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wind |wind|

noun the perceptible natural movement of air, especially in the form of a current of air blowing from a particular direction; the wind howled about the building | an easterly wind | [mass noun]; gusts of wind. used iwth reference to an impending situation; he had seen which way the wind was blowing. the rush of air casued by a fast-moving body. a scent carried by the wind, indicating the proximity of an animal or person.

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M e l i s s a , L u c y & L i z

The Cause of Wind


Th e w i n d i s c a u s e d by a n u n e ve n h e ati n g o f th e s u r f a ce o f o u r e a r th by th e s u n . Th e re a s o n fo r th e u n e ve n h e ati n g i s d u e to th e d i f fe re nt s u r f a ce s o f o u r e a r th ; l a n d a n d wate r.

Type:

Ju ne 21 M arch 13 Air drop s mos t of it s mois t u re on t he w inward s l op e du e to decreas ing at mos p her ic p res s u re and increas ing al t it u de Different adiab at ic l ap s e rates of mois t and dr y air cau s e air on t he Leeward s l op e to b ecome war mer D ec 21

Global Wind Patter n Diagram

M esosc ale |mez sk l; m -| noun c hi efly M eteorolog y an i nter medi ate sc ale, esp. that bet ween the sc ales of weather systems and of mi c roc li mates, on whi c h stor ms and other phenomena occ ur. M eso sc ale wi nd s are measured at an i nter med i ate stag e bet ween mi c ro and synopti c sc ale wi nd systems. Thi s sc ale i s where the confli c t occ ur s whi c h c reates stor ms and unstable wi nd patter ns. M esosc ale wi nd systems transfer heat and moi sture to the over layi ng synopti c wi nd system. M i c ro -sc ale |m k r| combi ni ng for m 1 small : mi c roc ar. - of reduced or restr i c ted si ze M i c ro sc ale wi nds are loc al sc ale and relate to regi onal and c i t y areas.

H igher air p res s u re on t he u pw ind s ide

D O WNWIND S ID E

U P WIND S ID E

S LO

Synopti c |snpti k | ad j ec ti ve 1. of or for mi ng a g eneral summar y or synopsi s Synopti c sc ale wi nds are measured at a larg e, g eneral sc ale. These g eneral or over all condi ti ons have a d i rec t relati onshi p wi th mesosc ale phenomena, prov i di ng cond i ti ons that ei ther enhance or supress them. Thi s affec t i sexer ted throug h wi nd speed and c loud cover whi c h c an affec t the solar g ai n of the ground and bui ld i ng mass.

DO

PE

WN WIN

IND

E LO P DS

UPW

Lower air p res s u re on t he dow nw ind s ide

Wind O ver a M ountain

Wind O ver a Building


When w ind hit s a b u il ding t he air w il l s p eed u p in order to fl ow arou nd t he b u il ding to t he op p os ite s ide. This creates a p os it ive p res s u re on t he u pw ind s ide and a negat ive p res s u re on t he dow nw ind s ide

Chr istchurch Sun Angle Diagram

Ai r a bove l a n d ma s s h e ats u p mo re ra pi d l y d u r i n g th e d ay c a u s i n g i t to r i s e a n d ex pa n d S u m m e r su n Dec 21 1 2 No o n 700

The coo le r, d en ser a ir a b ove t he water ru sh es to fill it s p la ce ca using th e win d to b low

Day Wind Cycle Diagram

D u r i n g th e n i g ht, a i r a bove l a n d l o o s e s h e at mo re ra pi d l y th a n a i r a bove wate r, re s u l ti n g i n a i r f ro m th e l a n d r u s h i n g to f i l l th e a i r ove r wate r

Winter s u n Ju ne 21 12 N oon 23 0

The r m al m ass w i th abso r be r

Cross Ventilation Diagram


I f t he b u il ding is l ocated w it h res p ec t to p redominant w ind direc t ions, higher p res s u re air on t he u pw ind s ide w il l b e forced to move t hrou gh t he b u il ding via op enings. M aximu m p er for mance occu rs w hen inl et s and ou t l et s are p l aced at a diagonal in b ot h s ec t ion and p l an.

