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Machining is a form of subtractive manufacturing, in which a collection of materialworking processes utilizing power-driven machine tools, such as saws, lathes, milling machines, and drill presses, are used with a sharp cutting tool to physically remove material to achieve a desired geometry. Machining is a part of the manufacture of many metal products, but it can also be used on materials such as wood, plastic, ceramic, and composites. A room, building, or company where machining is done is called a machine shop.
Turning Boring Drilling Milling Broaching Sawing Shaping Planing Reaming Tapping Grinding
An unfinished workpiece requiring machining will need to have some material cut away to create a finished product. A finished product would be a workpiece that meets the specifications set out for that workpiece by engineering drawings or blueprints. For example, a workpiece may be required to have a specific outside diameter. A lathe is a machine tool that can be used to create that diameter by rotating a metal workpiece, so that a cutting tool can cut metal away, creating a smooth, round surface matching the required diameter and surface finish. A drill can be used to remove metal in the shape of a cylindrical hole. Other tools that may be used for various types of metal removal are milling machines, saws, and grinding machines. Many of these same techniques are used in woodworking.
Machining operations: The three principal machining processes are classified
as turning, drilling and milling. Other operations falling into miscellaneous categories include shaping, planing, boring, broaching and sawing.
Turning operations are operations that rotate the workpiece as the primary method of moving metal against the cutting tool. Lathes are the principal machine tool used in turning. Milling operations are operations in which the cutting tool rotates to bring cutting edges to bear against the workpiece. Milling machines are the principal machine tool used in milling. Drilling operations are operations in which holes are produced or refined by bringing a rotating cutter with cutting edges at the lower extremity into contact with the workpiece. Drilling operations are done primarily in drill presses but sometimes on lathes or mills.
The cutting tool:
There are two basic types of cutting tools:
Single point tool; and Multiple-cutting-edge tool
A single point tool has one cutting edge and is used for turning, boreing and planing. During machining, the point of the tool penetrates below the original work surface of the workpart. The point is sometimes rounded to a certain radius, called the nose radius. Multiple-cutting-edge tools have more than one cutting edge and usually achieve their motion relative to the workpart by rotating. Drilling and milling uses rotating multiplecutting-edge tools. Although the shapes of these tools are different from a single-point tool, many elements of tool geometry are similar.
. with the advent of plastics and other materials. Lathe Machine: A metal lathe or metalworking lathe is a large class of lathes designed for precisely machining relatively hard materials. and a broad range of materials. they are used in a wide range of applications. They were originally designed to machine metals.Requirement for machining: Basic machines used for machining processes: 1. however. and with their inherent versatility.
rugged casting in which are mounted the working parts of the lathe. 2.Parts of Lathe Machine: 1. headstock spindle. Bed: The bed is a heavy. 3. . The headstock spindle is a hollow cylindrical shaft that provides a drive from the motor to work holding devices. live centre and the feed reverse gear. Headstock: The headstock is clamped on the left hand side of the bed and it serves as housing for the driving pulleys. Legs: The legs carry the entire load of machine and are firmly secured to floor by foundation bolts. It carries the headstock and tail stock for supporting the workpiece and provides a base for the movement of carriage assembly which carries the tool. back gears.
and it rigidly clamps the cutting tool or tool holder at the proper height relative to the work centre line. and it provides a mounted or automatic cross movement for the cutting tool. A tailstock clamp is provided to lock the tailstock at any desired position. clutches and levers required to move the carriage or cross slide. The tool post is mounted on the compound rest. Carriage: The carriage is located between the headstock and tailstock and serves the purpose of supporting. The apron is fastened to the saddle and it houses the gears. Tailstock: The tailstock is a movable casting located opposite the headstock on the ways of the bed.4. b). The main parts of carriage are: a). c). The engagement of split nut lever and the automatic feed lever at the same time is prevented she carriage along the lathe bed. It provides support to cross-slide. guiding and feeding the tool against the job during operation. The cross slide is mounted on the top of saddle. The tailstock spindle has an internal taper to hold the dead centre and the tapered shank tools such as reamers and drills. d). . compound rest and tool post. e). The compound rest is fitted on the top of cross slide and is used to support the tool post and the cutting tool. The saddle is an H-shaped casting mounted on the top of lathe ways. 5. 6. Gear Box: The quick-change gear-box is placed below the headstock and contains a number of different sized gears. The tailstock can slide along the bed to accommodate different lengths of workpiece between the centers.
