
I
I
(a) Highpass
v
J
I
] "= ilL: "u 'aRC
frler with a rolloff of 20 d}tdeeade.
,*'
o
€
oo
1.0
4.707
Slope = 20 dB/decade 0.1
l0 3
20
€ 1'
d
o oo €
@
o
60
0.0lar"
FIGURE
O.la4
lOro"
40 >o)
(b) Frequency reqpouse for (a).
U?
Basic higlr_pass f,rlter, 20 dB/decade.
Active Filters
sv!
l&'hen &, approaches 0 rad/s in Eq. (il7), v, approaches 0 v. At high frequencies, infinity, v, equals E;. since the circuit is not an ideal filter, the frequency response is not ideal, as shown by Fig, ll?(b). The solid line is the actual respons";
as r,r approaches
dashed lines show the straightline approxirnation. The rragnirude
tnl
equals 0.707 when
altc = l.
ofthe closedloop gain
Therefore, the cutoff frequency rrr. is given by
,"
=
#:2nf,
I
(l 18a)
R:
than
@,
C
znf" C
(118b)
it is C. The
The reason for solving for R and not C in Eq. (118b) is that it is easier to adjust R steps needed in designing Fig. llT(a) are as follows:
Design procedure tor Z0dBldecad€ highpass
l. Choose the cutoff frequency, a" or f". 2. Choose a convenient value of C, usually between 0.001 and 0.1 /,F. 3. Calculate it from Eq. (ll8b). 4. Choose R/: R.
Example 116
Caicuiate n in Fig. ii71n5
if
C = 0.002 p.F ano j,
= i0 irtrz.
Solution
From Eq. (11Sb),
R_
Example 1t7
(6.28)(tO
x
103x0.002
x
106)
:8kO
In Fig ll7(a) if R : 22 kO and C = 0.01 FF: calculate (a) a,;
(b)
f,.
Solution
(a) From Eq. (118a),
I t':6=4'54krad/s
(b)
n h = ,;:
0)"
4.54
x loi 724 Hz =
r,28
Active Filters
3. Calculate R1 from
R1 '
EGF stE
= @.C
= *Rr
J111
(i i 9)
4. Select
Rz
(1110)
5. To rdnimize dc offset, let
l?r.
=
R1.
Example
llt
C2
In Fig. 118(a), let C, = of I kHz.
=
0.01 pF. Calculate (a) R1 and (b) rt2
for a curoff frequency
Solution
(a) From Eq.
(ll9),
= 22'5 ko
1.4t4 ft,:__ ' (6.28X1 x 105001 fifT O) Rz : i(ZZ.S tO)
Example
= it.3
kO.
ll9
in Fig. r lg(a) for a cutoff frequency of g0 krad/s.
calculate (a) Rr and (b) R2 125 pF.
ct = cz 
Solution
(a) From (119),
Rr=
@:I4oko
R2:
);g4A kO)
1 l.alt '1i
:
70 kO.
1l5.4 d0dBlDecade Fitter
As with the lowpass filter of Fig. t is, a highpass filter of *60 dB/decade can be corrstucted by cascading a *4GdB/decade filter with a +20dB/decade filter. This circuit (like the other high and lowpass filters) is designed as a Butterworth filter to have the
frequency response in Fig. r 19(b). The design Gps for Fig. 1l9(a) are as folrows:
Design procedure for 60.d8/decade high.pass
1. Choose the cutofffrequency,
2. Let
q:
Cz
=
Ct:
a"orf".
C and choose a convenient value between
lffi
pF and 0.1 ;rF.
4$ dBldee.a a
__
20dB/decaiie
Rfr= R,

,,6
+
rfH
(a) Highpass filter for a
Cr= C
6O
dB/decade slope.
,*,
1.0
rkt Ei
0.707
sB
rJ
Slom =
60 dBldecade
f
o
l:
o
uo
0.1
t: 1 20
I
lro 11,
l3
40
tt!
!oo lo rI
'E
0.001
0.1a"
ac
l*
a 60dB/decade
I
ffiff ll 3.
3. Calculate R3 from
(b) Frequency_rcsponse for the circuit ofpart (a). circuit and frequencv response for
Bufierworth
Rr: I4. Select
R1
@.C
(1r11)
=
2R3
(1112)
310
lciE
5
Eiers
3ii
Rz =
Sclecr
ilr
(l 1r3)
6. To minimize dc offset curent, let
R, = r?1 and R, = ,l?r.
Example
ll10
For Fig. l19(a), let C1= = C3 _C2 @, = l krad/s. (f, = 159 Hz.)
:
C = 0.1 pF. Determine (a) i?3, G) Rr, and (c) R2 for
Solution
(a) By Eq.
(lllt),
ir:
(b) l?r (c) R,
(i xroT(o.r x
roT
: l0 ko
: 2\ = 2119 kO; 20kdt. : 1fi3 : j{10 kf,}) ==5 kO.
11ll
ft:, (b)
R1,
Example
Determine (a)
Ct: Cz: C3= C:220pF.
and (c) R2 in Fig. l19(a) for a curoff frequency of 60 kHz.
L^et
Soluticn
{a) Frcrn Eq. (11l!),
(b) Rr (c) Rz
If
: ZRr: 2112 kf); : 24 k{r. : +&: Xtz kO) = 6161.
l(r:_"
1
(6.28X60
x rc\ezo x lo
12)
 lZ t\tt
cause the op
desired, the 20dB/decade section can come before the 40dB/decade section, bearps provide isolation and do not load one another.