Passive solar D esign Pr incipals

the wind regime in the natural environment

low energy design - passive ventilation and solar gain

N ight Wind Cycle Diagram

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M e l i s s a , L u c y & L i z

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M e l i s s a , L u c y & L i z

Foehn

Air flows around the volume.

Some air flows over, some around. Lee wave separation.

Resonance - most intense lee waves. Creates eddies.

Low wind speed

Moderate wind speed

High wind speed

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dominant wind type

Boundary layer separation.

M e l i s s a , L u c y & L i z

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mass density study

M e l i s s a , L u c y & L i z

Wind Stations
As hb u r ton Ak aroa Le B ons Bay Cu l verdon Wak anu i Cws M et hven Chr is tchu rch, N ew Br ighton Pier Aws D or ie Cws @LLefer inks s Winchmore Ews Lyt t l eton H ar b ou r Lees ton Ews Dar fiel d 2 Ews H amner Fores t Ews Chr is tchu rch Aero Chr is tchu rch, Kyl e St Ews Lees ton, H ar t s Creek Cws Wes t Eyer ton, Laru ndel Far m Cws R angiora Ews Lincol n, Broadfiel d Ews Su gar Loaf Aws

Speed k m/h
The data co l l e c te d has be e n tak e n ho u r l y e ac h day ove r a o ne ye ar pe r i o d b e t we e n 1 9 M arc h 2 0 1 1 and 1 9 M arc h 2 0 1 2 . The l owe st ( o f te n 0 k m /h) , hi ghes t and m e an w i nd spe e ds tak e n at the var i o u s stati o ns have be e n graphe d

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scalar shifts in wind patterns

wind speeds at selected canterbury wind stations

M e l i s s a , L u c y & L i z

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M e l i s s a , L u c y & L i z

PR OS
Ex posed to wi nd of a hi g her speed

CON S
Ai r fl ow is of ten t u r b u l ent as oppos ed to l aminar H i g h l oading Possib l y too s mal l to b e effec t ive Noi se/ vib rat ion

Axis of rotation is parallel to the ground Blades need to face the direction of the wind; therefore, they require a mechanism that automatically positions the wind turbine head to face against the direction of the wind Need to be placed at high altitudes to expose them to the appropriate wind regime Because the blades are always facing the direction of the wind they have a more efficient energy conversion More suited to commercial applications

MOU N TE D ON BU IL D IN G S

HORIZO NTAL AX IS

$$$

H i g h load i ng i s not an i ssue Vi brati on i s not an i ssue and noi se i s reduced

Ex p os ed to w ind of a l ower s p eed Ai r fl ow is of ten t u r b u l ent as oppos ed to l aminar R equ ires a l arge s ite area

WIND T URB I N E S

Axis of rotation is perpendicular to the ground Can operate without accounting for wind direction Can operate in volatile/turbulent wind environments Can be placed closer to the ground, making them easier to install and maintain Half the time the blades are turning against the wind giving them a less efficient energy conversion More suited to residential applications

SITUATE D N E X T TO BU IL D IN G S

Uses the bui ld i ng to alter /augment the wi nd flow i nto the tur bi ne Ex posed to wi nd of a hi g her speed

H i g h l oading Noi se/ Vib rat ion

V ER TIC AL AX IS

IN TE G R ATE D IN TO TH E FABRIC OF BU IL D IN G S

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renewable energy production

M e l i s s a , L u c y & L i z

sources and effects of pollution

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M e l i s s a , L u c y & L i z

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christchurch pollution maps

M e l i s s a , L u c y & L i z

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the effect of wind direction on pollution

M e l i s s a , L u c y & L i z

The effect of form on wind flow form/frm/ Noun: The visible shape or configuration of something.