Parting 5. . This tool must send vertical direction only. Boring 8. Plain Turning and Step Turning 3. Threading 2. It is used to cut at an inside surface. then it is too weak.5. Don't add a strong side-force to the tool.LATHE OPERATIONS The engine lathe is an accurate and versatile machine on which many operations can be performed. Grooving 10. The cutting tool shown in Figure 5(c) is called a boring bar. Forming Cutting Tools for Lathe Fig. The cutting tool shown in Figure 5(b) is used at parting and grooving processes. and an high accurate hole. which cannot be process by a drill. These operations are: 1. Typical Cutting Tools Figure 5(a) shows the most well-used cutting tool called a side tool. Its pointed end is slim. It can make a big hole. Facing 4. then this tool can only cut the right of the material. Reaming 7. Since the material is set at the right of lathe. Drilling 6. Knurling 9. It can process to cut an outside surface and an edge surface.
Turret lathe 4. Shaper Machine: Introduction: The shaper is a machine tool used primarily for: 1.Types of metal lathes: 1. During return. Producing a flat or plane surface which may be in a horizontal. Center lathe / engine lathe / bench lathe 2. Toolroom lathe 3. The forward and return strokes constitute one operating cycle of the shaper. Brake lathe 2. there is no cutting action and this stroke is called the idle stroke. Producing contour of concave/convex or a combination of these Working Principle: The job is rigidly fixed on the machine table. the tool cuts the material during its forward stroke. The reciprocating motion of the ram is obtained by a quick return motion mechanism. Capstan lathe 5. Swiss-style lathe 9. . Making slots. Gang-tool lathe 6. CNC lathe 8. Wheel lathe 10. 2. Multispindle lathe 7. grooves and keyways 3. As the ram reciprocates. The single point cutting tool held properly in the tool post is mounted on a reciprocating ram. a vertical or an angular plane.
The vertical movement of the cross rail permits jobs of different heights to be accommodated below the tool. . the gear box and the quick return mechanism for the ram movement. Body (Pillar. It supports the body frame and the entire load of the machine. The back and forth movement of ram is called stroke and it can be adjusted according to the length of the workpiece to be-machined. Sliding along the cross rail is a saddle which carries the work table. Ram and tool head: The ram is driven back and forth in its slides by the slotted link mechanism. Frame. Cross rail: The cross rail is mounted on the front of the body frame and can be moved up and down. The top of the body provides guide ways for the ram and its front provides the guide ways for the cross rail.Parts of Shaper Machine Base: The base is a heavy cast iron casting which is fixed to the shop floor. Column): It is mounted on the base and houses the drive mechanism compressing the main drives. The base absorbs and withstands vibrations and other forces which are likely to be induced during the shaping operations.
Vertical 5. a shaper with a boring-bar type tool can cut internal features that don't lend themselves to milling or boring (such as irregularly shaped holes with tight corners). Crank 8. Draw-cut 3.Types of Shaper Machine 1. flat surfaces. Universal 6. Hydraulic 9. but with ingenuity and some accessories a wide range of work can be done. Dovetail slides Internal splines Keyway cutting in blind holes Cam drums with toolpaths of the type that in CNC milling terms would require 4or 5-axis contouring or turn-mill cylindrical interpolation It is even possible to obviate wire EDM work in some cases. Starting from a drilled or cored hole. Other examples of its use are: Keyways in the boss of a pulley or gear can be machined without resorting to a dedicated broaching setup. Travelling head Uses The most common use is to machine straight. Geared 7. Horizontal 4. Higher 2. . Contour 10.
the cutter teeth remove the metal from the surface of workpiece and the desired shape is produced. Base: It gives support and rigidity to the machine and also acts as a reservoir for the cutting fluids. Working Principle: The workpiece is holding on the worktable of the machine. 2. heavily ribbed inside and houses all the driving mechanisms for the spindle and table feed. Except for rotation the cutter has no other motion. making a circular profile and gear cutting by having suitable attachments. Flat or curved surfaces of many shapes can be machined by milling with good finish and accuracy. A milling machine may also be used for drilling. slotting. Parts of Milling Machine: 1. As the workpiece advances. . The cutter is mounted on a spindle or arbor and revolves at high speed. The column is box shaped. Column: The column is the main supporting frame mounted vertically on the base.3. cutter having single or multiple cutting edges. MILLING MACHINE Introduction: Milling is the cutting operation that removes metal by feeding the work against a rotating. The table movement controls the feed of workpiece against the rotating cutter.
