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. When spoken in everyday English, a fraction describes how many parts of a certain size there are, for example, one-half, five-eighths, three-quarters. Comparing fractions Comparing fractions with the same denominator only requires comparing the numerators. because 3>2. If two positive fractions have the same numerator, then the fraction with the smaller denominator is the larger number. When a whole is divided into equal pieces, if fewer equal pieces are needed to make up the whole, then each piece must be larger. When two positive fractions have the same numerator, they represent the same number of parts, but in the fraction with the smaller denominator, the parts are larger. One way to compare fractions with different numerators and denominators is to find a common denominator. To compare and , these are converted to and denominator and the numerators ad and bc can be compared. . Then bd is a common

? gives It is not necessary to determine the value of the common denominator to compare fractions. This short cut is known as "cross multiplying" – you can just compare ad and bc, without computing the denominator. ? Multiply top and bottom of each fraction by the denominator of the other fraction, to get a common denominator: ? The denominators are now the same, but it is not necessary to calculate their value – only the numerators need to be compared. Since 5×17 (= 85) is greater than 4×18 (= 72), . Also note that every negative number, including negative fractions, is less than zero, and every positive number, including positive fractions, is greater than zero, so every negative fraction is less than any positive fraction. Addition The first rule of addition is that only like quantities can be added; for example, various quantities of quarters. Unlike quantities, such as adding thirds to quarters, must first be converted to like quantities as described below: Imagine a pocket containing two quarters, and another pocket containing three quarters; in total, there are five quarters. Since four quarters is equivalent to one (dollar), this can be represented as follows: .

. 11 ÷ 4 = 2 with remainder 3. . Mixed numbers can also be negative. Thus . as in Proper and improper common fractions Common fractions can be classified as either proper or improper. 3. an improper fraction can be converted to a mixed number as follows: 1. the operation of multiplication is said to be "understood". An improper fraction is another way to write a whole plus a part. Convert the whole number to an improper fraction with the same denominator as the fractional part. 3.[4][5] In general. which equals . This sum is implied without the use of any visible operator such as "+".Mixed numbers A mixed numeral (often called a mixed number. 2. The remainder becomes the numerator of the fractional part. In the example. the fraction is called proper if the numerator is less than the denominator. and 8/3. 2. A mixed number can be converted to an improper fraction as follows: 1.. multiplication is understood: . Write the mixed number as a sum . if the fraction is between -1 and 1 (but not equal to -1 or 1). Examples of proper fractions are 2/3. and 4/9. British or Australian) or top-heavy fraction (British. .S. -3/4. The quotient (without the remainder) becomes the whole number part of the mixed number. and improper otherwise. examples of improper fractions are 9/4. For example. In the example. When two algebraic expressions are written next to each other. . occasionally North America) if the absolute value of the fraction is greater than or equal to 1. Add the fractions.[6][7] It is said to be an improper fraction (U. The resulting sum is the improper fraction. When the numerator and the denominator are both positive. In the example. the whole and fractional parts of the number are written next to each other: . . they are both 4. also called a mixed fraction) is the sum of a non-zero integer and a proper fraction. This is not to be confused with the algebra rule of implied multiplication. -4/3. Divide the numerator by the denominator. In the example. a common fraction is said to be a proper fraction if the absolute value of the fraction is strictly less than one—that is. Similarly. 2 is the whole number part and 3 is the numerator of the fractional part. The new denominator is the same as the denominator of the improper fraction. divide 11 by 4. for example is not a mixed number. In algebra. Instead. in referring to two entire cakes and three quarters of another cake.

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