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climatic effect on pollution dispersion post-earthquake

M e l i s s a , L u c y & L i z

S qu a re

Circ ular

Tr iangular

Octangonal

Rectangular

O va l

Eye

Co nvex / Co nc ave

S quare

Ci rc ular

Tr i angular

O c t ango nal

R e c t angular

O val

Eye

Convex/Con cave

N or We s t Wi n d

N o r We s t Wi nd

S outh -We s t Wi nd

S o ut h-We s t Wi nd

N or t h - E as t Wi n d

N o r t h- E as t Wi nd

O ve r l ay

wind and form catalogue 1

O ve r lay

wind and form catalogue 2

Low wind speed

Moderate wind speed

High wind speed

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M e l i s s a , L u c y & L i z

Low wind speed

Moderate wind speed

High wind speed

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M e l i s s a , L u c y & L i z

S qu a re

Circ ular

Tr iangular

Octangonal

Rectangular

O va l

Eye

Co nvex / Co nc ave

S quare

Ci rc ular

Tr i angular

O c t ango nal

R e c t angular

O val

Eye

Convex/Con cave

N or We s t Wi n d

N o r We s t Wi nd

S outh -We s t Wi nd

S o ut h-We s t Wi nd

N or t h - E as t Wi n d

N o r t h- E as t Wi nd

O ve r l ay

wind and form catalogue 3

O ve r lay

wind and form catalogue 4

Low wind speed

Moderate wind speed

High wind speed

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M e l i s s a , L u c y & L i z

Low wind speed

Moderate wind speed

High wind speed

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M e l i s s a , L u c y & L i z

S qu a re

Circ ular

Tr iangular

Octangonal

Rectangular

O va l

Eye

Co nvex / Co nc ave

Eye

Eye

Eye

Eye

Tr i angular

Tr i angul ar

Convex/Con cave

Convex/Con cave

Nor We s t Wi n d

N o r We s t Wi nd

S o uth -We s t Win d

S o ut h-We s t Wi nd

Nor t h - E as t Wi n d

N o r t h- E as t Wi nd

O ve r l ay

wind and form catalogue 5

O ve r lay

wind and form catalogue 6

Low wind speed

Moderate wind speed

High wind speed

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M e l i s s a , L u c y & L i z

Low wind speed

Moderate wind speed

High wind speed

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M e l i s s a , L u c y & L i z

S quare

Circular

Tr iangular

O c tangonal

R ec tangular

O val

Eye

Convex/Concave

S quare

Circular

Tr iangular

O c tangonal

R ec tangular

O val

Eye

Convex/Concave

Vacuum created behind form

swirling back motion

no significant swirling back motion observed

Analysis :

Analysis :

When wind approaches a mass its path is diverted around the form. The studies exhibit a swirling back motion; it appears that the side this occurs on is the side where the wind travels along the surface of the form for the longest. When the wind wraps around the surface of the form equivalently, the swirling back motion is not as dominant .
faster moving air/ lower air pressure

When considering permeability, shapes that diverge to a single point exhibit the most effectiveness in directing wind between them. This is exhibited in the strong wind flow between the triangular and eye forms. The circle forms also show a reasonably strong wind flow between them, while the oval and convex/concave forms allowed moderate amounts of wind to pass between them. In contrast, the cube, rectangular and octagonal forms did not allow wind to flow between them, indicating that they would not be conducive to promoting permeability in a surface application.