e. In addition to the above motions. crosswise (in or out) on guide ways provided on the knee. 4. 6. Cross (in or out) or transverse motion provided by moving the saddle in relation to knee. i. Table: The table rests on guide ways in the saddle and provides support to the work. The table is made of cast iron. b). The worktable and hence the job fitted on it is given motions in three directions: a). Its function is to align and support various arbors. Saddle: The saddle rests on the knee and constitutes the intermediate part between the knee and the table. Longitudinal (back and forth) motion provided by hand wheel fitted on the side of feed screw. The Overarm is the support for the arbor. Vertical (up and down) movement provided by raising or lowering the knee. the table of a universal milling machine can be swiveled 45° to either side of the centre line and thus fed at an angle to the spindle. 8. The knee moves vertically along the guide ways and this movement enables to adjust the distance between the cutter and the job mounted on the table. . The adjustment is obtained manually or automatically by operating the elevating screw provided below the knee. Arbor support: The arbor support is fitted to the Overarm and can be clamped at any location on the Overarm. Elevating screw: The upward and downward movement to the knee and the table is given by the elevating screw that is operated by hand or an automatic feed. Knee: The knee is a rigid casting mounted on the front face of the column. Overarm: The Overarm is mounted at the top of the column and is guided in perfect alignment by the machined surfaces. its top surface is accurately machined and carriers Tslots which accommodate the clamping bolt for fixing the work. The arbor is a machined shaft that holds and drives the cutters. c).3. The saddle moves transversely. 5.. 7.
Plain or slab milling. Saddle and cross slide 4. . Construction: The slotter can be considered as a vertical shaper and its main parts are: 1. Base. 6. 4. Machining flat surfaces which are at right angles to the axis of the cutter. Ram drive mechanism and feed mechanism.Types of Milling Machine 1. Machining surfaces having an irregular outline. Machining flat surfaces which are at an inclination to the axis of the cutter. Slotting Machine: Introduction: The slotting machine is a reciprocating machine tool in which. Knee-type Universal horizontal milling machine Ram-type milling machine Universal Ram-type milling machine Swivel cutter head ram-type milling machine Vertical milling machine Milling Operations Milling operations may be classified under four general headings as follows: Face milling. 4. column and table 2. 2. Machining flat surfaces which are parallel to the axis of the cutter. Ram and tool head assembly 3. Form milling. Angular milling. the ram holding the tool reciprocates in a vertical axis and the cutting action of the tool is only during the downward stroke. 5. 3.
The front face of the vertical column has guide ways for Tool the reciprocating ram. and is generally made in two parts. Punch slotter: a heavy duty rigid machine designed for removing large amount of metal from large forgings or castings 2. keys and slotes of various shapes making regular and irregular surfaces both internal and external cutting internal and external gears and profiles The slotter machine can be used on any type of work where vertical tool movement is considered essential and advantageous. Types of Slotting Machine: 1. Production slotter: a heavy duty slotter consisting of heavy cast base and heavy frame. cross and rotary feed motion. The slotting machine is used for cutting grooves. Tool room slotter: a heavy machine which is designed to operate at high speeds. The workpiece is mounted on the table which can be given longitudinal.The base of the slotting machine is rigidly built to take up all the cutting forces. The ram supports the tool head to which the tool is attached. . This machine takes light cuts and gives accurate finishing. 3.
Working principle: The rotating edge of the drill exerts a large force on the workpiece and the hole is generated. it provides rigid mounting for the column and stability for the machine. . The base is usually provided with holes and slots which help to Bolt the base to a table or bench and allow the workholding device or the workpiece to be fastened to the base. The unit essentially consists of: 1. Drilling Machine: Introduction: The drilling machine or drill press is one of the most common and useful machine employed in industry for producing forming and finishing holes in a workpiece. Parts of Drilling Machine: 1. A spindle which turns the tool (called drill) which can be advanced in the workpiece either automatically or by hand. The removal of metal in a drilling operation is by shearing and extrusion. 2. 2. Base: The base is a heavy casting that supports the machine structure.5. A work table which holds the workpiece rigidly in position. The column may be of round or box section. Column: The column is a vertical post that Column holds the worktable and the head containing the driving mechanism.