115.5 Comparison of Magnitudes and phase Angles
Thble 1l5 compares the magnitudes of the closedloop gain for the three highpass filt€rs; For each increase of20 dB/decade, the circuit nofonly has a steeperroroffbelow rrr. but also remeips closer to 0 dB or a gain of 1 above ar".
a 4GdB/decade filter it is 90', and for a 60{Bldecad" Rtt gles in the vicinity of or" for the three trlters are given
firc
pha"se
angle for a 2GdB/decade Butterworth highpass filter is 45o at ar". For is 135.. other phase an
rlt
in Tabre ri6.
328
PROBLEMS ll1. List the four types offilters.
Chapter
11
ll2
1l3. What is a flltcr called that
outside the band?
what type of filter has a constant output vottage from dc up to th€ cutoff frequency? passes a band of frequencies while attenuating all ftequencies Fig.
I I 2(a),
u'4. I!
if R =
100
ko
and
c
:
0.o2
pfl
1l5. The lowpass filter of Fig. I l2(a) is to be designed for a cutoff ftequeocy of 4.5 kllz. C = 0.005 pF, calculate R. l15. Calculate rhe cutoff frequeucy for each value of C in Fig. pl l{.
what is the cutoff @uency?
If
ftr= lokn
v
^_L '''Tr
0.001
v
PF
 L 0.01 t''Tt pF ^
v
I ', l
0.r
pr
v
rIGURE PlI6
11.7. What are the two characteristics of a Butterworth filter? ll8. Design a 40dB/decade lowpass filter at a cutoff frequency
0.O2 p.F.
of l0
krad/s.
l*t c, =
rhe cut_
l19. In Fig. ll4(a), if fir
off frequencyf,.
:82 = l0 kO, C, = 0.01 g,F, and Cr:
0.ffi2 p,F,calculate
lI'10.
calculate (a) Rr, 15; R1, and (c) rtz in Fig. 1l5(a) for a cutofffrequency of l0 kradls. Ler
C3
= 0.005 pF.
llll.
ll12. In Fig. llS(a), Cr : 0.0t tfr, Cz = 0.04 laF, aDd C3 : 0.02 pF. Calculate R for a curoff tiequency oi I kllz. 1l13. Calculate rt in Fig. I17(a) if C = 0.04 p.F aadf, = 5(X) Hz.
20 kO, Cr = 0OOZ pF, C2 = 0.00E frF, and 5(a), determine the cutoff frequency ar",
If fir = Rz: R: =
Cs:0.004 pF in Fig. ll_
*Fbr
?ro
lfl h F*r ! l?tel calculate (a) ar. and {b)t if ,R = 10 kd} aad C = 0.01 lF. IlS. eslln a ,fiidBldecade highpass filter for ar" = 5 krad/s. Cr = Cz = O.02 PFIl.lf. Ceblue (s) Rr and (b) iz in Fig. 1l8(a) for a cutoff frequency of 40 krad/s. Ct = Cz =
150 pF.
1117. For Fig. ll9(a), let C1 = Cz= cutoff @uency of 500 Hz.
Cz:0.05 tlF. Determine (a) Rr, &) it1, and (c) fiz for a
Ul&
: Tb€ circuit of Fig. l19(a) is designed with the values C1 = C2= Cr = 40O PR l?t lm kO, Rz : 25 kO, and R3 = 50 kf,}. Calculate the cutoff frequency f,. lllr. FiDd the (a) bandwidth, O) resonaot frequency, and (c) quality factor of a bandpass filter with lower and up,per cutoff frequencies of 55 and 65 Hz' ll20. A bandpass filter has a resooant frequency of 1000 Hz and a bandwidth of 2500 Hz' Find the lower and upper cutoff frequencies. 1l21. Use the capacitor aud resistor values of the highpass filter in Fig. ll11 to prove/. =
3000 Hz.
1122. Use the capacitor and resistor values of the highpass filter in Fig. ll11 to prove that 300 Xz. "f. = U23. Find p for the bandpass frlter of Fig. 1111' 1l2. Design a narrow bandpass filter using one op amp. The resonant frequency is 128 Hz and Q = 1.5. Select C = 0.1 lf in Fig. 1012. 1125. (a) How would you coovert the bandpass filter of Problem 1124 into a notch filter with the
same resonant frequency
afi
Q?
G) Calculatei andi, for
0re notch
filter'
2no
1',
Chapter i1
5.3 4lt'd9/Decade Filter
designed as a highpass Butterworth filter with a The circuit of Fig. 1l8(a) is to satisfy the B.tterworth c'riteria' off of 4O dB/decade Ueiow rne cutoff frequency, ,.. io 0 dB in &e pass band' These condithe frequency resPonse must be O'707 at or" and be is followed: tions witt Ue metlf the following design procedure
h
roll
Design procedure for t[(}dB/decade highpase
l. Choose a cutoff ftequency, to" ot f.' 2.lat Ct: Cz= C and choose a convenient value'
nr=*
(a) Highpass
filtcr with
a
rolloff of 40 dB/dccade'
,?,
1.0
6 6 6
0.1u7
A^ JE
la 6
BO
b0
o
b0
0.I
20 s
=
(m
o)
o
o
0.01
C.ar"
oc
l0al"
part (a)' @) Frequency respoasc for circuit of
flGUREll.ECircuitandfre4uencyrcsponsefora40.dB/decadehighpass
Butrcrworth hiter.
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