Bernoullis Principal: Bernoullis principal states that the increase in the speed of a fluid (liquid or gas) occurs simultaneously with a decrease in pressure. It is this principal that causes the drag and lift effect that is required to turn the blades of a wind turbine.
B e r n o u l l i s pr i n c i pa l a pp li ed to wi nd tur bi ne

wind direction

reduction in pressure and increase in velocity

Bernoullis principal can be observed in the form studies. The wind moves faster along the greater length surface of the obstruction. This corresponds with a lower air pressure on this side. This faster moving air appears to swirl back on itself.
slower moving air/ greater air pressure

Venturi Effect: The Venturi effect is the reduction in fluid (liquid or gas) pressure and increase in velocity that results when a fluid flows through a constricted area
North-East wind North-West wind South-West wind

MACRO - SINGULAR

air flow around form

M I C R O - M U LT I P L E

air flow through forms

M acro - Singular MASSING - to create shelter from dominant winds - to augment wind flow as to create optimal areas for harnessing wind energy

catalougue analysis 1

M icro - M ultiple PERMEABILITY - to direct air-flow for passive ventilation

catalougue analysis 2

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M e l i s s a , L u c y & L i z

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M e l i s s a , L u c y & L i z

wind speeds up over form

wind direction

Circu l ar

Circular tapered at base

Circular tapered at top

Circular slanted toward wind direc tion

Circular slanted away from wind direc tion

I ncrease in Speed

Vacuum at top of form with no wind

R epetition of eye for m for potential sur face application

wind direction

R e c t i l i n e ar

R ec tilinear tapered at base

R ec tilinear tapered at top

R ec tilinear slanted toward wind direc tion

R ec tilinear slanted away from wind direc tion

Vacuum Effec t

no vacuum directly above form

R epetition of tr iangular for m for potential sur face application

wind direction

Co n cave (re lat i ve to w in d d i re c t i o n )


Analysis :

Convex (relative to wind direc tion)

Sphere

Eye for m

Eye for m

Absence of Vacuum Analysis : Repetition of the triangular form lends to a more direct and linear airflow between penetrations, as opposed to the eye form that results in a swirling air flow pattern between penetrations. Both forms show an increased wind speed when the air flow is directed through the constricted openings which is consistent with earlier studies and the Venturi Effect.

Forms that taper in at the base create maximum shelter from wind at ground level. Forms that taper towards the top have the opposite effect, creating less shelter from high wind speeds at ground level. Forms that taper in at both the top and bottom promote shelter at ground level and the exhibit the highest wind speeds over the top of the form; this principle could be applied to create sheltered outdoor areas at the ground level of a building and high wind speeds at the top of a building that could be harnessed via wind turbine applications.

macro/singular catalogue

micro/multiple catalogue

Low wind speed

Moderate wind speed

High wind speed

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M e l i s s a , L u c y & L i z

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M e l i s s a , L u c y & L i z

Bars, Cafes, Retail

2700m2 2500m2

Transistional space/facilities Banquet Hall 2500-3000 person cpacity

Transistional space/facilities Banquet Hall 2500-3000 person cpacity

A world-class convention centre in the heart of the central city is critical for Christchurchs economic recovery and will enable the city to regain its strong position in the conventions market.

10800m2

6 x 1800m2 Trade Halls

6 x 1800m2 Trade Halls

Servicing Transitional space/facilities 3 x 1800m 2 Trade Halls Breakout Rooms

2500m2 2500m2

60-100m2 Breakout Rooms 3 x 500m2 Breakout Rooms Plenary Space 2500 person capacity

60-100m2 Breakout Rooms 3 x 500m2 Breakout Rooms Plenary Space 2500 person capacity

legend
Proposed Site Existing Site Proposed Compact CBD Avon River Exisitng Green Space

Existing 7500m 2 Program

21000m 2 Proposed Option

26000m 2 Proposed Option

Existing CBD Location Plan

Proposed Compac t CBD

Proposed Convention Centre Site

The New Convention centre calls for double the amount of hall space and a corresponding increase in breakout rooms. They would like a dividable plenary that can hold 2500 people so that they are no longer reliant on the Christchurch Town Halls plenary space. There is also a desire for an on-site banquet hall that can be used whilst the halls are set up for events. Consideration is to be given to the possiblity of incorporating a hotel within the new convention centre. The incorporation of networking spaces, such as bars and cafes, are crucial to the convention centres success as they would encourage delegates to stay on-site and would also act as an attractor of flow. Flat floor access is very important for the trade-halls so that exhibitions can be packed in and out easily and efficiently. Consideration should be given to future-proofing and expansion.