Drill machine/press in shape supports the workpiece and is carried by the vertical column. plastics and metals. Table: The table. This can do exactly the same work as the bench drill but because of its larger size it is capable of being used to drill larger pieces of materials and produce larger holes.3. houses the driving arrangement and variable speed pulleys. The surface of the table is 90degree to the column and it can be raised. These units transmit rotary motion at different speeds to the drill spindle. The larger version of the machine drill is called the pillar drill. the bench drill and the pillar drill. The table can be clamp/hold the required the workpiece. either rectangular or round. 4. Drilling Head: The drilling head. It is normally bolted to a bench so that it cannot be pushed over and that larger pieces of material can be drilled safely. Slots are provided in most tables to allow the jigs. The hand feed lever is used to control the vertical movement of the spindle sleeve and the cutting tool. The system is called the sensitive drilling machine/press as the operator is able to sense the progress of drill with hand-faced. The bench drill is used for drilling holes through materials including a range of woods. mounted close to the top of the column. lowered and swiveled around it. Types of Drilling Machine: There are two types of machine drill. This has a long column which stands on the floor. . fixtures or large workpieces to be securely fixed directly to the table.
As the accuracy in dimensions in grinding is on the order of 0. . Grinding is used to finish workpieces which must show high surface quality (e. which is a type of machining using an abrasive wheel as the cutting tool. low surface roughness) and high accuracy of shape and dimension. Grinding Machine: A grinding machine. The grinding head can be controlled to travel across a fixed work piece or the workpiece can be moved whilst the grind head stays in a fixed position.000025mm.25 to 0. Each grain of abrasive on the wheel's surface cuts a small chip from the workpiece via shear deformation. in most applications it tends to be a finishing operation and removes comparatively little metal. or using the features of numerical controls. often shortened to grinder. is a machine tool used for grinding.50mm depth.. about 0. usually by a formula) and a bed with a fixture to guide and hold the work-piece. Very fine control of the grinding head or tables position is possible using a vernier calibrated hand wheel.6.g. The grinding machine consists of a power driven grinding wheel spinning at the required speed (which is determined by the wheel’s diameter and manufacturer’s rating.
which as the name implies.Types: Belt grinder. and the workpiece is moved back and forth past the grinding wheel on a table that has a permanent magnet for use with magnetic stock. Bench grinders are manually operated. has a variety of uses when finishing jigs. The primary function of these machines is to remove the remaining few thousandths of an inch of material left by other manufacturing methods (such as gashing or hobbing). grinding is the common name for machining metals. A cylindrical grinder may have multiple grinding wheels. which is usually employed as the final machining process when manufacturing a high precision gear. Sanding is the machining of wood. tubes. which includes the wash grinder. Its uses include shaping tool bits or various tools that need to be made or repaired. A surface grinder has a "head" which is lowered. bushings. These usually can perform the minor function of the drill bit grinder. which usually has two wheels of different grain sizes for roughing and finishing operations and is secured to a workbench or floor stand. Jig grinder. bearing races. It can also be used for complex surface grinding to finish work started on a mill. Belt grinding is a versatile process suitable for all kind of applications like finishing. which includes both the types that use centers and the centerless types. It is used to make precision rods. and fixtures. Surface grinders can be manually operated or have CNC controls. Its primary function is in the realm of grinding holes and pins. deburring. Surface grinder. dies. or other specialist toolroom grinding operations. and many other parts. Cylindrical grinder. Gear grinder. The workpiece is rotated and fed past the wheel(s) to form a cylinder. Tool and cutter grinder and the D-bit grinder. Bench grinder. . with the aid of coated abrasives. and stock removal. which is usually used as a machining method to process metals and other materials.