Banquet Hall

Plenary Space

Breakout Rooms

Existing Chr istchurch Convention Centre Isometr ic View

Cafes/Bars

Trade Halls

Program R elationships Cathedral Square - Buildings to be Demolished Cathedral Square - After Demolition Height Guidelines
The Christchurch Convention Centre was New Zealands only purpose built convention centre. The total capacity was 2,500 people. The 3 halls could be hired out seperately or together to hold major plenary sessions for up to 2,200 people theatre style and 1350 people for a gala dinner. There were also 7 breakout rooms that could be configured to hold between 30 and 130 delegates each. The halls had a 1864m2 pillarless flat floor space and an 8m high ceiling.

site and program convention centre

site and program

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M e l i s s a , L u c y & L i z

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M e l i s s a , L u c y & L i z

Existing CBD - before ear thquake Nor West Wind

Existing CBD - before ear thquake S outher ly (S outh-West) Wind

Existing CBD - before ear thquake Nor West / S outher ly O ver lay

porous//
adjective (of a rock or other material) having minute interstices through which liquid or air may pass: layers of porous limestones some rocks are more porous than others not retentive or secure: he ran through a porous home defence to score easily Derivatives porosity

Proposed Site Nor West Wind

Proposed Site S outher ly (S outh - West) Wind

Proposed Site Easter ly (Nor th-East) Wind

wind patterns in christchurch CBD

NW

SW

NE

NW + SW + NE

Low wind speed

Moderate wind speed

High wind speed

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M e l i s s a , L u c y & L i z

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M e l i s s a , L u c y & L i z

shelterbelts porosity studies

tree

christchurch

canterbury plains

shelterbelt noun a line of trees or shrubs planted to protect an area, especially a field of crops, from fierce weather.

traits
- POROSITY - Ideally 50%, to slow the wind, not stop it altogether. - HEIGHT - Preferably as tall as the situation allows. Deciduous trees can provide excellent shade little shading in winter. - SPECIES - A mix of deciduous trees and native evergreens has the benefit of the ideal 50% porosity. - SPACING - Single row shelter 1.2 to 1.5m apart. Multiple rows and timber belts 1.8 to 2.5m.

macroscale

and shelter, with

shelterbelts effect on wind

mesoscale

shelter belts redirect the wind by causing a change in pressure. this means it will slow the wind down by changing the direction of some of the volume of wind.

synopsis
Through the principals of shelterbelts discover traits through veils and boundaries in which to harness the wind in the built environment. Through which it will enhance the perception of space and the engagement of its occupants. Shelterbelts are used to protect from soil errosion, Christchurch winds, provided an uncomfortable social environment bringing the basis of a shelterbelt foward into the built environment is an appropriate approach in which to make Christchurch a more comfortable climate. I want to seek ways in which to harness the wind and makes its occupants unconsciously aware of its presence. This investigation of levels of porositys in combination with surfaces should bring fourth a language in which to execute this.

microscale

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hum an p e rce p t i o n

M e l i s s a , L u c y & L i z

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veil s inves tigation

M e l i s s a , L u c y & L i z

layers of porosity - veils reaction of wind on surfaces - controllable traits.

disperse.

wrap.

pressure.

distort.

reflect.

retract.

harness.

split.

refine.

defer.

consistant.

block.

ve i ls i nve s t i gat i o n

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M e l i s s a , L u c y & L i z

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veil s inves tigation

M e l i s s a , L u c y & L i z

anaylsis- mesoscale extrusion of veils. to laterally test boundarys and porosity of forms from the extrusion of the above veils. Moving from vertical to horizontal , to study the contrast of impervous surfaces, verus complete porous surfaces. Capturing the impact of wind on these and physcially illustrating the difference in pressures that occur. anaylsis- macroscale

anaylsis- microscale

analysed traits

funnel.

follow.

bounce.

trap.

macroscale

shape.

circulate.

mesoscale
morphe. linger.

microscale

direct.

rise.

drop.

transfer.

boun dar y inves tigation

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p o ro s i t y - m as s

M e l i s s a , L u c y & L i z

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M e l i s s a , L u c y & L i z

controlling pressures - veils as mass (a prototype study)

creating thresholds. mass veils study - pressure.

from the above anaylsis , the combinations of veils as a mass will reduce high pressure zones, and therefore a more inhabitable environment. These masses and veils can be designed to incorporate the analysed traits as needed. By increasing the porosity a denser air will prevail, by having an average of 50% coverage a neutral environment will be obtained. Therefore by treating a mass as a veil, the air pressure should be able to be controlled.

microscale anaylsis

pressure concentration

extrusion of multiple porous surfaces pressure build up against solid boundary

porous mass

multiple porosity

pressure dispersion through veils

top plane to be sliced.

single threshold layer

double threshold layer

mass , porous volume sliced to form different thresholds, where wind can become isolated and controlled in different environments. Taken from the bulk studies and how the pressure built up as opposed to the dispersion through layers. A porous mass could be put in place to create a more consistant airflow.
through a combination of mass and the veil forms further control of wind can be obtained. creating thresholds of different environments.

Porosity can be controlled to create areas of high and low pressure. Less porous where you want to contain the air and more porous where you want a more neutral environment.

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ve i ls as m as s

M e l i s s a , L u c y & L i z

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s ite

M e l i s s a , L u c y & L i z

air |air|

noun 1 [mass noun] the invisible gaseous substance surrounding the earth, a mixture mainly of oxygen and nitrogen.

movement |muvm(e)nt|
noun 1an act of moving.

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p ro gram

M e l i s s a , L u c y & L i z

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measurement, observation and trasnlation

M e l i s s a , L u c y & L i z

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measurement, observation and trasnlation

M e l i s s a , L u c y & L i z

Set: 01

Set: 04

Set: 05

Set: 02

Set: 06

Set: 03 Set: 07

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observation in a controlled environment

M e l i s s a , L u c y & L i z

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local observation in a controlled environment

M e l i s s a , L u c y & L i z

1. Wave

2. Sink

3. Pinch

4. Swell

5. Overlap

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five typical patterns shown in wind motion

M e l i s s a , L u c y & L i z

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form generation

M e l i s s a , L u c y & L i z

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form generation

M e l i s s a , L u c y & L i z

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form generation

M e l i s s a , L u c y & L i z

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itteration

M e l i s s a , L u c y & L i z

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M e l i s s a , L u c y & L i z

During our research and analysis of wind there where three scales identified; 1. Macro/Synoptic Scale |snptik| adjective of or forming a general summary or synopsis Synoptic scale winds are measured at a large, general scale. These general or over all conditions have a direct relationship with mesoscale phenomena, providing conditions that either enhance or supress them. This affect isexerted through wind speed and cloud cover which can affect the solar gain of the ground and building mass. 2. M eso S c ale |mez sk l ; m - | noun c hi efly M eteorol ogy an intermediate scale, esp. that between the scales of weather systems and of microclimates, on which storms and other phenomena occur 3. M i c ro S c ale |m k r| combining form 1 small : microcar. of reduced or restricted size Micro scale winds are local scale and relate to regional and city areas. The macro scale relates to the urban context in which all three proposals are located. The meso scale addresses each building program, and the way in which it can act as an intermediate layer between the macro and the micro scale. The micro scale refines it down to how the spaces within the buildings are inhabited and how those inhabitants experience the spaces.

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M e l i s s a , L u c y & L i z