Lineboring (line boring.7. line-boring) implies the former. surface roughness). despite the fact that they are in some ways identical. and difficulty of inspection of the resulting surface (size. boring is inherently somewhat more challenging than turning. . or it may be supported at one end. Because of the limitations on tooling design imposed by the fact that the workpiece mostly surrounds the tool. increased clearance angle requirements (limiting the amount of support that can be given to the cutting edge). Boring can be viewed as the internal-diameter counterpart to turning. Boring is used to achieve greater accuracy of the diameter of a hole. Backboring (back boring. boring is the process of enlarging a hole that has already been drilled (or cast). There are various types of boring. for example as in boring a cannon barrel. in terms of decreased toolholding rigidity. which cuts external diameters. back-boring) is the process of reaching through an existing hole and then boring on the "back" side of the workpiece (relative to the machine headstock). tricks. challenges. and body of expertise. with its own tips. separate from turning. Boring Machine: In machining. by means of a single-point cutting tool (or of a boring head containing several such tools). These are the reasons why boring is viewed as an area of machining practice in its own right. form. and can be used to cut a tapered hole. The boring bar may be supported on both ends (which only works if the existing hole is a through hole).
Types of Boring Machine: i. with a cross-traversing X axis and a vertically-traversing Y axis. ii. A horizontal boring machine has its work spindle parallel to the ground and work table. planer and floor. Typically there are 3 linear axes in which the tool head and part move. its centre line is the B axis. The work spindle is referred to as the C axis and. Horizontal boring machine: A horizontal boring machine or horizontal boring mill is a machine tool which bores holes in a horizontal direction. Jig Boring Machine: The jig borer is a type of machine tool invented at the end of World War I to make possible the quick-yet-veryprecise location of hole centers. if a rotary table is incorporated. There are three main types table. . It was invented independently in Switzerland and the United States. Convention dictates that the main axis that drives the part towards the work spindle is the Z axis. it is also known as the universal type. It can be viewed as a specialized species of milling machine that provided tool and die makers with a higher degree of positioning precision (repeatability) and accuracy than those general machines had previously provided. as it is the most versatile. The table type is the most common and.
A typical jig borer had a work table of around 400 x 200 mm. It was generally used to enlarge to a precise size smaller holes drilled with less accurate machinery in approximately the correct place (IE with the small hole strictly within the area to be bored out for the large hole). iii.5 micrometres). Single-pass bore finishing: Single-pass bore finishing is a machining process similar to honing to finish a bore. which can be moved using large handwheels (with micrometer-style readouts and verniers) on particularly carefully made shafts with a strong degree of gearing.0001 inch (2. except the tool only takes a single pass. . The process was originally developed to improve bore quality in cast iron workpieces. this allowed positions to be set on the two axes to an accuracy of 0.
Process: Hobbing uses a hobbing machine with two skew spindles. Finally the hob is fed into the workpiece parallel to the blank's axis of rotation. if the gear ratio is 40:1 the hob rotates 40 times to each turn of the blank. splines. The hob is then fed up into workpiece until the correct tooth depth is obtained. one mounted with a blank workpiece and the other with the hob. then the hob is angled equal to the helix angle of the hob. For larger gears the blank is usually gashed to the rough shape to make hobbing easier. The teeth or splines are progressively cut into the workpiece by a series of cuts made by a cutting tool called a hob. which determines the number of teeth on the blank. which is a special type of milling machine. Note that the previous example only holds true for a single threaded hob. depending on the type of product being produced. The angle between the hob's spindle and the workpiece's spindle varies. Compared to other gear forming processes it is relatively inexpensive but still quite accurate. if the hob has multiple threads then the speed ratio must be multiplied by the number of threads on the hob. if a spur gear is being produced. Up to five teeth can be cut into the workpiece at the same time. For example.8. and sprockets on a hobbing machine. which produces 40 teeth in the blank. The two shafts are rotated at a proportional ratio. Gear Hobbing Machine: Hobbing is a machining process for making gears. Oftentimes multiple gears are cut at the same time. if a helical gear is being produced then the angle must be increased by the same amount as the helix angle of the helical gear. . for example. thus it is used for a broad range of parts and quantities.
and it will not cut well.Uses: Hobbing is used to make following types of finished goods: Cycloid gears Helical gears Involute gears Ratchets Splines Sprockets Spur gears Worm gears Hobbing is used to produce most throated worm wheels. . but certain tooth profiles cannot be hobbed. If any portion of the hob profile is perpendicular to the axis then it will have no cutting clearance generated by the usual backing off process.
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